The study examines the relation of death experience todeathattitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard deathattitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…
Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley
The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of police toward capital punishment help to shape public opinion regarding the death penalty. Prior research has not consistently identified the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of officers regarding capital punishment. This article examines that relationship, as well as the role of background factors and other attitudes.Survey questionnaires were given in 1995 to Boston area
To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…
The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life. PMID:8042059
Defense attorneys commonly suspect that the defendant's race plays a role in prosecutors' decisions to seek the death penalty, especially when the victim of the crime was white. When the defendant is convicted of the crime and sentenced todeath, it is equally common for such attorneys to question the racial attitudes of the jury. These suspicions are not merely
Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)
One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and the relationship of death concern to
ROBERT A. NEIMEYER; JOACHIM WITTKOWSKI; RICHARD P. MOSER
The aim of our research is to examine the sociological, anthropological, and psychological aspects of attitudes towards death; review the different approaches as a complex system; present the altered death image and the changes of tendency; analyze and interpret the most significant anxiety generating factors according to gender, age, and occupation; validate the fear of death and attitudes towards death scales in the Hungarian population; review the possibilities of interventions designed to reduce anxiety generating fear of death. Our hypotheses of our quantitative research were the following: women are characterized by a marked fear of death and anxiety; young people are more afraid of death; health care workers have a higher level death anxiety in comparison to other professionals due to the fact that they are face the suddenness and inevitability of death on daily basis, and this itself is an anxiety generating factor. We validated, adapted and calibrated two psychometric scales measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. According to our findings, both the Neimeyer and Moore Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale proved valid and suitable for measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. The Hungarian version of the scales proved reliable. In accordance with our hypothesis, young people and women are characterized by higher level of fear of death and anxiety. Our hypothesis, namely that fear of death among health care workers higher as the normal population, was not confirmed. Yet, contrary to a segment of preceding measurements, lower level of fear and anxiety was found. PMID:19497841
Examined deathattitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…
Considering the relevance of the migratory processes in Western societies, the attitudes toward organ donation after death are analyzed by means of a survey applied to a representative random sample of the resident immigrant population in Spain, comprising 1202 subjects (estimated margin of error of ± 2.88%, p = q, p < 0.05). Considered variables were disposition toward own organ donation, disposition toward deceased relatives' donation in different situations, arguments against donation, socio-demographic indicators, religious beliefs, social integration, and information about organ donation and transplantation. Predisposition to donate varies strongly across geographical origin and religious beliefs and also shows relationships with additional socio-demographic, social integration, and informative variables. In turn, the relationship between religious beliefs and attitude toward donation varies as a function of the degree of social integration. In Spain, the immigrant population is a heterogeneous collective that requires differential strategies to promote donation. Such strategies should be aimed at reinforcing the existing positive attitudes of citizens from West Europe and Latin America, and at familiarizing and informing about donation in citizens from the East, and at making specific efforts to break down the cultural and religious barriers toward donation in African citizens, with special emphasis on people of the Muslim faith. PMID:22283230
López, Jorge S; Valentín, María O; Scandroglio, Barbara; Coll, Elisabeth; Martín, María J; Sagredo, Encarnación; Martínez, José M; Serna, Emilio; Matesanz, Rafael
Undergraduates (34 males and 34 females) completed four scales of attitudes toward death including the Death Concern Scale, Templer Death Anxiety Scale, Tolor and Reznikoff Death Anxiety Scale, and Fear of Death and Dying Scale. Four scales showed moderate commonality reflecting 35 percent variance for males and females. (Author)
The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected
As society attempts to reduce sex stereotyping, it would be expected that male and female attitudes toward death would become similar. The purpose of this study was to measure various death-related attitudes of a group of adolescents and to determine if these attitudes remain sex related.A sample of 152 seventh, eighth, and ninth-grade males (N = 71) and females (N
Greater death acceptance and anxiety were observed among rural as compared to urban-dwelling participants. Responses by a life-threatened geriatric subsample revealed differences in death fears related to type of medical disorder. Previous findings of no difference in the death fears of heart and cancer patients were replicated. (Author)
The aims of this study were to analyze the relationships between deathattitudes and perceived emotional intelligence in a sample of nursing students, and to determine whether there are differences between different academic years with regard to both emotional intelligence and deathattitudes. The participants were 243 nursing students. They all responded voluntarily and anonymously to a questionnaire that assessed the following constructs: fear of death, death anxiety, death depression, death obsession, and emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, and mood repair). Students' scores on fear of death of others subscale (p < .05) decreased significantly across the 3 years of the nursing degree program and increased significantly on emotional clarity (p < .05), a dimension of emotional intelligence. The multiple linear regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of attention, clarity, and mood repair regarding levels of fear of death of others. The importance of including emotional skills training and death-education programs as part of professional nursing curricula are discussed. PMID:23495536
Capital punishment has received much scholarly attention; however, very little is known about correctional officers who work on death row. This research attempts to fill this gap in our knowledge by exploring the experiences, perspectives, and attitudes of correctional officers who have worked on death row. The findings reveal that working on death row is a paradoxical experience. The results
Attitudes toward the death penalty are multifaceted and strongly held, but little research outside of the death-qualification literature has focused on the role that such attitudes and beliefs play in jurors' capital sentencing verdicts. A single item is insufficient to properly measure attitudes toward the death penalty; therefore, a new 15-item, 5-factor scale was constructed and validated. Use of this
Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…
Although it is widely assumed that religiosity plays an important role in individuals' attitudes about death, research to date has failed to reveal consistent associations between religiosity and deathattitudes. Drawing from D. M. Wulff's (1991) multidimensional model of religiosity, the authors examined associations between religious attitudes as measured by the Post-Critical Belief Scale and deathattitudes as assessed by
Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia todeath fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)
Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)
One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and…
Neimeyer, Robert A.; Wittkowski, Joachim; Moser, Richard P.
A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…
Aging increases the proximity todeath. It may be that fear of death has a negative impact on attitude toward the elderly. The previous research is inconclusive. A positive attitude toward the elderly in past studies was not found to be related to preference for working with this age group. In the present study of senior baccalaureate nursing students, no
This study examines whether perception of family environment, attitudes toward life and death, and depression predict suicidality in elementary-school children. Seventy-eight participants ages 8 to 13 recruited through an elementary school and a university were assessed for attitudes toward life and death, depression, suicidality, and family environment. A regression equation indicated that depression and attraction to life were the only
Opinion trends in this country indicate sharp divisions in public sentiment over a number of life-taking actions. While legal abortion and capital punishment clearly head a list, a number of other issues have gained national attention in recent years. The present paper explores the structure of belief systems giving rise to normative conflicts of this kind. Of particular interest is the notion of a "pro-life" or other generic life orientation (e.g., the alleged "right-to-die" orientation of those who favor "mercy killings" in the case of terminally ill patients) as a possible explanation for public attitudes toward specific issues such as suicide and euthanasia. The present analysis assesses the empirical claims associated with such a model. The results offer qualified support for the existence of generic value orientations as revealed by public attitudes toward legal abortion, suicide, euthanasia, and capital punishment. PMID:10260431
The Mass-Observation Archive at the University of Sussex seeks to involve members of the British public in the recording of everyday life. A panel of several hundred correspondents responds regularly to open-ended 'directives' asking them to write about topics of contemporary interest. The April 1994 directive asked panel members to report their personal experiences of death and bereavement and to
There is strong support for the death penalty in China; the reasons behind the support, however, are unclear. Retribution and the instrumental perspectives are two major reasons for pro-death penalty attitudes in the United States. Two survey-based studies partially examined whether these two perspectives are also the reasons behind pro-death penalty attitudes in China. Those studies, however, were limited to
Although it is widely assumed that religiosity plays an important role in individuals' attitudes about death, research to date has failed to reveal consistent associations between religiosity and deathattitudes. Drawing from D. M. Wulff's (1991) multidimensional model of religiosity, the authors examined associations between religious attitudes as measured by the Post-Critical Belief Scale and deathattitudes as assessed by the DeathAttitude Profile--Revised. In total, 471 Dutch-speaking Belgian adults completed both questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to asses the unique contribution of the religious attitudes in the prediction of the deathattitudes. First, results show that religious people are more likely to endorse an approach acceptance attitude toward death, indicating that religiosity as such is related to belief in an afterlife. Second, people holding a literal attitude toward religion report more death anxiety, indicating that the processing of religious contents is related to defensiveness toward death. Finally, the specific combination of the two dimensions seems important in the prediction of a neutral acceptance attitude. The relevance of our findings for future research on religiosity and deathattitudes is discussed. PMID:19140293
This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…
Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon
This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the DeathAttitude Profile—Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found
This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the DeathAttitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index,…
The purpose of this paper was to construct a scale that measures the multidimensional attitude toward death in adolescence. Based on preliminary open-ended format survey, a scale of attitude toward death consisting of 67 items was constructed. This scale was administered to 1,071 adolescents. Factor analysis with varimax rotation indicated 6 subscales: "fear of death", "intention to live out own life", "meaning of death for life", "underrating of death", "belief in existence of afterlife", "choice of death-of-body/death-of-mind". For these subscales, the coefficients of alpha ranged from .60 to .84, and the coefficients of test-retest reliability with a three-week interval ranged from .68 to .93. The validity of the subscales was investigated through the relations with Templer's Death Anxiety Scale and several developmental indices. PMID:10643040
There have been few reports on the effect of suicide death on family members’ attitudes toward suicide. In order to estimate the extent to which suicide death affects attitudes toward suicide among family members of suicides, data of 264 informants from a case-control psychological autopsy study were analyzed. The results showed that there were no significant differences in attitudes toward suicide, measured by the General Social Survey’s (GSS) four questions, between informants of suicides and informants of living controls, between family members of suicides and family members of living controls, or between family members of suicides and non-family members of suicides. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that suicide death affects the attitudes toward suicide in suicides’ family members. However, some factors were found to be related to the pro-suicide attitudes measured by the four questions included in the GSS. PMID:20397616
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…
The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest, curiosity, self-regulation, and humor. Moreover, the role of meaning in films is pivotal for understanding deathattitudes. The authors discussed key elements in a number of popular, independent, and international films and emphasized the use of films as an important adjunct for both teachers and clinicians addressing deathattitudes with students and clients. A program of death education using movies is briefly discussed. PMID:24501852
86 young and 62 elderly non-life-threatened and 63 elderly life-threatened persons (mean ages 19.5, 71.0, and 74.8 yrs, respectively) were given a standardized interview that included the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS). Age, but not health, was related todeath anxiety. A significant Proximity toDeath by Experience with Death in Important Others interaction occurred for both death anxiety and attitude
To examine the correlates of suicidality, 282 young adults at a medium-sized southern university completed measures of depression, family environment, attitudes toward life and death, and suicidality. Family cohesion accounted for 14.6% of the variance in suicidality, while repulsion by death and attraction to life accounted for an additional 1.3% and 1.4% of the variance in suicidality respectively. Suicidality was
The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal deathattitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…
The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…
This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South
The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted. PMID:12749378
Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A
Public opinion surveys show that the American public favors capital punishment. This article examines the attitudes of 307 inmates about capital punishment. The respondents, especially the most violent offenders, favored capital punishment for some crimes when applied to others, but not to their own criminal activity. Moreover, they did not see capital punishment as a deterrent and implied that it
One of the goals of education in end of life care is to make communication more open by exploring critical issues related to fear of dying and death in order to reduce anxiety and improve an individual's attitudeto dying patients. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of courses for health care workers and medical students in care at the end of life. One hundred and twenty-seven health care professionals and 41 undergraduate medical students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) on the first and last day of the course. The most significant factors of fear of death are: Fear for Significant Others, Fear of the Dying Process and Fear of the Unknown. Overall fear of death scores were reduced as an effect of the courses. Changes in the components and level of fear of death are influenced by the participants' gender, age and profession. Improvement was evident in the attitudesto dying patients in both groups, which was related to an increase in knowledge of high-quality care of dying patients. PMID:18477721
Many scholars have studied public attitudes about abortion and the death penalty, but few have studied the coincidence of strong anti-abortion and pro-death penalty attitudes. What factors best explain how someone can find willful taking of life abhorrent in one context but justified in another? We find that the desire to see criminals punished, combined with a literalist orientation toward
Public support for the death penalty is something of an American tradition. Yet the bases of the American tradition of support for the death penalty are not well understood. An understanding of American attitudes toward capital punishment is important, not only because the United States is again executing criminal offenders, but because it provides a rough estimate of the level
Investigated the relationship between death fear, attitudes toward the elderly, and personal anxiety about aging in nursing home employees. Nursing professionals (registered nurses or licensed practical nurses) had lower levels of death concern than nursing assistants, and results also indicated that nursing assistants displayed significantly…
Determining whether race, sex, or other juror characteristics influence how capital case jurors vote is difficult. Jurors tend to vote for death in more egregious cases and for life in less egregious cases no matter what their own characteristics. And a juror's personal characteristics may get lost in the process of deliberation because the final verdict reflects the jury's will,
Theodore Eisenberg; Stephen P. Garvey; Martin T. Wells
Eugenios Voulgaris (Corfu, Greece, 1716; St Petersburg, Russia, 1806) was an eminent theologian and scholar, and bishop of Kherson, Ukraine. He copiously wrote treatises in theology, philosophy and sciences, greatly influenced the development of modern Greek thought, and contributed to the perception of Western thought throughout the Eastern Christian world. In his Treatise on euthanasia (1804), Voulgaris tried to moderate the fear of death by exalting the power of faith and trust in the divine providence, and by presenting death as a universal necessity, a curative physician and a safe harbour. Voulgaris presented his views in the form of a consoling sermon, abundantly enriched with references to classical texts, the Bible and the Church Fathers, as well as to secular sources, including vital statistics from his contemporary England and France. Besides euthanasia, he introduced terms such as dysthanasia, etoimothanasia and prothanasia. The Treatise on euthanasia is one of the first books, if not the very first, devoted to euthanasia in modern European thought and a remarkable text for the study of the very early European attitudes towards "good death". In the Treatise, euthanasia is clearly meant as a spiritual preparation and reconciliation with dying rather than a physician-related mercy killing, as the term progressed to mean during the 19th and the 20th centuries. This early text is worthy of study not only for the historian of medical ethics or of religious ethics, but for everybody who is trying to courageously confront death, either in private or in professional settings. PMID:23674293
Children who listened to "William's Doll,""Giving Tree,""Bread and Jam for Frances," and "My Grandson Lew," changed their attitudes in the respective areas of sex role stereotyping, friendship, death, and risk taking. (MKM)
A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981
The expansion of attitude research has been concurrent with the growth of the adult education movement. Most attitude research to date has focused on attitudes toward controversial issues but recent formulations of the nature of attitudes emphasize that they exist in functional interdependence with other attitudinal, motivational, and value…
Death, as we know, can happen at any age and ordinarily, is not necessarily something that we would choose, if we did indeed have a choice. Or is it? In this article, we move to an unexplored issue for WwOP and possibly an uncomfortable one for some, namely euthanasia. Here, Claudine McCreadie speaks quite frankly about the issue and compares
Polls exploring attitudes toward the death penalty typically impose a simple, dichotomous response structure: respondents\\u000a are asked whether or not they support or oppose capital punishment. This polling strategy deprives respondents of expressing\\u000a an indication of the strength of their opinions. When asked whether they support (or oppose) the death penalty “strongly”\\u000a or “not strongly,” significant proportions of respondents select
JAMES D. UNNEVERtt; Francis T. Cullen; Julian V. Roberts
This study examines the social-psychological factors of attributional styles, moral disengagement, and the value-expressive\\u000a function of attitudes in relation todeath penalty support and the robustness of that support. Respondents were first asked\\u000a whether or not they supported the death penalty and were then presented several paragraphs of information exposing flaws or\\u000a failures in the death penalty and asked how
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be associated with the wish to hasten death (WTHD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and stability of WTHD and end-of-life attitudes in ALS patients, identify predictive factors, and explore communication about WTHD. We conducted a prospective questionnaire study among patients and their primary caregivers attending ALS clinics in Germany and Switzerland. We enrolled 66 patients and 62 caregivers. Half of the patients could imagine asking for assisted suicide or euthanasia; 14% expressed a current WTHD at the baseline survey. While 75% were in favour of non-invasive ventilation, only 55% and 27% were in favour of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and invasive ventilation, respectively. These attitudes were stable over 13 months. The WTHD was predicted by depression, anxiety, loneliness, perceiving to be a burden to others, and a low quality of life (all p < 0.05). Lower religiosity predicted whether patients could imagine assisted suicide or euthanasia. Two-thirds of patients had communicated their WTHD to relatives; no-one talked to the physician about it, yet half of them would like to do so. In conclusion, physicians should consider proactively asking for WTHD, and be sensitive towards neglected psychosocial problems and psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:24070371
Levels of debt and attitudes towards debt were investigated in a sample of undergraduate students. Students were found to be a relatively low-income, high-debt group with relatively tolerant attitudes towards debt. Some of the variables that have been found to be associated with debt in general public samples were also found to have significant effects in the student group: these
Discussion of how to improve elementary school students' writing focuses on teaching and explaining the literary element of a character's attitude. Considers the relationship between attitude, mood, and motive; includes suggested student activities related toattitude; and describes evaluation possibilities. (LRW)
Explores the relationship between death anxiety and sociopolitical attitudes and political behavior. Data from a sample of 209 undergraduate students indicate that death anxiety is modestly related toattitudes reflecting a turning away from the social and political world. Death anxiety does not seem related to political behavior. (Author)
The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…
The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest, curiosity, self-regulation, and humor. Moreover, the
Experiencing sexual and\\/or physical abuse at any point in one's life can be quite traumatic. In addition to the immediate effects of the abuse, numerous long-term consequences have been identified, including an increased risk of developing psychological disorders and attempting suicide. We sought to determine if a relationship exists between abuse experiences, attitudes about life and death, and suicidal ideation
Although the 1990 Patient Self-determination Act was enacted to insure that patients' wishes regarding advance directives were known and respected, it has had little impact in quality or aggressiveness of care for patients nearing death. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore staff attitudes related to Advance Directives. A short survey was distributed to 650 hospital, home care,
Brenda Bergman-Evans; Leslie Kuhnel; Denise McNitt; Suzanne Myers
Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…
Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were
Three families are described in which the healthy only child was, from early childhood, put to bed and treated as if ill, dependent, and incapable. This abnormal mothering continued for 28, 45, and 48 years, respectively, and the children died as disabled adults. In each case, the three mothers evaded medical, educational, and social services. The origins of their behaviour are examined, and the links with more common forms of separation anxiety, school refusal, and perceived and factitious illness are discussed.?? PMID:10086944
Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents all over the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the general properties of suicide in childhood and adolescents, and to evaluate the results in the light of literature. Reports of autopsies performed between 2001 and 2005 in the Morgue
Isil Pakis; Nesime Yayci; Mustafa Karapirli; Nicel Yildiz; Elif Gunce; Riza Yilmaz; Oguz Polat
The social context which surrounds technology is likely to be one of the most important determinants of its future development and application. The application of repertory grid techniques (n = 26) in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis identified important psychological constructs which determine attitude. A larger survey study (n = 227) examined the reliability and predictive capacity of these items
Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related todeath was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) todeath-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased todeath-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses todeath-related information. PMID:23840787
We examined the structure of attitudesto debt among current and prospective New Zealand tertiary students. Study 1 employed exploratory factor analysis to investigate the structure of debt attitudes of 1232 respondent in their final year of secondary school; Study 2 used exploratory factor analysis to investigate debt attitudes of 125 first-year university students. Both studies indicated that, contrary to
Steve Haultain; Simon Kemp; Oleksandr S. Chernyshenko
The history, current status, opinions and attitudes, and ethical issues related to physician-assisted death (PAD) are examined. Specific implications for PAD and its interface with the human services professions are described with respect to multiculturalism; identity; perceptions of disease, illness, and pain; attitudes towards therapy; family decision-making; ethics; and professional roles.
