Sample records for attitude to death

  1. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  2. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  3. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  4. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  5. Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.

    PubMed

    Sanner, M

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life. PMID:8042059

  6. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  7. Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw

    1984-01-01

    Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to

  8. Death-Related Attitudes of Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell; Schildt, Roberta

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure various death-related attitudes of a group of adolescents and to determine if these attitudes remain sex-related. It was concluded that differences in attitudes toward death generally are still consistent with traditional sex roles. (Author)

  9. [Attitude to death and changes of death image in Hungarian society. Study of the differences in generational value-judgments and of the possibilities of measurement. Is death still a taboo?].

    PubMed

    Zana, Agnes

    2009-06-21

    The aim of our research is to examine the sociological, anthropological, and psychological aspects of attitudes towards death; review the different approaches as a complex system; present the altered death image and the changes of tendency; analyze and interpret the most significant anxiety generating factors according to gender, age, and occupation; validate the fear of death and attitudes towards death scales in the Hungarian population; review the possibilities of interventions designed to reduce anxiety generating fear of death. Our hypotheses of our quantitative research were the following: women are characterized by a marked fear of death and anxiety; young people are more afraid of death; health care workers have a higher level death anxiety in comparison to other professionals due to the fact that they are face the suddenness and inevitability of death on daily basis, and this itself is an anxiety generating factor. We validated, adapted and calibrated two psychometric scales measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. According to our findings, both the Neimeyer and Moore Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale proved valid and suitable for measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. The Hungarian version of the scales proved reliable. In accordance with our hypothesis, young people and women are characterized by higher level of fear of death and anxiety. Our hypothesis, namely that fear of death among health care workers higher as the normal population, was not confirmed. Yet, contrary to a segment of preceding measurements, lower level of fear and anxiety was found. PMID:19497841

  10. Death Attitudes among Mid-Life Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Virginia; Sands, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Examined death attitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…

  11. Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation : A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareta Sanner

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected

  12. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  13. Do Death Attitudes of Nurses and Physicians Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Thomas W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the death attitudes of physicians (N=25) and nurses (N=31) who had daily contact with terminally ill patients. Results suggested that professional role rather than gender may account for attitude differences. Defensive styles used by doctors and nurses contributed to the attitude differential. (JAC)

  14. Contributions of Health and Demographic Status to Death Anxiety and Attitudes toward Voluntary Passive Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1980-01-01

    Greater death acceptance and anxiety were observed among rural as compared to urban-dwelling participants. Responses by a life-threatened geriatric subsample revealed differences in death fears related to type of medical disorder. Previous findings of no difference in the death fears of heart and cancer patients were replicated. (Author)

  15. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death

  16. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  17. The Effect of Bereavement Upon Death-Related Attitudes and Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokunaga, Howard T.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews and critiques existing theory and research on the issue of how attitudes and fears of death are influenced by recent bereavement. While the identification and validation of distinct stages of grief has demonstrated the powerful impact of death upon survivors, other research suggests that exposure to death does not alter one's attitudes or…

  18. Attitudes and Experiences of Death Workshop Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth; Worden, J. William

    1977-01-01

    Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)

  19. Factor Analysis of the Omega Scale: A Scale Designed To Measure the Attitudes of College Students toward Their Own Deaths and the Disposition of Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staik, Irene M.

    A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…

  20. Attitude Toward Death in Healthy People and Patients With Diabetes and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Masoumeh; Dousti, Yarali

    2013-01-01

    Background A person's beliefs can influence the progression of his/her disease;and battling an illness can trigger severe anxiety about death. This study aims to compare the attitude toward death between healthy people and those suffering from diabetes and cancer. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 300 individuals were selected by convenient sampling method. Three groups were matched by gender, age, education, and monthly income. Information was collected through a Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR) questionnaire and Analyzed Via Covariance (ANCOVA). Results The results indicated no difference in death attitude among the three groups (f=2.705, p<0.05). All the three groups displayed a higher mean in neutral and approach acceptance. Conclusion In this study, it was found that disease did not seem to change death attitudes; rather the patients' current attitude had been shaped by previous stages of their sickness. PMID:25250117

  1. Attitudes toward life and death and suicidality among inpatient female adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Zinman, Dana; Halevy, Liron; Yaroslavsky, Amit; Bachar, Eytan; Kreitler, Shulamit; Orbach, Israel

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether attitudes about life and death are associated with suicidal behavior in eating disorders (EDs). We examined 43 nonsuicidal inpatients with EDs, 32 inpatients with EDs who attempted suicide, and 21 control participants with scales assessing attitudes to life and death, body-related attitudes, core ED symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Both ED groups showed less attraction to life and more repulsion from life than did the control participants. The suicide attempters showed greater attraction to death, less repulsion from death, and more negative attitudes toward their body than did the nonsuicidal ED and control participants. Fear of life was associated with elevated depression, body-related problems, and childhood sexual abuse. Pathological attitudes toward death were associated with greater depression and body-related problems. Suicide attempts were found in the inpatients with EDs showing binge/purge ED pathology and maladaptive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that whereas fear of life is a core feature of an ED, maladaptive attitudes toward death appear only in ED patients who have attempted suicide. PMID:24284642

  2. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18?603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. PMID:24769621

  3. Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

  4. The effects of a course on death and grief on nurses' attitudes toward dying patients and death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Shandor Miles

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a course on death and grief on the attitudes toward death and toward dying patients of nurses who work in high-risk death areas of hospitals. This quasi-experimental design used four groups of subjects. One group experienced the treatment. Another group served as a waiting-list control group and then experienced

  5. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  6. Spiritual Development and Death Attitude in Female Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Masoumeh; Khalilian, Alireza; Dousti, Yarali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the differences regarding spiritual development dimensions and death attitude profiles, and also to determinate association between them, in patients suffering from type II diabetes. Methods: In a cross-sectional design study, 100 female outpatients who were suffering from type II diabetes were recruited in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran. Data were collected through two questionnaires including the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR). Analysis of the data involved analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) as post-hoc test plus the Pearson correlation. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in spiritual development dimensions and death attitude profile. The results showed that spiritual development were significantly associated with some items of death attitude profiles. Conclusion: Awareness of God was suitable in diabetic patients, but the quality of relationship with God indicated spiritually immature. It is necessary to provide instruction to improve patient's death attitude and following health behavior. PMID:25780376

  7. Death anxiety and voluntary passive euthanasia: Influences of proximity to death and experiences with death in important other persons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald M. Devins

    1979-01-01

    86 young and 62 elderly non-life-threatened and 63 elderly life-threatened persons (mean ages 19.5, 71.0, and 74.8 yrs, respectively) were given a standardized interview that included the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS). Age, but not health, was related to death anxiety. A significant Proximity to Death by Experience with Death in Important Others interaction occurred for both death anxiety and attitude

  8. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  9. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A Stevens; R Hassan

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South

  10. Attitudes toward Death in Adolescent Offspring of Holocaust Survivors: A Comparison of Israeli and American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Continues a study begun in 1973 on attitudes toward death, comparing Israeli and American adolescent offspring of Holocaust survivors in residential treatment program in Jerusalem, Israel. Biographical data, diagnostic classifications, a review of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and some dreams are presented. Israel is shown to be a therapeutic…

  11. Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients toward Death and Dying in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olokor, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…

  12. The mortality muzzle: The effect of death thoughts on attitudes toward national security and a watchdog press

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cuillier; Blythe Duell; Jeff Joireman

    2010-01-01

    This study, based on terror management theory, employs an experiment to examine how the thought of death affects people’s attitudes toward a watchdog press. Findings suggest that people who most value national security demonstrate less support for a watchdog press when primed to think of death than security-minded participants in a control group. The results provide one potential explanation for

  13. Research Note: The Death Sentence and Inmate Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Stevens

    1992-01-01

    Public opinion surveys show that the American public favors capital punishment. This article examines the attitudes of 307 inmates about capital punishment. The respondents, especially the most violent offenders, favored capital punishment for some crimes when applied to others, but not to their own criminal activity. Moreover, they did not see capital punishment as a deterrent and implied that it

  14. American Death Penalty AttitudesA Critical Examination of Recent Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT M. BOHM

    1987-01-01

    Public support for the death penalty is something of an American tradition. Yet the bases of the American tradition of support for the death penalty are not well understood. An understanding of American attitudes toward capital punishment is important, not only because the United States is again executing criminal offenders, but because it provides a rough estimate of the level

  15. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  16. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    PubMed

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  17. Not everyone strongly supports the death penalty: Assessing weakly-held attitudes about capital punishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES D. UNNEVERtt; Francis T. Cullen; Julian V. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Polls exploring attitudes toward the death penalty typically impose a simple, dichotomous response structure: respondents\\u000a are asked whether or not they support or oppose capital punishment. This polling strategy deprives respondents of expressing\\u000a an indication of the strength of their opinions. When asked whether they support (or oppose) the death penalty “strongly”\\u000a or “not strongly,” significant proportions of respondents select

  18. Retributive and Utilitarian Motives and Other Correlates of Canadian Attitudes Toward the Death Penalty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Vidmar

    1974-01-01

    An in-depth survey of 144 English Canadian adults examined the motives behind, and other social psychological correlates of, attitudes toward capital punishment. The results suggested that for a substantial percentage of people the motive of retribution may be more important than deterence as a reason for favoring the death penalty. Other findings indicated that the more strongly people favored the

  19. Attitudes towards hastened death in ALS: a prospective study of patients and family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stutzki, Ralf; Weber, Markus; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Simmen, Urs; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Jox, Ralf J

    2014-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be associated with the wish to hasten death (WTHD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and stability of WTHD and end-of-life attitudes in ALS patients, identify predictive factors, and explore communication about WTHD. We conducted a prospective questionnaire study among patients and their primary caregivers attending ALS clinics in Germany and Switzerland. We enrolled 66 patients and 62 caregivers. Half of the patients could imagine asking for assisted suicide or euthanasia; 14% expressed a current WTHD at the baseline survey. While 75% were in favour of non-invasive ventilation, only 55% and 27% were in favour of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and invasive ventilation, respectively. These attitudes were stable over 13 months. The WTHD was predicted by depression, anxiety, loneliness, perceiving to be a burden to others, and a low quality of life (all p < 0.05). Lower religiosity predicted whether patients could imagine assisted suicide or euthanasia. Two-thirds of patients had communicated their WTHD to relatives; no-one talked to the physician about it, yet half of them would like to do so. In conclusion, physicians should consider proactively asking for WTHD, and be sensitive towards neglected psychosocial problems and psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:24070371

  20. What does “unwilling” to impose the death penalty mean anyway? another look at excludable jurors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Robinson

    1993-01-01

    The debate regarding the death qualification of juries usually concerns (a) whether death-qualified jurors have different attitudes and values to excludable jurors, or (b) whether death-qualified juries are more prone to convict. A pivotal question is whether excludable subjects in fact willever impose the death penalty. Subjects were presented with five grisly murder vignettes. Only 40% of excludable subjects refused

  1. Teachers' Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Death Education in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engarhos, Paraskevi; Talwar, Victoria; Schleifer, Michael; Renaud, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today, young children are exposed to death through various forms of media in their communities, schools, and home environments. With this inevitability of exposure, there is a need for death education in order to inform and support today's youth when facing the subject of death. Death is said to be one of the most emotional and complex…

  2. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  3. Primary care physician attitudes and values toward end-of-life care and physician-assisted death.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; Gorenflo, Daniel W; Supanich, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    This study explores how primary care physician attitudes toward physician-assisted death (PAD) are related to their personal values toward end-of-life care and PAD. A group of 810 Michigan family physicians, internists, and general practitioners, divided into 4 typology groups by their intention toward participating in PAD, rated their attitudes toward PAD, along with their values and preferences for their own end-of-life care. Respondents who most objected to PAD were less likely to have executed an advance directive and more likely to have values promoting continued life-sustaining treatment in their own terminal care. Furthermore, a significant number of physicians, who had strong values against their own withdrawal of treatment in terminal care, were opposed to the withdrawing or withholding of life-sustaining treatment in patient care. Considerations of personal physician values are relevant in the discussion of PAD and the withdrawal of treatment in terminal care. PMID:11657273

  4. Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2011-01-01

    The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…

  5. Death Anxiety and Attitudes toward Suicide among Counselors-In-Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglio, Christopher J.

    Only recently have mental health professionals realized the importance and impact of death and death anxiety in the lives of individuals, particularly clients. Indeed few empirical studies have examined the levels of death anxiety among clients, much less among counselors or counselors-in-training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether…

  6. Attitudes toward Life and Death among Chinese Adolescents: The Chinese Version of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wing S.

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale were examined in a sample of 415 Chinese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses of the present data disconfirmed the original 4-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to explore the underlying structure of the data set. A…

  7. ATTITUDES TOWARD LIFE AND DEATH AMONG CHINESE ADOLESCENTS: THE CHINESE VERSION OF THE MULTI-ATTITUDE SUICIDE TENDENCY SCALE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WING S. WONG

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale were examined in a sample of 415 Chinese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses of the present data disconfirmed the original 4-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to explore the underlying structure of the data set. A revised 4-factor structure, with a number of differences in item

  8. Talking to Children about Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... children become aware of death. They see dead birds, insects, and animals lying by the road. They ... to children about dead flowers, trees, insects, or birds may be helpful. Some young children show intense ...

  9. Anaesthetists' attitudes to teamwork and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Flin; G. Fletcher; P. McGeorge; A. Sutherland; R. Patey

    2003-01-01

    Summary A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work

  10. Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1979-01-01

    Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

  11. Students' Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Within the last ten years, there have been international concerns about school science education, in particular in many rich, highly developed countries where there is a decline in the recruitment of students to science and technology. These concerns relate particularly to the uptake of physical sciences, gender differences and students'…

  12. The death penalty attitudes of criminal justice students: are they different from other students?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G. Lambert; Nancy L. Hogan; Bradene Moore; Morris Jenkins; Shanhe Jiang; Alan Clarke

    2008-01-01

    Much research has explored why people support or oppose capital punishment. There has been little research on the death penalty views of criminal justice students and whether they differ from other students. It is important to know and understand the views of criminal justice majors. Based upon survey data from students at a public Midwestern university, the death penalty views

  13. Mortality Morality: Effect of Death Thoughts on Journalism Students' Attitudes Toward Relativism, Idealism, and Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cuillier

    2009-01-01

    This study, based on terror management theory from social psychology, examines how the thought of death affects journalism students' views toward relativism, idealism, and unethical journalistic behavior. College journalism students (N = 101) participated in an experiment where half were primed to think about death and the other half, the control group, thought about dental pain. Then, all of them

  14. “Modern” death qualification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Haney; Aida Hurtado; Luis Vega

    1994-01-01

    We report on the results of a comprehensive statewide survey of death penalty attitudes in which respondents were categorized in terms of their death-qualified or excludable status under several different Supreme Court doctrines governing the death-qualification process. We found that although changes in public opinion with respect to the death penalty in general have altered the relative sizes of the

  15. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  16. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  17. “Good Ol' Boys” and the Chair: Death Penalty Attitudes of Policy Makers in Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Whitehead

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a survey of Tennessee chief prosecutors (district attorneys general), chief public defenders, and state legislators concerning their attitudes toward capital punishment. Global approval was compared with (1) approval when offered the options of life without parole and (2) life without parole and restitution to the victim's family. Additional items probed approval of capital punishment

  18. Death penalty beliefs and jurors' responses to aggravating and mitigating circumstances in capital trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Luginbuhl; Kathi Middendorft

    1988-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between attitudes toward the death penalty and support for or rejection of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in a capital trial. Jurors serving on jury duty voluntarily completed questionnaires in the jury lounge. In Study 1, jurors strongly opposed to the death penalty were significantly more receptive to mitigating circumstances than were the remaining jurors. In

  19. First prospective study on brain stem death and attitudes toward organ donation in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Avnish Kumar; Nambiar, Pradhi; Joshi, Ajay; Ramprasad, Ramanathan; Choubey, Rajendra; Puri, Pankaj; Murthy, Mandapaka; Naidu, Sudeep; Saha, Anupam; Bhatoe, Harjinder

    2009-11-01

    Organ donation following brain stem death is infrequent in India. There is no prospective study on prevalence of brain stem death and causes of non-donation. Consecutive patients admitted to intensive care unit from Sep 2006 to Sep 2008 were studied prospectively. Families of those with brain stem death were approached for organ donation by transplant coordinator. Extensive awareness drive was launched. Reasons for non-donation, if any, were documented. Of 2820 patients admitted, 994 (35%) were on mechanical ventilator and 657 (23%) died. Brain stem death could be diagnosed in 55, 37 males, median age 46 years (range 7 to 87 years) i.e., 1.9% of all admissions and 8.3% of all deaths. Among neurology and neurosurgery patients brain stem death was seen in 45 of 1037 (4.3%) admissions and 45 of 161 (27.9%) deaths. Complications of brain stem death were hypotension in 49, diabetes insipidus in 17 and hypertension in 5 patients. Of 33 families counselled, 16(48%) consented to organ donation. In 14(42%), organs and tissues retrieved and transplanted included 13 livers, 23 kidneys, 25 corneas and 5 cardiac valves. Consent was more likely in females (10 of 14 as compared to 6 of 19 males, p = 0.037). Consent did not correlate with age of donor or medico-legal issues (p = 0.227 & 0.579 respectively). Trained staff with requisite systems in place produced significant organ donation rates. Religious issues and medico legal concerns were not a major hurdle towards organ donation. Female patients with brain stem were more likely to become organ donors. PMID:19877266

  20. College Living: Issues Related to Housecleaning Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Shirley M.; Turner, G. Marc; Vieira, Ana; Brunotte, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Cleanliness preferences may be related to the compatibility of college roommates and hence relevant to students' satisfaction with and retention at a college or university. Two studies were conducted to develop a scale and examine issues related to housecleaning attitudes In the first study 457 college students completed an Attitude toward…

  1. Teaching about Death to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others

    Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…

  2. Reproductive Decision Making and Genetic Predisposition to Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Barlevy, Dorit; Wasserman, David; Stolerman, Marina; Erskine, Kathleen E.; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With current genetic technology, it is possible to detect mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a hereditary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. As a result, prospective parents diagnosed with LQTS will have to decide whether or not to prevent its transmission to future generations, either by not procreating or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies or prenatal testing. This paper explores how a hereditary predisposition to sudden cardiac death can influence reproductive decision making. Methods This study draws from interviews and focus groups with individuals who have personal or family histories of cardiac arrhythmia or sudden death. A keyword search was conducted on interview transcripts to identify quotes for analysis. Results Participants expressed complex, often ambivalent attitudes about the prospect of having a child with a predisposition to sudden cardiac death. Their comments reveal conflicting understandings of genetic responsibility and reflect the variable effects of personal experience on reproductive decision making. This paper compares attitudes towards LQTS and other genetic conditions in analyzing the themes that emerged in interviews and focus groups. Conclusions The “disability critique” of prenatal testing should be applied carefully to a context of genetic predisposition to sudden cardiac death in order to understand reproductive decision making. Firsthand experience with the condition, among other factors, can weigh heavily in those decisions. PMID:22822470

  3. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  4. Tracking animals to their death.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C

    2014-01-01

    Migration may be a high-risk period. In a study involving three species of raptor migrating from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa, Klaassen et al. (2014) satellite-tracked 51 out of 69 birds to their deaths and showed that rate of mortality during migration was 6x that during stationary phases when birds were on their winter and summer grounds. Travel across the Sahara was particularly risky. Satellite tracking has also been used to infer mortality in other taxa (e.g. sea turtles) and may allow high-risk hotspots to be identified for wide-ranging species. PMID:24192383

  5. After the Black Death: labour legislation and attitudes towards labour in late-medieval western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMUEL COHN

    2007-01-01

    The Black Death spurred monarchies and city-states across much of Western Europe to formulate new wage and price legislation. These legislative acts splintered in a multitude of directions that to date defy any obvious patterns of economic or political rationality. A comparison of labour laws in England, France, Provence, Aragon, Castile, the Low Countries, and the city-states of Italy shows

  6. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000

  7. Examination of psychological variables related to nuclear attitudes and nuclear activism

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    It was hypothesized that knowledge about nuclear arms developments would not be correlated with nuclear attitudes, that sense of efficacy would be positively correlated with magnitude of nuclear activism, and that death anxiety would be correlated with high level of nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes, but not with sense of power. It was also hypothesized that positive correlations would be found between nuclear activism and political activism, knowledge of nuclear facts, and degree of adherence to anti-nuclear attitudes. One hundred and forty three women and 90 men participated in this questionnaire study. Major findings are as follows. In general, the more people knew about nuclear developments, the more anti-nuclear were their attitudes. Also, regardless of nuclear attitudes, a positive correlation was found between knowledge of nuclear facts and nuclear activism. Death anxiety and powerlessness were not correlated. There was a positive correlation between anxiety and both nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes. A strong positive correlation was found between nuclear activism and anti-nuclear attitudes, and between political activism and nuclear activism. Internal locus of control did not correlate significantly with high sense of power or with high degree of nuclear activism.