John S. Westefeld; Domonique Casper; Adam M. Lewis; Christopher Manlick; Wendy Rasmussen; Allison Richards; Barbara C. Sieck
Summary A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudesto leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work
R. Flin; G. Fletcher; P. McGeorge; A. Sutherland; R. Patey
Much research has explored why people support or oppose capital punishment. There has been little research on the death penalty views of criminal justice students and whether they differ from other students. It is important to know and understand the views of criminal justice majors. Based upon survey data from students at a public Midwestern university, the death penalty views
Eric G. Lambert; Nancy L. Hogan; Bradene Moore; Morris Jenkins; Shanhe Jiang; Alan Clarke
This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153
Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…
Introduction. Recent changes to primary care trusts' Procedures of Limited Clinical Value (PLCV) policy mean that otolaryngologists must now follow policy rather than exercising clinical judgment when listing patients for tonsillectomy. Objectives. To gauge perception within the general public of when tonsillectomy is acceptable and to compare this to the current policy. Method. All patients or their parents attending the adult and paediatric outpatient ENT departments were asked to anonymously complete questionnaires. Results. One hundred and twenty-five completed questionnaires were collected. Thirty-one percent of respondents thought tonsillectomy should be offered solely on patient request, 19% after one to three bouts, and 35% after four to six bouts of tonsillitis. Only 9% thought the current guidelines were reasonable. Patients who had suffered recurrent tonsillitis or had undergone previous tonsillectomy generally thought tonsillectomy advisable after more bouts of tonsillitis than those who had not. Fourteen patients fulfilled the SIGN guidelines for tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis. Of these, 13 (93%) felt that suffering 4–6 bouts of tonsillitis was reasonable before tonsillectomy. Conclusion. All patients we surveyed who meet the current PLCV and SIGN guidelines regarding the appropriateness of tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis perceive that they are excessive, believing that 4–6 bouts of recurrent tonsillitis are adequate to justify tonsillectomy. PMID:23320167
Ubayasiri, Kishan; Kothari, Ravi; McClelland, Lisha; De, Mriganka
The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and deathattitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…
We reviewed medical examiner, law enforcement, crime laboratory data, and death certificates on all 1,530 violent deaths (homicide, suicide, undetermined firearm) in Connecticut occurring from 2001-2004. There was an average of 383 deaths (rate = 11.2 deaths per 100,000 persons annually). Overall, males aged 20 to 29 were at the greatest risk of violent death (rate = 30.5/100,000). Of all violent deaths 72% were suicides and 28% were homicides. Firearms were used in 33% of suicides and 58% of homicides. The rate of violent death is lower than most other states in the country. In Connecticut suicide is the leading cause of violent death overall; however, in areas characterized by the highest levels of poverty and lowest levels of education, homicide is the leading cause of violent death. PMID:18478984
Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudesto human cloning, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. In all of the analyses therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than was reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be related to underlying values related to scientific progress rather than to age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion but the main themes were „interfering with nature ? and the „status of the embryo?, with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource or that the media reflect public discourse accurately. However, focus group responses did not simply reflect media coverage. Abstract word count: 293
This report is a summary of a survey of Tennessee chief prosecutors (district attorneys general), chief public defenders, and state legislators concerning their attitudes toward capital punishment. Global approval was compared with (1) approval when offered the options of life without parole and (2) life without parole and restitution to the victim's family. Additional items probed approval of capital punishment
This article focuses on Robert Kastenbaum's seminal concept of the societal death system. Beginning with conflicting claims that America is a death-denying society versus a death-accepting society, the article reports Kastenbaum's definition and description of the death system in American society and sets forth the seven functions and five elements or components of that death system. Next, the article notes Kastenbaum's further claim that "All cultures, past and present, have had death systems." Finally, two basic lessons are drawn from the foregoing: (1) Kastenbaum's concept of the death system provides a robust framework to explain the networks societies interpose between their members and death, focusing in particular on a more or less integrated and dynamic network within American society whose functions and components are not difficult to recognize in the ways in which they organize many aspects of the lives of individuals who live within that society; and (2) It is preposterous to assert without qualification that America is a death-denying society when there are so many activities and components within that society that are in whole or in part related todeath, i.e., although it may be true that many aspects of the contemporary American death system appear to seek to remove death from the mainstream of life, there is ample evidence to indicate that American society as a whole and individuals within that society both accept and deny death simultaneously. PMID:25351587
BACKGROUND: With current genetic technology, it is possible to detect mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a hereditary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. As a result, prospective parents diagnosed with LQTS will have to decide whether or not to prevent its transmission to future generations, either by not procreating or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies or prenatal testing. This paper explores how a hereditary predisposition to sudden cardiac death can influence reproductive decision making. METHODS: This study draws from interviews and focus groups with individuals who have personal or family histories of cardiac arrhythmia or sudden death. A keyword search was conducted on interview transcripts to identify quotes for analysis. RESULTS: Participants expressed complex, often ambivalent attitudes about the prospect of having a child with a predisposition to sudden cardiac death. Their comments reveal conflicting understandings of genetic responsibility and reflect the variable effects of personal experience on reproductive decision making. This paper compares attitudes towards LQTS and other genetic conditions in analyzing the themes that emerged in interviews and focus groups. CONCLUSIONS: The "disability critique" of prenatal testing should be applied carefully to a context of genetic predisposition to sudden cardiac death in order to understand reproductive decision making. Firsthand experience with the condition, among other factors, can weigh heavily in those decisions. PMID:22822470
This study examines gender differences in gender role attitudes and attitudesto abortion in a sample of 141 undergraduate students. Religion and religiosity were treated as covariates. Using the short version of Spence and Helmreich's (1978) Attitudesto Women Scale (AWS) taken from Spence and Hahn [Spence, J. T., & Hahn, E. D. (1997). The Attitudes Toward Women Scale and
Cleanliness preferences may be related to the compatibility of college roommates and hence relevant to students' satisfaction with and retention at a college or university. Two studies were conducted to develop a scale and examine issues related to housecleaning attitudes In the first study 457 college students completed an Attitude toward…
Ogletree, Shirley M.; Turner, G. Marc; Vieira, Ana; Brunotte, Joshua
There has been an increase in the consumption of pork in recent years. Reports on a survey of the attitudes of Dublin consumers to pork. Identifies the quality factors which consumers consider when purchasing and eating pork, in particular pork chops. Determines the relative importance of these factors and ascertains consumer attitudesto the quality of pork available. Examines the
Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…
Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000
Explores how self-reported sex-role attitudes, or masculinity and femininity, when assessed by an instrument based on sound item selection procedures (Minnesota Attitude Survey) are related to expressive, nonverbal behaviors as viewed by peers. Examines the possibility that personality characteristics, more frequently associated with one or the…
Psychology 456 Death and Bereavement Instructor: Barbara A. McDonald, Ph.D. (bamcdonald will provide an overview of topics related todeath, dying and bereavement. We will study the objective aspects overall attitudes toward death, cultural aspects of death and bereavement, information about how people
Breaking news of death can have a significant impact on bereaved relatives if it is not carried out appropriately. This article explores best practice on breaking news of death, and discusses why it is so important for nurses to get it right. PMID:21473310
The current research was aimed at examining how attachment styles are connected to attraction todeath among eating disorder (ED) patients. A sample of 34 anorexic and 34 bulimic patients was matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic status to 37 normal controls. They were administered the Adult Attachment Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Multi-Attitude Suicidal Tendency Scale. Results
Zipora Hochdorf; Yael Latzer; Laura Canetti; Eytan Bachar
Recent studies in Drosophila, Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, mice, indicate that cell death can open paths to regeneration in adult animals. Indeed injury can induce cell death, itself triggering regeneration following an immediate instructive mechanism, whereby the dying cells release signals that induce cellular responses over short and/or long-range distances. Cell death can also provoke a sustained derepressing response through the elimination of cells that suppress regeneration in homeostatic conditions. Whether common properties support what we name "regenerative cell death," is currently unclear. As key parameters, we review here the injury proapoptotic signals, the signals released by the dying cells, the cellular responses, and their respective timing. ROS appears as a common signal triggering cell death through MAPK and/or JNK pathway activation. But the modes of ROS production vary, from a brief pulse upon wounding, to repeated waves as observed in the zebrafish fin where ROS supports two peaks of cell death. Indeed regenerative cell death can be restricted to the injury phase, as in Hydra, Drosophila, or biphasic, immediate, and delayed, as in planarians and zebrafish. The dying cells release in a caspase-dependent manner a variety of signaling molecules, cytokines, growth factors, but also prostaglandins or ATP as recorded in Drosophila, Hydra, mice, and zebrafish, respectively. Interestingly, the ROS-producing cells often resist to cell death, implying a complex paracrine mode of signaling to launch regeneration, involving ROS-producing cells, ROS-sensing cells that release signaling molecules upon caspase activation, and effector cells that respond to these signals by proliferating, migrating, and/or differentiating. PMID:24512708
It was hypothesized that knowledge about nuclear arms developments would not be correlated with nuclear attitudes, that sense of efficacy would be positively correlated with magnitude of nuclear activism, and that death anxiety would be correlated with high level of nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes, but not with sense of power. It was also hypothesized that positive correlations would be found between nuclear activism and political activism, knowledge of nuclear facts, and degree of adherence to anti-nuclear attitudes. One hundred and forty three women and 90 men participated in this questionnaire study. Major findings are as follows. In general, the more people knew about nuclear developments, the more anti-nuclear were their attitudes. Also, regardless of nuclear attitudes, a positive correlation was found between knowledge of nuclear facts and nuclear activism. Death anxiety and powerlessness were not correlated. There was a positive correlation between anxiety and both nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes. A strong positive correlation was found between nuclear activism and anti-nuclear attitudes, and between political activism and nuclear activism. Internal locus of control did not correlate significantly with high sense of power or with high degree of nuclear activism.
This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.
A study of primary teacher trainees' perceptions and attitudesto science in 1990, has been useful in designing a semester unit aimed at increasing the confidence and interest of first year students at Victoria College. This paper outlines the background survey and discusses some, of the results and how they were used to develop the Professional Readiness Study-Understanding Science. This unit attempts to change attitudes by focussing on metacognition and encourages students to understand and control their own learning. Discussion involves teaching and learning strategies and alternative assessment approaches including the student's journal-the Personal Record.
Jane, Beverley; Martin, Marjory-Dore; Tytler, Russell
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
This investigation assessed attitudes held by United States women and men dental students toward professional and sex role concepts. The concepts included: female dental student, male dental student, dentist, adult woman, adult man, wife and husband. These attitudes were evaluated and compared in the context of the students' current and future professional roles and their sex roles. Although there were several differences in attitudes between the two subject groups, the results suggest that the women and men dental students viewed their various roles as consistent with one another. It is particularly important to note that the women dental student is viewed by both gender groups as having professional and sex roles which do not conflict. PMID:9877356
... and so must our chil - dren. If we are to help them, we must let them know it's okay to talk about it. By talking to our ... quite believe. Children usually sense our doubts. White lies, no matter how well ... learn that we are not all knowing. We can make this discovery ...
Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess the death metaphors of Hong Kong Chinese for
In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401
In all societies, when a person dies, family, friends, and neighbors respond in structured, patterned ways to the death. Cultural guidelines determine the treatment and disposal of the body and prescribe a period of mourning for close relatives. Death ritual, like much of human behavior, is an expression of a cultural blueprint, of attitudes, values and ideals passed down by
A project recently launched by the Faculty of biology and medicine of Lausanne introduces the approach of facing death during both the dissection and the course of clinical activities. Existential questions relating to mortality are bound to arise sooner or later during the course of the study. For the sake of humanized clinical practice, these questions must be confronted. In response to a request by a student association, an accompanying curriculum with active student's contribution through encounters with death in anatomy and clinical situations was created in Lausanne. Students will benefit from this new program throughout their curriculum. This program is the first of its kind in Switzerland. PMID:24354255
Compares young adults with their parents and explores food preferences and attitudesto food, especially sensitivity to cleanliness and contamination of foods. Results indicate small positive parent-child correlations for food preferences but larger correlations for contamination sensitivity. (Author/AS)
Unlike the medical record, the death certificate is a public legal document that deserves the certifier's best intellectual effort to complete. The death certificate serves a variety of purposes, to include: A. Legal proof of death, usually necessary for a family to receive social security, health insurance, and other death benefits. B. A closure statement to the family from the physician documenting his or her final diagnosis. C. A family heirloom document that preserves a family history of causes of death (which may be invaluable in documenting hereditary diseases within a family). D. The death certificate is the backbone of national death statistics. Incorrect data from death certificates translates into incorrect state and national death rates for all causes. Cause of death assessment is inherently inaccurate (autopsy studies suggest that at least 10 percent of deaths have major unrecognized underlying disease processes that would have altered therapy had they been known). Even correct diagnostic assessments, however, can be lost to the system if they are improperly entered on to the death certificate. PMID:24851467
A questionnaire looking at attitudes towards male homosexuality was circulated to 94 members of the Gay Medical Association (GMA) and 510 members of various homophile organisations. The response rates were 56% and 34.7% respectively. Some clear differences emerged between the two groups in looking at stereotypes of male homosexuals. Nearly hlf the respondents in both the groups agreed that male
1466 Norwegian working doctors under 71y of age were surveyed in February 1994 on their attitudesto acupuncture and experience as acupuncture patients. 1135 doctors responded (response rate: 77%). More than 8% had undergone acupuncture treatment and 38% of these reported benefit from the treatment. Over 53% would realistically consider acupuncture if they got problems or diseases where acupuncture treatment
This study, based on questionnaire responses of 46 Israeli oncologists, explores the factors influencing these physicians' beliefs and decisions regarding chemo and radiation therapy. A simple discriminant analysis identified five physician-related variables with a significant impact on the subjects' attitudesto treatment: age, sex, years of oncology experience, pity for the patient, and whether they believed all cancer patients suffer
Psychology 456, Fall 2010 Death and Bereavement Instructor: Barbara A. McDonald, Ph.D. (bamcdonald: This course will provide an overview of topics related todeath, dying and bereavement. We will study will study overall attitudes toward death, cultural aspects of death and bereavement, information about how
This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. The paper relies on an extensive review of empirical literature published in English after 2009, as well as an analysis of unpublished market research data from member companies of Vaccines Europe. Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudesto vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. We define hesitancy as an expression of concern or doubt about the value or safety of vaccination. This means that hesitant attitudes are not confined only to those who refuse vaccination or those who encourage others to refuse vaccination. For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. We find that healthcare professionals report increasing challenges to building a trustful relationship with patients, through which they might otherwise allay concerns and reassure hesitant patients. We also find a range of reasons for vaccination attitudes, only some of which can be characterised as being related to lack of awareness or misinformation. Reasons that relate to issues of mistrust are cited more commonly in the literature than reasons that relate to information deficit. The importance of trust in the institutions involved with vaccination is discussed in terms of implications for researchers and policy-makers; we suggest that rebuilding this trust is a multi-stakeholder problem requiring a co-ordinated strategy. PMID:24788111
This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…
Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)
This paper reviews the circumstances of 142 deaths by drowning which occurred in Geelong and district during the years 1959 to 1974. The effectiveness of safety nets and protective fences as a means of preventing the accidental submersion of young children in home swimming pools is questioned. Consumption of alcohol before submersion played a major role in the death of many adult males. Of males aged 26 years and over, 79% imbibed alcohol before death, and 57% had a blood alcohol concentration greater than 0.1% at autopsy. Of males aged 17 to 25 years of age, 25% imbibed alcohol before death and only half of these had a blood alcohol concentration greater than 0.1% at autopsy. The age preponderance for consumption of alcohol and drowning is opposite to that for fatal motor vehicular accidents (in these males aged 17 to 25 years more frequently have significant blood alcohol concentrations at autopsy than males aged 26 years and over). No female consumed alcohol before submersion. The writer suggests that the public, and in particular males aged 26 years and over, should be warned as forcibly against the dangers of "swimming and drinking" and "boating and drinking" as they are against the dangers of "driving and drinking". PMID:1221260
Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess the death metaphors of Hong Kong Chinese for assessment and empirical research. Thirty death metaphor statements in Chinese were created from items of the Revised Death Fantasy Scale (RDFS; J. McLennan & C. A. Stewart, 1997) and a previous pilot study in Hong Kong (S. M. Y. Ho, 2001). The item pool was administered to 100 undergraduates together with the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale. Seven out of the 10 highest scored death metaphor statements were from the items that had been created for this study. Descriptive statistics of individual items suggested an interpersonal dimension of death perception that is not emphasized in Western literature. Factor analysis generated a 18-item Death Metaphors Scale (DMS) with 2 9-item subscales: the Positive Metaphors (f = .85) and the Negative Metaphors (f = .81). The scores of DMS subscales are significantly correlated with the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale but not with corresponding scores of the RDFS. The DMS was considered a potentially useful instrument to study death metaphors among Chinese. PMID:14969278
This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).
Starting with the observation that attitudes towards death cannot be divorced from attitudes towards life, the author proceeds with a critical and reflective look at American society's poor management of death, both in terms of the dying person and the bereaved. Denial is the mechanism used to protect ourselves from facing the fact of death, and…
College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
We are faced with difficult and complex questions that cannot be answered by stating great principles or ideological convictions, because they refer to painful situations, always singular, in which each individual, in a unique way, faces his life and his death. But the debate can draw on shared convictions and values. Thus, before being a way of assuming death, the Christian faith is fundamentally a way of welcoming the life, in all times and in its fullness, that Christ has given us. The whole Bible and in particular the ministry of Jesus bear witness to that fight for life, against the scandal of suffering and the powers of death that are a denial of the good work of God. Suffering is never, as such, acceptable or justifiable, and truth is never to surrender to it, as if it was a meaningful destiny. And so all suffering that can be avoided must be so. Regarding death, it is often held back in the margins of our lives and societies, as if it was a sort of setback for our human abilities and especially for medicine. Of course those abilities exist but death is not an illness. It's the natural mark of our human finiteness and there is a time when caring is not intended to cure, but to make up for life that defaults, alleviate suffering. That is why what is called to-day palliative caring is so important. Because even when medicine is powerless in front of illness, it can still do something for the sick. Because of all that, the believer can only be opposed to euthanasia which is, after all, only the exact replica of the useless prolongation of life by medical means it pretends to oppose. It's the same activism, the same pretense, the Bible fights, through which human beings want to remain the masters of life and death. But death is not given, except in deathly violence. As life, it is welcomed and is accompanied. The end of a life is still life. To die is to the live to one's last breath. And that questions the claim to die "with dignity" when life can no more be lived in a "dignified way". But what "dignity" are we talking about? To-day, do we not mistake it with the image of the modern individual, master of himself and a match for the world, assured of his physical strength and of his conscientiousness enabling him to consent. As if the image of dignity was always the same, at every age, for all types of illness or simply of existence. When that image of dignity gets shaky, one discovers sorts of dignity that do not answer those criteria, but that testify that any "body" can be a subject, and that we know nothing about it. Lastly, no law or moral authority, be they lax or restrictive, can suppress compassion, nor the ethical responsibility of the patient, of the doctors, of the family circle. None can take the place of the common requirement: go along with life up todeath. PMID:10464998
Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.
Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.
In two studies we examined the role of two regulatory foci (i.e., prevention and promotion) in predicting Australian's attitudesto different types of migrants. According to regulatory focus theory, promotion-focused self-regulation is concerned with nurturance and accomplishment needs and involves the pursuit of wishes and aspirations. As such, it results in sensitivity to positive outcomes and to relative pleasure from
Jennifer Whelan; Simon M. Laham; Kim Peters; Jennifer Boldero; Yoshihisa Kashima
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....
...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....
...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....
A small, but significant proportion of pregnant women (1% to 2% of all pregnancies), suffer from a severe form of nausea and vomiting, which is categorised as hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). The arbitrary definition, aetiology and management of HG, which leads to conflicting attitudes and beliefs among healthcare professionals, inevitably impacts on the woman's overall experience of the condition. It causes great distress and if medical and ward staff misunderstand the condition, it can increase rather than reduce the suffering of women. A structured review was designed, both to determine the attitude and beliefs held by healthcare professionals and to advance understanding of women's experiences in relation to HG. A comprehensive search of literature was carried out. Due to the nature of the study, all the relevant identified and included articles were qualitative, therefore narrative synthesis of the tabulated results was carried out. The findings are discussed under the following themes: the experiences of the women, the various attitudes of health professionals. How the relationship between patients and health professionals is in regard to the mother's satisfaction with care and treatment. In the absence of evidence for an effective treatment, it is crucial to try and understand this complex condition, and to expand the circle of support from family to healthcare professionals involved in looking after sufferers. PMID:14748124
A study of primary teacher trainees' perceptions and attitudesto science in 1990, has been useful in designing a semester\\u000a unit aimed at increasing the confidence and interest of first year students at Victoria College. This paper outlines the background\\u000a survey and discusses some, of the results and how they were used to develop the Professional Readiness Study-Understanding\\u000a Science. This
Beverley Jane; Marjory-Dore Martin; Russell Tytler
Attitudes held with strong moral conviction (moral mandates) were predicted to have different interpersonal consequences than strong but nonmoral attitudes. After controlling for indices of attitude strength, the authors explored the unique effect of moral conviction on the degree that people preferred greater social (Studies 1 and 2) and physical (Study 3) distance from attitudinally dissimilar others and the effects
Linda J. Skitka; Christopher W. Bauman; Edward G. Sargis
Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and
Employee attitude surveys may be used for different purposes (Walters, 1996; Higgins and Ashworth, 1996) including measurement of employee satisfaction, provision of baseline data before implementation of change, and to evaluate change. In 1995 Australia Post administered an organisation- wide employee attitude survey testing the degree of cultural change associated with their industrial participation, quality service and leadership excellence programs.
Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58
Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
Black Americans face a paradox concerning death: although their involvement with death is intense, their knowledge of death, per se, comprehension of death related behaviors, and exposure to available life extending alternatives are minimal. An interview based questionnaire was distributed to 1,010 adults in a predominantly black section of…
Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess…
The disciplinary records of 39 Indiana death row inmates who were transferred to the general prison population following modification of their sentence from deathto capital life between 1972 and 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. Overall prevalence for the entire period of incarceration indicated that 14 inmates (35.9%) were involved in 24 violent acts. Twenty-six percent were involved in these violent
THOMAS J. REIDY; MARK D. CUNNINGHAM; JON R. SORENSEN
The Death Anxiety Scale and questions about helping the elderly were administered to undergraduates. An inverse relationship exists for females between death anxiety and the tendency to help the elderly. (Author)
\\u000a Archaeologists have long been intrigued by the remains of the dead. Because skeletons, grave goods and cemeteries represent\\u000a deliberate disposal, unlike the incidental discard of everyday items, mortuary material can bring us a step closer to the lives and\\u000a intentions of people and places in the past. Along the way, archaeologists have developed many different approaches to studying\\u000a the dead.
...presumption is invoked, survivors are not eligible for benefits where the miner's death was caused by a traumatic injury (including suicide) or the principal cause of death was a medical condition not related to pneumoconiosis, unless the claimant...
Surveys the development of informal death education in the United Kingdom since Gorer's (Geoffrey) 1965 survey of attitudestodeath, grief, and mourning. Shows how the media, exhibitions, courses, and reports contribute to the attainment of four goals originally applied in "American Death Education" by Gordon (Audrey) and Klass (Dennis) (1977).…
Previous research—especially in the United States—has largely utilised a Black\\/White focus in studying intergroup attitudes, and has not sufficiently dealt with how racial\\/ethnic minority groups (including newer immigrants) view one another. To address this dearth in the literature, the present study investigates predictors of intergroup attitudes of one minority group (East Indian immigrants and Indian Americans) toward another (African Americans).
Cheri L. Philip; Ram Mahalingam; Robert M. Sellers
This study was designed to examine the relationship between gambling behaviour (gambling frequency and problem gambling severity)\\u000a and financial management practices (cash management, risk management, and general management), financial management attitudes,\\u000a and money attitudes (materialism, achievement, budget, obsession, and anxiety) in a sample of 118 participants (45 males,\\u000a 73 females) recruited from a university. The findings revealed that gambling frequency
Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudesto modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudesto modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706
Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad
Quality control of the donation process with the use of appropriate validated indicators is fundamental to detect criticalities and plan corrective measures. We report the results of a retrospective study on the quality of interviews with brain-dead donor (BDD) families to obtain consent for organ and tissue donation. Between January 2001 and December 2009, we performed 260 interviews to explore willingness of BDD family members for organ and/or tissue donation. Refusal of donation occurred in 26.5% (69/260) of cases with no significant difference according to the type of intensive care unit or the cause of death. However, the analysis revealed a reduction in refusal rates over the study period from 46.4% in 2001 to 19.5% in 2009. Based on our study, the presence of experienced, committed health care personnel is necessary to reduce refusal rates and increase the available organ donor pool. PMID:21335206
Explored relationships between factors of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale and measures of subjective state. Findings revealed that, in a general population, Factor I, conceptualized as fear of death, was unrelated to anxiety and depression in contrast to positive correlations provided by Factors II-IV, which were collectively conceptualized as death…
As the single most important experience in the lives of all people, the process and event of death must be handled carefully by the medical community. Twentieth-century advances in life-sustaining technology impose new areas of concern on those who are responsible for dying persons. Physicians and surrogates alike must be ready and willing to decide not to intervene in the
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction\\u000a of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age?=?11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a general Implicit Association\\u000a Test on bullying and a movie-primed
Anne A. J. van Goethem; Ron H. J. Scholte; Reinout W. Wiers
We calculate the dissipative dynamics of two-qubit quantum discord under Markovian environments. We analyze various dissipative channels such as dephasing, depolarizing, and generalized amplitude damping, assuming independent perturbation, in which each qubit is coupled to its own channel. Choosing initial conditions that manifest the so-called sudden death of entanglement, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. We show that in all cases where entanglement suddenly disappears, quantum discord vanishes only in the asymptotic limit, behaving similarly to individual decoherence of the qubits, even at finite temperatures. Hence, quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement against to decoherence so that quantum algorithms based only on quantum discord correlations may be more robust than those based on entanglement.
T. Werlang; S. Souza; F. F. Fanchini; C. J. Villas-Boas
Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, has in the past few years undoubtedly become one of the most intensively investigated biological processes. However, fundamental questions concerning the molecular and biochemical mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The central question concerns the biochemical steps shared by the numerous death induction pathways elicited by different stimuli. Heterogeneous death signals precede a common effector phase
ContextIt is unknown whether cancer patients with different life expectancies have different attitudes and emotions toward death and an afterlife. Also, it is unclear whether these attitudes and emotions toward death and afterlife influence patients’ distress.
Hanneke W. M. van Laarhoven; Johannes Schilderman; Constans A. H. H. V. M. Verhagen; Kris C. Vissers; Judith Prins
Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between deathattitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D) Scale, the Distress Thermometer, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning, and Glock and Stark's Dimensions of Religious Commitment scales, and these assessments were compared between cancer patients with and without death anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after correlation analysis between death anxiety and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, pain scores, and negative believes about what will happen after death were found to be higher in patients having death anxiety than patients not having death anxiety. Also life expectancy was perceived as shortened in patients with death anxiety. Death anxiety was associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and beliefs about what will happen after death. In conclusion, death anxiety could not be regarded as a natural consequence of having cancer; it is associated with the unresolved psychological and physical distress. PMID:22571248
Death is an unknown and it is final. This makes it sublime. The sublime as an aesthetic category is experienced emotionally as the moral certitude of having embraced the absolute. In that sense, the nervous system is capable ...
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the psychological aspect and effects that a sentence of death, and duration of detention, has on death row inmates. The instrument utilized was the Death Symptom Inventory (DSI) containing demographical items developed by the author of this study. The study was conducted with inmates that were under a death
Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined deathto be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)
Background: This paper describes the development of an Attitudesto Disability Scale for use with adults with physical or intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of the research was to design a scale that could be used to assess the personal attitudes of individuals with either physical or ID. Method: The measure was derived following standard…
The paper explores attitudesto chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudesto chronic…
Examines adult attitudes toward wetlands in order to assess perceptions and thus educational failings as a barrier to wetland restoration. Finds relatively positive attitudes with significant differences between social groups and near-significant differences between genders. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)
WORKING PAPER NÂ° 2014 Â 16 Attitudesto Income Inequality: Experimental and Survey Evidence Andrew, Experiments, Income inequality, Life satisfaction, Reference groups PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES ECONOMIQUES 48, BD-00967938,version1-31Mar2014 #12;Attitudesto Income Inequality: Experimental and Survey Evidence Andrew E
A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…
Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…
Purpose – Instead of using general food choice motives, this study adopts more specific attitudes – i.e. health consciousness and environmental attitudes – to predict the consumer's attitude toward organic foods. The main objective of the paper is to test the hypothesis whether health consciousness and environmental attitudes influence the consumer's attitude toward organic foods through an individual's healthy lifestyle.
Despite the recent increase in interest in terminally ill children and their families and the post death adjustment of parents, there has been little research examining the adjustment and self concept of surviving siblings in such families. This paper discusses the results of a preliminary descriptive study of 28 children (from 14 families) whose brother or sister had died of cancer between 18 and 30 months previously. Behaviour checklists were completed by parents and teachers and self concept scales administered to the children. A lengthy semistructured interview was carried out, and measures of parental adjustment were gathered. A high percentage of children were found to be exhibiting emotional or behavioural difficulties, or both, and the results indicated that low self esteem was common. Parental and child adjustment were not found to be related inter se, nor did they seem to relate to the child's self esteem. Thus for many children the loss of a sibling might cause long term distress. Further, many children who did not manifest overt difficulties perceived themselves unfavourably in comparison with either their ideal or their dead sibling. PMID:3963872
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The
Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…
A gyroless deterministic attitude determination algorithm based on simulation of sun in eclipse is stated in this paper and has been compared to stochastic filters like extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter. Attitude determination with low cost sensors such as magnometer and sun sensor results in usage of recursive algorithms such as Kalman filter which has the probability of
This paper postulates that having students engage in albeit limited and flawed research is a more effective way of changing attitudes than lecture or discussion. A common goal of the introductory linguistics course is to instill healthy language attitudes, but there is little extant research on the pedagogy of linguistics indicating how this may…
Aspects of the French cultural attitude toward death are explored, with reference made to a survey of public opinion and a magazine article about recognition of the anniversary of Charles De Gaulle's death. Attitudes about privacy, ritual, and family behavior are highlighted. (MSE)
Nationally, death rates from prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) overdoses quadrupled during 1999-2010, whereas rates from heroin overdoses increased by <50%. Individual states and cities have reported substantial increases in deaths from heroin overdose since 2010. CDC analyzed recent mortality data from 28 states to determine the scope of the heroin overdose death increase and to determine whether increases were associated with changes in OPR overdose death rates since 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2010 to 2012, the death rate from heroin overdose for the 28 states increased from 1.0 to 2.1 per 100,000, whereas the death rate from OPR overdose declined from 6.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2012. Heroin overdose death rates increased significantly for both sexes, all age groups, all census regions, and all racial/ethnic groups other than American Indians/Alaska Natives. OPR overdose mortality declined significantly among males, persons aged <45 years, persons in the South, and non-Hispanic whites. Five states had increases in the OPR death rate, seven states had decreases, and 16 states had no change. Of the 18 states with statistically reliable heroin overdose death rates (i.e., rates based on at least 20 deaths), 15 states reported increases. Decreases in OPR death rates were not associated with increases in heroin death rates. The findings indicate a need for intensified prevention efforts aimed at reducing overdose deaths from all types of opioids while recognizing the demographic differences between the heroin and OPR-using populations. Efforts to prevent expansion of the number of OPR users who might use heroin when it is available should continue. PMID:25275328
Rudd, Rose A; Paulozzi, Len J; Bauer, Michael J; Burleson, Richard W; Carlson, Rick E; Dao, Dan; Davis, James W; Dudek, Jennifer; Eichler, Beth Ann; Fernandes, Jessie C; Fondario, Anna; Gabella, Barbara; Hume, Beth; Huntamer, Theron; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Largo, Thomas W; Miles, JoAnne; Newmyer, Ashley; Nitcheva, Daniela; Perez, Beatriz E; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Sabel, Jennifer C; Skiba, Jessica; Slavova, Svetla; Stone, Kathy; Tharp, John M; Wendling, Tracy; Wright, Dagan; Zehner, Anne M
Veterinary surgeons in the UK were invited to complete an internet survey concerning their attitudesto chronic pain in dogs. UK veterinary surgeons numbering 215 completed surveys in full along with 48 worldwide specialists in anaesthesia and 37 worldwide specialists in oncology. Osteoarthritis, dental and aural disease, vertebral and spinal cord conditions, neoplasia and skin conditions were considered important causes of chronic pain in dogs. UK practitioners used significantly fewer classes of analgesic drugs regularly than either category of specialist. The major barriers to adequate treatment of chronic pain were reported as difficulties with pain assessment, expense of drugs, and difficulties with owner compliance. Illustrations of six common neoplastic conditions were used and scored for pain according to prior experience by practitioners. All six conditions were consistently described as involving some degree of pain with primary bone tumour and oral tumour, causing severe pain and moderate to severe pain, respectively. Years since graduation and specialist status affected the pain scores attributed to the conditions. There was a significant correlation between the pain score attributed to the illustrated condition, and the tendency to administer analgesia. PMID:25028465
...The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board. 1103.12 Section...The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board. (a) It is the...practitioner to maintain a respectful attitude toward the Board and for the...
Research studying the public's attitudes toward capital punishment has typically assessed whether individuals favor or oppose the use of the death penalty, without examining the underlying structure of these attitudes. The present study used a general model of attitudeto examine the relative importance of affective information (i.e., feelings) and cognitive information (i.e., beliefs) in predicting attitudes toward capital punishment.
The investigation of deaths that involve diving using a compressed breathing gas (SCUBA diving) is a specialized area of forensic pathology. Diving related deaths occur more frequently in certain jurisdictions, but any medical examiner or coroner's office may be faced with performing this type of investigation. In order to arrive at the correct conclusion regarding the cause and manner of death, forensic pathologists and investigators need to have a basic understanding of diving physiology, and should also utilize more recently developed technology and ancillary techniques. In the majority of diving related deaths, the cause of death is drowning, but this more often represents a final common pathway due to a water environment. The chain of events leading to the death is just as important to elucidate if similar deaths are to be minimized in the future. Re-enactment of accident scenarios, interrogation of dive computers, postmortem radiographic imaging, and slight alterations in autopsy technique may allow some of these diving related deathsto the better characterized. The amount and location of gas present in the body at the time of autopsy may be very meaningful or may simply represent a postmortem artifact. Medical examiners, coroners, and forensic investigators should consider employing select ancillary techniques to more thoroughly investigate the factors contributing a death associated with SCUBA diving. PMID:24166195
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
A document presents computational-simulation studies of a concept for stabilizing the attitude of a spacecraft during deployment of such structures as a solar sail or other structures supported by inflatable booms. Specifically, the solar sail considered in this paper is a square sail with inflatable booms and attitude control vanes at the corners. The sail inflates from its stowed configuration into a square sail with four segments and four vanes at the tips. Basically, the concept is one of controlling the rates of inflation of the booms to utilize in mass-distribution properties to effect changes in the system s angular momentum. More specifically, what was studied were the effects of staggering inflation of each boom by holding it at constant length for specified intervals between intervals of increasing length until full length is reached. The studies included sensitivity analyses of effects of variations in mass properties, boom lengths, rates of increase in boom length, initial rates of rotation of the spacecraft, and several asymmetries that could arise during deployment. The studies led to the conclusion that the final attitude of the spacecraft could be modified by varying the parameters of staggered inflation. Computational studies also showed that by feeding back attitude and attitude-rate measurements so that corrective action is taken during the deployment, the final attitude can be maintained very closely to the initial attitude, thus mitigating the attitude changes incurred during deployment and caused by modeling errors. Moreover, it was found that by optimizing the ratio between the holding and length-increasing intervals in deployment of a boom, one could cause deployment to track a desired deployment profile to place the entire spacecraft in a desired attitude at the end of deployment.
Poignant tweets by a well-known journalist led to a national conversation about publicly sharing the death experience. The purpose of this column is to set the stage for a broader discussion among health care providers to understand the perceived benefits and related challenges of using social media to share the death experience. PMID:24098987
Beating of pledges, frequently leading to lawsuits and sometimes todeath, has become a serious problem in black fraternities. Although black fraternities officially cracked down on hazing in 1990 in response to a student's death, many fear underground hazing has become even more dangerous. Incidents occur both on black and on white campuses.…
these attitudes involve. Gartley and Bernasconi (1967) interviewed 66 Roman Catholic school children between the ages of 5 and 14. While this sample undoubtedly carries with it a religious bias, the focus of the inter- views was towards actual concepts... culture regardless of one's attitudes towards the subject" (1958:174). In an effort to determine if "the average adolescent's attitude toward death's] part of the structuring principle dominant at this point of his life, or does it belong to a second...
Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitudeto Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.
A study conducted to determine the characteristics and circumstances of child deaths related to abuse and neglect in Texas during 1975-77 is the subject of this document. Following an introduction providing study background and a review of related literature, the second section provides a brief description of the Child Abuse and Neglect Reprint…
Texas Univ., Austin. Region VI Resource Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.
Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related todeath penalty\\u000a attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty\\u000a in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God’s attitudes toward murders,\\u000a and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about
...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to...
Some of the biggest barriers to increase colorectal cancer screening are negative attitudesto screening tests. These negative attitudes might be evoked through reading cancer prevention information and impede the decision to get screened. Forty-two adults aged ?50 years completed a 12-item attitude questionnaire after reading colorectal cancer prevention information. African-Americans perceived that others had higher cancer risk than themselves whereas Caucasians did not show the difference. Regardless of ethnicity and adherence to screening guidelines, no participants had strong feelings of fear and embarrassment. However, non-adherent Caucasians had higher anxiety than adherent Caucasians. The degree of negativity was not associated with intention to get screened in non-adherent participants. Adequate health literacy of participants may account for flat responses in negative attitudes. Further research in individuals with limited health literacy is recommended. Moreover, additional education about self-relevance of cancer risk is considered necessary to increase cancer awareness in African-Americans. PMID:21360028
Liu, Chiung-Ju; Fleck, Tara; Goldfarb, Joan; Green, Casey; Porter, Elizabeth
Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful. PMID:11219130
New York State's death penalty statute is constitutionally flawed in many respects. It violates the state and federal prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment and provides unrestricted prosecutorial discretion to pursue the death penalty. This standardless and unfettered discretion creates the risk of arbitrary or discriminatory application of capital punishment.