  8. Attitudes of Oregon psychologists toward physician-assisted suicide and the Oregon Death With Dignity Act.

    PubMed

    Fenn, D S; Ganzini, L

    1999-06-01

    Since the passage of the Oregon Death With Dignity Act (ODDA), psychologists have been grappling with how to fulfill their legally specified role in the process of physician-assisted suicide. We surveyed Oregon psychologists to elicit their views on assisted suicide and the process of assessing patients who request such assistance. There was a high degree of support for assisted suicide and the ODDA, but also a minority who were highly opposed. Most survey respondents raised ethical or practical concerns with their role as assessors. Many important questions about how evaluations in the complex area should be conducted remain unanswered. PMID:14626273

  9. Taking it to the grave: gender, cultural capital, and ethnicity in Turkish death announcements.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Murat

    Popularly considered a great equalizer, death and the rituals around it nevertheless accentuate social distinctions. The present study focuses on a sample (N = 2554) of death announcements in a major Turkish daily newspaper (Hürriyet) from 1970 to 2006. Out of the liminal position of Turkish death announcements between obituaries and death notices emerges a large decentralized collection of private decisions responding to death, reflecting attitudes toward gender, ethnic/religious minority status and cultural capital, and echoing the aggregate efforts of privileged groups to maintain a particular self-image. Class closures lead to openings for traditionally under-represented minorities, such as Jewish Turkish citizens and citizens of Greek or Armenian origin. Results reveal that signs of status and power in announcements are largely monopolized by men of Turkish-Muslim origins. Although the changes in the genre-characteristics of death announcements are slow, they correspond to major turning points in Turkish social history. PMID:20222236

  10. Personal and societal attitudes to disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The research addresses theoretical and conceptual frameworks dealing with the formation and change of attitudes, cognitive dissonance, positive and negative prejudice, the concept of “spread”, overt and covert attitudes and their formation, and the nexus between attitudes and behavior toward disability. Two attitude scales—the interaction with disabled persons and the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons—are reviewed and results of

  11. Death to flies: Drosophila as a model system to study programmed cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Richardson; Sharad Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for the removal of unwanted cells and is critical for both restricting cell numbers and for tissue patterning during development. Components of the cell death machinery are remarkably conserved through evolution, from worms to mammals. Central to the PCD process is the family of cysteine proteases, known as caspases, which are activated by death-inducing

  12. Measuring Fear of Death: A Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Marva J.

    1978-01-01

    Finds that the test/retest reliability coefficients for the "Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale" and the "Lester Attitude toward Death Scale" were significant, but only low to moderate in significance. (RL)

  13. A Different Approach to Attitude Scale Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    This paper suggests a new approach to attitude scale construction. Instead of asking respondents to express the extent or the degree of opinion on a particular issue, respondents should be asked about the factors that are relevant for the issue of interest and how much weight respondents are willing to attach to each relevant piece of evidence.…

  14. South African Primary Children's Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, A. W.; Manganye, H. T.

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes to science scales developed in England have been used in a rural region of South Africa with children aged 10 and 11 years in a two-stage data collection investigation. Cultural constraints on the use of "foreign" scales are explored. Factor analyses reveal differences between the South African and English children. A South African…

  15. Changes in students' attitudes to teaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Macfarlane Smith

    1973-01-01

    An adaptation of the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory was administered to all Garnett College students during the first week of the 1968–1969 session. It was administered again towards the end of the course, just before the Teacher's Certificate Examination. Scores were available for 243 students, who had taken the inventory on both occasions.

  16. Residents’ attitudes to proposed tourism development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mason; Joanne Cheyne

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses resident attitudes to tourism development. Research employing a questionnaire survey and focusing on a proposed development was conducted in a rural New Zealand region. There was general support for this plan, but the community was not homogeneous in its views. Perceived positive impacts were the provision of a community facility, job creation, and the promotion of the

  17. Validation of the German version of the Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death (SAHD-D) with patients in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Galushko, Maren; Strupp, Julia; Walisko-Waniek, Johanna; Hahn, Moritz; Löffert, Sabine; Ernstmann, Nicole; Pfaff, Holger; Radbruch, Lukas; Nauck, Friedemann; Ostgathe, Christoph; Voltz, Raymond

    2014-05-22

    Objective: Reliable and validated instruments are needed in order to study the desire for hastened death (DHD). As there is no instrument in the German language to measure DHD, our aim was to validate a German version of the Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death (SAHD-D). Method: The SAHD was translated following guidelines promulgated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). In eligible patients (clinical situation adequate, MMSE ?21), the following instruments were employed: a symptom checklist (HOPE), the HADS-D (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), the EORTC-QLQ-PAL15, and the SAHD-D, as well as an external estimation of DHD provided by the attending physician. A high level of DHD was defined as the mean plus one standard deviation (SD). Results: Of the 869 patients assessed, 92 were eligible for inclusion (66% females, mean age of 64.5 years). The SAHD-D total score ranged from 0 to 18, with a mean of 5 and a standard deviation (SD) of 3.7. A high level of DHD was found in 20% (n = 19). For discriminant validity, significant correlations were found between the SAHD-D and depression (r rho = 0.472), anxiety (r rho = 0.224), and clinical state (r rho = 0.178). For criterion validity, the external estimate of DHD showed a low significant correlation with patient score (r rho = 0.290). Factor analysis of the SAHD-D identified two factors. Significance of results: Validation of the SAHD-D illustrated good discriminant validity, confirming that a desire to hasten death is a construct separate from depression, anxiety, or physical state. The unidimensionality of the SAHD could not be reproduced. Our findings support the multifactorial interdependencies on DHD and suggest that the SAHD-D should be refined by considering actual wishes, general attitudes, and options of patients. PMID:24849188

  18. Age Modulates attitudes to Whole Body Donation Among Medical Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-01

    This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).

  19. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  20. Death, Children, and Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  1. Sudden Death Due to Ventricular Septal Defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Cohle; Elizabeth Balraj; Michael Bell

    1999-01-01

    Ventricular septal defects (VSD) are usually considered non-life-threatening, usually closing spontaneously or causing symptoms\\u000a of congestive heart failure, which can be surgically treated in time to save the patient's life. Despite the usually benign\\u000a clinical course of VSD, serious arrhythmias occur in 16–31% of patients. Sudden death accounted for one-third of all deaths\\u000a in a series of medically managed patients

  2. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  3. Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

  4. Changing Attitudes: A Strategy for Motivating Students To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan

    If the main cause of many students' disinclination to learn is attitude, it follows that the most important educational reform is the restoration of attitudes favorable to learning. This book and its companion workbook are intended to assist teachers in that goal. It helps teachers understand and appraise the negative attitudes that are all too…

  5. Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

  6. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.

  7. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…

  8. Attitudes of registered nurses toward euthanasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn R. Shuman; Glenn P. Fournet; Paul F. Zelhart; Billy C. Roland; Robert E. Estes

    1992-01-01

    We sought to identify variables that contribute to euthanasia attitude and behavior, including demographics, death fears, experience with death, attitudes toward patient autonomy, and level of moral development.Subjects were 137 registered nurses from the southeastern United States representing 13 clinical nursing areas. Principal components analysis identified four factors that together explained 62.9% of total variance. These factors were belief in

  9. The Management of Death in the Middle Class American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Vidal S.

    Starting with the observation that attitudes towards death cannot be divorced from attitudes towards life, the author proceeds with a critical and reflective look at American society's poor management of death, both in terms of the dying person and the bereaved. Denial is the mechanism used to protect ourselves from facing the fact of death, and…

  10. College students’ attitudes toward abortion and commitment to the issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casey L Carlton; Eileen S Nelson; Priscilla K Coleman

    2000-01-01

    Male and female participants were surveyed on abortion attitudes, commitment, and abortion experience. Results revealed a normal distribution of abortion attitudes rejecting the notion that the vast majority of the sample would have significantly pro-choice views. No significant difference was found in overall abortion attitudes of males vs. females, however, individuals with direct abortion experience were found to have significantly

  11. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  12. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  13. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  14. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  15. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  16. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Responses to Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Benazon, Nili; Langley, Audra; Roblek, Tami; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with…

  17. The Effects of Death Anxiety and Mode of "Case Study" Presentation on Shifts of Attitude toward Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Edward J.

    1978-01-01

    College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)

  18. The Relationship Between Predisposition to Death and Past Life Regrets with Respect to Death Anxiety Among Male Veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kourakis

    2008-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates a plethora of variables which influence people’s fear of death. Research findings suggested the correlates of death anxiety are numerous ranging from age, gender, and religious beliefs to ethnicity, death education, depression, experiences with death, occupations, life regrets and meaning of life as well as exposure to death (Aday, 1984; Dumont & Foss, 1972; Hunt, 2000; Lonetto

  19. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672

  20. Death certification: a primer. Part I--an introduction to the death certificate.

    PubMed

    Randall, Brad

    2014-05-01

    Unlike the medical record, the death certificate is a public legal document that deserves the certifier's best intellectual effort to complete. The death certificate serves a variety of purposes, to include: A. Legal proof of death, usually necessary for a family to receive social security, health insurance, and other death benefits. B. A closure statement to the family from the physician documenting his or her final diagnosis. C. A family heirloom document that preserves a family history of causes of death (which may be invaluable in documenting hereditary diseases within a family). D. The death certificate is the backbone of national death statistics. Incorrect data from death certificates translates into incorrect state and national death rates for all causes. Cause of death assessment is inherently inaccurate (autopsy studies suggest that at least 10 percent of deaths have major unrecognized underlying disease processes that would have altered therapy had they been known). Even correct diagnostic assessments, however, can be lost to the system if they are improperly entered on to the death certificate. PMID:24851467

  1. Attitudes to ageing : a systematic review of attitudes to ageing and mental health, and a cross-sectional analysis of attitudes to ageing and quality of life in older adults 

    E-print Network

    Long, Sarah Charlotte May

    2014-07-01

    This thesis portfolio examines attitudes to ageing in older adults, and explores the impact that attitudes to ageing have on mental health status and quality of life. Attitudes to ageing are becoming more widely measured ...

  2. `By Death Divided. Scottish and English approaches to death certification in the nineteenth century'

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    `By Death Divided. Scottish and English approaches to death certification in the nineteenth century main influence was in the presentation of the Scottish death statistics, and the theories underpinning his father-in-law, Adam Black, the publisher, former provost, and prospective MP for Edinburgh.3

  3. Deranged sodium to sudden death.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Colleen E; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M; Belardinelli, Luiz; Boyden, Penelope A; Csernoch, Laszlo; Despa, Sanda; Fermini, Bernard; Hool, Livia C; Izu, Leighton; Kass, Robert S; Lederer, W Jonathan; Louch, William E; Maack, Christoph; Matiazzi, Alicia; Qu, Zhilin; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rippinger, Crystal M; Sejersted, Ole M; O'Rourke, Brian; Weiss, James N; Varró, András; Zaza, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    In February 2014, a group of scientists convened as part of the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium to bring together experimental and mathematical modelling perspectives and discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. This paper summarizes the topics of presentation and discussion from the symposium, with a focus on the role of aberrant sodium channels and abnormal sodium homeostasis in cardiac arrhythmias and pharmacotherapy from the subcellular scale to the whole heart. Two following papers focus on Na(+) channel structure, function and regulation, and Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchange and Na(+) /K(+) ATPase. The UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium is a biannual event that aims to bring together leading experts in subfields of cardiovascular biomedicine to focus on topics of importance to the field. The focus on Na(+) in the 2014 symposium stemmed from the multitude of recent studies that point to the importance of maintaining Na(+) homeostasis in the heart, as disruption of homeostatic processes are increasingly identified in cardiac disease states. Understanding how disruption in cardiac Na(+) -based processes leads to derangement in multiple cardiac components at the level of the cell and to then connect these perturbations to emergent behaviour in the heart to cause disease is a critical area of research. The ubiquity of disruption of Na(+) channels and Na(+) homeostasis in cardiac disorders of excitability and mechanics emphasizes the importance of a fundamental understanding of the associated mechanisms and disease processes to ultimately reveal new targets for human therapy. PMID:25772289

  4. Research to stop tobacco deaths.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  5. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  6. Addiction to near Death in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…

  7. Addiction to near death in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of ‘addiction to near death’, which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from mature genital sexuality as she approaches

  8. Death to Life: Towards My Green Burial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Feagan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents reflections on the author's death aspirations as they are informed by a set of earth-connection stories, environmental concepts, and modernist burial practices. This weave is meant to inspire further consideration on what is coming to be known as ‘green burial’. More precisely, this means an exploration of the author's earth-centred burial musings in association with the following

  9. UV Astronomy: Stars from Birth to Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana I. Gómez de Castro; Martin A. Barstow

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Discussion on UV Astronmy: Stars from Birth to Death was held during the IAU General Assembly of 2006, in August 2006. It was aimed to provide a forum where the accomplishments of UV astrophysics could be highlighted and a new roadmap for the future discussed. This meeting focussed in particular on stellar astrophysics. The understanding of stellar physics

  10. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M.; Osman, Abdel Moniem A.; Al Gahtani, Furgah H.; Farghali, Mohamed N.; Ramadan, Ali H.; Al-Momen, Abdel Kareem M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517) and nondonors (n = 316), between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5%) and lack of time (16%) as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71%) and health reasons (19%). Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true. PMID:21897588

  11. Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridie Kent; R. Glynn Owens

    1995-01-01

    The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards

  12. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  14. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  15. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  16. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  17. An Examination of Gambling Behaviour in Relation to Financial Management Behaviour, Financial Attitudes, and Money Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Effie Z. Chen; Nicki A. Dowling; Keong Yap

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between gambling behaviour (gambling frequency and problem gambling severity)\\u000a and financial management practices (cash management, risk management, and general management), financial management attitudes,\\u000a and money attitudes (materialism, achievement, budget, obsession, and anxiety) in a sample of 118 participants (45 males,\\u000a 73 females) recruited from a university. The findings revealed that gambling frequency

  18. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  19. Attitudes and attitude change.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791

  20. Explicit and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne A. J. van Goethem; Ron H. J. Scholte; Reinout W. Wiers

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction\\u000a of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age?=?11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a general Implicit Association\\u000a Test on bullying and a movie-primed

  1. [Death due to or despite the doctor].

    PubMed

    Cools, H J M

    2006-03-18

    In the last week of life, the extent and kind of medical practice differ both in intention and in the degree of orientation on the outcome. Patients tend to put long-term prescriptions aside or ask for symptom-relieving medication and sometimes for palliative sedation, euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. Competent physicians are able to offer or withhold treatment. In case of unconsciousness or severe cognitive impairment, proxies may ask for medical relief of disturbing symptoms. Medical practice is subject to the Dutch Medical Treatment Act (1995). At the start of the specific Dutch law specifying judicial review of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (1993, implemented in 2002) 1.8% of deaths concerned euthanasia. In 2005, standard drugs (choice, dose and route of administration) were highly effective in all cases of euthanasia in which they were used (76%): death within a median of 3-4 min, maximum 90 min. In the absence of medical indications for drug overdose, morphine and other choices are now considered obsolete for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The definition of euthanasia must be based exclusively on a standard method and outcome: death on request by a standard medical method with a standard judicial review. PMID:16610495

  2. Death Education in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Surveys the development of informal death education in the United Kingdom since Gorer's (Geoffrey) 1965 survey of attitudes to death, grief, and mourning. Shows how the media, exhibitions, courses, and reports contribute to the attainment of four goals originally applied in "American Death Education" by Gordon (Audrey) and Klass (Dennis) (1977).…

  3. Religious and Nonreligious Spirituality in Relation to Death Acceptance or Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the…

  4. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini

    2008-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

  5. Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Fang Chen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Instead of using general food choice motives, this study adopts more specific attitudes – i.e. health consciousness and environmental attitudesto predict the consumer's attitude toward organic foods. The main objective of the paper is to test the hypothesis whether health consciousness and environmental attitudes influence the consumer's attitude toward organic foods through an individual's healthy lifestyle.

  6. How to Estimate Attitude from Vector Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Mortari, Daniele

    1999-01-01

    The most robust estimators minimizing Wahba's loss function are Davenport's q method and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The q method is faster than the SVD method with three or more measurements. The other algorithms are less robust since they solve the characteristic polynomial equation to find the maximum eigenvalue of Davenport's K matrix. They are only preferable when speed or processor power is an important consideration. Of these, Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) is the most robust and faster than the q method. Robustness is only an issue for measurements with widely differing accuracies, so the fastest algorithms, Quaternion ESTimator (QUEST), EStimator of the Optimal Quaternion (ESOQ), and ESOQ2, are well suited to star sensor applications.

  7. The Use of Death Metaphors to Understand Personal Meaning of Death among Hong Kong Chinese Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing-Shan; Ho, Samuel M. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess…

  8. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  9. Autopsies and death certification in deaths due to blunt trauma: What are we missing?

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nicole Fink; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Girotti, Murray J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency, body region and severity of injuries missed by the clinical team in patients who die of blunt trauma, and to examine the accuracy of the cause of death as recorded on death certificates. Design A retrospective review. Setting London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. Patients One hundred and eight deaths due to blunt trauma occurring during the period Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1997. Two groups were considered: clinically significant missed injuries were identified by comparing patient charts only (group1) and more detailed injury lists from the autopsies and charts of the patients (group 2). Outcome measures Chart and autopsy findings. Results Of the 108 patients, 78 (72%) were male, and they had a median age of 39 years (range from 2 to 90 years). The most common cause of death was neurologic injury (27%), followed by sepsis (17%) and hemorrhage (15%). There was disagreement between the treating physicians and the causes of death listed on the death certificate in 40% of cases and with the coroner in 7% of cases. Seventy-seven clinically significant injuries were missed in 51 (47%) of the 108 patient deaths. Injuries were missed in 29% of inhospital deaths and 100% of emergency department deaths. Abdominal and head injuries accounted for 43% and 34% of the missed injuries, respectively. Conclusions The information contained on the death certificate can be misleading. Health care planners utilizing this data may draw inaccurate conclusions regarding causes of death, which may have an impact on trauma system development. Missed injuries continue to be a concern in the management of patients with major blunt trauma. PMID:10812348

  10. Death Outlook and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifel, Herman; Schag, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between death attitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)

  11. Attitudes to Wetland Restoration in Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire, UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Donna; Hambler, Clive

    1999-01-01

    Examines adult attitudes toward wetlands in order to assess perceptions and thus educational failings as a barrier to wetland restoration. Finds relatively positive attitudes with significant differences between social groups and near-significant differences between genders. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)

  12. Robust optimal solution to the attitude\\/force control problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Sanchez Pena; ROBERTO ALONSO; PABLO A. ANIGSTEIN

    2000-01-01

    Many spacecraft have an orbit control subsystem (OCS) which applies forces in order to maintain the orbital parameters within certain bounds. On the other hand, the attitude control subsystem (ACS) applies torques so that the spacecraft keeps its desired orientation. We explore the interaction of an orbital control maneuver with the attitude of a spacecraft. We propose to use the

  13. PUPILS' (AGE 10 - 11) ATTITUDES TO LOUD SOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva West

    The paper reports on an investigation into pupils' attitudes to loud sounds before and after teaching. This is part of the research project 'Design and validation of a teaching learning sequence about sound, hearing and health' for pupils aged 10 - 11 years. Pupils (41) have answered a multiple-choice questionnaire about their experiences of tinnitus, practices of headphones, attitudes to

  14. The Validation of a Scale Designed to Measure Cultural Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, John F.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    This document comprises two papers. The stated purpose of the first paper was to describe the development of the "Cultural Attitude Scales" (CAS), a pictorial measure designed to assess attitudes toward the black, Puerto Rican, and Anglo-American cultures. The development of the CAS encompassed: (1) the derivation of an item pool from interviews…

  15. WORKING PAPER N 2014 16 Attitudes to Income Inequality

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2014 ­ 16 Attitudes to Income Inequality: Experimental and Survey Evidence Andrew, Experiments, Income inequality, Life satisfaction, Reference groups PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES ECONOMIQUES 48, BD-00967938,version1-31Mar2014 #12;Attitudes to Income Inequality: Experimental and Survey Evidence Andrew E

  16. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  17. Affect as Information about Users' Attitudes to Conversational Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Ptaszynski; Pawel Dybala; Shinsuke Higuchi; Rafal Rzepka; Kenji Araki

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for automatic evaluation of conversational agents. In the method, information about users' attitudes and sentiments to conversational agents and their performance are achieved by analyzing their general emotional engagement in the conversation and specific affective states, and interpreting them using psychological reasoning of Affect-as-Information. In the evaluation experiment the users' attitudes to two Japanese-

  18. Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

    1994-07-01

    The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Affective and Cognitive Information in Predicting Attitudes toward Capital Punishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Haddock; Mark P. Zanna

    1998-01-01

    Research studying the public's attitudes toward capital punishment has typically assessed whether individuals favor or oppose the use of the death penalty, without examining the underlying structure of these attitudes. The present study used a general model of attitude to examine the relative importance of affective information (i.e., feelings) and cognitive information (i.e., beliefs) in predicting attitudes toward capital punishment.

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Fathers' Involvement: Significance to School Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…

  1. Attitudes to and use of baby walkers in Dublin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The

  2. Interparental differences in attitudes to cultural changes in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fakhr El-Islam; Taha H. Malasi; Sanaa I. Abu-Dagga

    1988-01-01

    Summary Interparental conflict is an example of interpersonal disagreements that arise between those who adhere to the traditions of the indigenous Arab culture and those who accept the more liberal attitudes conveyed by the imported Western culture. Interparental attitude conflict over family relationships, methods of marriage and emancipation of women is positively associated with Kuwaiti nationality, urban residence and greater

  3. The relationship of dysfunctional attitudes to personality in depressed patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne E Luty; Peter R Joyce; Roger T Mulder; Patrick F Sullivan; Janice M McKenzie

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and personality in depressed patients. Method: One hundred depressed patients completed both the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results: Scores on the DAS correlated with duration of depression, age of onset of depression, age, harm avoidance and self-directedness. In a multiple regression analysis three measures explained

  4. Using "Bad" Undergraduate Research to Foster "Good" Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Mary B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper postulates that having students engage in albeit limited and flawed research is a more effective way of changing attitudes than lecture or discussion. A common goal of the introductory linguistics course is to instill healthy language attitudes, but there is little extant research on the pedagogy of linguistics indicating how this may…

  5. The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Inter-Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlberg, Lawrence; Davidson, Florence

    Psychological research on race and ethnic stereotypes and attitudes has been carried out from two points of view -- a social learning view and a psychodynamic view. Neither of these grasp essential components of young children's ethnic attitudes or prejudices, nor do they detail the major developmental factors leading to the growth of tolerance…

  6. How Can Death Due to Sudden Cardiac Arrest Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Twitter. How Can Death Due to Sudden Cardiac Arrest Be Prevented? Ways to prevent death due to ... condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  7. Using Multiple Cause-of-Death Data to Investigate Associations and Causality between Conditions Listed on the Death Certificate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Redelings; Matthew Wise; Frank Sorvillo

    2007-01-01

    Death rarely results from only one cause, and it can be caused by a variety of factors. Multiple cause-of-death data files can list as many as 20 contributing causes of death in addition to the reported underlying cause of death. Analysis of multiple cause-of-death data can provide information on associations between causes of death, re- vealing common combinations of events

  8. Fatal Injuries in Light Vehicle Crashes - Time to Death and Cause of Death

    PubMed Central

    Luchter, Stephen; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Jing

    1998-01-01

    FARS and NASS CDS data were analyzed to determine time and cause of occupant deaths resulting from light vehicle crashes in the early 1990s. The results shows 46 percent of the deaths occurred within half an hour, 24 percent between half an hour and an hour and a half and a total of 90 percent within 24 hours. Of the deaths occurring during the 1.5 hours following injury 52 percent were the result of head injuries and 36 percent were the result of thorax injuries. When compared with the classical Trunkey tri-modal model, the “immediate” deaths are similar in time but somewhat lower in magnitude, the “early” deaths are earlier and somewhat lower in magnitude, and there is no evidence of a “late” peak. These results suggest that the tri-modal model may need to be modified to reflect current conditions.

  9. Death to flies: Drosophila as a model system to study programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Helena; Kumar, Sharad

    2002-07-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for the removal of unwanted cells and is critical for both restricting cell numbers and for tissue patterning during development. Components of the cell death machinery are remarkably conserved through evolution, from worms to mammals. Central to the PCD process is the family of cysteine proteases, known as caspases, which are activated by death-inducing signals. Comparisons between C. elegans and mammalian PCD have shown that there is additional complexity in the regulation of PCD in mammals. The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, is proving an ideal genetically tractable model organism, of intermediary complexity between C. elegans and mammals, in which to study the intricacies of PCD. Here, we review the literature on PCD during Drosophila development, highlighting the methods used in these studies. PMID:12072176

  10. Attitudes of professional anatomists to curricular change.

    PubMed

    Patel, K M; Moxham, B J

    2006-03-01

    Throughout the world, recent developments in medical curricula have led to marked changes in the teaching of gross anatomy. This change has involved decreasing curricular student contact time and the use of new methods for anatomical teaching. Some "modern" anatomists have welcomed the arrival of these novel methods while other, more "traditional," anatomists have fought to maintain the use of cadaveric dissection. Consequently, controversy over teaching methods has developed to the point that "modernist" and "traditionalist" views within the community of professional anatomists seem to have diverged such that the importance of gross anatomy in the medical curriculum is disputed and that cadaveric dissection by students is no longer the preferred method of teaching. This study tests this hypothesis using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses to assess attitudes to educational change and the importance of anatomy in medicine and a matrix questionnaire that required professional anatomists to relate course aims to different teaching methods. In total, 112 completed questionnaires were received from anatomists who are employed at higher education institutions that use various teaching methods and who span the academic hierarchy. The results suggest that over 90% of anatomists favor educational change and approximately 98% of professional anatomists believe that gross anatomy has an important role to play in clinical medicine. A clear majority of the anatomists (69%) favored the use of human cadaveric dissection over other teaching methods (this method seeming to achieve a range of different course aims/objectives) (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis). Using Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests, the order-of-preference for teaching methods was found to be as follows: 1. Practical lessons using cadaveric dissection by students. 2. Practical lessons using prosection. 3. Tuition based upon living and radiological anatomy. 4. Electronic tuition using computer aided learning (CAL). 5. Didactic teaching alone (e.g. lectures/class room-based tuition). 6. Use of models. The preference for the use of human cadaveric dissection was evident in all groups of anatomists, whether "traditionalist" or "modernist" (P = 0.002, Chi-squared). These findings are therefore not consistent with our initial hypothesis. PMID:16302246

  11. The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir Lipsman; Abby Skanda; Jonathan Kimmelman; Mark Bernstein

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. METHODS: We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones.

  12. Veterinarians' attitudes to chronic pain in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bell, A; Helm, J; Reid, J

    2014-11-01

    Veterinary surgeons in the UK were invited to complete an internet survey concerning their attitudes to chronic pain in dogs. UK veterinary surgeons numbering 215 completed surveys in full along with 48 worldwide specialists in anaesthesia and 37 worldwide specialists in oncology. Osteoarthritis, dental and aural disease, vertebral and spinal cord conditions, neoplasia and skin conditions were considered important causes of chronic pain in dogs. UK practitioners used significantly fewer classes of analgesic drugs regularly than either category of specialist. The major barriers to adequate treatment of chronic pain were reported as difficulties with pain assessment, expense of drugs, and difficulties with owner compliance. Illustrations of six common neoplastic conditions were used and scored for pain according to prior experience by practitioners. All six conditions were consistently described as involving some degree of pain with primary bone tumour and oral tumour, causing severe pain and moderate to severe pain, respectively. Years since graduation and specialist status affected the pain scores attributed to the conditions. There was a significant correlation between the pain score attributed to the illustrated condition, and the tendency to administer analgesia. PMID:25028465

  13. Bad Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan

    2000-01-01

    Negative attitudes students bring to class can obstruct teaching and learning. These attitudes can be traced to ideas of selfism advanced by modern philosophers. Discusses why students are not learning, examining sources of opposing values and how to recognize obstructive attitudes. Presents suggestions for handling negative attitudes that…

  14. Quality of life and attitudes to ageing in Turkish older adults at old people's homes.

    PubMed

    Top, Mehmet; Dikmeta?, Elif

    2012-12-12

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate quality of life (QOL) and attitudes to ageing in Turkish older adults at two old people's homes (nursing homes) and to explain relationship between QOL and attitudes to ageing. METHODS: This study is a quantitative and descriptive exploratory study of QOL and attitudes to ageing of older adults in nursing homes in a developing country. INSTRUMENTS: Two international data measurement tools were used for data collection. Data measurement instruments in this study are The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD) and the WHO - Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ). The WHOQOL-OLD module consists of 24 items assigned to six facets (sensory abilities, autonomy, past, present and future activities, social participation, death and dying and intimacy) AAQ consists of 24 items classified in three domains (psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth) with eight items each. PARTICIPANTS: The Turkish version of the WHOQOL-OLD and AAQ was administered to 120 older (>65 years) adults living in two old people's homes in Samsun Province, Turkey. This study was conducted and planned between on 1 November 2011 and on 31 November, 2011. RESULTS: The results indicated that there was significant relationship between QOL and attitudes to ageing of older adults. In this study, the highest significant relationship is between psychological growth subscale of attitudes to ageing and sensory abilities subscale of QOL (r = 0.579; P < 0.01). Overall QOL and overall attitudes to ageing had a significant and positive relationship (r = 0.408; P < 0.01). The dimensions of attitudes to ageing (psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth) were significant predictors for QOL in older adults in Turkey. It was found that the gender does not affect overall QOL in older adults. However, happiness is significant variable for overall QOL in this study. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that QOL is a complex, multidimensional concept that should be studied at different levels of analysis in Turkey and other developing countries. The results of this study emphasize the importance of QOL in older adults in older people's homes in Turkey and attitudes to ageing of nursing home residents in Turkey. PMID:23240580

  15. Educating Children to Cope with Death: A Preventive Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, S. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews what is known about children's conceptions of death, how children grieve, and relevant research. Presents clinicians' guidelines on such issues as explaining death to children, attending funerals, and treating bereaved youths and their families. Outlines a death education program which incorporates developmental and theoretical principles…

  16. Mitochondria and programmed cell death: back to the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice X. Petit; Santos-Antonio Susin; Naoufal Zamzami; Bernard Mignotte; Guido Kroemer

    1996-01-01

    Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, has in the past few years undoubtedly become one of the most intensively investigated biological processes. However, fundamental questions concerning the molecular and biochemical mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The central question concerns the biochemical steps shared by the numerous death induction pathways elicited by different stimuli. Heterogeneous death signals precede a common effector phase

  17. The Factors Contributing to Death Anxiety in Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokcen Gonen; Semra Ulusoy Kaymak; Eylem Sahin Cankurtaran; Ersin Hatice Karslioglu; Elvan Ozalp; Haldun Soygur

    2012-01-01

    Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D)

  18. Theoretical issues relevant to helmet-mounted display attitude symbology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Joseph; Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Greg

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses theoretical issues that are relevant to Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) attitude direction indicator (ADI) design. An ADI shows the relationship between the aircraft wings and the horizon and pilots use it to determine aircraft attitude (pitch and roll). The ADI is used for maintaining an aircraft attitude, capturing a precise attitude and recovering from an unusual attitude. An attitude indicator is an essential instrument because it provides pilots with orientation information that they do not normally have in instrument flight conditions. Recent work suggests that humans orient themselves within a fixed world-reference frame. We will discuss the relationship between the reference frames used by the human orientation system, the reference frames implemented in existing ADIs, and the reference frames available in a helmet-mounted display. A head tracked HMD system allows a system designer to implement symbology in many reference frames including the head, aircraft, and world reference frames. Traditional head down attitude symbology may not be appropriate for HMD use, and it may conflict with the reference frame used by human orientation systems. Based on the author's review of ADIs and frames of reference, research topics are discussed that examine the role of HMD ADI symbology.

  19. Staggering Inflation To Stabilize Attitude of a Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; West, John

    2007-01-01

    A document presents computational-simulation studies of a concept for stabilizing the attitude of a spacecraft during deployment of such structures as a solar sail or other structures supported by inflatable booms. Specifically, the solar sail considered in this paper is a square sail with inflatable booms and attitude control vanes at the corners. The sail inflates from its stowed configuration into a square sail with four segments and four vanes at the tips. Basically, the concept is one of controlling the rates of inflation of the booms to utilize in mass-distribution properties to effect changes in the system s angular momentum. More specifically, what was studied were the effects of staggering inflation of each boom by holding it at constant length for specified intervals between intervals of increasing length until full length is reached. The studies included sensitivity analyses of effects of variations in mass properties, boom lengths, rates of increase in boom length, initial rates of rotation of the spacecraft, and several asymmetries that could arise during deployment. The studies led to the conclusion that the final attitude of the spacecraft could be modified by varying the parameters of staggered inflation. Computational studies also showed that by feeding back attitude and attitude-rate measurements so that corrective action is taken during the deployment, the final attitude can be maintained very closely to the initial attitude, thus mitigating the attitude changes incurred during deployment and caused by modeling errors. Moreover, it was found that by optimizing the ratio between the holding and length-increasing intervals in deployment of a boom, one could cause deployment to track a desired deployment profile to place the entire spacecraft in a desired attitude at the end of deployment.

  20. Robustness of quantum discord to sudden death

    E-print Network

    T. Werlang; S. Souza; F. F. Fanchini; C. J. Villas-Boas

    2009-09-16

    We calculate the dissipative dynamics of two-qubit quantum discord under Markovian environments. We analyze various dissipative channels such as dephasing, depolarizing, and generalized amplitude damping, assuming independent perturbation, in which each qubit is coupled to its own channel. Choosing initial conditions that manifest the so-called sudden death of entanglement, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. We show that in all cases where entanglement suddenly disappears, quantum discord vanishes only in the asymptotic limit, behaving similarly to individual decoherence of the qubits, even at finite temperatures. Hence, quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement against to decoherence so that quantum algorithms based only on quantum discord correlations may be more robust than those based on entanglement.

  1. Attitudes towards organ donation in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Yeung; S. H. Kong; Janet Lee

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a survey is conducted to study the attitudes of Hong Kong residents towards organ donation after death. It is found that 60.3% of the respondents are willing to donate organs, which is comparable to those cited in the literature. The results also indicate that the willingness to donate is related to age, occupation and attitude. A factor

  2. Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

    Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

  3. A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Smoking Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Raymond J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the construction and validity of a scale to measure student attitudes toward marihuana. The scale could be used as a means to select the best presentation for drug education in schools. (KH)

  4. Factors Influencing Veterinary Students' Career Choices and Attitudes to Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Serpell

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic and experiential factors on first-year veterinary students' career choices and attitudes to animal welfare\\/rights. The study surveyed 329 first-year veterinary students to determine the influence of demographic factors, farm experience, and developmental exposure to different categories of animals on their career preferences and on their attitudes to specific

  5. An approach to the sublime of death

    E-print Network

    Preston, Steven (Steven Joseph)

    2010-01-01

    Death is an unknown and it is final. This makes it sublime. The sublime as an aesthetic category is experienced emotionally as the moral certitude of having embraced the absolute. In that sense, the nervous system is capable ...

  6. MODELLING CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: SURVEY OF ATTITUDES TO

    E-print Network

    process between the hybrid gas- electric vehicle (HEV) and the conventional gasoline vehicle.5 Hybrid gas electric vehicles .......................................................................... 8MODELLING CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: SURVEY OF ATTITUDES TO HYBRID VEHICLES

  7. Changing epidemiology of trauma deaths leads to a bimodal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy; Urban, Jill; Frankel, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Injury mortality was classically described with a trimodal distribution, with immediate deaths at the scene, early deaths due to hemorrhage, and late deaths from organ failure. We hypothesized that the development of trauma systems has improved prehospital care, early resuscitation, and critical care and altered this pattern. This population-based study of all trauma deaths in an urban county with a mature trauma system reviewed data for 678 patients (median age, 33 years; 81% male; 43% gunshot, 20% motor vehicle crashes). Deaths were classified as immediate (scene), early (in hospital, ?4 hours from injury), or late (>4 hours after injury). Multinomial regression was used to identify independent predictors of immediate and early versus late deaths, adjusted for age, gender, race, intention, mechanism, toxicology, and cause of death. Results showed 416 (61%) immediate, 199 (29%) early, and 63 (10%) late deaths. Compared with the classical description, the percentage of immediate deaths remained unchanged, and early deaths occurred much earlier (median 52 vs 120 minutes). However, unlike the classic trimodal distribution, the late peak was greatly diminished. Intentional injuries, alcohol intoxication, asphyxia, and injuries to the head and chest were independent predictors of immediate death. Alcohol intoxication and injuries to the chest were predictors of early death, while pelvic fractures and blunt assaults were associated with late deaths. In conclusion, trauma deaths now have a predominantly bimodal distribution. Near elimination of the late peak likely represents advancements in resuscitation and critical care that have reduced organ failure. Further reductions in mortality will likely come from prevention of intentional injuries and injuries associated with alcohol intoxication. PMID:20944754

  8. Attitude to rehabilitative counselling in southwestern Nigerian prisons.

    PubMed

    A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun

    2014-12-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and ?2 statistics. Findings - The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research limitations/implications - Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling. PMID:25764294

  9. Revisioning the death-drive: the compulsion to repeat as a death-in-life.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Gavriel

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a revisionary reading of Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Recognizing the power of Freud's meditation on a universal "death-drive" in living organisms, it argues that Freud makes a greater contribution by strengthening the compulsion to repeat to a form of figurative death. We recall that after shattering the presupposition of a universal pleasure principle, Freud demonstrates an equally strong pain-principle. The pain-principle entails a return to an old image in the mind, just as Freud identifies Eros, the transfigured pleasure-principle, with the movement toward something new, "a different individual." The moving backward toward old love in opposition to the moving forward to new love is an inspired narrative application of the Oedipus complex. The repetitive backward movement is a figurative death when the observing other or self encounters a deathlike affect of despair or persecution. Less persuasive because less experience-near is the concept of the death-drive. Freud writes in different voices, and the death-drive speculation is in the mode that privileges scientific speculation over other forms of thought, even as Freud shows a variety of stylistic modes for reaching the truth. Yet it is the mode that observes human interactions and transforms them to figurative narrative that moves most profoundly to the never-fully-knowable-human-unconscious. We discover the hidden motive for repetition as a return to the original rejection or rage that was a form of previous intimacy. The genre that these figurative narratives take is close to literary romance, and death, or the special suffering that Coleridge evocatively termed "life-in-death," is the hidden object of its dark quest. PMID:24555551