Higher rates of recurrence-free survival at 5- and 10-year follow-up have been reported for breat cancer patients who initially responded to cancer with attitudes of “fighting spirit” or denial. We report here a factor analytic attempt, utilizing questionnaire data, to objectify these attitudes. A reliable factor structure replicated in breast and mixed cancer samples, yielding three factors: (1) Fighting Spirit
David V. Nelson; Lois C. Friedman; Paul E. Baer; Frank E. Smith
Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related todeath penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury. PMID:17546480
Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudesto positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).
Changes in the death qualification process suggest an increasing probability that jurors in capital cases will reject an insanity defense. The present study of 312 college undergraduates compares demographics and attitudes of death-qualified participants with those of their excludable counterparts, by varying standards for exclusion. When demographics were considered together, only religion predicted bias against the insanity defense, which was
Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. PMID:18046739
Explored aspects of death anxiety in 77 physicians. Confirmed an inverse relationship between use of repression and overt reports of death anxiety. Found differences between internists, surgeons, and psychiatrists and significant relationships between age, experience, and death anxiety. Younger, less experienced physicians displayed greatest death…
Objective: to examine women's attitudesto being questioned by their midwife, during and after pregnancy, about exposure to violence.Design: an explorative study using content analysis of one open-ended question.Setting: all antenatal clinics in Uppsala, a medium-sized Swedish university town.Participants: all women registered for antenatal care before 32 weeks of pregnancy, during a period of 6 months.Measurements: all women were assessed
Summary. One consequence of China's marketisation has been the emergence of a 'floating population'—rural Chinese who migrate to China's cities to work. Many urbanites have negative attitudes towards such migrants. To understand how these negative attitudes might be ameliorated, the paper employs Allport's influential contact hypothesis to investigate whether urbanite -migrant friendships affect attitudes. More negative attitudes were observed among
Ingrid Nielsen; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth; Mingqiong Zhang; Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu
We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case-control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%-44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, -3% and -4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable. PMID:24959688
Falagas, Matthew E; Tansarli, Giannoula S; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z
The purpose of this article is to examine patterns of continuity and change in attitudes within the context of an existence conflict. It presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of attitudes, and applies it to the attitudes of Allon and Peres vis-à-vis the Palestinian issue. Differences in attitude between the two decision makers did exist. Yet Allon and Peres
Protein folding by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is physiologically critical; its disruption causes ER stress and augments disease. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. If stress persists, the UPR induces apoptotic cell death, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that unmitigated ER stress promoted apoptosis through cell-autonomous, UPR-controlled activation of death receptor 5 (DR5). ER stressors induced DR5 transcription via the UPR mediator CHOP; however, the UPR sensor IRE1? transiently catalyzed DR5 mRNA decay, which allowed time for adaptation. Persistent ER stress built up intracellular DR5 protein, driving ligand-independent DR5 activation and apoptosis engagement via caspase-8. Thus, DR5 integrates opposing UPR signals to couple ER stress and apoptotic cell fate. PMID:24994655
Lu, Min; Lawrence, David A; Marsters, Scot; Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Kimmig, Philipp; Mendez, Aaron S; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Walter, Peter; Ashkenazi, Avi
Explores Bedouin student backgrounds to determine attitude transformations that enabled family and clan approval for their participation in an Israeli teacher-training program. Results show the existence of transformations within the tribe toward education, especially for women. Student attitudes toward becoming instruments of educational…
... Painkillers Tied to Raised Risk of Death After Stroke Celebrex and other COX-2 inhibitors should be ... November 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Pain Relievers Stroke Rehabilitation WEDNESDAY, Nov. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Arthritis ...
Causes of premature deaths among men in relation to civil status and primary health care utilization were studied in a Swedish municipality. Alcoholism, suicide and accidents (psycho-social deaths and accidents) were of special concern (40% of all deaths). When principal and contributing causes of death were considered, alcoholism was registered in 21% of all men. Including information from primary health care records, the Social Services and the local outpatient alcohol clinic, the proportion of men with alcohol abuse was 40%. Half of the men with psychosocial deaths and accidents were divorced at the time of death. The time elapse between divorce and death was especially short for those who committed suicide, 1.4 years, compared to 9.5 years when death was due to alcohol. Half of the men who visited the primary health care centre six months before death were single, and the problem of the final antemortem visit anticipated the cause of death in the majority of these men. PMID:2237330
Attitudes expressed in Iowa's news media recently show a change of attitude from an urban or metropolitan slant to a more pro-rural, pro-agrarian point of view. Iowa's major daily news medium is now saying that the state's character, culture, economy, values, beliefs, and social attitudes are in jeopardy, and Iowans should have the moral and…
14-012982-01. Public Attitudesto the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudesto animal research in 2014 A report by Ipsos MORI for the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills John;14-012982-01. Public Attitudesto the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 2 ï¿½ 2014 Ipsos MORI ï¿½ all rights
The VSOP-2 project is a new space VLBI (very long baseline interferometer) radio astronomy mission, proposed to inherit the fruitful success of the VSOP mission with the HALCA satellite. One of the most important advances of VSOP-2 is the use of higher observation frequency, which requires fast alternating observation of a target and calibrator in order to remove the phase changes caused by the atmosphere. Typically, both sources must be observed within 60 sec, and this switching must be carried out over many hours. ``ASTRO-G" is a satellite planned for this VSOP-2 project, and one of technical challenges is to achieve such fast rest-to-rest maneuvers, and the proper hardware must be selected to account for this fast attitude maneuver. The controlled momentum gyro (CMG) is an actuator that provides high torque with small power consumption, and the fiber optical gyro is a sensor able to measure the high angular velocity with excellent accuracy. This paper first describes these components for attitude control. Another challenge of the ASTRO-G's attitude control system is to design the switching for the flexible mode of the satellite structure, containing a large deployable reflector and a large solar panel. These produce resonances with fast switching and these must be attenuated. To achieve high agility in a flexible satellite, the controller design is crucial. One design feature is a novel robust input shaper named ``nil mode exciting profiler". Another feature is the feedback controller design. The paper describes these features and other potential problems with fast switching..
A questionnaire study was conducted in a health district to evaluate the attitudes of paediatricians and child psychiatry staff as to which categories of problems should be referred to child psychiatry. In the majority of categories the two groups disagreed as to the frequency with which the problem should be referred. In the categories relating to child sexual abuse responses
Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354
Background Negative staff attitudes have been cited as a factor in explaining the low rates of employment in people with psychosis. We\\u000a aimed to conduct the first systematic survey of staff attitudes in UK community mental health teams.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A questionnaire survey of clinicians working in community mental health teams in North London, UK.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Clinicians believed that many more people with psychosis
Steven Marwaha; Shanika Balachandra; Sonia Johnson
A study was undertaken to implement a series of chance games and activities in a Year 7 classroom, and investigate the students' knowledge about probability concepts, as well as their attitudesto chance. Initially, the project involved selecting a set of appropriate learning activities to develop key probability concepts which are integral to the…
A questionnaire survey of 157 school children living in three different regions in Scotland was carried out, to identify differences in attitudesto healthy eating. School children aged 11-13 were asked a series of questions to establish how important they felt a healthy diet to be and what they thought made up a healthy diet. Discusses ways in which healthy
The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses toattitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. PMID:22435844
Attitudesto science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary\\/Elementary Grades 4–8. The limitations of a ‘transferred scale’ in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future attitudinal research in Pakistan.
Hafiz Muhammad Iqbal; Tabassum Nageen; Anthony William Pell
Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…
Purpose: To evaluate young drivers’ intentions to drink and drive in the context of a health attitude model, the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT).Methods: Licensed drivers attending college and ranging from 17 to 20 years of age (n = 304) completed questionnaires assessing PMT variables in the context of drinking and driving. More than half the sample consisted of females (62%)
Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…
Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei
MODELLING CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: SURVEY OF ATTITUDESTO HYBRID VEHICLES March 2005 #12;ii ABSTRACT The goal of this research project was to introduce realistic consumer for policy makers to make better policy decisions. My research focused on quantifying the consumer's decision
Attitudesto predictive DNA testing for familial adenomatous polyposis were documented in 62 affected adults. Patient views on prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy for this disorder were sought, as were opinions on the most suitable age to offer predictive testing for at risk children and the most appropriate age to begin screening. While 15 (24%) of those questioned stated
Nurses are frequently exposed to dying patients and death in the course of their work. This experience makes individuals conscious of their own mortality, often giving rise to anxiety and unease. Nurses who have a strong anxiety about death may be less comfortable providing nursing care for patients at the end of their life. This paper explores the literature on death anxiety and nurses' attitudesto determine whether fear of death impacts on nurses' caring for dying patients. Fifteen quantitative studies published between 1990 and 2012 exploring nurses' own attitudes towards death were critically reviewed. Three key themes identified were: i). nurses' level of death anxiety; ii). death anxiety and attitudes towards caring for the dying, and iii). death education was necessary for such emotional work. Based on quantitative surveys using valid instruments, results suggested that the level of death anxiety of nurses working in hospitals in general, oncology, renal, hospice care or in community services was not high. Some studies showed an inverse association between nurses' attitude towards death and their attitude towards caring for dying patients. Younger nurses consistently reported stronger fear of death and more negative attitudes towards end-of-life patient care. Nurses need to be aware of their own beliefs. Studies from several countries showed that a worksite death education program could reduce death anxiety. This offers potential for improving nurses' caring for patients at the end of their life. PMID:23400515
Peters, L; Cant, R; Payne, S; O'Connor, M; McDermott, F; Hood, K; Morphet, J; Shimoinaba, K
Nurses are frequently exposed to dying patients and death in the course of their work. This experience makes individuals conscious of their own mortality, often giving rise to anxiety and unease. Nurses who have a strong anxiety about death may be less comfortable providing nursing care for patients at the end of their life. This paper explores the literature on death anxiety and nurses’ attitudesto determine whether fear of death impacts on nurses’ caring for dying patients. Fifteen quantitative studies published between 1990 and 2012 exploring nurses’ own attitudes towards death were critically reviewed. Three key themes identified were: i). nurses’ level of death anxiety; ii). death anxiety and attitudes towards caring for the dying, and iii). death education was necessary for such emotional work. Based on quantitative surveys using valid instruments, results suggested that the level of death anxiety of nurses working in hospitals in general, oncology, renal, hospice care or in community services was not high. Some studies showed an inverse association between nurses’ attitude towards death and their attitude towards caring for dying patients. Younger nurses consistently reported stronger fear of death and more negative attitudes towards end-of-life patient care. Nurses need to be aware of their own beliefs. Studies from several countries showed that a worksite death education program could reduce death anxiety. This offers potential for improving nurses’ caring for patients at the end of their life. PMID:23400515
Peters, L; Cant, R; Payne, S; O'Connor, M; McDermott, F; Hood, K; Morphet, J; Shimoinaba, K
Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various…
This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.
Purpose – This paper sets out to report attitudes of staff on key health service committees towards community participation before and after appointment of community representatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper shows a self-completed questionnaire administered to staff on committees as a baseline measure and 12 months after community representatives had been appointed. Findings – The paper finds that significantly more
Sally Nathan; Elizabeth Harris; Lynn Kemp; Ben Harris-Roxas
404 pregnant women were interviewed, in the ante-natal clinics of two hospitals, concerning their attitudesto ultrasound scanning, which is routine at one of these hospitals, selective at the other. It was found at the hospital where scanning is selective, that women who had not been examined by ultrasound were less likely to regard a scan as an additional source
This report discusses the outcomes of a study designed to assess teacher attitudes about an interdisciplinary approach to the inclusion of students with behavior disorders. The interdisciplinary approach involved four components: responsible inclusion, language intervention strategies, self-management programs, and pragmatic skills for classroom…
Spann-Hite, Tracy; Picklesimer, Billie K.; Hamilton, Gloria J.
As part of a larger study of parental roles in sex education, a stratified probability sample of 1482 parents of three- to eleven-year-old children were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with reference to “masturbation” on the part of their children. A large majority of parents accepted the fact that children did masturbate, a smaller majority agreed that masturbation
Objective. To assess the attitudes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to oral corticosteroid treatment, factors influencing these views and their likely clinical impact. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 158 consecutive RA out-patients was carried out at two centres over 2 weeks. Demography, disease duration, function (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), years of formal education and social deprivation
... 2011-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
...2010-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...
...2013-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...
...2012-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...
... 2010-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
... 2014-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
... 2013-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
...2011-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...
...2014-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...
... 2012-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
and Staff Bereavement guidelines for additional support on teaching. Refer to CAPS, for counseling support Faculty and Staff Bereavement guidelines for additional support on teaching. Refer students to CAPS
Contemporary media representations of warfare are marked by a glaring paradox: whilst modern media technology has the potential to permit us to see more details of warfare than ever before, and whilst fictional representations of warfare, and of violent acts in general, have become ever bloodier and more explicit, non-fictional ones (at least in the British and US mainstream media)
Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083
This study compares the attitudes of primary children to school science between children from the Northern Ireland (UK) and Oman. Previous research has indicated that pupils in the more senior primary classes showed a marked decline in their enjoyment of school science, although most of this research was carried out in Europe, North America, and…
This work is part of a larger study carried out at the Murray Royal and Murthly Hospitals within the Tayside Health District. The survey was concerned with staff attitudes towards geriatric psychiatry patients and shows that the nurses in these peripheral hospitals hold a positive attitude towards this area of nursing. These findings appear to contradict the popular opinion held throughout the nursing service, that the geriatric psychiatry nursing area is very unpopular with trained, untrained and learner nurses. In the study by Hooper [Nursing Times (1981) 77 37-40/43-44], anxiety levels among learners towards the geriatric nursing areas were found to be very high. This appears to correlate with Kogan [Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (1961) 62, 616-622], which summarized is as follows: Young subjects were imputed to have a more consistently negative view of old people.' By using a series of two precoded questionnaires that the subjects completed, an overview of staff attitudes towards the geriatric psychiatry areas was obtained. The hypothesis on which the study was based was as follows: that a negative view towards geriatric psychiatry would be found among the staff of the Murray Royal and Murthly Hospitals.' However, the findings of this study did not support the hypothesis on any counts and gave a highly positive attitude scale. PMID:6550063
A survey of attitudes showed that apprehensions about the practical implications of cadaveric kidney transplantation were common in doctors and nurses in two acute general hospitals. It also indicated that lack of awareness about potentially suitable donors may be a contributing factor to the existing shortage of donor kidneys. PMID:4564857
Recent research suggests that the majority of primary school teachers in the UK believe that the purpose of teaching art and design is to develop skills associated with creativity, communication and expression. This article is based on research into the attitudes held by primary school pupils towards making art. The reflective nature of many of…
In an Introduction to Literary Studies course for English majors, students begin the semester with an essay about their experiences of reading and studying literature. An examination of a group of these essays indicates that success in the course was significantly influenced by students' attitudes and histories. Those who never had serious difficulties with assigned reading or literary study—or who
Four surveys in 1977, 1978, and 1979 studied employer attitudes toward the Open University (Great Britain) and its graduates as employees: the status of the degree in relation to others, recruitment trends, importance of specialization, employers as sponsors of their employees, vocational courses needed, and ignorance about the university. (MSE)
Attitude Change Title I (ACT I) was an effectiveness evaluation to determine what changes in semantic differential meaning accompanied Title I inservice teacher training, what differences in semantic differential meaning existed between teachers who did and did not have Title I training, and what relationships existed between personality…
The question whether personality dimensions explain the interindividual differences in dream recall frequency has often been investigated by dream researchers. The present findings confirm previous research which has shown that traits such as openness-to-experience and thin boundaries correlate substantially with dream recall frequency. However, correlation coefficients are small and are much larger if attitude towards dreams or a scale measuring
Michael Schredl; Petra Ciric; Simon Götz; Lutz Wittmann
This study investigated the relationships between demographic characteristics, motives and attitudesto studying, self-reported study behaviour and measures of outcome. Students taking courses by distance learning received a postal survey containing a short form of the Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Revised…
The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695
Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The Morris family is on a road trip through California. One day they are driving from Death Valley to Sequoia National Park. Death Valley is home to th...