  10. Increases in heroin overdose deaths - 28 States, 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rose A; Paulozzi, Len J; Bauer, Michael J; Burleson, Richard W; Carlson, Rick E; Dao, Dan; Davis, James W; Dudek, Jennifer; Eichler, Beth Ann; Fernandes, Jessie C; Fondario, Anna; Gabella, Barbara; Hume, Beth; Huntamer, Theron; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Largo, Thomas W; Miles, JoAnne; Newmyer, Ashley; Nitcheva, Daniela; Perez, Beatriz E; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Sabel, Jennifer C; Skiba, Jessica; Slavova, Svetla; Stone, Kathy; Tharp, John M; Wendling, Tracy; Wright, Dagan; Zehner, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Nationally, death rates from prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) overdoses quadrupled during 1999-2010, whereas rates from heroin overdoses increased by <50%. Individual states and cities have reported substantial increases in deaths from heroin overdose since 2010. CDC analyzed recent mortality data from 28 states to determine the scope of the heroin overdose death increase and to determine whether increases were associated with changes in OPR overdose death rates since 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2010 to 2012, the death rate from heroin overdose for the 28 states increased from 1.0 to 2.1 per 100,000, whereas the death rate from OPR overdose declined from 6.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2012. Heroin overdose death rates increased significantly for both sexes, all age groups, all census regions, and all racial/ethnic groups other than American Indians/Alaska Natives. OPR overdose mortality declined significantly among males, persons aged <45 years, persons in the South, and non-Hispanic whites. Five states had increases in the OPR death rate, seven states had decreases, and 16 states had no change. Of the 18 states with statistically reliable heroin overdose death rates (i.e., rates based on at least 20 deaths), 15 states reported increases. Decreases in OPR death rates were not associated with increases in heroin death rates. The findings indicate a need for intensified prevention efforts aimed at reducing overdose deaths from all types of opioids while recognizing the demographic differences between the heroin and OPR-using populations. Efforts to prevent expansion of the number of OPR users who might use heroin when it is available should continue. PMID:25275328

  11. Adjustment to the death of a sibling.

    PubMed Central

    Pettle Michael, S A; Lansdown, R G

    1986-01-01

    Despite the recent increase in interest in terminally ill children and their families and the post death adjustment of parents, there has been little research examining the adjustment and self concept of surviving siblings in such families. This paper discusses the results of a preliminary descriptive study of 28 children (from 14 families) whose brother or sister had died of cancer between 18 and 30 months previously. Behaviour checklists were completed by parents and teachers and self concept scales administered to the children. A lengthy semistructured interview was carried out, and measures of parental adjustment were gathered. A high percentage of children were found to be exhibiting emotional or behavioural difficulties, or both, and the results indicated that low self esteem was common. Parental and child adjustment were not found to be related inter se, nor did they seem to relate to the child's self esteem. Thus for many children the loss of a sibling might cause long term distress. Further, many children who did not manifest overt difficulties perceived themselves unfavourably in comparison with either their ideal or their dead sibling. PMID:3963872

  12. Death: a foe to be conquered? Questioning the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gellie, Anthea; Mills, Amber; Levinson, Michele; Stephenson, Gemma; Flynn, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    There are few certainties in life-death is one of them. Yet death is often thought of today as the 'loss of the battle' against illness, where in traditional societies it was the natural, meaningful, end to life. Medical knowledge and technologies have extended the possibilities of medical care and increased our life span. People living in most developed countries today can expect to survive to an advanced age and die in hospital rather than at home as in the past. Owing to these and other historical, cultural and social factors, our views on death have been skewed. Medical technology provides an arsenal of weapons to launch against death and the 'war against disease' has entrenched itself in medical philosophy. We now primarily experience death through the lens of a camera. Representations of 'death as spectacle' distort our perceptions and leave us ill-prepared for the reality. Additionally, death as a natural consequence of life has become much less visible than it was in the past due to our longer life expectancies and lack of infectious disease. The continued thrust for treatment, wedded with a failure to recognise the dying process, can rob individuals of a peaceful, dignified death. Progress being made in Advance Care Planning and palliative care is limited by the existing paradigm of death as a 'foe to be conquered'. It is time for a shift in this paradigm. PMID:25225350

  13. 14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes to animal research in 2014

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes to animal research in 2014 A report by Ipsos MORI for the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills John;14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 2 © 2014 Ipsos MORI ­ all rights

  14. To Be or Not to Be: It's "Still" a Question of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskerville, Roger A.

    Attitudes expressed in Iowa's news media recently show a change of attitude from an urban or metropolitan slant to a more pro-rural, pro-agrarian point of view. Iowa's major daily news medium is now saying that the state's character, culture, economy, values, beliefs, and social attitudes are in jeopardy, and Iowans should have the moral and…

  15. Using social media to share the death experience: discussion points.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Luanne; Currie, Paula S

    2013-10-01

    Poignant tweets by a well-known journalist led to a national conversation about publicly sharing the death experience. The purpose of this column is to set the stage for a broader discussion among health care providers to understand the perceived benefits and related challenges of using social media to share the death experience. PMID:24098987

  16. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  17. Are African American Fraternities Beating Themselves to Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Beating of pledges, frequently leading to lawsuits and sometimes to death, has become a serious problem in black fraternities. Although black fraternities officially cracked down on hazing in 1990 in response to a student's death, many fear underground hazing has become even more dangerous. Incidents occur both on black and on white campuses.…

  18. Attitudes toward a game-based approach to mental health.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Christine P; Bowers, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Based on preliminary research, game-based treatments appear to be a promising approach to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, attitudes toward this novel approach must be better understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if video game self-efficacy mediates the relationship between expectations and reactions to a game-based treatment for PTSD. Participants played the serious game "Walk in My Shoes" (Novonics Corp., Orlando, FL) and completed a series of scales to measure attitudes toward the intervention. Video game self-efficacy was found to be a partial mediator of expectancies and reactions. These results suggest that enhancing attitudes via self-efficacy in a clinical setting may maximize treatment effectiveness. PMID:25584727

  19. Nurse characteristics and attitudes to active voluntary euthanasia: a survey in the Australian Capital Territory.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, B A

    1998-07-01

    While surveys of Australian nurses' attitudes to active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) have found that the majority are in favour, there may be important differences between subgroups of nurses. This paper investigates the role of the following nurse characteristics on nurses' attitudes to AVE: age, gender, religion, amount of contact with terminally ill patients, area of specialty, and degree of interest taken in the issue of AVE. A postal survey on AVE was carried out in late 1996 of 2000 randomly selected registered nurses from the Australian Capital Territory. Responses were received from 1218 nurses (61%). The survey included a question asking whether the law should be changed to allow doctors to take active steps to bring about a patient's death under some circumstances. Overall, 69% of respondents agreed that the law should be changed. Those nurses who were more likely to agree were under the age of 40 years, agnostic, atheist or of the Anglican religion, to have less contact with terminally ill patients, to work in the area of critical care or mental health, and to take less interest in the issue of AVE. Palliative care nurses were the only subgroup without a majority in favour (33%). There is other evidence in the euthanasia literature, that nurses and doctors are less in favour of AVE than the general public. Taken together with the present findings, it can be concluded that attitudes towards AVE are more favourable in people who have less contact with the terminally ill. PMID:9687132

  20. Changing Medical Students’ Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajita

    2015-01-01

    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors’ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to others. Some feel that psychiatry is unscientific, imprecise and treatment is not effective. Traditional teaching methods are directed more towards imparting knowledge than changing the attitudes of students. Newer teaching and assessment techniques should be used to bring about attitudinal changes and develop interest among medical students. Case based and problem based learning, small group teaching, simulated patients, using movies, multidisciplinary seminars, integrated teaching, attitude questionnaires, objective structured clinical examinations etc., could be introduced in the curriculum to achieve this objective.

  1. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g?=?-0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95?=?-0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of the effectiveness of doping prevention interventions. PMID:25209168

  2. Selectivity of Black Death mortality with respect to preexisting health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon N. DeWitte; James W. Wood

    2008-01-01

    Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347-1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions (''frailty'')? Many research- ers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naõ¨ve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of age, sex, or frailty. If this were true, Black

  3. Brain death revisited: it is not ‘complete death’ according to Islamic sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Bedir; ?ahin Aksoy

    2011-01-01

    Concepts, such as death, life and spirit cannot be known in their quintessential nature, but can be defined in accordance with their effects. In fact, those who think within the mode of pragmatism and Cartesian logic have ignored the metaphysical aspects of these terms. According to Islam, the entity that moves the body is named the soul. And the aliment

  4. Self-control and the fear of death among adolescents in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing Hong Chui; Heng Choon Chan

    2012-01-01

    The fear of death, as one of the death attitude dimensions, is heavily studied. However, the potential influence of self-control on the fear of death is scarcely examined. Previous literature implies that self-control may be an influential element in determining the magnitude of the fear of death. However, no study, especially in the Asia region, has attempted to directly examine

  5. Death of honeybees continues to baffle scientists

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    Mysterious disorder puts S.D. bees at riskhttp://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS/705150301/1001Queen Bees-In Hive or Castle, Duty Without Powerhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/science/15angi.htmlAre mobile phones wiping out our bees?http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.eceYou've saved whales and dolphins-now save the beeshttp://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/COLUMNISTS26/70515009/-1/opinionNature: Bee Anatomy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.htmlThe Beekeeping Portalhttp://www.beekeeping.org/Apiarists throughout the United States and the rest of the world have been asking one pressing question over the past several months: What is killing millions of honeybees? A number of theories have been proposed as of late, and the mysterious ailment known as colony collapse disorder is something that is puzzling both entomologists and those who derive their livelihood from honeybee-related activities. Bees have been leaving the hive and never returning, so researchers can't perform necropsies in many cases. While some people may just associate honeybees with their most popular product, namely honey, these tiny creatures are also responsible for pollinating over ninety different crops, including almonds, apples, cranberries, watermelon, and cucumbers. One potential explanation that has been advanced is that extensive radiation from mobile phones could be interfering with bees' navigation systems. An apiarist in South Dakota, Brad Folsand, remarked that "You always lose a few, maybe 10 percent or something like that. But there are guys who have lost 90 percent in some places." Apiculturists from the University of Illinois to the University of California, Davis are continuing to research this vexing situation, and it is hoped that they will be able to get the bottom of the situation in the near future. The first link will take users to a piece from this Tuesday's News-Herald about the difficult situation faced by beekeepers in northeast Ohio. Moving along, the second link leads to a similar story from the Sioux Falls Argus Leader. The third link will take users to a nice piece of science reporting from this Tuesday's New York Times about the world of the queen bee. The forth link leads to an article from the Independent which talks about the potential link between these recent honeybee deaths and mobile phones. The fifth link leads to a passionate editorial from the Nashua Telegraph's own Mike Morin about the importance of saving the honeybee population. The sixth link leads to a great interactive feature from the Nature program that provides details about the bee's anatomy, from the stinger all the way up to the antennae. Finally, the last link leads to the very exhaustive and interesting Virtual Beekeeping Gallery, which contains information on bee-keeping equipment, related associations, laboratories, and so on.

  6. Present mortality in Parkinson's disease: the ratio of observed to expected deaths with a method to calculate expected deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Diamond; Ch. H. Markham

    1976-01-01

    Summary Excess mortality,i.e. more deaths than expected in a similar normal population, has been reduced in Parkinson's disease by levodopa. A California series and a large collaborative study throughout the United States show the ratio of observed to expected deaths to be normal. In contrast, a New York study with similar patients and a Montreal group of much more severely

  7. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. PMID:22435844

  8. Death anxiety, locus of control, and purpose in life of physicians. Their relationship to patient death notification.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R

    1996-01-01

    This study explored gender and specialty differences in death anxiety, locus of control, and purpose in life of physicians, and if these variables might influence the clinical behavior of physicians regarding death notification. The subjects were 155 attending and house staff physicians who responded to mailed questionnaires. The female physicians scored higher in death anxiety than the male physicians. The psychiatrists scored higher in death anxiety than surgeons. There was a trend for the internists to have scores indicating a more external locus of control. Purpose in life was inversely correlated with death anxiety and external locus of control. Death anxiety was related to the physicians' preferred mode of conveying the news of an unexpected patient death to the next of kin. PMID:8701011

  9. Statewide survey of physician attitudes to controversies about child abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Marshall; Catherine Locke

    1997-01-01

    To assess physician attitudes and practices in controversial areas of child abuse and neglect, anonymous questionnaires were mailed to pediatricians, family practitioners, and emergency medicine physicians in Pima County (Tucson) and Arizona (statewide). The effects of respondent characteristics on responses to each item were analyzed. Three hundred and ninety-three questionnaires (49.3%) were returned. Responses differed according to gender, age, specialty,

  10. Caring for Dying People: Attitudes Among Iranian and Swedish Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Axelsson, Karin; Häggström, Terttu; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the attitudes of Iranian and Swedish nursing students toward caring for dying persons. Materials and Methods: Their attitudes were measured with the Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Caring of the Dying and the Death Attitude Profile Revised. Results: The results indicated that the participating Iranian students were more afraid of death and less likely to give care to dying persons than the Swedish participants. Conclusion: It is suggested that theoretical education should be individualized and culturally sensitive in order to positively influence the students’ attitudes, and promote professional development. PMID:21218004

  11. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  12. Caregiver Attitudes to Gynaecological Health of Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…

  13. Attitudes to predictive DNA testing in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Whitelaw; J M Northover; S V Hodgson

    1996-01-01

    Attitudes to predictive DNA testing for familial adenomatous polyposis were documented in 62 affected adults. Patient views on prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy for this disorder were sought, as were opinions on the most suitable age to offer predictive testing for at risk children and the most appropriate age to begin screening. While 15 (24%) of those questioned stated

  14. Changing Swedish students' attitudes in relation to the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Kindeberg, T; Christensson, B

    1994-06-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the knowledge, attitudes and intention to act in relation to HIV/AIDS related issues among Swedish students aged 15-18 years. An intervention group (n = 368) and a comparison group (n = 180) were followed for 2 years between 1989 and 1991. The teachers of the intervention group were obliged to specifically give a continuous and in-depth education while the comparison group received ordinary traditional education. We present the results from questionnaires given to all students before and after the study. There was a significant increase in knowledge of facts in the intervention group, and also changes in attitudes towards, for example, gay people, drug users and HIV infected individuals, in a desirable direction. In sex related issues there was also a desirable change in intention to act, but this was not seen in students' relation to alcohol. No significant changes at all in knowledge, attitudes or intention to act were seen in the comparison group. Our results show that it is indeed possible to influence students' attitudes and intention to act in HIV/AIDS related issues provided teachers start by defining the students' central conceptions and their relation to each other, and promote individual thinking and reflection. PMID:10150444

  15. Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E.; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case–control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%–44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, ?3% and ?4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable. PMID:24959688

  16. Deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Tansarli, Giannoula S; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case-control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%-44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, -3% and -4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable. PMID:24959688

  17. Ego Involvement and Topic Controversiality as Related to Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledden, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Katherine A.

    Attitude change was measured on four different topics before and immediately after a persuasion was presented in order to compare the degree of change with the level of ego involvement as it relates to topic controversiality. Ego involvement was based on self-ratings of concern for each topic. Objective topic controversiality was based on the…

  18. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  19. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  20. Teachers' Confidence and Beliefs and their Students' Attitudes to Mathematics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Beswick; Natalie Brown

    This paper reports some initial results of a project that involved profiling middle school mathematics teachers and their students. Survey data concerning the teachers' confidence in relation to the mathematics topics that they teach, their beliefs about numeracy and effective teaching of mathematics, students' attitudes to mathematics, and their perceptions of the frequency of various events in their mathematics classrooms

  1. Sudden cardiac death: a modern pathology approach to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kocovski, Linda; Fernandes, John

    2015-03-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death among young adults and adolescents. Unfortunately, the first manifestation of the condition may be sudden death during exertion, such as sporting activities. Other clinical symptoms include exertional dyspnea, angina, and syncope. Postmortem examination often reveals asymmetrical septal thickening and mural plaque formation in the left ventricular outflow tract. Histologic analysis shows cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, myofiber disarray, and interstitial and replacement fibrosis. Molecular analysis for known genetic abnormalities is essential to genetic counseling of living relatives of decedents to assess and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25724039

  2. Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    theory mental attitudes such as beliefs, desires, goals and intentions are attributed to autonomous by the author/owner(s). AAMAS'03, July 14­18, 2003, Melbourne, Australia. ACM 1-58113-683-8/03/0007. 2. NORMATIVE SYSTEMS AS AGENTS Normative systems that control and regulate behavior are autonomous, they react

  3. Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    "Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…

  4. Attitudes of Spanish University Teaching Staff to Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a…

  5. Motives, Attitudes and Approaches to Studying in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between demographic characteristics, motives and attitudes to studying, self-reported study behaviour and measures of outcome. Students taking courses by distance learning received a postal survey containing a short form of the Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Revised…

  6. Assessing the Attitudes of Administrators to Include Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Frederick Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the attitudes of administrators in a medium sized school district in the Southeastern region of the United States. The researcher used a quantitative descriptive comparative pre-test and post-test design with a convenience sampling of the district administrators. There were 21 administrators at the…

  7. Society's attitudes to and preferences for land and landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carys Swanwick

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between society, land and landscape is deeply complex. Attitudes are reflected in behaviour, notably patterns of consumption through recreational activity, as well as in expressed preferences. Society attaches great importance to land. A large proportion of the population engages directly with it, through gardening and involvement in the management of allotments, community gardens and other public spaces. There

  8. Employee perceived training effectiveness relationship to employee attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandros G. Sahinidis; John Bouris

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between perceived employee training effectiveness and job satisfaction, motivation and commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study examined the responses of 134 employees and lower managers, of five large Greek organizations, after they had completed a training program. The questions asked contained information about the employee attitudes towards tvhe training

  9. Ethnic differences in coffee use and attitudes to coffee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Rozin; Brenda M. Cines

    1982-01-01

    Interviews on coffee drinking habits and attitudes to coffee were carried out with 166 adult American coffee drinkers, representing Italian, Jewish, Black and White North?Central European ethnic groups. These groups were compared on measures of liking for hot or iced coffee, coffee flavor in other vehicles, reasons for drinking coffee, developmental history, physiological and psychological effects of coffee and extent

  10. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students to the Uses of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also…

  11. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  12. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  13. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) - a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    E-print Network

    Froen, J Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C S; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-06-10

    tissues (as in anti-cardiolipin syndrome causing placental thrombosis or SS-A/SS-B antibodies causing fetal arrhythmias), should however be coded in Maternal. 5 Cord conditions, diseases and events (abbrev: Cord) Deaths caused by any condition, disease... conditions that was unrelated to of pregnancy (as in maternal cancer), was incompatible with a viable pregnancy (as in Ehler-Danlos syndrome), was exacerbated by the normal physiology of pregnancy (as in anti-phospholipid syndrome), or was caused...

  14. Childhood, death, and cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald P. Koocher

    1973-01-01

    Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

  15. Sleep Position Linked to Death Risk for Those with Epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep Position Linked to Death Risk for Those With ... on the findings, people with epilepsy should not sleep in a prone (chest down) position, said study ...

  16. Smoking Tied to Higher Death Risk After Colon Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking Tied to Higher Death Risk After Colon Cancer ... February 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Colorectal Cancer Smoking FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may ...

  17. Blocking Pro-Cell-Death Signal Pathways to Conserve Hearing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine T. Dinh; Thomas R. Van De Water

    2009-01-01

    The programmed cell death of stress-damaged auditory hair cells can occur through a variety of signal pathways, and therapeutic modalities that block pro-cell-death pathways are being developed and evaluated for hearing preservation. Because of their ability to have both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic actions, corticosteroids have long been used to protect against several types of acute sensorineural hearing loss. Other anti-apoptotic

  18. P arent al Child-Rearing Sex-Role Attitudes Related to Social Issue Sex-Role Attitudes and Selected Demographic Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny Lee Burge

    1981-01-01

    Parents' child-rearing sex-role attitudes were investigated to determine their relationship to social issue sex-role attitudes and selected demographic variables. The sample included 94 parents, 32 couples, and 30 persons who responded individually. Data were gathered by use of a demographic information sheet, the Sex-Role Attitude Scale, and the Child-Rearing Sex- Role Attitude Scale. Findings indicated a relationship between social issue

  19. A district confidential enquiry into deaths due to asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N J Wareham; B D Harrison; P F Jenkins; J Nicholls; D E Stableforth

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The aim was to establish a continuing district based confidential enquiry into deaths from asthma. METHODS--A confidential enquiry was conducted in an English health district. Subjects comprised 24 residents of the Norwich health district aged between 16 and 65 years who had died between 1988 and 1991 with asthma as the principal cause of death. RESULTS--Twenty one of the patients

  20. Adapting “The Staff Attitudes to Nutritional Nursing Care scale” to geriatric nursing care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Christensson; M. Bachrach-Lindström

    2009-01-01

    Objective  A positive attitude is assumed to be important in nursing staff’s help and support of elderly people during meals. As there\\u000a is no specific tool for measuring staff’s attitudes regarding important issues within eating and nutrition, the SANN (Staff\\u000a Attitudes to Nutritional Nursing Care) scale was developed. The scale was developed and tested in nursing staff working at\\u000a resident homes,

  1. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

  2. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes

  3. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  4. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applications. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbardo, Philip; Ebbesen, Ebbe B.

    In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…

  5. An Anthropocentric Approach to Saving Biodiversity: Kenyan Pupils' Attitudes towards Parks and Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ibrahim M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…

  6. Cross-cultural perspectives on teenage attitudes to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Wilks, J; Callan, V J; Forsyth, S J

    1985-04-01

    Six hundred and seventy-seven indigenous Papua New Guinean, 315 Australian, and 166 American high school teenagers completed a series of measures on attitudes to alcohol. Papua New Guinean students differed most from other students in considering that money was wasted on alcohol and that preventive steps should be adopted to ban sales of take-away alcohol. In addition, Papua New Guinean males and females were more likely than other teenagers to feel that women should not drink alcoholic beverages. Within countries, males and females had fairly similar attitudes about alcohol and alcohol-related issues, and where differences occurred, males generally were less likely to highlight the costs of alcohol abuse. PMID:4030172

  7. The gender gap in capital punishment attitudes: An analysis of support and opposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN T. WHITEHEADtr; Michael B. Blankenship

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the gender gap in attitudes toward the death penalty, including attention to global versus specific measures.\\u000a The study is based on a survey in Tennessee of attitudes toward crime and criminal justice. Specifically, the study examines\\u000a male and female global attitudes, attitudes toward a life without parole option, reasons that supporters and opponents give\\u000a for their views,

  8. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

  9. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim...BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis—survivor's...

  10. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

  11. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

  12. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  13. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  14. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  15. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  16. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  17. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  18. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  19. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  20. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  1. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  2. Job attitudes.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

  3. Prevalence of death due to pulmonary embolism after trauma

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, Rodrigo Florêncio; Baitello, André Luciano; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Espada, Paulo César; Morioka, Rogério Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism is an important cause of death affecting thousands of people worldwide. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of death due to pulmonary embolism after trauma. Materials and Methods: The diagnoses of the causa mortis of all patients treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of Hospital de Base in São José do Rio Preto, in the period from July 2004 to June 2005, were identified from autopsy reports to check whether pulmonary thromboembolism was involved. Result: A total of 109 deaths due to trauma were detected in this period with pulmonary embolism occurring in 3 (2.75%) patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary thromboembolism is an important cause of mortality in trauma patients and so prophylactic measures should be taken during the treatment of these patients. PMID:20616939

  4. Shahrestani et al. Physiological decline in the death spiral Physiology declines prior to death in Drosophila melanogaster

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    resistance and time spent in motion. Our results suggest that D. melanogaster may be used as a model organism to death in Drosophila melanogaster Parvin Shahrestani, Xuan Tran, and Laurence D. Mueller P. Shahrestani, desiccation resistance, Drosophila melanogaster #12;Shahrestani et al. Physiological decline in the death

  5. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  6. Pathways to hospital death among the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Merrill, D M; Mor, V

    1993-11-01

    Using the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey (N = 2,090), this research examines the conditions under which the oldest old (85+ years of age) are discharged from a nursing home to enter and die in a hospital as well as the conditions under which community dwellers enter and die in a hospital. Given the need to plan for health services for this growing population and the recent policy changes in length of hospital stay, this analysis focuses on pathways leading to a hospital death. Results suggest that the factors that influence site of death are necessarily quite distinct for those who have entered the institutional long-term care system versus those who have not. Among institutionalized patients, the incidence of an acute condition appears to precipitate hospitalization, whereas among community dwellers, the presence of a social support network and the decedent's race are the only salient factors predicting hospital death. Implications are discussed. PMID:10129469

  7. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  8. G-SRT Mt. Whitney to Death Valley

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The Morris family is on a road trip through California. One day they are driving from Death Valley to Sequoia National Park. Death Valley is home to th...

  9. Euthanasia Acceptance as Related to Afterlife and Other Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)

  10. Observe the life stages of stars from birth to death

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    With this resource, students in middle and high school Earth science classes can follow the life cycle of a star from its birth as a nebula to its death as a white dwarf or a black hole. The introduction explains how a star's death is determined by its solar mass. The resource presents an illustrated flowchart that shows the stages of stars, as well as points of divergence for stars of different masses. Students click on each stage to see an enlarged, telescopic image of a sample star. Each image is labeled with the name and location of the star. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: some approaches to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Mortality because of epilepsy is a major concern worldwide. People with epilepsy have a two to three times increased risk of death in comparison with the general population. Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy is a mysterious, rare condition, in which typically young or middle-aged people with epilepsy die without a clearly defined cause. Several different mechanisms probably exist, and most research has focused on seizure-related respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebral depression, and autonomic dysfunction. In recent years, some significant risk factors have been recognized and strategies have been suggested that may be useful in prevention of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The present review provides some of the updates on new advances in prevention of SUDEP. PMID:25716492

  12. Difficult Conversations: From Diagnosis to Death

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Joel D.; Mott, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication is the cornerstone of good multidisciplinary medical care, and the impact of conversations about diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is indisputable. Healthcare providers must be able to have difficult conversations that accurately describe diagnostic procedures, treatment goals, and the benefits and/or risks involved. Methods This paper reviews the literature about the importance of communication in delivering bad news, the status of communication training, communication strategies, and psychosocial interventions. Results Although many published guidelines address difficult communication, communication training is lacking. Consequently, many clinicians may have difficulties with, or in the worst-case scenario, avoid delivering bad news and discussing end-of-life treatment. Clinicians also struggle with how to have the last conversation with a patient and how to support patient autonomy when they disagree with a patient's choices. Conclusion There is a clinical imperative to educate physicians and other healthcare workers on how to effectively deliver information about a patient's health status, diagnostic avenues to be explored, and decisions to be made at critical health junctions. Knowing how to implement the most rudimentary techniques of motivational interviewing, solution-focused brief therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy can help physicians facilitate conversations of the most difficult type to generate positive change in patients and families and to help them make decisions that minimize end-of-life distress. PMID:25598738

  13. Using Aviation to Change Math Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jerra

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…

  14. Science and public health principles used to reduce road deaths.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leon S

    2014-12-01

    An editorial in a previous issue of this journal falsely claims that the US government's efforts to reduce road fatalities are not based on science. It says that, as a result, the United States has fallen behind other countries in road death prevention. A large body of research and evaluation informed federal and state safety programs from the outset. Evans's comparisons of death trends among countries without adjustment for changes in relevant risk factors or specification of the injury reduction policies among the countries tell us nothing about the causes of the declines or the effects of specific ameliorative efforts. PMID:25320900

  15. Death anxiety in Japan and Australia.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, J F; Warren, W G; Groth-Marnat, G

    1991-08-01

    This study compared death anxiety ratings as measured by the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (Templer, 1970) in 121 Japanese and 139 Australian subjects. Japanese subjects had significantly higher death anxiety scores than their Australian counterparts. Australian women scored significantly higher than Australian men, but no sex differences were found in the Japanese sample. A slight but statistically significant positive correlation was found between age and death anxiety scores. This study contradicted other research that indicated that Eastern cultural attitudes mitigated anxiety about death. These findings are discussed in relation to the complex relationship between culture and death anxiety as well as in relation to problems inherent in our current conception of death anxiety. PMID:1943076

  16. National Galleries of Scotland: From Death to Death and Other Small Tales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Use art to take on the grim topics of death and bodily decay by visting this exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. Highlights of the website include "Ohne Titel [Untitled]," 1965, by Gunter Brus, a collage documenting what Brus called a "Self-painting." Brus covered his body with white paint, and over-painted black lines suggesting cracks. The collage juxtaposes pins, razor blades and a pen knife alongside photographs of the artist in his white paint coating. There is also an installation video for Ernesto Neto's room-size work, "It happens when the body is anatomy of time," 2000, that resembles a forest of the skeletal legs of some large imaginary animal. In addition to the National Gallery website highlights, visit the associated article in "The Independent" for a slideshow of 12 works of art by Sarah Lucas, Louise Bourgeois, Rene Magritte, Marcel Duchamp, Matthew Barney, and others.

  17. Teaching Death Management Skills: Health Professionals Confront Patient Avoidance Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Raymond; And Others

    Health professionals tend to view dying patients with two intertwined attitudes. On one hand the patient possesses an irreversible pathological condition and the doctor is obliged to help that patient embrace death with as much dignity as possible. On the other hand, the patient's imminent death is daily testimony to the limits of the doctor's…

  18. Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riagain, Padraig O.

    2007-01-01

    Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

  19. Parental grief after a child's drug death compared to other death causes: investigating a greatly neglected bereavement population.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, William; Jordan, John R; Gorman, Bernard S

    2011-01-01

    This comparative survey contrasted 571 parents who lost children to various death causes: 48 to drug-related deaths and overdoses, 462 to suicide, 24 to natural death cases, and 37 to mostly accidental death cases. Groups were compared in terms of grief difficulties, mental health problems, posttraumatic stress, and stigmatization. Results did not show any appreciable differences in these respects between the suicide bereaved parents and those losing children to drug-related deaths. However, when the suicide and drug-related death survivors were specifically contrasted against accidental and natural death loss cases, a consistent pattern emerged showing the former group was consistently more troubled by grief and mental health problems than the latter two sub-groups. These differences remained when controls of time since the loss and gender differences were employed as covariates. These findings suggest that the powerful and intense stigma against drug use and mental illness, shared among the public-at-large, imposes challenges in healing of immense proportion for these parents as they find less compassionate responses from their significant others, following their losses. PMID:22010370

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Physiology declines prior to death in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    suggest that D. melanogaster may be used as a model organism to study physiological changes that occurRESEARCH ARTICLE Physiology declines prior to death in Drosophila melanogaster Parvin Shahrestani, the fecundity and virility of Drosophila melanogaster fall significantly below those of same-aged flies

  2. Preparing Students for Effective Social Work Practice Related to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Larry; Gochros, Harvey

    1976-01-01

    Describes a module in the general social work practice sequence at the University of Hawaii School of Social Work that offers students an opportunity to develop both a skill and a knowledge base, as well as an exploration of their own personal experiences with--and reactions to--death. (Editor/JT)

  3. Study of patients' psychological attitudes to a coronary care unit

    PubMed Central

    Dominian, J.; Dobson, M.

    1969-01-01

    Seventy-four consecutive male patients aged 38 to 63 years were admitted to a coronary care unit with their first myocardial infarction. Their attitude to the unit was studied by interview and personality tests. Only six patients found the unit anxiety-provoking. Dependency feelings were found to occur frequently, both after transfer from the unit to the general wards and after discharge from hospital. It is suggested that the weaning process from the unit should be gradual and that at least one follow-up outpatient appointment should be arranged, as well as good liaison between the family doctor and the hospital. PMID:5359947

  4. Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes. Appendix B to Measures of Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    This handbook is a compilation and evaluation of 106 attitude scales for survey research. An introductory chapter outlines the ten chapters and discusses the rationale and background of the project. Chapter 2 reviews survey evidence on the correlates of life satisfaction and happiness in the general public. Chapters 3 through 9 review and…

  5. Maternal attitudes to newborn screening for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Louise; Wotton, Tiffany; Bennetts, Bruce; Wiley, Veronica; Wilcken, Bridget; Rogers, Carolyn; Boyle, Jackie; Turner, Catherine; Hansen, Jessica; Hunter, Matthew; Goel, Himanshu; Field, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the commonest cause of inherited intellectual disability the mean age of diagnosis in Australia is 5.5 years. Newborn screening for FXS can provide an early diagnosis, preventing the "diagnostic odyssey", allowing access to early interventions, and providing reproductive information for parents. Parents of affected children support newborn screening, but few clinical studies have evaluated community attitudes. A pilot study in 2009-2010 was performed in a tertiary hospital to explore feasibility and maternal attitudes. FXS testing of male and female newborns was offered to mothers in addition to routine newborn screening. Mothers were provided with information about FXS, inheritance pattern, carrier status, and associated adult-onset disorders. One thousand nine hundred seventy-one of 2,094 mothers (94%) consented to testing of 2,000 newborns. 86% completed the attitudinal survey and 10% provided written comments. Almost all parents (99%) elected to be informed of both premutation and full mutation status and there was little concern about identification of carrier status or associated adult-onset disorders. Most mothers (96%) were comfortable being approached in the postnatal period and supported testing because no extra blood test was required. Mothers considered an early diagnosis beneficial to help prepare for a child with additional needs (93%) and for reproductive planning (64%). Some were anxious about the potential test results (10%) and others felt their feelings towards their newborn may change if diagnosed with FXS (16%). High participation rates and maternal attitudes indicate a high level of maternal acceptance and voluntary support for newborn screening for FXS. PMID:23303663

  6. Surveying Instructors' Attitudes and Approaches to Teaching Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Shabnam; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-10-01

    Understanding instructors' attitudes and approaches to teaching quantum mechanics can be helpful in developing research-based learning tools. Here we discuss the findings from a survey in which 13 instructors reflected on issues related to quantum mechanics teaching. Topics included opinions about the goals of a quantum mechanics course, general challenges in teaching the subject, students' preparation for the course, comparison between their own learning of quantum mechanics vs. how they teach it and the extent to which contemporary topics are incorporated into the syllabus.

  7. Sudden death due to primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis.

    PubMed

    Havlik, D M; Becher, M W; Nolte, K B

    2001-03-01

    Tumors of the central nervous system are an unusual cause of sudden death. This report describes the sudden death of a presumed healthy 28-year-old woman from primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis. She presented to an emergency room with headache and vomiting, subsequently became unresponsive and was pronounced dead 14 h later. Autopsy revealed a diffuse extensive infiltrate of well-differentiated astrocytoma in the leptomeninges of the brain and spinal cord without an underlying parenchymal tumor. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare tumor that arises within the leptomeninges from small neuroglial heterotopic rests that undergo neoplastic transformation. Grossly. this tumor can mimic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, pachymeningitis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and fungal infections. However, the histologic features of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should allow it to be readily distinguished from grossly similar conditions. The mechanism of death in this case is most likely tumor obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid outflow resulting in the usual complications seen with increased intracranial pressure. Although this tumor is aggressive and is associated with a rapidly progressive fatal course, it has not been previously associated with sudden death. PMID:11305449

  8. Attitudes to reporting medication error among differing healthcare professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajit Sarvadikar; Gordon Prescott; David Williams

    2010-01-01

    Aims  Medication error reporting is an important measure to prevent medication error incidents in a healthcare system and can serve\\u000a as an important tool for improving patient safety. This study aimed to investigate attitudes of healthcare professionals (doctors,\\u000a nurses, and pharmacists) in reporting medication errors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifty-six healthcare professionals working at a 900-bed tertiary referral hospital were surveyed. A questionnaire using two

  9. Drosophila homologs of baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis proteins function to block cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Hay; David A. Wassarman; Gerald M. Rubin

    1995-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is a mechanism by which organisms eliminate superfluous or harmful cells. Expression of the cell death regulatory protein REAPER (RPR) in the developing Drosophila eye results in a small eye owing to excess cell death. We show that mutations in thread (th) are dominant enhancers of RPR-induced cell death and that th encodes a protein homologous to

  10. System for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.

  11. Cueing Common Ecological Behaviors to Increase Environmental Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Cornelissen; Mario Pandelaere; Luk Warlop

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a A major obstacle for promoting sustainable (e.g. ecological) consumer behaviors is people’s negative attitude towards these. \\u000a We tested the potential of a persuasion technique for improving these attitudes. We propose that cueing ecological behaviors\\u000a people usually engage in, increases the accessibility of previously performed ecological behavior in the memory.  As several\\u000a theories suggest attitudes are inferred from previous behavior, we

  12. Evidence That Thinking about Death Relates to Time-Estimation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Andy; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2011-01-01

    Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer to death. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief…

  13. [Parental attitude to psychoactive drug use in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fisekovi?, Saida; Licanin, Ifeta

    2005-01-01

    Drug abuse is a problem worldwide, that destroys ones social, economical and family life. Our country is in a transition period and consist of postwar society. Therefore all risk factors for supstances abuse are present here such as social, economical, medical. Parental impact and peers seems to have strong impact on adolsecent with almost the same epidemiological characteristics in economical developed and undeveloped coutries. To find all risk factors is necessary for appropriate prevention approach. The aim of this investigation is finding some aspects of parenteral attitude related to drug abuse among early adolescents. Research covers 600 participants. Adolescents are equal gender and age distribution. It was used Q 2000 as research tool. Study design is prospective, epidemiological, analytica. Results showes that out of total number of adolescents (600) 15.55% were abusing alcohol, 6.69% smoke, 3.34% use cannabis. Parental impact and attitude which is presented in this study related to adolescent's drug abuse could be use as base for preventive activities. PMID:15997676

  14. Attitudes toward and approaches to learning first-year university mathematics.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Hammoudi, Lakhdar

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the relationship for 180 undergraduate students enrolled in a first-year university calculus course between attitudes toward mathematics and approaches to learning mathematics using the Mathematics Attitude Scale and the Approaches to Learning Mathematics Questionnaire, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were negatively related to scores for the Surface Approach and accounted for 10.4% of the variance and scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were positively related to scores for the Deep Approach to learning mathematics and accounted for 31.7% of the variance. PMID:17037652

  15. Neutrophil Adhesion to Vascular Prosthetic Surfaces Triggers Nonapoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Nadzam, Geoffrey S.; De La Cruz, Carolyn; Greco, Ralph S.; Haimovich, Beatrice

    2000-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that neutrophil adhesion to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and Dacron triggers cell death. Summary Background Data Vascular prosthetic infections are intransigent clinical dilemmas associated with excessive rates of death and complications. Impaired neutrophil function has been implicated in the infection of implanted cardiovascular devices. ePTFE and Dacron are potent neutrophil stimuli able to elicit activation responses such as reactive oxygen species production independent of exogenous/soluble agonists. Reactive oxygen species that are released into the medium when neutrophils are challenged by soluble agonists are known to cause self-destruction. The authors therefore sought to examine whether neutrophil adhesion to prosthetic graft materials decreases neutrophil viability by means of reactive oxygen species production. Methods Neutrophils were adhered to surfaces for up to 6 hours. Cell viability was monitored with propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. Results Within 6 hours of adhesion to ePTFE and Dacron, respectively, 59% ± 11% and 44% ± 5% (n = 7) of the neutrophils were stained by propidium iodide. Indistinguishable results were obtained with plasma-coated ePTFE and Dacron. In contrast, less than 2% of the neutrophils adherent to fibrinogen-, immunoglobin-, or fetal bovine serum-coated polystyrene surfaces for 6 hours were positive for propidium iodide. The increase in membrane permeability to propidium iodide was accompanied by a two- to threefold increase in lactate dehydrogenase release. Pretreatment of neutrophils with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, cytochalasin D, or cyclosporin A significantly reduced the number of propidium iodide-positive ePTFE and Dacron adherent neutrophils. Conclusions Neutrophil adhesion to ePTFE and Dacron triggers a rapid nonapoptotic cell death. The effect of ePTFE and Dacron on neutrophil viability appears to be caused by reactive oxygen species production. The premature death of graft-adherent neutrophils provides a novel explanation of the defect in neutrophil bacterial killing associated with vascular prosthetic grafts. PMID:10749621

  16. Rational Development of a Cytotoxic Peptide to Trigger Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Boohaker, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Ge; Lee, Michael W.; Nemec, Kathleen N.; Santra, Santimukul; Perez, J. Manuel; Khaled, Annette R.