Aim: To compare the attitudes of Iranian and Swedish nursing students toward caring for dying persons. Materials and Methods: Their attitudes were measured with the Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Caring of the Dying and the DeathAttitude Profile Revised. Results: The results indicated that the participating Iranian students were more afraid of death and less likely to give care to dying persons than the Swedish participants. Conclusion: It is suggested that theoretical education should be individualized and culturally sensitive in order to positively influence the students’ attitudes, and promote professional development. PMID:21218004
Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Axelsson, Karin; Haggstrom, Terttu; Savenstedt, Stefan
With this resource, students in middle and high school Earth science classes can follow the life cycle of a star from its birth as a nebula to its death as a white dwarf or a black hole. The introduction explains how a star's death is determined by its solar mass. The resource presents an illustrated flowchart that shows the stages of stars, as well as points of divergence for stars of different masses. Students click on each stage to see an enlarged, telescopic image of a sample star. Each image is labeled with the name and location of the star. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Programmed cell death is a process defined as genetically regulated self-destruction or cell suicide. It can be activated by different internal and external factors, but few studies have investigated whether this process occurs under cold and freezing temperatures. In this study, a freezing treatment (-8 °C for 6 h) induced cell death with features of programmed cell death in suspension cultures of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This process occurred for 10 days after cold exposure. The death of cells in culture was slow and prolonged, and was accompanied by protoplast shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, and an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species. Other changes observed after the freezing treatment included an increase in the respiration rate, changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ), and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. These findings indicated that mitochondria are involved in the cell death process that occurs after a freezing treatment in cells of winter wheat. PMID:24126671
Lyubushkina, Irina V; Grabelnych, Olga I; Pobezhimova, Tamara P; Stepanov, Aleksey V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Voinikov, Victor K
Background The reasons patients with haematological malignancies die in hospital more often than those with other cancers is the subject of much speculation. We examined variations in place of death by disease sub-type and time from diagnosis todeath, to identify groups of ‘at-risk’ patients. Methods The study is based in the United Kingdom within the infrastructure of the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN), a large on-going population-based cohort including all patients newly diagnosed with haematological malignancies in the north of England. Diagnostic, demographic, prognostic, treatment and outcome data are collected for each patient and individuals are ‘flagged’ for death. This study includes all adults (?18 years) diagnosed 1st September 2004 to 31st August 2010 (n?=?10,325), focussing on those who died on/before 31st August 2012 (n?=?4829). Results Most deaths occurred in hospital (65.9%), followed by home (15.6%), nursing home (11%) and hospice (7.5%) and there was little variation by diagnostic sub-type overall. Differences in place of death were, however, observed by time from diagnosis todeath, and this was closely related to sub-type; 87.7% of deaths within a month of diagnosis happened in hospital and these largely occurred in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and myeloma. Patients surviving longer, and particularly beyond 1 year, were less likely to die in hospital and this corresponded with an increase in the proportion of home deaths. Conclusions Time from diagnosis todeath was clearly a major determinant of place of death and many patients that died within three months of diagnosis did so in hospital. This was closely related to disease sub-type, with early deaths occurring most notable in the more aggressive diseases. This is likely to be due to a combination of factors including acute presentation, rapid disease progression without transition to a palliative approach to care and complications of treatment. Nonetheless, hospital deaths also occurred frequently in indolent diseases, suggesting that other factors were likely to contribute to the large proportion of hospital deaths overall. More evidence is needed to fully understand these complex cancers. PMID:24245578
An editorial in a previous issue of this journal falsely claims that the US government's efforts to reduce road fatalities are not based on science. It says that, as a result, the United States has fallen behind other countries in road death prevention. A large body of research and evaluation informed federal and state safety programs from the outset. Evans's comparisons of death trends among countries without adjustment for changes in relevant risk factors or specification of the injury reduction policies among the countries tell us nothing about the causes of the declines or the effects of specific ameliorative efforts. PMID:25320900
Objectives. We estimated the number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE search for all English-language articles published between 1980 and 2007 with estimates of the relation between social factors and adult all-cause mortality. We calculated summary relative risk estimates of mortality, and we obtained and used prevalence estimates for each social factor to calculate the population-attributable fraction for each factor. We then calculated the number of deaths attributable to each social factor in the United States in 2000. Results. Approximately 245?000 deaths in the United States in 2000 were attributable to low education, 176?000 to racial segregation, 162?000 to low social support, 133?000 to individual-level poverty, 119?000 to income inequality, and 39?000 to area-level poverty. Conclusions. The estimated number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States is comparable to the number attributed to pathophysiological and behavioral causes. These findings argue for a broader public health conceptualization of the causes of mortality and an expansive policy approach that considers how social factors can be addressed to improve the health of populations. PMID:21680937
Tracy, Melissa; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; DiMaggio, Charles; Karpati, Adam
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates protein synthesis, protein folding and trafficking, cellular responses to stress and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels. Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER cause ER stress that ultimately leads to apoptosis. Prolonged ER stress is linked to the pathogenesis of several different neurodegenerative disorders. Apoptosis is a form of cell death
Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…
LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James
A young woman's death at home was attributed to new onset diabetic ketoacidosis with subsequent litigation supported by several expert consultants, despite a history and postmortem findings inconsistent with this diagnosis. More thorough tissue study of the heart and analysis of the circumstances led to a credible explanation of the entire scenario. PMID:24237820
of 100s of thousands of oak and tan oak trees. California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) has been for predicting risk of P. ramorum spread from bay laurel to oak and tan oak trees, an important consideration225 Susceptibility to Sudden Oak Death in California Bay Laurel1 Brian Anacker,2 Nathan Rank,2
This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The accomplishments of John Snow (1813-1858), physician-epidemiologist, inventor and anaesthetist to Queen Victoria, are well documented, but the causes of his untimely death at age 45 remain conjectural. Snow suffered a paralysing stroke while working on his magnum opus, On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics, and died a few days later on 16 June 1858. Snow had a history of renal problems associated with tuberculosis. He also experimented on himself with ether, chloroform and other agents over several years, but whether this prolonged self-experimentation contributed to his early death is uncertain. A photograph of Snow taken in 1857 shows that the fingers of his right hand were swollen. Could this be a clue to the cause of his death? The "modern" view is that Snow's early tuberculosis and associated renal disease led to hypertension, chronic renal failure and stroke. The tuberculosis and renal involvement may have been worsened by vegetarianism and perhaps resulting vitamin D deficiency. However, the renal damage caused by tuberculosis is unlikely to have been progressive. Based on current evidence of renal toxicity associated with exposure to anaesthetic agents, it is perhaps more likely that extensive and prolonged self-experimentation with anaesthetics over a 9-year period led to Snow's renal failure, swollen fingers and early death from stroke. PMID:19228682
This comparative survey contrasted 571 parents who lost children to various death causes: 48 to drug-related deaths and overdoses, 462 to suicide, 24 to natural death cases, and 37 to mostly accidental death cases. Groups were compared in terms of grief difficulties, mental health problems, posttraumatic stress, and stigmatization. Results did not show any appreciable differences in these respects between the suicide bereaved parents and those losing children to drug-related deaths. However, when the suicide and drug-related death survivors were specifically contrasted against accidental and natural death loss cases, a consistent pattern emerged showing the former group was consistently more troubled by grief and mental health problems than the latter two sub-groups. These differences remained when controls of time since the loss and gender differences were employed as covariates. These findings suggest that the powerful and intense stigma against drug use and mental illness, shared among the public-at-large, imposes challenges in healing of immense proportion for these parents as they find less compassionate responses from their significant others, following their losses. PMID:22010370
Feigelman, William; Jordan, John R; Gorman, Bernard S
Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation and neuronal death after severe hypoglycemia. Zinc staining with N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ) showed depletion of presynaptic vesicular zinc from hippocampal mossy fiber terminals and accumulation of weakly bound zinc in hippocampal CA1 cell bodies after severe hypoglycemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of the zinc chelator calcium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) blocked the zinc accumulation and significantly reduced hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. CaEDTA also attenuated the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the enzymatic product of PARP-1, in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that zinc translocation is an intermediary step linking hypoglycemia to PARP-1 activation and neuronal death. PMID:15262265
Suh, Sang Won; Garnier, Philippe; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Swanson, Raymond A
This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS). Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female) of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related). Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system. PMID:24826359
Merrill, Ray M.; Hedin, Riley J.; Fondario, Anna; Sloan, Arielle A.; Hanson, Carl L.
Tested hypothesis that women's attitudes and fantasies about rape arise partially from their socialization to accept sexual aggression as normative. Female participants answered questions on childhood exposure to pornography, sex fantasies, and rape attitudes. Early exposure to pornography correlated to "rape fantasies" and attitudes supportive of…
Though the term “new technology” is widely used and discussed, there has been very little systematic study of attitudesto\\u000a technology and their relation to other beliefs and group memberships. This article describes an initial investigation into\\u000a the nature of attitudes towards new technology (n=534 undergraduates) and demonstrates that, as yet, these attitudes are only weakly structured and are not
Glynis M. Breakwell; Chris Fife-Schaw; Terence Lee; Judith Spencer
Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine attitudes towards African-American vernacular English (AAVE) in a setting outside of the USA. Because foreign attitudes toward AAVE can serve as an indirect assessment of a society's racial prejudice, we decided to explore these attitudes in Japan: a country with an intriguing mix of…
Cargile, Aaron Castelan; Takai, Jiro; Rodriguez, Jose I.
THE PURPOSE WAS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF CLASSROOM SIMULATION ON THE ATTITUDES OF EDUCATION MAJORS TOWARD TOPICS IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. EXPERIMENT 1 SOUGHT TO DETERMINE THE MAGNITUDE OF ATTITUDE CHANGE AS A RESULT OF SIMULATED EXPERIENCES. EXPERIMENT 2 REPEATED THE FIRST EXPERIMENT USING A REFINEMENT OF THE ATTITUDE INSTRUMENTATION AND…
Data based on questionnaire measures from parents in New Zealand, the UK, and Sweden on attitudes toward advertising to children is presented. There is cross-national evidence that attitudes in this area are affectively strong and consistent and data is presented on responses to particular attitude statements that support this claim. An exploratory factor analysis on the Swedish and UK data
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
A study found that white dental students' (n=144) perceptions of clinical ability, attitudes toward gay men, and white racial attitudes account for both their willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIV disease and their perception of the risk of occupational infection with the disease. Results suggest attitudes regarding cultural…
IntroductionPatient safety is a strong driver for quality improvement within the NHS. Maternity units deal with unintended harm to patients on a daily basis. Ensuring a strong patient safety culture within the workforce is important in achieving good clinical outcomes. In Norwich we were unsure of how staff perceived patient safety issues.ObjectiveTo measure staff attitudeto patient safety.SettingLarge tertiary hospital
M J Cameron; J Corfe; W Evans; R Goodsell; S Hunt; D Nirmal; S Rajshekhar; J Tinsey
Objective To study parental attitudesto participating in questionnaire research about perinatal postmortem immediately after late miscarriage, stillbirth and termination for fetal abnormality.Design Prospective self-completion questionnaire.Setting UK fetal medicine and delivery unit.Patients 35 women and their partners after second or third trimester pregnancy loss, making decisions about having a postmortem.Methods Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about postmortem decision-making
Andrew C G Breeze; Helen Statham; Gerald A Hackett; Flora A Jessop; Christoph C Lees
The aim of this study was to test an instrument which might be useful for doctors in explaining the randomisation procedure to an individual patient. The sample comprised 323 patients with cancer attending for out-patient appointments and/or chemotherapy treatment in two major cancer centres in the U.K. 315 patients completed a self-report questionnaire--The Attitudesto Randomised Trials Questionnaire (ARTQ). The results show that the majority of subjects 287 (91.1%) believe that patients should be asked to take part in medical research, but only 242 (76.8%) would be prepared to take part in a study comparing two treatments. If treatment was randomised, only 141 (44.8%) would agree to participate. When given further information about the randomisation procedure, 119 (68.4%) of the 174 (55.2%) who initially said 'no' to randomisation or who were unsure, would change their minds and take part in a trial. The ARTQ discriminated between three categories of patient with the following prevailing attitudes: (a) those who seem comfortable with the concept of randomisation; (b) those with some concerns, who with fuller explanation are prepared to consider randomisation; and (c) those firmly against randomisation and participation in trials whatever information is provided. Prior knowledge of patients' attitudes might assist communication about trials and encourage more doctors to approach eligible patients. PMID:9893627
Fallowfield, L J; Jenkins, V; Brennan, C; Sawtell, M; Moynihan, C; Souhami, R L
Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses todeath-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses todeath-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804
Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals’ dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses todeath-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses todeath-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804
This paper tested the relationship between mental toughness and attitudes towards risk-taking in undergraduate student athletes attending two Universities in the North of England. A sample of 69 men (M age=22.2years, s=5.28) and 36 women (M age=24.6years, s=7.67) participated and ranged from club to national level in a variety of sports. Participants gave informed consent before completing questionnaires to assess
Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the attitudes toward clinical practice guidelines of a group of family physicians who had recently entered practice in Ontario, and to compare them with the attitudes of a group of internists from the United States. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire survey of all members of a defined cohort. SETTING: Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who received certification in 1989, 1990, and 1991 and who were practising in Ontario. Of 564-cohort members, 395 (70%) responded. Men (184) and women (211) responded at the same rate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of agreement with 10 descriptive statements about practice guidelines and analyses of variance of these responses for several physician characteristics. RESULTS: Of respondents in independent practice, 80% were in group practice. Women were more likely to have chosen group practice, in which they were more likely to use practice guidelines than men. Generally favourable attitudes toward guidelines were observed. Physician characteristics occasionally influenced agreement with the descriptors. The pattern of agreement was similar to that noted in the study of American internists, but, in general, Ontario physicians were more supportive. CONCLUSIONS: This group of relatively new-to-practice Ontario family physicians shows little resistance to guidelines and appears to read less threat of external control in them than does the US group. PMID:8616286
Ferrier, B. M.; Woodward, C. A.; Cohen, M.; Williams, A. P.
Older people in a rural Ghanaian community indicated that they look forward todeath. Traditional ideas of ancestorhood, reincarnation and modern Christian beliefs about life after death had little influence on their resignation. Images of a possible 'hereafter' hardly existed. Agnosticism - in a religious guise - prevailed. They saw death foremost as a welcome rest after a long and
Graded or binary disagree-agree responses toattitude statements are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. The empirical characteristics of these responses will generally be inconsistent with the analytical logic that forms the basis of the Likert attitude measurement technique (R. Likert, 1932). As a consequence, the Likert…
In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…
This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity of children with and without asthma in Greece, the factors affecting their intention to exercise, and the influence of gender. Method The study involved 50 children with asthma and 50 children without asthma, aged 9–14-years old. We used the leisure time exercise questionnaire to assess the frequency and intensity of exercise. The planned behavior scale examined seven factors affecting physical activity: attitude, intention, self-identity, attitude strength, social role model, information, and knowledge. Results Asthmatic children did not differ significantly in mild, moderate, and overall level of physical activity from children without asthma but they participated less in intense and systematic exercise. The two asthmatic groups did not differ in any of the planned behavior factors. Significant differences between genders occurred with respect to self-identity and social role model. Boys appeared to exercise more regularly and intensely compared to girls. Conclusion Asthmatic children did not systematically participate in physical activity, preferring mostly mild and moderate intensity activities. Children with and without asthma had comparable positive attitudes and intentions toward exercise. PMID:23378744
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent with cancer-selective apoptogenic activity. It evokes the canonical caspase-mediated cell death pathway through death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation. We identified that Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) interacts with caspase-10 and caspase-8 via the death effector domain (DED). Prx6 suppresses TRAIL-mediated cell death in human cancer cells, but not that induced by intrinsic apoptosis inducers such as etoposide, staurosporine, or A23187. Among Prx1-6 members, only Prx6 binds to DED caspases and is most effective in suppressing TRAIL or DED caspase-induced cell death. The antiapoptotic activity of Prx6 against TRAIL is not likely associated with its peroxidase activity but is associated with its ability to bind to DED caspases. Increased expression of Prx6 enhances the binding of Prx6 to caspase-10 but reduces TRAIL-induced DISC formation and subsequently caspase activation. Interestingly, Prx6 is highly upregulated in metastatic gastric cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to TRAIL as compared with primary cancer cells. Downregulation of Prx6 sensitizes the metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Prx6 modulates TRAIL signaling as a negative regulator of caspase-8 and caspase-10 in DISC formation of TRAIL-resistant metastatic cancer cells. PMID:20829884
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent with cancer-selective apoptogenic activity. It evokes the canonical caspase-mediated cell death pathway through death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation. We identified that Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) interacts with caspase-10 and caspase-8 via the death effector domain (DED). Prx6 suppresses TRAIL-mediated cell death in human cancer cells, but not that induced by intrinsic apoptosis inducers such as etoposide, staurosporine, or A23187. Among Prx1–6 members, only Prx6 binds to DED caspases and is most effective in suppressing TRAIL or DED caspase-induced cell death. The antiapoptotic activity of Prx6 against TRAIL is not likely associated with its peroxidase activity but is associated with its ability to bind to DED caspases. Increased expression of Prx6 enhances the binding of Prx6 to caspase-10 but reduces TRAIL-induced DISC formation and subsequently caspase activation. Interestingly, Prx6 is highly upregulated in metastatic gastric cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to TRAIL as compared with primary cancer cells. Downregulation of Prx6 sensitizes the metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Prx6 modulates TRAIL signaling as a negative regulator of caspase-8 and caspase-10 in DISC formation of TRAIL-resistant metastatic cancer cells. PMID:20829884
Objective To test the hypothesis that neutrophil adhesion to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and Dacron triggers cell death. Summary Background Data Vascular prosthetic infections are intransigent clinical dilemmas associated with excessive rates of death and complications. Impaired neutrophil function has been implicated in the infection of implanted cardiovascular devices. ePTFE and Dacron are potent neutrophil stimuli able to elicit activation responses such as reactive oxygen species production independent of exogenous/soluble agonists. Reactive oxygen species that are released into the medium when neutrophils are challenged by soluble agonists are known to cause self-destruction. The authors therefore sought to examine whether neutrophil adhesion to prosthetic graft materials decreases neutrophil viability by means of reactive oxygen species production. Methods Neutrophils were adhered to surfaces for up to 6 hours. Cell viability was monitored with propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. Results Within 6 hours of adhesion to ePTFE and Dacron, respectively, 59% ± 11% and 44% ± 5% (n = 7) of the neutrophils were stained by propidium iodide. Indistinguishable results were obtained with plasma-coated ePTFE and Dacron. In contrast, less than 2% of the neutrophils adherent to fibrinogen-, immunoglobin-, or fetal bovine serum-coated polystyrene surfaces for 6 hours were positive for propidium iodide. The increase in membrane permeability to propidium iodide was accompanied by a two- to threefold increase in lactate dehydrogenase release. Pretreatment of neutrophils with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, cytochalasin D, or cyclosporin A significantly reduced the number of propidium iodide-positive ePTFE and Dacron adherent neutrophils. Conclusions Neutrophil adhesion to ePTFE and Dacron triggers a rapid nonapoptotic cell death. The effect of ePTFE and Dacron on neutrophil viability appears to be caused by reactive oxygen species production. The premature death of graft-adherent neutrophils provides a novel explanation of the defect in neutrophil bacterial killing associated with vascular prosthetic grafts. PMID:10749621
Nadzam, Geoffrey S.; De La Cruz, Carolyn; Greco, Ralph S.; Haimovich, Beatrice
Aim: We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians’ attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. Materials and Methods: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). Results: The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem, provided the pain killers are properly titrated. Mild palliative sedation was considered acceptable. The interviewees disagreed whether palliative sedation can also be deep and continuous. Arguments mentioned against deep continuous palliative sedation were the conviction that it may cause unacceptable side effects, and impedes basic daily activities and social contacts. A few interviewees said that palliative sedation may hasten death. Conclusion: Due to fears and doubts regarding deep continuous palliative sedation, it may sometimes be too easily discarded as a treatment option for refractory symptoms. PMID:21633619
OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of potentially avoidable complications contributing todeath of children with head injuries. DESIGN--Retrospective review of children who died with head injuries from 1979 to 1986 from data of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Hospital Activity Analyses, case notes, coroners' records, and necropsy reports. SETTING--District general hospitals and two regional neurosurgical centres in Northern region.
Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation
Sang Won Suh; Philippe Garnier; Koji Aoyama; Yongmei Chen; Raymond A Swanson
In the competitive environment in which hospitality businesses exist, the quality of service is a vital mechanism used to achieve a competitive advantage. Quality is a difficult construct to quantify however the ability to measure quality is key to assessing whether or not the industry provides the service consumers desire. Consumers hold the key to business survival and success. The
(1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses' personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers. PMID:23180191
250 women selected at random from outpatients of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were interviewed about their attitudes toward female sterilization by nurses with a standard questionnaire. Factors affecting attitudes toward sterilization were multiple and results are reported as percentages. The study population excluded women with infertility, a common problem, and further differed from the general population because the women were older and more highly educated. The number of living children was 3 or more in 59%; the ideal family size was at least 5 in 48%. 48% had used some type of contraception. 87.6% had heard of female sterilization, most often from medical personnel. Factors reported as affecting attitudes included: number of living children (59.6%); age of patient (52%); experience with complications of pregnancy and labor (45.2%); other medical disorders (36%); effect on reincarnation (17.6%); sex of living children (17.2%); fear of impotence (7.2%); and religion or culture (3.2%). The average age for female sterilization is 40 in Nigeria. A more extensive study of resistance to sterilization is indicated. PMID:12283795
The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. PMID:21354726
Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael
College biology students were asked to indicate whether they liked, disliked, or were neutral to each of 30 animals. Results indicate that Bart's conclusions (EJ 062 862), based on the assumption that students either like or dislike animals, may be unfounded. (BT)
Dutch students (n=139, ages 12-18) responded to a survey concerning terminology used to describe individuals with mental handicaps, such as "feeble minded,""mentally handicapped,""intellectually handicapped,""persons with mental handicaps," and "persons with intellectual handicaps." No significant relationship could be established between…
This study examines the gender gap in attitudes toward the death penalty, including attention to global versus specific measures.\\u000a The study is based on a survey in Tennessee of attitudes toward crime and criminal justice. Specifically, the study examines\\u000a male and female global attitudes, attitudes toward a life without parole option, reasons that supporters and opponents give\\u000a for their views,
OBJECTIVE--To see whether the issue of AIDS has influenced the observed decline in blood donation in Scotland. DESIGN--Two methods: a quantitative survey using personal interviews based on a questionnaire and a qualitative survey based on group discussions. SETTING--Interviews based on the questionnaire were conducted in the respondents' homes. The group discussions were held in the homes of professional market research interviewers. PARTICIPANTS--For the quantitative survey a representative sample of 976 Scottish adults was selected by multistage sampling. In the qualitative survey 16 groups of five to eight respondents assigned according to donating experience and sociodemographic criteria took part. MAIN RESULTS--AIDS was not mentioned as a discouraging factor in donation, and off putting aspects identified before AIDS became a public issue remained salient--for example, fear of needles. Many (75%) thought it unlikely that donation entailed a risk of developing AIDS. Nevertheless, respondents were reluctant to consider the AIDS issue personally. Being asked to do so, as in the routine screening of donors, aroused fears and resentment. CONCLUSIONS--The issue of AIDS, including fear of infection, has not directly influenced the declining numbers of donors, but the unpleasant associations of AIDS have had an indirect effect, particularly in undermining the emotional benefits of giving blood. For example, the screening process, which requires potential donors to consider their personal risk from AIDS, had had the effect of discouraging donors in general. Redressing the balance is difficult as screening must be universally applied. Rather than minimising the issue of AIDS, publicity needs urgently to reassert the positive benefits of and rewards from giving blood. PMID:2499370
MacAskill, S. G.; Hastings, G. B.; McNeill, R. E.; Gillon, J.