    2012-01-01

    Defects in the apoptotic machinery can contribute to tumor formation and resistance to treatment, creating a need to identify new agents that kill cancer cells by alternative mechanisms. To this end, we examined the cytotoxic properties of a novel peptide, CT20p, derived from the C-terminal, alpha-9 helix of Bax, an amphipathic domain with putative membrane binding properties. Like many anti-microbial peptides, CT20p contains clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues that could enable the peptide to associate with lipid membranes. CT20p caused the release of calcein from mitochondrial-like lipid vesicles without disrupting vesicle integrity and, when expressed as a fusion protein in cells, localized to mitochondria. The amphipathic nature of CT20p allowed it to be encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) that have the capacity to harbor targeting molecules, dyes or drugs. The resulting CT20p-NPs proved an effective killer of colon and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, using a murine breast cancer tumor model. By introducing CT20p to Bax deficient cells, we demonstrated that the peptide’s lethal activity was independent of endogenous Bax. CT20p also caused an increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential that was followed by plasma membrane rupture and cell death, without the characteristic membrane asymmetry associated with apoptosis. We determined that cell death triggered by the CT20p-NPs was minimally dependent on effector caspases and resistant Bcl-2 over-expression, suggesting that it was independent of the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. Furthermore, use of CT20p with the apoptosis-inducing drug, cisplatin, resulted in additive toxicity. These results reveal the novel features of CT20p that allow nanoparticle-mediated delivery to tumors and the potential application in combination therapies to activate multiple death pathways in cancer cells. PMID:22591113

  17. [Death by electric shock due to blatantly faulty repair].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sven; Schmeling, Andreas; Wirth, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Due to technical innovations and strict safety regulations the rate and mortality of accidents caused by electric current has been considerably reduced. Nevertheless there are still deaths caused by electric shock, which are mostly due to carelessness and ignorance. The described death by electric shock of a 39-year-old man was the consequence of an electrotechnical curiosity. When repairing a cut extender cable, he installed a second socket on the one part and a second plug on the other. On the day of the accident, he first plugged the part of the cable with the two plugs into a wall socket. Then, as he tried to connect it with the other part, he was electrocuted. PMID:19044138

  18. Deaths in childbed from the eighteenth century to 1935.

    PubMed

    Loudon, I

    1986-01-01

    The history of maternal deaths in England from the earliest records in the 1700s to 1935, concentrating on the influence of medical practice, is recounted. The rate lay between 4 and 5 per 1000 until 1935, with the advent of sulfa antibiotics to prevent puerperal infections. The practice of midwifery by men began in the early 17th century in Britain, but attendance at normal labors by medical practitioners, that is, surgeon-apothecaries, did not become common, and then only in urban areas, until 1730. The use of forceps became widely known about that time, and lying-in hospitals were begun. Obstetrics was held in contempt by professionally educated and registered physicians and apothecaries, however, because of the immodesty and messiness of the work and the long hours involved. Estimates of maternal mortality, from the 1st recorded unselected series, in the late 18th century range from 5-29/1000. Some of the high figures are from specialists in obstetrics, who treated complicated cases. From these data the maternal death rate was estimated at about 25/1000 among unassisted women. Some institutions achieved results better than the national average in the 1920s, suggesting that by the end of the 18th century, a fairly good understanding of childbirth had been reached. At that time the overall forceps rate was conservative, less than 1% compared to 15% now. Use of the perforator, hook and crochet, and manual dilatation of the cervix had been abandoned. In the 19th century, lying-in hospitals became more common and their death rates were higher, probably due to less conservative methods, up to as high as 85/1000, until the advent of antisepsis in 1880. Nevertheless, hospital births were the minority, amounting to 15% in 1927, 54% in 1946, 87% in 1970, 98.8% in 1980. Sepsis, due to casual use of sterile technique, remained the cause of half the total deaths until 1937. It is difficult to assess the contribution of toxemia or obstructed labor in maternal deaths. Rickets was a common cause of obstructed labor, and there are recorded epidemics of both. Similarly, abortion-related deaths are even more difficult to estimate, because of poor reporting. In evaluating the undiminished maternal death rate before 1935, the author believes that maternal survival is remarkably resistant to the ill effects of socioeconomic deprivation, but is very sensitive to the good and bad effects of medical intervention. Hence, there is evidence that the rural and poor in some cases had better results that those given the best medical assistance, especially with regard to puerperal sepsis. The midwifery laws of 1902 provided for training of midwives, and slowly corrected quality of care, as well as hostility between midwives and physicians. The current maternal death rate is about 0.1/1000. PMID:3511335

  19. Effects of Religion and Purpose in Life on Elders' Subjective Well-Being and Attitudes Toward Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Ardelt

    2003-01-01

    Although religiosity tends to help older people to cope with physical and social losses, not all studies find a significant association between religious involvement and well-being in old age. It might be that primarily the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic aspect of religiosity is responsible for the positive effect of religiosity on well-being. Using a sample of 103 community dwelling

  20. Brain death: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative. PMID:25839722

  1. Regulatory failure contributing to deaths of live kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Friedman, A L; Peters, T G; Ratner, L E

    2012-04-01

    Hemorrhagic deaths of living kidney donors from failure of vascular clips used on the renal artery, first documented in 2006, have continued due to postoperative Hem-o-lok clip failure with sudden, massive bleeding. While the FDA issued a Class II recall of the Hem-o-lok clip for laparoscopic donor nephrectomies in 2006, two live kidney donors in the United States and one in India have since died. Compliance in timely reporting of deaths by the manufacturer and donor hospitals has not been enforced. Oversight agencies did not inform practitioners that donors died due to clip failures. A February 2011 survey disclosed that Hem-o-lok or other clips are still used by some surgeons as a sole means of arterial control in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; thus, a practice with documented fatal outcomes persists. We conclude that systems failures by oversight-regulatory agencies in communication to active clinicians led, at least in part, to preventable deaths. Information which was disseminated was neither complete nor timely. A corrective plan, funded by oversight agencies and the Hem-o-lok manufacturer, is proposed. All surgeons operating on a living organ donor must select vascular control techniques that entail tissue transfixion and assure a safe operative recovery. The Hem-o-lok and other surgical clips must not be used to control the donor renal artery. PMID:22233486

  2. Hormone Therapy Linked to Modest Increase in Breast Cancer Deaths

    Cancer.gov

    Women who used combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy to treat menopausal symptoms during the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study had more cases of invasive breast cancer, more lymph-node positive breast cancer, and a slightly higher death rate from breast cancer and other causes than women who received a placebo, researchers reported in an 11-year follow-up report on the study's participants.

  3. Epidemiologic study of deaths and injuries due to tornadoes.

    PubMed

    Carter, A O; Millson, M E; Allen, D E

    1989-12-01

    A case-control study, using both matched and unmatched controls, was carried out on individuals who were injured or killed by a series of tornadoes that passed through Ontario, Canada, on May 31, 1985. Many serious injuries (25%) and almost all (83%) deaths were the result of becoming airborne, while most minor injuries (94%) were due to being struck by objects. Head injury was the most common injury type. Few (21%) of those in buildings chose the recommended location, and most (61%) were not in the least damaged part. Most (91%) had less than one minute's warning, and only 47% had a functioning radio at the time the tornado hit. The following risk factors for injury and death were identified: poor building anchorage; location other than in a basement, especially outdoors; age over 70 years; and high wind strength. These findings support previous findings and point to measures which have potential for preventing death or serious injury in future tornadoes: adequate warning systems and public education to ensure that individuals understand the warning and respond by seeking appropriate shelter. Those in adequately anchored buildings should shelter in an interior room or basement. Those who are outdoors, in poorly anchored buildings, mobile homes, or portable classrooms require access to an adequately anchored building, preferably with a basement, during severe storm warnings. This should be arranged by local authorities. PMID:2589312

  4. School governance and teachers' attitudes to parents' involvement in schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey Addi-Raccah; Ronit Ainhoren

    2009-01-01

    This study probes teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement in schools as a function of four types of school governance as suggested by Bauch and Goldring. Participants of the study included headteachers, chairpersons of parents' committees, and teachers of 11 primary schools in a medium-sized town in Israel. A discriminant analysis found different profiles of teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement: resistant

  5. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  6. Death Investigation Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Death Investigation Certificate What is Death Investigation? Medico-legal death investigation in death investigation in different ways. The study of death investigation trains students to identify and assemble a set of investigative tasks that are performed at every death scene. Modern medico- legal death

  7. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

  8. Obesity and Risk for Death Due to Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shankuan; Layde, Peter M.; Guse, Clare E.; Laud, Purushottam W.; Pintar, Frank; Nirula, Raminder; Hargarten, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of body mass index (BMI) and other factors in driver deaths within 30 days after motor vehicle crashes. Methods. We collected data for 22 107 drivers aged 16 years and older who were involved in motor vehicle crashes from the Crashworthiness Data System of the National Automotive Sampling System (1997–2001). We used logistic regression and adjusted for confounding factors to analyze associations between BMI and driver fatality and the associations between BMI and gender, age, seatbelt use, type of collision, airbag deployment, and change in velocity during a crash. Results. The fatality rate was 0.87% (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50, 1.24) among men and 0.43% (95% CI=0.31, 0.56) among women involved as drivers in motor vehicle crashes. Risk for death increased significantly at both ends of the BMI continuum among men but not among women (P<.05). The association between BMI and male fatality increased significantly with a change in velocity and was modified by the type of collision, but it did not differ by age, seatbelt use, or airbag deployment. Conclusions. The increased risk for death due to motor vehicle crashes among obese men may have important implications for traffic safety and motor vehicle design. PMID:16537660

  9. Science journalists' perceptions and attitudes to pseudoscience in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cortiñas-Rovira, Sergi; Alonso-Marcos, Felipe; Pont-Sorribes, Carles; Escribà-Sales, Eudald

    2014-12-01

    Using interviews and questionnaires, we explored the perceptions and attitudes of 49 Spanish science journalists regarding pseudoscience. Pseudoscience, understood as false knowledge that endeavours to pass as science, is a controversial and complex matter that potentially poses a risk to society. Given that concern over this issue has grown in recent years in Spain, our aim was to evaluate how pseudoscience operates in journalistic practice in Spanish media. Our data reveal not only a lack of editorial policies in regard to pseudoscience, but also the existence of a significant number of science journalists who make light of the potential threat implied by the pseudosciences in the media. Some journalists point to the lack of scientific training of editors and media managers as one of the reasons for the proliferation of the pseudosciences. PMID:25471350

  10. Attitudes Toward Punishment in Relation to Beliefs in Free Will and Determinism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Viney; David A. Waldman; Jacqueline Barchilon

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate attitudes toward punishment in relation to beliefs in free will and determinism. College students responded to two questionnaires; one designed to assess attitudes toward punishment and one designed to assess strength of belief in free will or determinism. It was found that subjects who scored higher in belief in determinism recommended more punitive measures

  11. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  12. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire: Mokken Scaling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing. PMID:24892302

  13. Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Teacher Prediction of Students' Reading Attitudes: An Examination of Teacher Judgment Compared to Student-Peer Judgment in Assessing Student Reading Attitude and Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry J.

    Fifteen high school English teachers and 544 students in their classes participated in a study to determine how well teachers assess student reading habits and attitudes and to compare the accuracy of their judgments with those of student-peers. Each student was administered a measure of reading ability and of reading attitude; additional data…

  15. Ageism and death: effects of mortality salience and perceived similarity to elders on reactions to elderly people.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Schimel, Jeff; Landau, Mark J

    2004-12-01

    The present research investigated the hypotheses that elderly people can be reminders of our mortality and that concerns about our own mortality can therefore instigate ageism. In Study 1, college-age participants who saw photos of two elderly people subsequently showed more death accessibility than participants who saw photos of only younger people. In Study 2, making mortality salient for participants increased distancing from the average elderly person and decreased perceptions that the average elderly person possesses favorable attitudes. Mortality salience did not affect ratings of teenagers. In Study 3, these mortality salience effects were moderated by prior reported similarity to elderly people. Distancing from, and derogation of, elderly people after mortality salience occurred only in participants who, weeks before the study, rated their personalities as relatively similar to the average elderly person's. Discussion addresses distinguishing ageism from other forms of prejudice, as well as possibilities for reducing ageism. PMID:15536237

  16. Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

  17. Attitudes of Doctors and Nurses to Family Presence During Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DSY LAM; SN WONG; H HUI; W LEE; KT SO

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the attitudes of doctors and nurses to the practice of allowing family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Design: An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among doctors and nurses in the paediatric department of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Apart from demographic data, questions were directed to study the

  18. Modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale Created Using Principal-Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…

  19. [The closeness to medical profession and the attitude towards euthanasia].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Kristina; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Stompe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Periodically debates on the legalization of active euthanasia are conducted in the Austrian media. In contrast to most European and North American countries, these debates are not based on local empirical data, because until now no studies on respective attitudes and values exist. In this study notion towards active euthanasia of (1) medical lays, (2) medical students and medical specialists in psychiatry, surgery and internal medicine are explored by means of a semistructured questionnaire. We found that increasing closeness to the medical profession is associated with an increasing refusal of active euthanasia. Among the medical specialists, specialists in internal medicine, who, after the legalization, would be most involved in decision-making processes as well as in the execution of active euthanasia, showed the greatest reservation concerning this question. PMID:19703382

  20. Parental attitudes towards advertising to children and restrictive mediation of children's television viewing in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Dens; Patrick De Pelsmacker; Lynne Eagle

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding children's nutrition habits and the degree to which these perceptions influence television monitoring by parents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire assessing attitudes was distributed among parents of Belgian primary and secondary school children. Parental

  1. Perceptions, Attitudes, Motivations, and Behaviors of Drivers 18 to 22 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    Young people are open to traffic accidents because of their age, their attitude, their lack of experience, and their tendency for risk-taking. This study sought an answer to the question of what are the perceptions, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors of young people that lead to traffic safety problems and/or interfere with their…

  2. Attitudes of Christians and Muslims to an Oocyte Donation Program in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mete Isikoglu; Mohammad A. Khalili

    There are still controversial attitudes regarding oocyte donation (OD) programs. The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the opinions of Christians and Muslims regarding an OD program in Iran. 200 adults were randomly assigned to fill out the questionnaires. Part I contained demographic information, and Part II contained 20 questions to reveal their knowledge and attitudes about OD.

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to HIV and AIDS among Female College Students in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chen Tung; Jie Hu; Cindy Davis; Wei-Kang Tung; Yin-Mei Lin

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the knowledge and attitudes, source of HIV and AIDS information, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan and to explore the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes of HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan. We employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Using a mail survey, the investigators

  4. An Examination of Perceptions of Parental Influence on Attitudes to Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The assumption that parents have some effect on their children's attitudes to learning is one that few educationalists would challenge. The ways in which this influence is brought to bear are a slightly more complex and contentious matter, however. Purpose: The paper uses data from a tri-national PhD study on pupil attitudes to examine…

  5. "This Is a Public Service Announcement": Evaluating and Redesigning Campaigns to Teach Attitudes and Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Erika J.; Lomore, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…

  6. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

  7. Images of women in advertisements: Effects on attitudes related to sexual aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyra Lanis; Katherine Covell

    1995-01-01

    While the power of advertisements has long been known, investigations of sociocultural influences on sexual attitudes have been limited primarily to studies of sexually aggressive media. In this study we examined the effects on sexual attitudes of different portrayals of women in advertisements. Male and female white middle-class university students were exposed to one of three groups of advertisements. In

  8. Attitude to Medication of Parents/Primary Carers of People With Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasaratnam, R.; Crouch, K.; Regan, A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of attitudes of carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) towards giving medication. Ninety-three carers of service users who are currently attending outpatients clinic (Harrow Learning Disability service) were interviewed, using the RAMS (Rating of Attitude to Medication Scale) interview schedule. A…

  9. Attitudes to new technology and experiential dimensions of two different digital games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki Särkelä; Jari Takatalo; Jeppe Komulainen; Göte Nyman; Jukka Häkkinen

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of attitudes to new technology on user experience in two different digital games. User experience is measured by using a framework which includes perceptual-attentive, cognitive-emotional and motivational constructs. They form four experiential dimensions; Physical presence, Emotional involvement, Situational involvement and Performance competence. Attitudes to new technology were measured by asking from the subjects how interested

  10. Social Attitudes Toward Science of Freshmen at Hinds Junior College Relative to Their Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Troy Lee

    Reported is a study to: (1) measure the initial social attitudes of college freshmen toward science in comparison to their understanding of science, and (2) evaluate changes in the freshmen attitudes which may occur during the students' first academic year in a science course. The 413 students in this study were enrolled in one of the following…

  11. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  12. Grade 4 to 8 Primary School Students' Attitudes towards Science: Science Enthusiasm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the grades 4 to 8 students' attitudes towards science under the "liking school", "independent investigator" and "what I really think of science" titles. The affect of gender, grade level and science achievement on students' attitudes was analysed in "liking school", "independent investigator", "science…

  13. The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda van den Bergh; Eddie Denessen; Lisette Hornstra; Marinus Voeten; Rob W. Holland

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers were assessed via self-report and an Implicit Association Test. Teacher

  14. Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak

    2012-01-01

    The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

  15. Attitudes to the Army and ProNuclear Activism in Three Student Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick G. L. Heaven; John D. Brewer; C. L. Bester

    1986-01-01

    The study investigated the correlates of attitudes toward the army and pro-nuclear activism among students in Australia, N. Ireland and (white) South Africa. Results showed the South Africans to be most favorably disposed toward the army and also to be most favorably disposed toward the deployment of nuclear weapons. Across the three groups those with positive attitudes toward the army

  16. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  17. Attitudes of Greek parents of primary school children without special educational needs to inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efrosini Kalyva; Maria Georgiadi; Vlastaris Tsakiris

    2007-01-01

    Successful inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in school settings depends largely on the attitudes of parents of peers without SEN. The purpose of the present study was to explore the attitudes of Greek parents of primary school children without SEN towards inclusion. The participants were 338 parents (182 fathers, 156 mothers), aged 27 to 58 years (mean

  18. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Lawler Girard

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers surveyed; (b) examine relationships between elementary school teacher attitudes about school nutrition environments and perceived influence on the

  19. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2007-01-01

    To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

  20. The attitude towards disclosure of bad news to cancer patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljubran, Ali H.

    2010-01-01

    Disclosing the diagnosis or prognosis to cancer patients in Saudi Arabia can be a serious challenge to the physician in his daily clinic practice. The public attitude towards full disclosure is still conservative, and in order to appropriately deal with such an attitude, physicians need to deeply understand its sociocultural background. This article attempts to look into what governs the public attitude towards disclosure in Saudi Arabia as an example of what may affect attitudes in developing countries. It also brings some data from local surveys among physicians and patients as well as from public surveys to describe the changing trend in attitude over the years with a comparative analysis of the Western literature. PMID:20220264

  1. Distributions of observed death tolls govern sensitivity to human fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Olivola, Christopher Y.; Sagara, Namika

    2009-01-01

    How we react to humanitarian crises, epidemics, and other tragic events involving the loss of human lives depends largely on the extent to which we are moved by the size of their associated death tolls. Many studies have demonstrated that people generally exhibit a diminishing sensitivity to the number of human fatalities and, equivalently, a preference for risky (vs. sure) alternatives in decisions under risk involving human losses. However, the reason for this tendency remains unknown. Here we show that the distributions of event-related death tolls that people observe govern their evaluations of, and risk preferences concerning, human fatalities. In particular, we show that our diminishing sensitivity to human fatalities follows from the fact that these death tolls are approximately power-law distributed. We further show that, by manipulating the distribution of mortality-related events that people observe, we can alter their risk preferences in decisions involving fatalities. Finally, we show that the tendency to be risk-seeking in mortality-related decisions is lower in countries in which high-mortality events are more frequently observed. Our results support a model of magnitude evaluation based on memory sampling and relative judgment. This model departs from the utility-based approaches typically encountered in psychology and economics in that it does not rely on stable, underlying value representations to explain valuation and choice, or on choice behavior to derive value functions. Instead, preferences concerning human fatalities emerge spontaneously from the distributions of sampled events and the relative nature of the evaluation process. PMID:20018778

  2. The Effect of Exposure to a Professor With a Visible Disability on Students' Attitudes Toward Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiko Hayashi; Gary E. May

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted on a small convenience sample of undergraduate social work students. The Modified Issues in Disability Scale was used to collect data on attitudes toward disability. There was no statistically significant difference in the attitudes scores among students who had different levels of contact with persons with disabilities. There was, however, a statistically significant difference between

  3. What are the people's attitudes toward spinal cord injury victims (from common to elite)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinigolafshani, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the acutely fatal and prevalent crises in all societies is acute spinal cord injury. Individuals with a spinal cord injury are prone to numerous challenges, perturbation, and acute mental distresses. One of their concerns, often expressed generally and in the form of a complaint, is how people deal with them. The present study aims to analyze the experiences and interactions of the disabled with the society and to achieve a deep clarification of their internal attitudes and realistic approaches in various social classes (from common people to elite). Materials and Methods: The present study is a part of a greater research with a classical grounded theory approach conducted on 12 successful and nationally and internationally popular disabled people. Sampling was firstly purposive and then continued with snowball sampling. The data were collected by open deep interviews which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed by Graneheim content analysis method. Results: The findings obtained through analysis of the interviews yielded the theme of a socially suppressing attitude which contained four subthemes of compassionate attitude, disability attitude, inhuman attitude, and atonement attitude. Conclusions: The results showed that both groups of common, and educated and elite classes of Iranian society have identically suppressing attitudes and interactions toward spinal cord injury victims. It seems that traditional attitudes yet preponderate academic and scientific knowledge in Iranian society. This gap needs notable attention of all the Iranians, especially policy makers and social personalities. PMID:24949065

  4. Internationalization at Home: Using Learning Motivation to Predict Students' Attitudes toward Teaching in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Fostering foreign language proficiency is an important goal of university teaching. We identified German university students' (N = 1265) goal orientations developed during secondary school as predictors of attitudes toward receiving instruction in English at university. Mastery goal orientation was proposed to "directly" promote positive attitudes

  5. BETWEEN TRADITION AND MODERNIZATION: ATTITUDES TO WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA By Marija Brajdi Vukovi, Institute for Social Research Zagreb Gunn Birkelund AND MODERNIZATION: ATTITUDES TO WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA By Marija Brajdi Vukovi, Institute we analyze the attitudes toward gender roles and women's employment in Croatia. Using the SEESSP

  6. Design and Study of the Instrument to Assess Students' Attitude toward Graphing Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznichenko, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…

  7. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  8. Adolescents' attitudes towards organic food: a survey of 15- to 16-year old school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derk Jan Stobbelaar; Gerda Casimir; Josine Borghuis; Inge Marks; Laurens Meijer; Simone Zebeda

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16 years was conducted. Four main groups of questions were used: adolescents' knowledge of organic food, attitudes, whether

  9. Evaluation of the Patriotic Attitudes of the Prospective Teachers According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz; Aksoy, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the investigation of the patriotic attitudes of the prospective teachers seeking the answer of the question "what are the levels of the patriotic attitudes of the prospective teachers?" For this purpose a descriptive survey model of patriotism scale developed by Schatz, Staub and Lavine and adapted to Turkish by…

  10. Evaluation of Environmental Attitudes: Analysis and Results of a Scale Applied to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Rodriguez-Barreiro, Luis; Carrasquer, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few decades, environmental work has increased significantly. An important part of this has to do with attitudes. This research presents the design and validation of an environmental attitudes scale aimed at university students. Detailed information on development and validation of the scale is provided. Similarly, it presents the…

  11. What Happens? Relationship of Age and Gender with Science Attitudes from Elementary to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorge, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of 1008 students from rural New Mexico in elementary and middle schools from ages 9 through 14. A large decrease in science attitudes between the ages of 11 and 12 years, corresponding with the move from elementary to middle school was observed. (Contains 1 figure and 3 tables.)

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of students towards peers with disabilities.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes. PMID:23982486

  13. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false When does SVB entitlement end due to death? 408.816 ...SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions...816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death? Your SVB entitlement ends with the month in which you...

  14. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false When does SVB entitlement end due to death? 408.816 ...SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions...816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death? Your SVB entitlement ends with the month in which you...

  15. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false When does SVB entitlement end due to death? 408.816 ...SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions...816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death? Your SVB entitlement ends with the month in which you...

  16. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false When does SVB entitlement end due to death? 408.816 ...SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions...816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death? Your SVB entitlement ends with the month in which you...

  17. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false When does SVB entitlement end due to death? 408.816 ...SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions...816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death? Your SVB entitlement ends with the month in which you...

  18. Robustness of quantum discord to sudden death in NMR

    E-print Network

    Jianwei Xu; Qihui Chen

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord of two qubits in liquid state homonuclear NMR. Applying a phenomenological description for NMR under relaxation process, and taking a group of typical parameters of NMR, we show that when a zero initial state $|00> $ experiences a relaxation process, its entanglement disappears completely after a sequence of so-called sudden deaths and revivals, while the quantum discord retains remarkable values after a sequence of oscillations. That is to say, the quantum discord is more robust than entanglement.

  19. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; U?ak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.

  20. ICU Infections Among Elderly Tied to Higher Death Rates After Discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. ICU Infections Among Elderly Tied to Higher Death Rates After Discharge Intravenous line infections and ventilator- ... their hospital stay, a new study finds. "Any death from preventable infections is one too many," study ...

  1. 77 FR 60741 - Convening of an Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances Surrounding the Deaths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances Surrounding the Deaths of Personnel Assigned in Support of the U.S. Government Mission...State Hillary Rodham Clinton has determined that the recent deaths of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, Information...

  2. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease Anna Kaplan c

    E-print Network

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease Anna Kaplan c , Brent R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 2. Huntington disease Keywords: Huntington disease Cell death Fragment-based drug discovery Neurodegenerative diseases A B S T R

  3. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  4. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  5. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  6. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  7. Sudden oak death survey findings to be presented in Santa Rosa By GUY KOVNER

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Sudden oak death survey findings to be presented in Santa Rosa By GUY KOVNER THE PRESS DEMOCRAT of sudden oak death infection in Sonoma County and around the Bay Area at a public meeting Friday night to protect their trees from the sudden oak death pathogen in two meetings, also free and open to the public

  8. Cytosolic zinc accumulation contributes to excitotoxic oligodendroglial death.

    PubMed

    Mato, Susana; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; Bernal-Chico, Ana; Matute, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Dyshomeostasis of cytosolic Zn(2+) is a critical mediator of neuronal damage during excitotoxicity. However, the role of this cation in oligodendrocyte pathophysiology is not well understood. The current study examined the contribution of Zn(2+) deregulation to oligodendrocyte injury mediated by AMPA receptors. Oligodendrocytes loaded with the Zn(2+)-selective indicator FluoZin-3 responded to mild stimulation of AMPA receptors with fast cytosolic Zn(2+) rises that resulted from intracellular release, as they were not blocked by the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator Ca-EDTA. Pharmacological experiments suggested that AMPA-induced Zn(2+) mobilization depends on cytosolic Ca(2+) accumulation, arises from mitochondria and protein-bound pools, and is triggered by mechanisms that do not involve the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, intracellular Zn(2+) rises resulting from AMPA receptor activation seem to be promoted by Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic acidification. Addition of the cell-permeable Zn(2+) chelator TPEN significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death by sub-maximal activation of AMPA receptors both in vitro and in situ, suggesting that Zn(2+) deregulation is an important mediator of oligodendrocyte excitotoxicity. These data provide evidence that strategies aimed at maintaining Zn(2+) homeostasis may be useful for the treatment of disorders in which excitotoxicity is an important trigger of oligodendroglial death. PMID:23440871

  9. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  10. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  11. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  12. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  13. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  14. Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiqing; Wang, Xingang; Guan, Shuguang; Lai, Choy-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks of nonlinear oscillators is investigated both numerically and analytically. It is found that, as the coupling strength increases, the network will undergo three different stages in approaching the state of complete amplitude death (CAD). In the first stage of the transition, the amplitudes of the oscillators present a 'stair-like' arrangement, i.e. the squared amplitude of an oscillator linearly decreases with the number of links that the oscillator receives (node degree). In this stage, as the coupling strength increases, the amplitude stairs are eliminated hierarchically by descending order of the node degree. At the end of the first stage, except for a few synchronized oscillators, all other oscillators in the network have small amplitudes. Then, in the second stage of the transition, the synchronous clusters formed in the first stage gradually disappear and, as a consequence, the number of small-amplitude oscillators is increased. At the end of the second stage, almost all oscillators in the network have small but finite amplitudes. Finally, in the third stage of the transition, without the support of the synchronous clusters, the amplitudes of the oscillators are quickly decreased, eventually leading to the state of CAD.

  15. Pathogenic Ubqln2 gains toxic properties to induce neuron death.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinxue; Liu, Mujun; Huang, Cao; Liu, Xionghao; Huang, Bo; Li, Niansheng; Zhou, Hongxia; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in ubiquilin 2 (Ubqln2) is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A foremost question regarding Ubqln2 pathogenesis is whether pathogenically mutated Ubqln2 causes neuron death via a gain or loss of functions. To better understand Ubqln2 pathobiology, we created Ubqln2 transgenic and knockout rats and compared phenotypic expression in these novel rat models. Overexpression of Ubqln2 with a pathogenic mutation (P497H substitution) caused cognitive deficits and neuronal loss in transgenic rats at the age of 130 days. In the transgenic rats, neuronal loss was preceded by the progressive formation of Ubqln2 aggregates and was accompanied by the progressive accumulation of the autophagy substrates p62 and LC3-II and the impairment of endosome pathways. In contrast, none of these pathologies observed in mutant Ubqln2 transgenic rats was detected in Ubqln2 knockout rats at the age of 300 days. Together, our findings in Ubqln2 transgenic and knockout rats collectively suggest that pathogenic Ubqln2 causes neuron death mainly through a gain of unrevealed functions rather than a loss of physiological functions. PMID:25388785

  16. The genetic message of a sudden, unexpected death due to thoracic aortic dissection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Ripperger; Hans Dieter Tröger; Jörg Schmidtke

    2009-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are associated with sudden, unexpected death due to dissection and\\/or rupture. In such cases, the latent, preceding state of aortic dilatation has often gone undiagnosed. As a consequence of the sudden unresolved death, medico-legal autopsy requested by a public prosecutor will be the consequence to establish the cause and manner of death. Usually, autopsy records do not

  17. First Grade Teacher's Feelings about Discussing Death in the Classroom and Suggestions To Support Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Cordero, Minerva

    Drawing on the literature and a survey of first-grade teachers, this paper provides a summary of the ways children grieve, children's ideas on death, ways to help children contend with the difficulties surrounding death, and teachers' feelings about discussing death in the classroom. Twelve teachers completed a questionnaire about how to

  18. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  19. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  20. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  1. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  2. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  3. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public’s response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-01-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs. PMID:22894959

  4. From DNA Radiation Damage to Cell Death: Theoretical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ballarini, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to “historical” approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions) supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA “sublesions” and “lesions” as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal) chromosome aberrations, respectively. PMID:20976308

  5. Young people's response to death threat appeals: do they really feel immortal?

    PubMed

    Henley, N; Donovan, R J

    2003-02-01

    Threat appeals are used frequently in health promotion, with threats of (premature) death common in some areas, e.g. 'quit smoking or you'll die'. There is a common notion that young people feel they are immortal. Accordingly, we investigated whether young people would respond less to threats of death than to non-death threats and whether younger people would respond less to death threats than older people. This study was conducted with smokers in two age groups (16-25 and 40-50 years). Each respondent was exposed to one message about the threat of emphysema, either a death or non-death message. Younger smokers did not respond more to non-death threats than death threats and expressed a higher level of response to all threats than older smokers. It would appear that death threats are effective with young people and so we conclude that they do not feel immortal. An additional finding was that older females responded significantly more to non-death threats than older males. Death threats may not be effective with older females and a segmentation approach may be advisable when targeting older people using death threats in health promotion campaigns. PMID:12608680

  6. Improving Access to Library Resources: The Influence of Organization of Library Collections, and of User Attitudes Toward Innovative Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; Blomquist, Laura L.

    An investigation was conducted to probe faculty attitudes toward library effectiveness, to measure the effect on these attitudes of the dispersion of relevant resources in a system of departmental libraries around the campus, and to determine if a document delivery system produced changes in user attitudes toward the library. Studies were…

  7. Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in police custody and in the community

    PubMed Central

    Pollanen, M S; Chiasson, D A; Cairns, J T; Young, J G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may contribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unexpectedly. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 21 cases of unexpected death in people with excited delirium, which were investigated by the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario between 1988 and 1995. Eyewitness testimony, findings during postmortem examinations, clinical history, toxicological data and other official documents describing the events surrounding the deaths were analyzed. Specific reference was made to documented eyewitness testimony of restraint method, body position and use of capsicum oleoresin (pepper) spray. Because cocaine was detected in the blood of some of these people during the postmortem examination, the role of cocaine in excited delirium was examined by comparing the cocaine levels in these cases with levels in 2 control groups: 19 people who died from acute cocaine intoxication and 21 people who had used cocaine shortly before they died but who had died from other causes. RESULTS: In all 21 cases of unexpected death associated with excited delirium, the deaths were associated with restraint (for violent agitation and hyperactivity), with the person either in a prone position (18 people [86%]) or subjected to pressure on the neck (3 [14%]). All of those who died had suddenly lapsed into tranquillity shortly after being restrained. The excited delirium was caused by a psychiatric disorder in 12 people (57%) and by cocaine-induced psychosis in 8 (38%). Eighteen people (86%) were in police custody when they died. Four (19%) had been sprayed with capsicum oleoresin, and heart disease was found in another 4 at autopsy. The blood level of cocaine in those whose excited delirium was cocaine induced was similar to levels found in recreational cocaine users and lower than levels found in people who died from cocaine intoxication. INTERPRETATION: Restraint may contribute to the death of people in states of excited delirium, and further studies to test this hypothesis are recommended. Meanwhile, law enforcement authorities and others should bear in mind the potential for the unexpected death of people in states of excited delirium who are restrained in the prone position or with a neck hold. PMID:9645173

  8. Safe using messages may not be enough to promote behaviour change amongst injecting drug users who are ambivalent or indifferent towards death

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Background Health promotion strategies ultimately rely on people perceiving the consequences of their behaviour as negative. If someone is indifferent towards death, it would logically follow that health promotion messages such as safe using messages would have little resonance. This study aimed to investigate attitudes towards death in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and how such attitudes may impact upon the efficacy/relevance of 'safe using' (health promotion) messages. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews in Geelong, Australia with 60 regular heroin users recruited primarily from needle and syringe programs. Results Over half of the interviewees reported having previously overdosed and 35% reported not engaging in any overdose prevention practices. 13% had never been tested for either HIV or hepatitis C. Just under half reported needle sharing of some description and almost all (97%) reported previously sharing other injecting equipment. Many interviewees reported being indifferent towards death. Common themes included; indifference towards life, death as an occupational hazard of drug use and death as a welcome relief. Conclusion Most of the interviewees in this study were indifferent towards heroin-related death. Whilst interviewees were well aware of the possible consequences of their actions, these consequences were not seen as important as achieving their desired state of mind. Safe using messages are an important part of reducing drug-related harm, but people working with IDUs must consider the context in which risk behaviours occur and efforts to reduce said behaviours must include attempts to reduce environmental risk factors at the same time. PMID:19630988

  9. Attitude stability of artificial satellites subject to gravity gradient torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moraes, Rodolpho Vilhena; Cabette, Regina Elaine Santos; Zanardi, Maria Cecília; Stuchi, Teresinha J.; Formiga, Jorge Kennety

    2009-08-01

    The stability of the rotational motion of artificial satellites is analyzed considering perturbations due to the gravity gradient torque, using a canonical formulation, and Andoyer’s variables to describe the rotational motion. The stability criteria employed requires the reduction of the Hamiltonian to a normal form around the stable equilibrium points. These points are determined through a numerical study of the Hamilton’s equations of motion and linear study of their stability. Subsequently a canonical linear transformation is used to diagonalize the matrix associated to the linear part of the system resulting in a normalized quadratic Hamiltonian. A semi-analytic process of normalization based on Lie-Hori algorithm is applied to obtain the Hamiltonian normalized up to the fourth order. Lyapunov stability of the equilibrium point is performed using Kovalev and Savchenko’s theorem. This semi-analytical approach was applied considering some data sets of hypothetical satellites, and only a few cases of stable motion were observed. This work can directly be useful for the satellite maintenance under the attitude stability requirements scenario.

  10. Identification and characterization of students' attitudes toward technology as related to environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lubbers, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Viewing the role of technology as either the cause of or solution to environmental problems may be unrealistic, and such extreme attitudes may inhibit the resolution of environmental problems. Courses that present a particular orientation toward the role of technology may encourage these extreme attitudes. Identifying attitudes of students enrolled in such courses and designing instruction to foster specific attitudes can lead to a more rational and objective attitude toward technology as related to environmental problems. The Scientific-Environmental-Technological (SET) literacy model was suggested as an appropriate framework for presenting the role of technology to students. A 34 item Likert scale was developed to measure attitudes as defined by two constructs: PRO-technology and ANTI-technology. Students enrolled in three courses (E200, Environment and People, K201, The Computer in Business, E100, Freshman Engineering Lectures), were asked to respond to the survey at the beginning and end of the fall, 1980 semester. The findings indicate that the survey was useful in identifying and characterizing attitudes of certain populations. The differences between the E200 and E100 students indicate that instruction that recognizes and examines the full range of perspectives on the impact of technology should be provided for these students.