The present study provides within- and between-group comparisons of pro-and anti-euthanasia groups on demographic, afterlife-belief, related-attitude, and attitude-influence variables, using a questionnaire that was filled out by 785 members of the Hemlock Society and 161 members of the California Pro-Life Council. It was conjectured that afterlife belief is the foundation upon which people structure fundamental issues of life and death,
Recently, higher education has witnessed a renewed commitment to the mission of preparing students for lives of active citizenship. Under the leadership of President Lawrence S. Bacow, Tufts University (Medford, Massachusetts) has articulated an institutional mission that embraces three areas of focus: active citizenship, internationalism, and…
Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; O'Leary, Lisa S.; Wilson, Nancy E.; Diaz, Ande
The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…
The scientific program is presented as well a the abstracts of the contributions. An extended account is published in ``The Ultraviolet Universe: stars from birth todeath'' (Ed. Gómez de Castro) published by the Editorial Complutense de Madrid (UCM), that can be accessed by electronic format through the website of the Network for UV Astronomy (www.ucm.es\\/info\\/nuva). There are five telescopes
Medical-surgical nurses in inpatient settings may encounter dying patients who exhibit a number of symptoms during the end of life. One symptom, the death rattle, refers to the noise of excessive secretions present during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. Symptom improvement can be obtained with pharmacologic and non-pharmacological measures. Empathic communication with the patient's significant others also is an important component of care. PMID:19331295
Women who used combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy to treat menopausal symptoms during the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study had more cases of invasive breast cancer, more lymph-node positive breast cancer, and a slightly higher death rate from breast cancer and other causes than women who received a placebo, researchers reported in an 11-year follow-up report on the study's participants.
Health professionals tend to view dying patients with two intertwined attitudes. On one hand the patient possesses an irreversible pathological condition and the doctor is obliged to help that patient embrace death with as much dignity as possible. On the other hand, the patient's imminent death is daily testimony to the limits of the doctor's…
Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)
Objective Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran. Methods A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses) at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire. Results The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43) and nurses (74%, n=37), mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients. Only a few physicians (8%, n=4) had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones. Physicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively. Only a few physicians (14%) and nurses (24%) agreed to explain life expectancy to patients. Conclusion Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients’ emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary. PMID:22952506
Roozdar, Ava; Taher, Mohammad; Shirzad, Samira; Arjmand, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Roozdar, Alale
Results revealed spirituality has significant negative relationship with death anxiety. No significant relationship was revealed between religiosity and death anxiety. Findings suggest inconsistency in research findings concerning the relationship between religiosity and death anxiety may be accounted for by variable of spirituality. (BF)
Describes the celebration of death in Mexico and gives an alternative perspective from which to examine current U.S. attitudes and practices concerning death. Discusses the role that children play in the Todos Santos, or Day of the Dead, festival and the imagery and ceremonies of the festival. (LB)
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Understanding instructors' attitudes and approaches to teaching quantum mechanics can be helpful in developing research-based learning tools. Here we discuss the findings from a survey in which 13 instructors reflected on issues related to quantum mechanics teaching. Topics included opinions about the goals of a quantum mechanics course, general challenges in teaching the subject, students' preparation for the course, comparison between their own learning of quantum mechanics vs. how they teach it and the extent to which contemporary topics are incorporated into the syllabus.
Understanding instructorsâ attitudes and approaches to teaching quantum mechanics can be helpful in developing research-based learning tools. Here we discuss the findings from a survey in which 13 instructors reflected on issues related to quantum mechanics teaching. Topics included opinions about the goals of a quantum mechanics course, general challenges in teaching the subject, studentsâ preparation for the course, comparison between their own learning of quantum mechanics vs. how they teach it and the extent to which contemporary topics are incorporated into the syllabus.
Introduction Organ transplantation in Libya depends exclusively on donations from live relatives. This limitation increases mortality and prolongs the patients’ suffering and waiting time. Objectives The aims of this study were to explore willingness to donate organs after death and to identify the reasons for refusal. Methods A population-based crosssectional study was conducted from April to July 2008 on a cluster sample of 1652 persons (58% males and 42% females). The questionnaire included demographic information and mainly enquired about willingness to donate organs after death and the reasons for refusal when applicable. Results About one-third (29.7%) of participants were in favor of donating their organs after death, 60.1% refused and 10.2% were undecided. Willingness was significantly associated with being male, younger age, having a college or graduate degree, and being single (P <0.05 for all). Lack of adequate knowledge about the importance of deceased organ donation and uncertainty about its religious implications were the most predominant reasons for refusal (43.8% and 39.5%, respectively). Other reasons included ethical concerns about retrieving organs from dead bodies (37.9%), preference for being buried intact (28%), and uneasiness about the idea of cadaver manipulation (33%). Conclusion There were a considerable resistance to deceased organ donation, especially among females, those of older age, married people, and those with a low education level. The barriers to cadaveric donations were lack of adequate knowledge, unease about body manipulation, and concerns about religious implications. Public educational campaigns should be coordinated with religious leadership. PMID:21483525
Alashek, WA; Ehtuish, EF; Elhabashi, A; Emberish, W; Mishra, A
This study was aimed at finding the attitude of Nigerian women to contraceptive use by their male partners. A total of 417 women received the questionnaire; 71% of these were sexually active and 34.8% were not aware of any male contraceptive method. Only 1.7% reported regular use of condoms by their spouses, however this was significantly higher if the women were better educated. Most of the women had a positive attitudeto contraceptive use by their spouses, as 54% (225/417) of them showed preference to male dependant contraceptives in their relationship. However, only 32.3% (135/417) of the women had ever-requested their spouse to use a condom and in just 18.5% (25/135) was such a request regularly complied with. Significantly more Muslim women prefer their partners to use a contraceptive rather than themselves (p = 0.001), but the condom usage by their spouses is significantly lower than their Christian counterparts (p = 0.000). There is a need to offer counselling on male contraceptives to both genders so that they can make an informed choice, especially with the dual protection offered by the use of condoms. PMID:19003659
Audu, B M; El-Nafaty, A U; Bako, B G; Melah, G S; Mairiga, A G; Kullima, A A
An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.
Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)
This study evaluated the video Youth Suicide: Recognising the Signs as a parent educational medium. Before and after viewing the video, parents (N = 112) of young people answered questionnaires measuring their (1) knowledge of suicidal signs, (2) responses to a young person showing suicidal signs, (3) attitudeto suicide, and (4) intentionalitv toward suicidal people. After the video, parents' knowledge of suicidal signs, responses toward a suicidal person, and intention to help improved. Their attitude was more rejecting of suicide. Knowledge and intentionality predicted response to suicidal statements, but no relationships existed between attitude and the other variables. Implications for youth suicide education programs are discussed. PMID:11577916
Branching models have a long history of biological applications, particularly in population dynamics. In this work, our interest is the development of mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of socially structured animal populations, focusing our attention on lineages, usually matrilines, as the basic structure in the population. Significant efforts have been made to develop models based on the assumption that all individuals behave identically with respect to reproduction. However, the reproduction phase has a large random component that involves not only demographic but also environmental factors that change across range distribution of species. In the present work, we introduce new classes of birth-death branching models which take such factors into account. We assume that both, the offspring probability distribution and the death probabilities may be different in each generation, changing either predictably or unpredictably in relation to habitat features. We consider the genealogical tree generated by observation of the process until a pre-set generation. We determine the probability distributions of the random variables representing the number of dead or living individuals having at least one ancestor alive, living individuals whose ancestors are all dead, and dead individuals whose ancestors are all dead, explicitly obtaining their principal moments. Also, we derive the probability distributions corresponding to the partial and total numbers of such biological variables, obtaining in particular the distribution of the total number of matriarchs in the genealogical tree. We apply the proposed models to describe the demographic dynamics of African elephant populations living in different habitats. PMID:23648183
Corbacho, Casimiro; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso
A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)
Witnessing an ingroup member acting against his or her belief can lead individuals who identify with that group to change their own attitude in the direction of that counterattitudinal behavior. Two studies demonstrate this vicarious dissonance effect among high ingroup identifiers and show that this attitude change is not attributable to conformity to a perceived change in speaker attitude. Study
Benoft Monin; Michael I. Norton; Joel Cooper; Michael A. Hopg
A more humanistic approach toward dissection has emerged. However, student attitudes toward this approach are unknown and the influences on such attitudes are little understood. One hundred and fifty-six first-year medical students participated in a study examining firstly, attitudes toward the process of dissection and the personhood of the cadaver and secondly, the extent to which gender, anxiety, exposure to dissection, bereavement and prior experience of a dead body influenced these attitudes. Attitudes toward dissection were assessed by of levels of agreement toward eleven statements and by selection of adjectives describing possible feelings toward dissection. Students were asked about recent bereavement, whether they had seen a dead body prior to starting their course and exposure to dissection when completing the questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to measure disposition toward generalized anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and toward death anxiety (Collett-Lester Death Anxiety Scale). Between 60% and 94% of students held positive attitudes toward the process of dissection and over 70% of students selected 2 or fewer negative adjectives. Students' attitudes toward the personhood of the cadaver were more disparate. Disposition toward anxiety (particularly death anxiety), and exposure to dissection, influenced attitudes. Female gender and recent bereavement exerted a negative influence. Students with higher levels of anxiety experienced more negative feelings and those recently bereaved were less enthusiastic about dissection. Anticipation of dissection may be worse than reality. Sensitive preparation of students prior to entering the dissecting room for the first time may be beneficial. PMID:21656918
Quince, Thelma A; Barclay, Stephen I G; Spear, Michelle; Parker, Richard A; Wood, Diana F
... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis,...
...does SVB entitlement end due todeath? 408.816 Section 408...SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and...does SVB entitlement end due todeath? Your SVB entitlement...the month after the month of...
Two undergraduate samples from Kuwait (52 men, 157 women; M age = 21.2 yr., SD =2.1) and the USA (46 men, 145 women; M age = 22.4 yr., SD = 5.3) answered the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The Kuwaiti sample obtained significantly higher mean scores on all the scales than the American sample. Scores on the Somatic Symptoms Inventory were positively correlated with Death Anxiety scores, indicating that people who enjoy good physical health are less concerned with death. PMID:19928602
Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to “historical” approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions) supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA “sublesions” and “lesions” as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal) chromosome aberrations, respectively. PMID:20976308
The purpose of this study was to conduct an intervention to change attitudes toward obese individuals. Ninety-five Kinesiology\\u000a undergraduates conducted a FITNESSGRAM service-learning project with school-aged children. They completed anti-fat attitude\\u000a test (AFAT) and explicit attitude assessments before and after the intervention. The results indicated participants had anti-fat\\u000a bias toward obese individuals on the lazy\\/motivated scale, but not on the
In this descriptive study, researchers examined RN-to-BSN students' attitudes regarding different teaching/learning strategies incorporated in courses offered utilizing the online delivery format. A semantic differential scale was used to measure attitudes regarding the use of wikis, podcasts, video capture, talking PowerPoint, and discussion boards. The results indicated that students had the most favorable attitude toward tegrity lectures as a teaching strategy. This was followed by talking PowerPoint lectures and discussion board. PMID:24949715
Family therapy and death investigation are two separate and distinct fields. The family therapist and the death investigator each have methods for what it is they set out to do, whether it is meeting with families in the context of therapy or meeting with families in the immediate aftermath of an unexplained death. Each professional attempts to \\
Sudden oak death survey findings to be presented in Santa Rosa By GUY KOVNER THE PRESS DEMOCRAT of sudden oak death infection in Sonoma County and around the Bay Area at a public meeting Friday night to protect their trees from the sudden oak death pathogen in two meetings, also free and open to the public
...2011-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...
...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...
...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...
...2012-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...
What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...
Studies of the relationship between women workers' attitudes and withdrawal from work identify two major attitudinal factors, role conflict and job dissonance. Good personnel practices, especially in the areas of orientation, training, supervision, and scheduling flexibility, do influence the development of favorable job attitudes. (SK)
Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and
E. G. Lightsey; Clark E. Cohen; Bradford W. Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may contribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unexpectedly. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 21 cases of unexpected death in people with excited delirium, which were investigated by the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario between 1988 and 1995. Eyewitness testimony, findings during postmortem examinations, clinical history, toxicological data and other official documents describing the events surrounding the deaths were analyzed. Specific reference was made to documented eyewitness testimony of restraint method, body position and use of capsicum oleoresin (pepper) spray. Because cocaine was detected in the blood of some of these people during the postmortem examination, the role of cocaine in excited delirium was examined by comparing the cocaine levels in these cases with levels in 2 control groups: 19 people who died from acute cocaine intoxication and 21 people who had used cocaine shortly before they died but who had died from other causes. RESULTS: In all 21 cases of unexpected death associated with excited delirium, the deaths were associated with restraint (for violent agitation and hyperactivity), with the person either in a prone position (18 people [86%]) or subjected to pressure on the neck (3 [14%]). All of those who died had suddenly lapsed into tranquillity shortly after being restrained. The excited delirium was caused by a psychiatric disorder in 12 people (57%) and by cocaine-induced psychosis in 8 (38%). Eighteen people (86%) were in police custody when they died. Four (19%) had been sprayed with capsicum oleoresin, and heart disease was found in another 4 at autopsy. The blood level of cocaine in those whose excited delirium was cocaine induced was similar to levels found in recreational cocaine users and lower than levels found in people who died from cocaine intoxication. INTERPRETATION: Restraint may contribute to the death of people in states of excited delirium, and further studies to test this hypothesis are recommended. Meanwhile, law enforcement authorities and others should bear in mind the potential for the unexpected death of people in states of excited delirium who are restrained in the prone position or with a neck hold. PMID:9645173
Pollanen, M S; Chiasson, D A; Cairns, J T; Young, J G
We use longitudinal data for a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth to study intergenerational and intragenerational influences on the gender-role attitudes of young women and men. We find that during the period between 1979 and 1987 young women had more egalitarian attitudes than young men but that the gender-role attitudes of both sexes were similarly influenced by family background.
This study was designed to explore gender attitudes and religious behaviors among sorority\\/fraternity (S\\/F) and non-S\\/F undergraduates. Two hundred and seventy-nine participants completed the Gender Attitude Inventory (GAI, a multidimensional gender attitudes instrument), items that assessed religious behaviors (i.e., attendance in a place of worship and frequency of prayer), and a measure of social desirability. Overall, it was found that
Dianne T. Robinson; Gina Gibson-Beverly; Jonathan P. Schwartz
A single family of proteases, the caspases, has long been considered the pivotal executioner of all programmed cell death. However, recent findings of evolutionarily conserved, caspase-independent controlled death mechanisms have opened new perspectives on the biology of cell demise, with particular implications for neurobiology, cancer research and immunological processes.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
...2014-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...
...2011-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...
...2012-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...
...2013-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...
...2010-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...
Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young
Capital punishment is one of the most controversial issues in America and also creates unique problems for the medical professionals who care for persons sentenced todeath. An introductory true case vignette describes a death row inmate who overdosed on sedative medication 48 hours before his scheduled execution and was rushed to a university hospital for care. After treatment and
Eugene V. Boisaubin; Alexander G. Duarte; Patricia Blair; T. Howard Stone
Barotraumas and decompression sickness are the two most well-known complications of diving. First presented case was 32 year-old male with recreational diver, who was found floating prone position on the bottom of sea in a depth of 33 m. He had been carried to the surface in a controlled ascent. Second case was a 39 year-old male experienced dive instructor in a diving school, after following an uneventful duration of dive was found unconscious with a floating supine position in a depth of 30 m and there were no signs of life when they were transported to the hospital. Extensive subcutaneous emphysema of the extremities was detected by palpation of the skin. In the autopsy diffuse gas bubbles like beads were seen in the coronary arteries and in ventricles, basilar artery and all of the cerebral arteries. The cause of death was attributed due to gas embolism and drowning. PMID:23641724
Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudesto Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudesto ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing. PMID:24892302
Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)
Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted…
Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan
Parents die during the lives of their children. If the child is an adolescent, that death will impact the student's education immediately or in subsequent years. Findings show the death of a mother does impact the daughter's education. It is imperative educators are willing to work with the student at the time the death occurs as well as in the…
1 KLAMA: the Voice from Oral Tradition in Death Rituals to a Work for Choir & Live Electronics. It is a work for mixed choir, live electronics and pre-recorded sounds, having its roots in the death rituals on the photographed people's death masks). The vocal text uses melodic traits and certain techniques of the mourning
Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudesto sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast. PMID:8061079
Targeting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for metastatic melanoma. Fenretinide and bortezomib induce apoptosis of melanoma cells but their efficacy may be hindered by the unfolded protein response, which promotes survival by ameliorating endoplasmic reticulum stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that inhibition of GRP78, a vital unfolded protein response mediator, increases cell death in combination with endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agents. Down-regulation of GRP78 by small-interfering RNA increased fenretinide- or bortezomib-induced apoptosis. Treatment of cells with a GRP78-specific subtilase toxin produced a synergistic enhancement with fenretinide or bortezomib. These data suggest that combining endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agents with strategies to down-regulate GRP78, or other components of the unfolded protein response, may represent a novel therapeutic approach for metastatic melanoma. PMID:20546536
Martin, Shaun; Hill, David S; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Lovat, Penny E; Redfern, Chris P F
Coronary vasculitis is a group of conditions occurring either independently or associated with another diseases characterized by an inflammation of the blood vessel's wall and subsequent fibrinoid necrosis, occlusion, stenosis, or aneurismal dilatations. Coronary vasculitis leading to sudden cardiac death has rarely been described in the scientific literature.We present the case of an 18-year-old football player who collapsed when playing football. The patient remained in a deep coma (glasgow coma scale = 3) in the hospital for another 4 hours before dying. During hospitalization, he was diagnosed with acute anterolateral myocardial infarction with ST elevation. An autopsy was performed the next day, and on the coronary vessels were identified a dilatation with luminal extension, which, based on clinical and pathological criteria, was considered to be an isolated, coronary polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:25361059
Dermengiu, Dan; Hostiuc, Sorin; Cristian Curca, George; Constantin Rusu, Mugurel; Paparau, Cristian; Ceausu, Mihai
The use of cannabis for medical purposes remains controversial. Since support from general practitioners would be needed for the successful operation of a legalised prescription regime, New South Wales Northern Rivers general practitioners were surveyed on their attitudesto and knowledge of medicinal cannabis. A representative random sample of general practitioners, stratified by age and gender, was derived and interviewed. Results indicated generally high levels of knowledge of cannabis's medical uses. The mean number of patients seen in 2004 with medicinal cannabis-treatable conditions was 66.8, with chronic pain patients accounting for 36.7. Overwhelming majorities of respondents reported they would prescribe medicinal cannabis if it were legal, professionally supported and backed by research and that they would approve of clinical trials and a legalised regulatory scheme under such conditions. These results suggest the need to conduct a Statewide general practitioners' survey to confirm or refute the present findings. PMID:16937787
Undergraduates completed the new Civic Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire designed to measure attitudes, skills, and behavioral intentions that might be affected by service learning participation. Factor analyses were used to define six scales. The scales' reliability and validity were found to be adequate. (EV)
Given the importance of season ticket holders (STH) to sporting organisations, we empirically examine a scale for measuring their attitudesto the season ticket product. This involved identifying through qualitative research and past literature, the various elements that are perceived to comprise the season ticket package and developing items to measure STH attitudesto them. The season ticket package was
The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudesto, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudesto,…
Family and consumer sciences educators should integrate death and dying content to help adolescents deal with these issues. They should assess their own knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, and communication skills for dealing with this subject matter. (SK)
This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…
BACKGROUND: During an infectious disease outbreak, it is critical to learn as much as possible about the concerns, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public. Such information can be crucial to the improvement of communication efforts by public health officials and clinicians. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to influenza A (H1N1) among
Hanan H Balkhy; Mostafa A Abolfotouh; Rawabi H Al-Hathlool; Mohammad A Al-Jumah
Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…
Background The inaccuracy of death certification can lead to the misallocation of resources in health care programs and research. We evaluated the rate of errors in the completion of death certificates among medical residents from various specialties, before and after an educational intervention which was designed to improve the accuracy in the certification of the cause of death. Methods A 90-min seminar was delivered to seven mixed groups of medical trainees (n = 166) from several health care institutions in Spain. Physicians were asked to read and anonymously complete a same case-scenario of death certification before and after the seminar. We compared the rates of errors and the impact of the educational intervention before and after the seminar. Results A total of 332 death certificates (166 completed before and 166 completed after the intervention) were audited. Death certificates were completed with errors by 71.1% of the physicians before the educational intervention. Following the seminar, the proportion of death certificates with errors decreased to 9% (p < 0.0001). The most common error in the completion of death certificates was the listing of the mechanism of death instead of the cause of death. Before the seminar, 56.8% listed respiratory or cardiac arrest as the immediate cause of death. None of the participants listed any mechanism of death after the educational intervention (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Major errors in the completion of the correct cause of death on death certificates are common among medical residents. A simple educational intervention can dramatically improve the accuracy in the completion of death certificates by physicians. PMID:18005414
This research examined individual differences in attitude importance (J. A. Krosnick, 1988a) as a moderator of resistance to persuasion. In 2 studies, individuals who favored allowing gay people to serve openly in the military were aurally presented with a counterattitudinal message. Participants who considered their attitude high (vs. low) in personal importance were more resistant to the message. Process analyses
Psychiatric genetic research brings on the possibility of psychiatric genetic testing. The optimal and responsible utilization of genetic testing depends on knowledge of the potential consumers' attitudes and expectations re- garding testing. The aim of this study was to assess potential consumers' attitudes and expectations toward psychiatric genetics and factors influencing their intentions to test. A questionnaire constructed to assess
Mett Marri Laegsgaard; Ann Suhl Kristensen; Ole Mors
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding children's nutrition habits and the degree to which these perceptions influence television monitoring by parents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire assessing attitudes was distributed among parents of Belgian primary and secondary school children. Parental
Purpose: Reluctance to reveal sensitive or socially undesirable attitudes has posed a problem for measurement of personal attributes such as attitudes toward older people. These have long been documented to be negative and likely arise both from fears of one's own aging and the modern societal emphasis on youth. In order to increase our knowledge…
The rapid growth of using Web 2.0 tools such as blogs has increased online courses in education. Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments to assess students' attitudes toward the online courses. This study provides a set of specific guidelines that the researchers used to develop a questionnaire to measure students' attitudes toward…
A woman's psychological state during pregnancy has been shown in previous research to be predictive of her adaptation to maternal functioning. Two hypotheses were examined: (a) women who have a negative attitudeto pregnancy and motherhood have children who exhibit slower development at 2 years, compared with children of women who have more positive attitudes; (b) women with poor psychological
Our purpose was to assess the knowledge and attitudes, source of HIV and AIDS information, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan and to explore the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes of HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan. We employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Using a mail survey, the investigators
Wei-Chen Tung; Jie Hu; Cindy Davis; Wei-Kang Tung; Yin-Mei Lin
Background: The assumption that parents have some effect on their children's attitudesto learning is one that few educationalists would challenge. The ways in which this influence is brought to bear are a slightly more complex and contentious matter, however. Purpose: The paper uses data from a tri-national PhD study on pupil attitudesto examine…
Young people are open to traffic accidents because of their age, their attitude, their lack of experience, and their tendency for risk-taking. This study sought an answer to the question of what are the perceptions, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors of young people that lead to traffic safety problems and/or interfere with their…
This article investigates attitudes toward water resource protection among residents in varying proximities to resources, specifically to identify attitudinal differences and the extent to which nearness and adjacency explain attitudes. Proximity was evaluated by measured distances using GIS and reported closeness from a mail survey. Five attitudinal dimensions were assessed: general importance of resource protection, support for government, regulations, and
Background Health promotion strategies ultimately rely on people perceiving the consequences of their behaviour as negative. If someone is indifferent towards death, it would logically follow that health promotion messages such as safe using messages would have little resonance. This study aimed to investigate attitudes towards death in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and how such attitudes may impact upon the efficacy/relevance of 'safe using' (health promotion) messages. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews in Geelong, Australia with 60 regular heroin users recruited primarily from needle and syringe programs. Results Over half of the interviewees reported having previously overdosed and 35% reported not engaging in any overdose prevention practices. 13% had never been tested for either HIV or hepatitis C. Just under half reported needle sharing of some description and almost all (97%) reported previously sharing other injecting equipment. Many interviewees reported being indifferent towards death. Common themes included; indifference towards life, death as an occupational hazard of drug use and death as a welcome relief. Conclusion Most of the interviewees in this study were indifferent towards heroin-related death. Whilst interviewees were well aware of the possible consequences of their actions, these consequences were not seen as important as achieving their desired state of mind. Safe using messages are an important part of reducing drug-related harm, but people working with IDUs must consider the context in which risk behaviours occur and efforts to reduce said behaviours must include attempts to reduce environmental risk factors at the same time. PMID:19630988
...Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due toDeath of the License Holder AGENCY: U.S...Customs broker license cancellation due todeath of the broker...cancelled without prejudice due to the death of the license holders....
Background Accurate estimates of the number of maternal deaths in both the community and facility are important, in order to allocate adequate resources to address such deaths. On the other hand, current studies show that routine methods of identifying maternal deaths in facilities underestimate the number by more than one-half. Objective To assess the utility of a new approach to identifying maternal deaths in hospitals. Method Deaths of women of reproductive age were retrospectively identified from registers in two district hospitals in Indonesia over a 24-month period. Based on information retrieved, deaths were classified as ‘maternal’ or ‘non-maternal’ where possible. For deaths that remained unclassified, a detailed case note review was undertaken and the extracted data were used to facilitate classification. Results One hundred and fifty-five maternal deaths were identified, mainly from the register review. Only 67 maternal deaths were recorded in the hospitals’ routine reports over the same period. This underestimation of maternal deaths was partly due to the incomplete coverage of the routine reporting system; however, even in the wards where routine reports were made, the study identified twice as many deaths. Conclusion The RAPID method is a practical method that provides a more complete estimate of hospital maternal mortality than routine reporting systems. PMID:20027272
Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…
To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…
Reported is a study to: (1) measure the initial social attitudes of college freshmen toward science in comparison to their understanding of science, and (2) evaluate changes in the freshmen attitudes which may occur during the students' first academic year in a science course. The 413 students in this study were enrolled in one of the following…
The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys about the videos. Higher levels of adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and exposure to
Successful inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in school settings depends largely on the attitudes of parents of peers without SEN. The purpose of the present study was to explore the attitudes of Greek parents of primary school children without SEN towards inclusion. The participants were 338 parents (182 fathers, 156 mothers), aged 27 to 58 years (mean
Efrosini Kalyva; Maria Georgiadi; Vlastaris Tsakiris
Feminist theorists have suggested that feminism provides a number of benefits for women, particularly regarding self-evaluations. However, most studies have conflated feminist attitudes and feminist identity. The main goal of this study was to assess the differential relationships of feminist attitudes and feminist identity to self-efficacy. Four…
Although much has been learned about how social forces such as pornography can shape or direct men's sexual violence against women, few empirical data exist on how these forces impinge on women's attitudes and behavior. In the present study, 187 female university students responded to a questionnaire regarding childhood exposure to pornography, current sexual fantasies, and endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes.
An understanding of basic attitudes toward housework is explored to fill a logical gap in the research into equity issues within households. Men's and women's attitudes and standards are compared. Results for women are compared with findings from a 1975 survey. Discussion relates findings to research and theory. (EMK)
School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified random sample of 500 school psychologists who were members of NASP was surveyed
Hee-Sook Choi; Candrice A. Thul; Kenneth S. Berenhaut; Cynthia K. Suerken; James L. Norris
To investigate the influence of attitudes of carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) towards giving medication. Ninety-three carers of service users who are currently attending outpatients clinic (Harrow Learning Disability service) were interviewed, using the RAMS (Rating of Attitudeto Medication Scale) interview schedule. A…
This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers surveyed; (b) examine relationships between elementary school teacher attitudes about school nutrition environments and perceived influence on the
The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…
The "Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale" (MTAS) is a simple scale for middle secondary years students that monitors five affective variables relevant to learning mathematics with technology. The subscales measure mathematics confidence, confidence with technology, attitudeto learning mathematics with technology and two aspects of…
Surveyed West Virginia middle- and high-school coaches' attitudes toward smokeless tobacco, actions toward athletes who used smokeless tobacco, intentions to provide interventions for users, and tobacco-use history. Results indicated that coaches had unfavorable attitudes toward smokeless tobacco, perceived it as a problem, and were willing to…
Horn, Kimberly A.; Maniar, Sameep D.; Dino, Geri A.; Gao, Xin; Meckstroth, Richard L.
The current paper introduces a novel feature of implicit association tests (IATs) by demonstrating their potential to change implicit attitudes. We assume that such changes are driven by associative learning mechanisms caused by carrying out an IAT task. Currently, evaluative conditioning appears to be the only widespread paradigm for changing implicit attitudes. An IAT task could provide an alternative. In
Irena D. Ebert; Melanie C. Steffens; Rul von Stülpnagel; Petra Jelenec
While the power of advertisements has long been known, investigations of sociocultural influences on sexual attitudes have been limited primarily to studies of sexually aggressive media. In this study we examined the effects on sexual attitudes of different portrayals of women in advertisements. Male and female white middle-class university students were exposed to one of three groups of advertisements. In
A highly accurate, gyroless, attitude determination and control system for advanced environmental satellites is developed and validated by analysis and simulation. The features of this approach include an algorithm to determine satellite rates directly from the apparent motion of the stars on the focal plane and an extended square root Kalman filter algorithm to estimate attitude. This system is appropriate
School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified…
Choi, Hee-sook; Thul, Candrice A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Norris, James L.
This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…
We assessed 28 college students' attitudes toward homosexuals immediately before and 1 week after the presentation of either an article suggesting that male homosexuality has a biological component or a control article. Change in attitude toward homosexuality for subjects exposed to the biological article depended on subjects' memory of the article and on their college major. Subjects undecided in their
This study examined first-year medical student attitudes concerning the elderly before and after instituting a geriatric mentoring program. The program began and ended with a survey designed to assess students' attitudes toward the elderly. During the mentoring program, students visited the same senior for four visits throughout the academic year.…
This research reports on college students' attitudes regarding alcohol abuse and rioting and beliefs about university- and community-based environmental management strategies to quell riotous behavior. Using a primarily qualitative research technique, the researchers explored attitudes toward recent rioting at a northeastern Big Ten University…
Maney, Dolores W.; Baylor, Eric D.; Gates, Sarah C.
The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid Assessment…
Scott, Katrinda Wills; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve
Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16 years was conducted. Four main groups of questions were used: adolescents' knowledge of organic food, attitudes, whether
This study investigated reciprocal friends’ similarity in attitudes toward bullying and responsibility for intervention in favor of the victim among 1485 Italian children (mean age?=?10 years, 3 months) and adolescents (mean age?=?13 years, 2 months). Findings of two linear regressions confirmed that friend homophily exists in relation to both students’ attitudes and responsibility. This result was retained even after individual
Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…
Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla
Background: Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the…
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…
An investigation into the attitudes of public library staff in the UK towards the Internet involved use of a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The use of an attitude measurement model, an amended version of the technology acceptance model in a questionnaire survey is detailed here and its value to the study in question deliberated on. Quantitative results
Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…
AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA By Marija Brajdi Vukovi, Institute for Social Research Zagreb Gunn Birkelund AND MODERNIZATION: ATTITUDESTO WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA By Marija Brajdi Vukovi, Institute we analyze the attitudes toward gender roles and women's employment in Croatia. Using the SEESSP
Fostering foreign language proficiency is an important goal of university teaching. We identified German university students' (N = 1265) goal orientations developed during secondary school as predictors of attitudes toward receiving instruction in English at university. Mastery goal orientation was proposed to "directly" promote positive attitudes…
The "Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale" (MATIES) was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of attitudes, within the realm of inclusive education that includes physical, social and curricular inclusion. Models within Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used for…
In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes. PMID:23982486
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy
A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.
The form of female genital mutilation (FGM) predominantly practiced throughout Egypt consists of the surgical removal of the clitoris and often the inner labia. The practice reduces the level of a woman's sexual sensation and causes pain, psychological trauma, and the risk of infection and hemorrhage. An estimated 80% of Egyptian girls undergo the procedure. Egypt's Ministry of Health in 1994 decided to permit only doctors in government hospitals to perform FGM. This policy was adopted in an effort to make safer what was considered to be an inevitable practice. However, the policy was revoked in October 1995 after women's rights and health advocates criticized it as a government endorsement of FGM. An 11-year-old Nile Delta girl died July 12, 1996, as a result of FGM. The Health Ministry subsequently banned all registered health professionals from performing FGM. Two months later, on August 24, a 14-year-old girl died from hemorrhaging shortly after undergoing FGM. These recent deaths challenge the effectiveness of Egypt's new attempts to prevent FGM. Barbers and midwives in Egypt perform thousands of mutilations annually. While they are theoretically subject to criminal penalties for performing surgery without a license, the laws are rarely enforced. Furthermore, despite existing regulations, no provision in the Egyptian penal code criminalizes FGM. PMID:12320424
A study was carried out to investigate the change in attitudes towards physically disabled people of a group of fifty-eight medical students during the first 3 years of their course. The students attended a newly established medical school which has developed a curriculum without the traditional division into preclinical and clinical years and where contact with patients occurs from the first year. Results demonstrated that, as expected, at the start of the course the attitudes of females towards disabled people were more positive than those of males. Also, a significant change in attitudes was found after 3 years, both males and females demonstrating more positive attitudes toward physical disability. The differences between males and females were maintained. The relationship between these students' attitudes and their behaviour was discussed and proposals for further research to investigate this are outlined. PMID:6228714
Identifying subjects who are at risk for SCD and stratifying them correctly into low or high-risk groups is the holy grail of Cardiology. While imaging shows a lot of promise, it is plagued by the fact that most SCD occurs in relatively healthy subjects, a massive group who would not ordinarily be subjected to imaging. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) currently is our primary parameter for risk stratification for sudden cardiac death but is a poor marker with low sensitivity and specificity. Current data shows that sophisticated imaging with techniques, mainly Cardiac magnetic resonance Imaging (CMR), have the potential to identify novel high-risk markers underlying SCD, beyond ejection fraction. Imaging seems to further refine risk in patients with low LVEF as well as in those with normal EF; this is a major strength of advanced imaging. Clinical application has been slow and not fully prime time. It is important to remember that while promising, imaging techniques including CMR, have not been tested in rigorous prospective studies and thus have not as yet replaced EF as the gatekeeper to ICD implantation. PMID:24568832
Tamene, Ashenafi; Tholakanahalli, Venkatakrishna N.; Chandrashekhar, Y.
In 2007 the Maryland Medical Examiner noted a potential cluster of fatal vascular access hemorrhages among hemodialysis patients, many of whom died outside of a health-care setting. To examine the epidemiology of fatal vascular access hemorrhages, we conducted a retrospective case review in District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia from January 2000 to July 2007 and a case-control study. Records from the Medical Examiner and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were reviewed, from which 88 patients were identified as fatal vascular access hemorrhage cases. To assess risk factors, a subset of 20 cases from Maryland was compared to 38 controls randomly selected among hemodialysis patients who died from non-vascular access hemorrhage causes at the same Maryland facilities. Of the 88 confirmed cases, 55% hemorrhaged from arteriovenous grafts, 24% from arteriovenous fistulas, and 21% from central venous catheters. Of 82 case-patients with known location of hemorrhage, 78% occurred at home or in a nursing home. In the case-control analysis, statistically significant risk factors included the presence of an arteriovenous graft, access-related complications within 6 months of death, and hypertension; presence of a central venous catheter was significantly protective. Psychosocial factors and anticoagulant medications were not significant risk factors. Effective strategies to control vascular access hemorrhage in the home and further delineation of warning signs are needed. PMID:22695325
Ellingson, Katherine D; Palekar, Rakhee S; Lucero, Cynthia A; Kurkjian, Katherine M; Chai, Shua J; Schlossberg, Dana S; Vincenti, Donna M; Fink, Jeffrey C; Davies-Cole, John O; Magri, Julie M; Arduino, Matthew J; Patel, Priti R
Caveolins are a family of membrane proteins required for the formation of small plasma membrane invaginations called caveolae that are implicated in cellular trafficking processes. In addition to this structural role, these scaffolding proteins modulate numerous intracellular signaling pathways; often via direct interaction with specific binding partners. Caveolin-1 is particularly well-studied in this respect and has been attributed a large variety of functions. Thus, Caveolin-1 also represents the best-characterized isoform of this family with respect to its participation in cancer. Rather strikingly, available evidence indicates that Caveolin-1 belongs to a select group of proteins that function, depending on the cellular settings, both as tumor suppressor and promoter of cellular traits commonly associated with enhanced malignant behavior, such as metastasis and multi-drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying such ambiguity in Caveolin-1 function constitute an area of great interest. Here, we will focus on discussing how Caveolin-1 modulates cell death and survival pathways and how this may contribute to a better understanding of the ambiguous role this protein plays in cancer. PMID:23228128
Quest, A F G; Lobos-González, L; Nuñez, S; Sanhueza, C; Fernández, J-G; Aguirre, A; Rodríguez, D; Leyton, L; Torres, V
Background In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. Methods Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior todeath. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. Results The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25–69 yrs) and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10%) than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25–69. Conclusion VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only todeaths in childhood (as has previously been established) but also todeaths in early adult life and middle age. PMID:12014994
This case report describes a 34-year-old male who died as the result of tapentadol toxicity. This case apparently represents the first reported description of a death because of this drug. The toxicologic features of this case, namely concentrations of tapentadol in the femoral blood and heart blood, 1.05 and 3.20 mg/L, respectively, may assist other individuals in evaluating deaths where tapentadol concentration is a factor. Analysis of the blood based upon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed no other substance of significance, only nicotine and cotinine, and the autopsy findings were consistent with an opiate-type drug overdose, and indicated no competing cause of death. PMID:23083009
Kemp, Walter; Schlueter, Scott; Smalley, Elizabeth
Broadcast Transcript: At a certain age, we all begin to feel our mortality. Here in South Korea, they're doing something about it. Test runs for death. Well, they're not really practicing dying. They're practicing with death's accessories. That is...
Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-𝒟-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23640456
Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available. PMID:24495287
The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudesto vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs. PMID:22894959
Data from 1081 adults surveyed by the FDA were analyzed to explore consumers’ attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs, and the relation between these attitudes and health related consumption behaviors. We report the favorableness of consumers’ reactions to DTCA, and more importantly, demonstrate that consumers’ attitudes toward DTCA are related to whether they search for more information about
Michal Herzenstein; Sanjog Misra; Steven S. Posavac
Today, on death rows across the United States, sit a number of men with the minds of children. These people are mentally retarded. Typical of these individuals is Limmie Arthur, who currently is imprisoned at Central Correctional Institution in Columbia, South Carolina. Although Arthur is twenty-eight years old, all the mental health professionals who have evaluated him, including employees of
In the early postwar period, improvements in life expectancy in many Western countries made health authorities, health scientists and politicians believe that social differences in mortality converged. The assumption was that inequality, when measured as death rates, was on steady decline, possibly even on the brink of disappearing. The question is then, how far back in time can social differences
Viewing the role of technology as either the cause of or solution to environmental problems may be unrealistic, and such extreme attitudes may inhibit the resolution of environmental problems. Courses that present a particular orientation toward the role of technology may encourage these extreme attitudes. Identifying attitudes of students enrolled in such courses and designing instruction to foster specific attitudes can lead to a more rational and objective attitude toward technology as related to environmental problems. The Scientific-Environmental-Technological (SET) literacy model was suggested as an appropriate framework for presenting the role of technology to students. A 34 item Likert scale was developed to measure attitudes as defined by two constructs: PRO-technology and ANTI-technology. Students enrolled in three courses (E200, Environment and People, K201, The Computer in Business, E100, Freshman Engineering Lectures), were asked to respond to the survey at the beginning and end of the fall, 1980 semester. The findings indicate that the survey was useful in identifying and characterizing attitudes of certain populations. The differences between the E200 and E100 students indicate that instruction that recognizes and examines the full range of perspectives on the impact of technology should be provided for these students.
While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to examine which variables relate to the attitudes of…
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander
The scientific program is presented as well a the abstracts of the contributions. An extended account is published in “The Ultraviolet Universe: stars from birth todeath” (Ed. Gómez de Castro) published by the Editorial Complutense de Madrid (UCM), that can be accessed by electronic format through the website of the Network for UV Astronomy (www.ucm.es/info/nuva). There are five telescopes currently in orbit that have a UV capability of some description. At the moment, only FUSE provides any medium- to high-resolution spectroscopic capability. GALEX, the XMM UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the Swift. UVOT mainly delivers broad-band imaging, but with some low-resolution spectroscopy using grisms. The primary UV spectroscopic capability of HST was lost when the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed in 2004, but UV imaging is still available with the HST-WFPC2 and HST-ACS instruments. With the expected limited lifetime of sl FUSE, UV spectroscopy will be effectively unavailable in the short-term future. Even if a servicing mission of HST does go ahead, to install COS and repair STIS, the availability of high-resolution spectroscopy well into the next decade will not have been addressed. Therefore, it is important to develop new missions to complement and follow on from the legacy of FUSE and HST, as well as the smaller imaging/low resolution spectroscopy facilities. This contribution presents an outline of the UV projects, some of which are already approved for flight, while others are still at the proposal/study stage of their development. This contribution outlines the main results from Joint Discussion 04 held during the IAU General Assembly in Prague, August 2006, concerning the rationale behind the needs of the astronomical community, in particular the stellar astrophysics community, for new UV instrumentation. Recent results from UV observations were presented and future science goals were laid out. These goals will lay the framework for future mission planning.
This paper presents the results of a study of public attitudesto onshore windfarm development in south-west Scotland. Specifically, it explores the influences of different development models on attitudesto windfarms by comparing public attitudes towards a community-owned windfarm on the Isle of Gigha with attitudes towards several developer-owned windfarms on the adjacent Kintyre peninsula. The study, conducted in 2006,
The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers. PMID:12290451
School psychologists need to employ a multicultural perspective in the areas of death, dying, and bereavement. To develop multicultural sensitivity and competency requires setting aside one's personal beliefs in an attempt to adopt another's perspective. Consequently, school psychologists first need to explore their own attitudes about death and…
The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400
Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura
The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced todeath. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209
Gross, Samuel R.; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H.
Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various cultures. Two separate questionnaires, one given during the first week of dissection and another given one month into the program were then completed anonymously by dissection groups. The questions were designed to be open-ended, thereby encouraging group discussion amongst students. The questionnaires were used to determine the perception of students to dissection and to discover if these perceptions change during the dissection program. The first questionnaire revealed that students do experience fears and anxiety prior to and at the beginning of dissection; however, most of these fears dissipated by the time of the second questionnaire. One month into dissection students cited talking to peers as their main coping mechanism and fewer students mentioned emotional detachment from their cadaver as a coping mechanism, as was the case in the first questionnaire. Dissection was perceived as a positive experience by our student cohort and most students cited the main advantage of dissection as the ability to visualize organs in three dimensions. The comprehensive answers received from the students indicated that thorough discussion of feelings amongst peers occurred, introducing students to an important coping mechanism at an early stage of their learning. PMID:23208957
This column examines a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Panetti v. Quarterman, which embraced a broader view of what makes death row prisoners incompetent to be executed. Although the defendant understood that he was to be executed and the state's purported reason for seeking his death--two criteria suggested by the Court's 1986 decision in Ford v. Wainwright--he suffered from a fixed delusion about the actual reason for his death. The Court indicated that competent prisoners must have a "rational understanding" of the reason that a death penalty is being imposed but declined to define a clear standard. PMID:17913998
This paper deals with the problem of retrieving attitude perturbances in the framework of the PLEIADES-HR optical satellites. Thus, two complementary methods are compared. The first one uses the high agility capacity of satellites to acquire stars in an inertial steering mode. The second method exploits the fact that multispectral CCD arrays are shifted in the telescope focal plane in the velocity direction: for a same ground point, the resulting images are not affected by the same attitude perturbances. The resulting misregistrations can be exploited to deduce information about the attitude platform. Both methods have been applied to PLEIADES-HR satellites, during commissioning period.
Amberg, V.; Dechoz, C.; Bernard, L.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Lebegue, L.
Over 1.8 million people have died of AIDS in South Africa, and it continues to be a death sentence for many women. The purpose of this study was to examine the broader context of death and loss from HIV/AIDS and to identify the cultural factors that influenced existing beliefs and attitudes. The participants included 110 women recruited from 3…
Evaluated the attitudes toward life and death held by 52 suicidal and 58 normal children, by means of quantitative responses to questions that followed fairy-tale stories. Results indicated that the suicidal children, in contrast to normal children, showed a high degree of repulsion by life and attraction todeath. (LLL)
Naturally occurring axonal pruning and neuronal cell death help to sculpt neuronal connections during development, but their mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Here we report that beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21) activate a widespread caspase-dependent self-destruction program. DR6 is broadly expressed by developing neurons, and is required for normal cell body death
Anatoly Nikolaev; Todd McLaughlin; Dennis D. M. O'Leary; Marc Tessier-Lavigne
Discusses some of the similarities and differences between the attitudes of Japanese and American citizens toward science. Reports on major discrepancies between the two populations' views about such things as evolution, the development of new plants and animals, and the effect of rocket launchings on the weather. (TW)
This article examines public attitudes toward specific parental discipline practices, the incidence of specific parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of the causes of child maltreatment. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 1,250 adults each year between 1987 and 1992. The majority of the public view
"Liberspace" is an 8-minute video demonstrating library use and practices for new students at California State University, Long Beach. An analysis of responses from 1,879 students about library use and attitudes suggests that viewing the video will increase undergraduate and graduate use of the library and consultations with librarians during…
This study investigated the attitudes of 354 Australian parents who have a child with a disability attending a state school. Many parents favored inclusion, some would favor it if additional resources were provided, and a small number of parents favored special placement. Six tables provide detailed results. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/DB)
Elkins, John; van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Jobling, Anne
Recent advances in prenatal screening and diagnosis mean that an increasing number of women may be faced with the possibility of terminating a pregnancy on the grounds of fetal abnormality. Little is known, however, about the attitudes of pregnant women on the subject of abortion, either in the case of abnormality, or more generally. As part of a study of
This study probes teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement in schools as a function of four types of school governance as suggested by Bauch and Goldring. Participants of the study included headteachers, chairpersons of parents' committees, and teachers of 11 primary schools in a medium-sized town in Israel. A discriminant analysis found…
Summaries are provided for 16 measures of school-based attitudes. All of the instruments are paper and pencil, self-report inventories. Some are designed for children 4-8 years of age; others are for students in grades 12-14. Each of the instruments is presented in the following format: Title, Description, Subjects, Response Mode, Scoring, and…
BACKGROUND: Attitudes towards antipsychotic medication play an important part in the treatment for schizophrenia and related disorders. We aimed measuring general practitioners' attitudesto antipsychotic drugs and their adverse side effects and comparing these with the attitudes of the general population. METHODS: Analysis and comparison of two representative samples, one comprising 100 General Practitioners (GPs), the other 791 individuals randomly
Josef Helbling; Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross; Christoph Lauber; Ruth Weyermann; Tom Burns; Wulf Rössler
Page 1 of 2 Purpose To allow employees to be away from work upon the death of a family member. Policy Georgia Southern University allows funeral/bereavement time-off to all employees when a deathto five (5) days of paid or unpaid leave in the event of the death of an immediate family member
BACKGROUND: In the United States, over one-third of premature cardiac deaths occur outside of a hospital, without any transport prior todeath. Transport prior todeath is a strong, valid indicator of help-seeking behavior. We used national vital statistics data to examine social and demographic predictors of risk of no transport prior to cardiac death. We hypothesized that persons of
Elizabeth Barnett; Steven Reader; Beverly G Ward; Michele L Casper
SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2003 National Cancer Institute a NCHS public use data file for the total US. Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). b The SEER 17 areas are San Francisco,
SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2007 National Cancer Institute a US Mortality Files, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age
A new tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway has been identified that has an important function in the regulation of embryonic development. Three key components of this pathway are previously unknown proteins: the TNF ligand ectodysplasin (also known as EDA), its death domain-containing receptor EDAR, and the death domain adapter molecule EDARADD. This pathway was discovered and delineated through the cloning of genes that cause human hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) syndromes and by analysis of the corresponding mouse mutants (Tabby, downless, and crinkled) showing defects in hair, teeth, and several exocrine glands. EDAR signaling is mediated by the activation of nuclear factor kappa B, but other downstream targets are not known. Ectodysplasin-EDAR signaling mediates cell interactions within the ectoderm and regulates the initiation and morphogenesis of hair and teeth. It is also necessary for the development of fish scales, indicating that this pathway and its function have been conserved during the evolution of ectodermal organs.
Irma Thesleff (Institute of Biotechnology at University of Helsinki;Developmental Biology Program REV); Marja L. Mikkola (Institute of Biotechnology at University of Helsinki;Developmental Biology Program REV)
All forms of life are confronted with environmental and genetic perturbations, making phenotypic robustness an important characteristic of life. Although development has long been viewed as a key component of phenotypic robustness, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report that the determinative developmental cell lineages of two protostomes and one deuterostome are structured such that the resulting cellular compositions of the organisms are only modestly affected by cell deaths. Several features of the cell lineages, including their shallowness, topology, early ontogenic appearances of rare cells, and non-clonality of most cell types, underlie the robustness. Simple simulations of cell lineage evolution demonstrate the possibility that the observed robustness arose as an adaptation in the face of random cell deaths in development. These results reveal general organizing principles of determinative developmental cell lineages and a conceptually new mechanism of phenotypic robustness, both of which have important implications for development and evolution. PMID:25058586
As the major transporters and distributors of water and minerals, xylem vessels and tracheids are the lifeline of plants. Interestingly, the building blocks of these water pipes are dead tracheary elements and vessel elements that have the process of cell death integrated into their differentiation programme. Using the Zinnia in vitro model system for xylogenesis, a key nuclease that is responsible for nuclear degradation during the terminal stages of tracheary element differentiation has been identified recently. PMID:14557040
Management of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) focuses on stabilization and survival but sometimes death is an inevitable outcome. Dying neonates deserve a good death. It is unknown whether we are providing neonates with a good death. This article introduces a framework describing components needed for a good death in the NICU. Initially based on an adult model, this new framework incorporates appropriate components of Emanuel and Emanuel's framework ( 1998 ) and puts them into a context applicable to neonates. The proposed concepts and relationships will require future testing and revision as indicated by the evidence. PMID:24593007
This paper examines attitudesto workplace entitlements, such as parental leave and flexible work hours. Family friendly policies such as leave to care for children have implications for feminist debates about sameness versus difference and the extent to which such policies will lead to greater equality between men and women, or alternatively, further entrench existing gender divisions of labour. Using
Background. Motivation to Achieve Academically has been used in many educational and other studies in many countries and the large majority has not used an interval level scale based on a good theoretical model in which the items are linked to behaviour. Aims. One, to create an interval level, unidimensional scale of Motivation, with attitude items linked to behaviour items,
From a moral standpoint, we would expect the practice of punishment to reflect a solid and commonly shared legitimizing framework. Several moral legal theories explicitly aim to provide such frameworks. Based on the theories of Retributivism, Utilitarianism, and Restorative Justice, this article first sets out to develop a theoretically integrated model of penal attitudes and then explores the extent to which Dutch judges' attitudesto punishment fit the model. Results indicate that penal attitudes can be measured in a meaningful way that is consistent with an integrated approach to moral theory. The general structure of penal attitudes among Dutch judges suggests a streamlined and pragmatic approach to legal punishment that is identifiably founded on the separate concepts central to moral theories of punishment. While Restorative Justice is frequently presented as an alternative paradigm, results show it to be smoothly incorporated within the streamlined approach. PMID:12210971
de Keijser, Jan W; van der Leeden, Rien; Jackson, Janet L
Tested methodological issues of the motivation-hygiene theory of job attitudes and attempted to reconcile this theory with traditional theories of job attitudes. 98 adult Ss responded to the Herzberg method of questioning, and completed the Job Description Index (JDI). Correlation of responses provided no support for the motivation-hygiene theory. Responses from same Ss to Porter's technique of measuring need-fulfillment deficiency
Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of others,""brevity of…
We present the space debris operational process in the context of real circumstances that would have required early assessment, prompt warning, and responsive mitigations. We have applied several widely used collision and explosion models to the prompt debris environment, short term moderation of the debris cloud through reentry, mid-term assessment of conjunctions with operational satellites, and identification of the long term persistent aftermath. We provide distributions of fragment sizes, masses, and radar cross sections which we use to identify the trackable population and the remaining population which is either imperceptible to space surveillance radars. We examine predicted conjunctions between FY1C Debris (Catalog 31473)/Meteor 2-2, FY1C Debris (31379)/Meteor 2-12, and ISIS-2/Cosmos 2271. These illustrate early assessment of collision probability and consequences, triage among high probability conjunctions to conduct additional analysis judiciously, and the consequences of collisions between objects of disparate masses. We highlight deficiencies in essential analytical tools and databases. We offer guidance for further investigation and seek better capabilities to serve this important need.
...2014-04-01 false Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...Process § 15.104 Does the agency need a death certificate to prepare a probate file...provide us with a certified copy of the death certificate if a death certificate...
As part of the preliminary mission analysis of the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) (planned for launching in the early to mid-1990s), the on-orbit attitude dynamics of the RRS were analyzed to quantify various parameters that would affect the attitude dynamics of the vehicle. The analysis simulated the attitude dynamics of the RRS due to aerodynamic forces coupled with the motion of the satellite moving around the orbit, estimated the levels of induced angular rates due to external disturbance torques while in orbit, and established the limits of operational orbit altitudes. The results show that, for a typical 60-day mission, orbit altitudes above 350 km are necessary to prevent undesirable orbit decay, with about 200 km as the lower limit. It was also found that, in order to maintain a pointing attitude toward the sun within an acceptable angular deviation for periods exceeding 8 hrs, it is necessary to orbit at an altitude above 600 km.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the extent to which death of a spouse causes excess mortality by controlling for the effects of confounding and other sources of bias. Three possible sources of bias are considered: accidents common to spouses, common socioeconomic environment, and common lifestyles. (2) To assess the duration specific effects of death of a spouse on mortality. DESIGN
Mapping time-to-death quantitative trait loci in a mouse cross with high survival rates Karl W for the interval mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for a time-to-death trait when a considerable proportion of individuals fail to die. This work was motivated by a mouse cross for susceptibility to Listeria infection
SUMMARY This study examined smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of hospital-based nurses. The specific aims were: to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking and the characteristics of hospital nurses who smoke; to describe nurses' knowledge of the health risks of smoking and strategies which aid quitting; and to describe their attitudesto smoking and quitting and providing smoking cessation care.
OBJECTIVE--To estimate the HIV-1 seroprevalence, behavioural risks and attitudeto HIV-1 infection among lesbians. SETTING--Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Italy. SUBJECTS--From March 1992 to May 1993, 181 lesbians were tested for HIV-1 and included in the study. METHODS--Sociodemographic details, nonsexual risks for HIV-1, sexual behaviour, STD history and attitudeto HIV-1 were obtained from an anonymous, standardised, self-administered,
R Raiteri; R Fora; P Gioannini; R Russo; A Lucchini; M G Terzi; D Giacobbi; A Sinicco
According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning todeath on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426
Near the first of every school year, the author has the opportunity to talk to her students about death, usually in the midst of their study of "Beowulf" or "Gilgamesh." Occasionally, the discussion results from the recent news of the death of a public figure or, closer to home, a family member. Regardless of the circumstance, her students learn…
Research results show that Poland’s population considers sentencing policies of courts to be too lenient, and represents often\\u000a even extremely punitive attitudes. This punitiveness may have increased in recent years. For instance, results of surveys\\u000a on attitudes towards the death penalty show widespread support for that kind of sanction, in recent years higher than under\\u000a the communist regime. On the
A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit The quality of death Ranking end-of-life care across attitudestodeath 20 3. The economics of end-of-life care 21 A variety of funding models 21 Romania: from issues in end-of-life care 27 Government recognition 27 The availability and use of opioids 28
The changing nature of work suggests that young people may face the prospect of a “portfolio” career including periods of paid employment, non-work and self-employment, of which the latter implies greater scope for entrepreneurial activity. Reports questionnaire surveys of young adults which examine their attitudesto entrepreneurship as a career. Reference is also made to current policy initiatives and entrepreneurship
The purpose of this study was to investigate women's knowledge about and attitudes toward the medical suppression of menstruation. One hundred and three female undergraduate students completed several questionnaires. Thirty-five percent of the participants were familiar with menstrual suppression, and 12% reported using birth control methods to suppress their menses; oral contraceptive users were more knowledgeable about menstrual suppression than
Ingrid Johnston-Robledo; Melissa Ball; Kimberly Lauta; Ann Zekoll