  11. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Beresford, H R

    1999-05-01

    Current law in the United States authorizes physicians to diagnose brain death by applying generally accepted neurologic criteria for determining loss of function of the entire brain. This article offers a medical-legal perspective on problems that may arise with respect to the determination of brain death. These include the possibility of diagnostic error, conceptual disagreements that may constrain the use of neurologic criteria to diagnose death, and the conflation of brain death and loss of consciousness. This article also addresses legal aspects of the debate over whether to expand the definition of brain death to include permanent unconsciousness. Although existing laws draw a clear distinction between brain death and the persistent vegetative state, many courts have authorized removal of life support from individuals whose unconsciousness is believed to be permanent on proof that removal accords with preferences expressed before sentience was lost. PMID:10196410

  12. Adolescent attitudes and relevance to family life education programs.

    PubMed

    Unni, Jeeson C

    2010-02-01

    The study was conducted in seven private coeducational English-medium schools in Cochin to understand adolescent attitudes in this part of the country. Queries submitted by students (n=10,660) and responses to separate pretested questionnaires for boys (n=886 received) and girls (n=589 received) were analysed. The study showed a lacuna of knowledge among adolescents with the most frequently asked queries being on masturbation, and sex and sexuality. More than 50% of adolescents received information on sex and sexuality from peers; boys had started masturbating by 12 yr age and 93% were doing so by 15 yr age. Although 73% of girls were told about menstruation by their parents, 32% were not aware, at menarche, that such an event would occur and only 8% were aware of all aspects of maintaining menstrual hygiene. 19% of boys succumbed to peer pressure into reading/viewing pornography; more than 50% of adolescents admitted to having had an infatuation around 13 yrs of age or after. 13% of boys admitted to having been initiated into smoking by friends; mostly between 14-16 yrs age; 6.5% boys had consumed alcohol with peers or at family functions, starting between ages of 15 to 17 yrs. Though >70% of adolescents were aware about AIDS, adequate knowledge about its spread and prevention was lacking. PMID:19430068

  13. Exposure to depressant drugs leads to neuronal death within the developing piriform cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Klebe

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol and other sedative hypnotic drugs are known to have deleterious effects within developing brains. Previous research has demonstrated, using post-natal day 14 (PND 14) rats, that a single exposure to urethane, an anesthetic once used in humans, can cause selective death within the piriform cortex. This project characterized the mode of neuronal death within this region, after administering the

  14. Comparison of mitotic cell death by chromosome fragmentation to premature chromosome condensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua B Stevens; Batoul Y Abdallah; Sarah M Regan; Guo Liu; Steven W Bremer; Christine J Ye; Henry H Heng

    2010-01-01

    Mitotic cell death is an important form of cell death, particularly in cancer. Chromosome fragmentation is a major form of mitotic cell death which is identifiable during common cytogenetic analysis by its unique phenotype of progressively degraded chromosomes. This morphology however, can appear similar to the morphology of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and thus, PCC has been at times confused

  15. I Have to Go on: The Effect of a Mother's Death on Her Daughter's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratti, Theresa Helen McLuskey

    2011-01-01

    Parents die during the lives of their children. If the child is an adolescent, that death will impact the student's education immediately or in subsequent years. Findings show the death of a mother does impact the daughter's education. It is imperative educators are willing to work with the student at the time the death occurs as well as in the…

  16. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  17. Contents of Douglas Gray, From the Norman Conquest to the Black Death. Conquest and Conqueror

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Contents of Douglas Gray, From the Norman Conquest to the Black Death. Conquest and Conqueror Guy, Bishop of Amiens, On the Battle of Hastings Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1087: The Death of William Edmund le Rei Edward Grim, The Death of Thomas Becket The Story of Little St Hugh of Lincoln Adgar

  18. Personal and Perceived Peer Attitudes Supporting Sexual Aggression as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Intervene against Sexual Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amy L.; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Male college students (N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness…

  19. Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in this developing field of medical education. Methods We searched major electronic databases and citation indexes within the disciplines of medicine, education, social science and management. We undertook hand searching of major journals, and reference and citation tracking. We accessed websites of UK medical institutions and contacted individuals working within the field. Results 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in the USA, using mainly quantitative methods. We used inductive analysis of the topics addressed by each study to identity five main content areas: Quality Improvement; Managed Care, Use of Resources and Costs; General Leadership and Management; Role of the Doctor, and Patient Safety. Students have positive attitudes to clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement techniques and multidisciplinary teamwork, but mixed attitudes to managed care, cost containment and medical error. Education interventions had variable effects on students' attitudes. Medical students perceive a need for leadership and management education but identified lack of curriculum time and disinterest in some activities as potential barriers to implementation. Conclusions The findings from our review may reflect the relatively little emphasis given to leadership and management in medical curricula. However, students recognise a need to develop leadership and management competences. Although further work needs to be undertaken, using rigorous methods, to identify the most effective and cost-effective curriculum innovations, this review offers the only currently available summary of work examining the attitudes of students to this important area of development for future doctors. PMID:22082174

  20. The development of a survey to examine knowledge about and attitudes toward concussion in high-school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron M. Rosenbaum; Peter A. Arnett

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new measure of concussion knowledge and attitudes that is more comprehensive and psychometrically sound than previous measures is described. A group of high-school students (N = 529) completed the measure. The measure demonstrated fair to satisfactory test–retest reliability (knowledge items, r = .67; attitude items, r = .79). Exploratory factor analysis of the attitude items revealed

  1. Into the valley of death: research to innovation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John; Khazragui, Hanan F

    2013-07-01

    The phase between research and successful innovation is known as the valley of death. Increasingly, researchers from the pharmaceutical industry and academia are working together, often encouraged by governments, to cross this 'valley' as they seek to bring basic research to the market. This is consistent with newer models of innovation policy that stress interaction between the different agents across the innovation process. Here, we examine this interaction in the UK, the EU and the USA using several specific examples, suggesting that cooperation is still far from perfect and that the return for academia on its research investment is relatively small. Countries are also beginning to use research as a tool of industrial economic policy. PMID:23402848

  2. Death due to isolated jejunal tear following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Basappa S; Yajaman, Girishchandra P; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2014-09-01

    Small intestinal injury following blunt abdominal trauma has been widely reported. Isolated jejunal tear which is caused by blunt abdominal trauma is rare and is most often seen in road traffic accidents. Here, we report a case of isolated jejunal tear in a 24-year-old male truck driver. He was admitted to a tertiary care hospital in a South Indian Metropolitan city with complaints of acute abdominal pain and tiredness following alleged accidental blunt trauma sustained to abdomen due to steering wheel impact. An isolated jejunal tear and adjacent mesenteric contusion and tear were missed by the treating physician even after preliminary investigations, and thus, the conservative management was instituted. The condition deteriorated gradually, and he succumbed to death. The autopsy revealed transverse tear of jejunum almost involving whole of its circumference on the antimesenteric border and peritonitis. Proper use of radio-diagnostic techniques and timely undertaken explorative laparotomy would have saved the life. PMID:24547969

  3. Perceptions of aging and their relation with age, death depression, and sex.

    PubMed

    Robak, R W; Griffin, P W; Lacomb, M; Quint, W

    2000-06-01

    The relations of knowledge and attitudes about aging to one's age, sex, and depression about death were examined. 111 undergraduate and graduate students completed the multiple-choice form of the Facts on Aging Quiz and the Death Depression Scale. Present results extend previous research showing that people's perceptions of aging change with age. How such perceptions change is twofold: (1) perceptions of aging do not become more positive with age but do have less negative bias, and (2) they show more knowledge of aging on test measures. No sex differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about aging. No significant relationship was found between scores on measures of attitudes toward aging and depression about death. Sex differences were found on scores for death depression, with women reporting greater depression about death. PMID:10939066

  4. Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

    2007-01-01

    A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

  5. From denial to recognition: attitudes toward Holocaust survivors from World War II to the present.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses the complex attitudes of Israeli society and mental health professionals toward the survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. While the nascent state of Israel provided refuge for the Holocaust survivors and offered them a new identity and opportunity to rebuild their lives, it also demanded that they abnegate their former identities, their Holocaust experiences above all, and repress all the emotional problems that the Holocaust created. In the nearly 5 decades since the first survivors arrived on Israel's shores with their accounts of barely imaginable horror, society's attitudes toward the survivors have traced a tortured course, throughout which the views of the helping professions have mirrored, rather than led, those of the general public. This paper describes the process of change in attitudes and attempts to explain this process. PMID:7627438

  6. Sex stratified neuronal cultures to study ischemic cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Stacy L; Vest, Rebekah; Verma, Saurabh; Traystman, Richard J; Herson, Paco S

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome. PMID:24378980

  7. 78 FR 48456 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder AGENCY: U.S...Customs broker license cancellation due to death of the broker...cancelled without prejudice due to the death of the license holders....

  8. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section...EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.912 What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? Link to an...

  9. Diverse routes to oscillation death in a coupled oscillator system.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Vargas, José J; González, Jorge A; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V E

    2009-02-13

    We study oscillation death (OD) in a well-known coupled-oscillator system that has been used to model cardiovascular phenomena. We derive exact analytic conditions that allow the prediction of OD through the two known bifurcation routes, in the same model, and for different numbers of coupled oscillators. Our exact analytic results enable us to generalize OD as a multiparameter-sensitive phenomenon. It can be induced, not only by changes in couplings, but also by changes in the oscillator frequencies or amplitudes. We observe synchronization transitions as a function of coupling and confirm the robustness of the phenomena in the presence of noise. Numerical and analogue simulations are in good agreement with the theory. PMID:20823952

  10. Diverse routes to oscillation death in a coupled oscillator system

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Vargas, José J.; González, Jorge A.; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2010-01-01

    We study oscillation death (OD) in a well-known coupled-oscillator system that has been used to model cardiovascular phenomena. We derive exact analytic conditions that allow the prediction of OD through the two known bifurcation routes, in the same model, and for different numbers of coupled oscillators. Our exact analytic results enable us to generalize OD as a multiparameter-sensitive phenomenon. It can be induced, not only by changes in couplings, but also by changes in the oscillator frequencies or amplitudes. We observe synchronization transitions as a function of coupling and confirm the robustness of the phenomena in the presence of noise. Numerical and analogue simulations are in good agreement with the theory. PMID:20823952

  11. Death due to complications of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Emily; Schandl, Cynthia; Tormos, Lee Marie

    2014-11-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia comprises a group of disorders affecting ectodermal tissues. Severity depends on the genetic aberration; hyperpyrexia secondary to absence of sweat glands is a common complication. Treatment is supportive. This case report describes a 1-month, 27-day-old male infant with a diagnosis of X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. On the day of his death, his mother swaddled him in a blanket and placed him on the couch at 5:30 am. When she picked him up at 8:00 am, he was unresponsive. At the emergency department, his rectal temperature was 40°C. Postmortem blood culture was positive for group B streptococcus, a possible etiology for fever. It is vital to teach parents that close monitoring of children with ectodermal dysplasia is necessary, as an increase in body temperature can become life threatening. PMID:25069757

  12. Learning to dislike alcohol: conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrijn Houben; Remco C. Havermans; Reinout W. Wiers

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  Since implicit attitudes toward alcohol play an important role in drinking behavior, a possible way to obtain a behavioral\\u000a change is changing these implicit attitudes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study examined whether a change in implicit attitudes and in drinking behavior can be achieved via evaluative conditioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and a control condition. In the experimental condition,

  13. From the emergency department to vital statistics: cause of death uncertain.

    PubMed

    Keirns, Carla C; Carr, Brendan G

    2008-08-01

    Vital statistics are widely used to evaluate trends in health and illness, inform policy, and allocate resources among health priorities. Literature comparing autopsies to clinical death certification has shown that the clinical "cause of death" certification is inaccurate or incomplete in many cases. Short of increasing autopsies, however, these studies have proposed few improvements. Using the case of death certification in the emergency department (ED), the authors analyzed the current approach to death certification. The authors propose the following to improve the quality of data: 1) acceptance of the declaration "manner of death, natural; cause of death, uncertain"; 2) training for physicians in the selection of appropriate underlying causes of death and "chains of causation"; and 3) participation of physicians with ongoing relationships to the patient in the certification process. PMID:18783489

  14. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section...EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.912 What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? Claim...

  15. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section...EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.912 What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? Claim...

  16. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section...EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.912 What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? Claim...

  17. 20 CFR 10.912 - What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section...EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.912 What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? Claim...

  18. Higher Order Cayley Transforms With Applications To Attitude Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis Tsiotras; John L. Junkins; Hanspeter Schaub

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we generalize some previous results on attitude representations using Cayley transforms. First, we show that proper orthogonal matrices, that naturally represent rotations, can be generated by a form of "conformal" analytic mappings in the space of matrices. Using a natural parallelism between the elements of the complex plane and the real matrices, we generate higher order Cayley

  19. School Governance and Teachers' Attitudes to Parents' Involvement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Ainhoren, Ronit

    2009-01-01

    This study probes teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement in schools as a function of four types of school governance as suggested by Bauch and Goldring. Participants of the study included headteachers, chairpersons of parents' committees, and teachers of 11 primary schools in a medium-sized town in Israel. A discriminant analysis found…

  20. A Passivity Approach to Attitude Stabilization Using Nonredundant Kinematic Parameterizations

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    rigid body using a nonredundant, three-dimensionalset ofkinematicparameters. Inthis paper we show, using control laws for the attitude motionof a rigid body using minimal, three-dimensional parameterizations (e.g., sun or star sensors, horizon scanners or gyroscopes) are relatively bulky and expensive

  1. Indicators of Attitudes to Education--What Do You Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John E. C.

    This paper describes one strand of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) project aimed at developing a set of international education indicators. This strand is concerned with attitudes and expectations of elementary and secondary schools held by parents, teachers, the public, employers, and students. The network of…

  2. Attitudes to entry fees to national parks: results and policy implications from a Queensland case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clevo Wilson; Clement A. Tisdell

    2003-01-01

    Examines visitor attitudes and whether visitors are willing to pay to enter Lamington National Park and under what circumstances they would do so. First a sample of visitors is asked a general (normative) question as to whether visitors should pay to visit Lamington National Park and in another question (positive) they are asked whether they would be more willing to

  3. Cultural Implications of Death and Loss from AIDS among Women in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2012-01-01

    Over 1.8 million people have died of AIDS in South Africa, and it continues to be a death sentence for many women. The purpose of this study was to examine the broader context of death and loss from HIV/AIDS and to identify the cultural factors that influenced existing beliefs and attitudes. The participants included 110 women recruited from 3…

  4. Attitudes to Entry Fees to National Parks: Results and Policy Implications from a Queensland Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clevo Tis Wilson; Clem Tisdell

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines visitor attitudes and whether visitors are willing to pay to enter Lamington National Park and under what circumstances they would do so. First a sample of visitors is asked a general (normative) question as to whether visitors should pay to visit Lamington National Park and in another question (positive) they are asked whether they would be more

  5. Attitudes of Older Americans toward Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Predictors of Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline S. Marinac; Lincoln A. Godfrey; Colleen Buchinger; Chao Sun; James Wooten; Sandra K. Willsie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the attitudes of Americans over age 60 concerning direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs and to determine if gender, race, income, or level of education has an impact on the attitudes of the elderly toward DTC advertising. Design: A seven-page survey, constructed using the 1992 National Health Interview Survey as a model, was used to assess the

  6. A path to greater inclusivity through understanding implicit attitudes toward disability.

    PubMed

    Aaberg, Vicki A

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with visible disabilities are underrepresented in nursing and have been denied admission to nursing education and discriminated against based on their disability, although nurse educators have been found to hold positive explicit attitudes toward disabled individuals. This study examines nurse educators' implicitly held attitudes toward individuals with disabilities through the use of the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test. Findings demonstrated that nurse educators are strongly biased toward individuals without disabilities (N = 132, D = 0.76, SD = 0.46) and demonstrated a stronger preference than the general population (N = 38,544, D = 0.45, SD = 0.43). Study results suggest the need for a timely critique of the continuing focus on physical abilities as a prerequisite for admission to nursing programs. In addition, faculty in schools of nursing and practicing nurses must engage in discussions of attitudes toward individuals with visible disabilities for the discipline to be more inclusive. PMID:22766074

  7. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities...

  8. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities...

  9. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities...

  10. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities...

  11. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board...OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities...

  12. Parents' Attitude May Be Key to Pre-Game Jitters in Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Parents' Attitude May Be Key to Pre-Game Jitters in Kids Anxieties over performance transmit easily ... RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of ...

  13. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    E-print Network

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi R; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Schiff, Annie; Hardeman, Wendy; Ong, Ken K; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-04-21

    domains- 1) type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2) frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3) attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4) theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed...

  14. Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

  15. Stoicism: Its Relation to Gender, Attitudes Toward Poverty, and Reactions to Emotive Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham F. Wagstaff; Andrea M. Rowledge

    1995-01-01

    A scale was developed to test the hypotheses that stoicism would be more prevalent in British men (n = 30) than in British women (n = 32) and that stoicism would be related to negative attitudes toward the poor. It was also hypothesized that stoics would exhibit a weaker emotional reaction to stories that had emotive content. All three hypotheses

  16. guilty until proven innocent: conviction orientation, racial attitudes, and support for capital punishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Young

    2004-01-01

    A long-standing objection to the death penalty is that it has been applied disproportionately to African Americans. A more recent objection centers on concern that standards for selecting death qualified juries bias these juries in the favor of the prosecution. This research investigates the empirical connections between these two objections by analyzing the structure of attitudes and beliefs that connect

  17. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com). PMID:23857924

  18. Who Wants to Marry a Millionaire? Reality Dating Television Programs, Attitudes Toward Sex, and Sexual Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen L. Zurbriggen; Elizabeth M. Morgan

    2006-01-01

    Past research has revealed associations between television viewing and sexual attitudes and behaviors. We examined a burgeoning\\u000a new television genre, reality dating programs (RDPs). Undergraduate students (ages 18–24) reported their overall television\\u000a viewing, their RDP viewing, and their involvement with RDPs (watching in order to learn and watching in order to be entertained).\\u000a They also completed measures of attitudes toward

  19. Professional Attitudes and Behaviors: The \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Purkerson Hammer

    Although professionalism is an elusive concept, it is defined by sets of attitudes and behaviors specific to professions. Further defining and describing these professional attitudes and behaviors - the \\

  20. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community. Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma). Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma. Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%), or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%). The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29%) or reported on research findings (22%). Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65%) or neutral (27%). A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%). Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7%) or personal experience of stigma (0.1%). More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%). The attitude that individuals with depression should “snap out of it” was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42%) or neutral (43%). Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes, most reflected inaccurate beliefs about schizophrenia being multiple personality disorder (52%) or mocked or trivialised individuals with schizophrenia (33%). Conclusions. The study supports the use of analysis of Twitter content to unobtrusively measure attitudes towards mental illness, both supportive and stigmatising. The results of the study may be useful in assisting mental health promotion and advocacy organisations to provide information about resources and support, raise awareness and counter common stigmatising attitudes. PMID:25374786

  1. Estimation of the Attitude Perturbance Using Parallax Imagery - Application to ZY-3 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Xu, Y.; Wang, F.; Liu, S.; Tang, X.; Li, L.; Xie, J.; Tong, X.

    2015-03-01

    The inflight stability of the earth observation satellite is a significant factor having an influence on the geometric performance of its imagery. The estimation of the attitude perturbance is therefore indispensable to spaceborne photogrammetry application. In this paper, an experiment using a short strip of multispectral images obtained from ZY-3 satellite is conducted. The detection method for attitude perturbance based on parallax observation is adopted, while a novel approach of estimating the attitude perturbance angles from the perturbance caused image displacements is also proposed and demonstrated. The estimated results indicate that the ZY-3 satellite was affected by considerable perturbances with distinctive frequencies during the flight of the investigated images, and attitude perturbances hava also undermined the geometric performance of the acquired imagery.

  2. Teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse: problems with existing research leading to new scale development.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-05-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the initial item pool, (b) conducting a panel review, (c) refining the scale via an expert focus group, (d) building content validity through cognitive interviews, and (e) assessing internal consistency via field testing. The resulting 21-item scale displayed construct validity in preliminary testing. The scale may prove useful as a research tool, given the theoretical supposition that attitudes may be changed with time, context, experience, and education. Further investigation with a larger sample is warranted. PMID:20509079

  3. Student Attitudes towards Using Culturally-Oriented Educational Games to Improve Programming Proficiency: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phaedra Mohammed; Permanand Mohan

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates student attitudes towards culturally-oriented educational games for practicing computer\\u000a programming, where the mainstream culture appeals to all of the students irrespective of their cultural background. We show\\u000a that a shared appreciation of culture along the lines of humour promotes positive student attitude towards culturally-aware\\u000a game based learning which in turn is useful for developing proficiency in

  4. Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras), India

    PubMed Central

    Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Peto, Richard; Kanaka, Santhanakrishnan; Balasubramanian, Sivagurunathan

    2002-01-01

    Background In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. Methods Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. Results The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25–69 yrs) and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10%) than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25–69. Conclusion VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only to deaths in childhood (as has previously been established) but also to deaths in early adult life and middle age. PMID:12014994

  5. The importance of tenure to retirement housing purchasers and the impact of culture upon their attitudes to tenure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Livette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – In this paper culture is considered by marketers to have a profound influence on consumer behaviour, yet explanations of tenure preference ignore or dismiss culture as a factor underlying such preferences. This paper therefore aims to examine the attitudes of retirement housing purchasers to tenure, the effect of culture on these attitudes, and contrast some of the results

  6. From denial to recognition: Attitudes toward holocaust survivors from world war II to the present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahava Solomon

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex attitudes of Israeli society and mental health professionals toward the survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. While the nascent state of Israel provided refuge for the Holocaust survivors and offered them a new identity and opportunity to rebuild their lives, it also demanded that they abnegate their former identities, their Holocaust experiences above all, and repress

  7. Attitudes of Middle School Students: Learning Online Compared to Face to Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes

  8. Death Runthrough

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-11-16

    Broadcast Transcript: At a certain age, we all begin to feel our mortality. Here in South Korea, they're doing something about it. Test runs for death. Well, they're not really practicing dying. They're practicing with death's accessories. That is...

  9. Attitudes about Food

    E-print Network

    Baker, Nicole Alexis

    2012-10-19

    Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

  10. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  11. Cardiac imaging in evaluating patients prone to sudden death

    PubMed Central

    Tamene, Ashenafi; Tholakanahalli, Venkatakrishna N.; Chandrashekhar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying subjects who are at risk for SCD and stratifying them correctly into low or high-risk groups is the holy grail of Cardiology. While imaging shows a lot of promise, it is plagued by the fact that most SCD occurs in relatively healthy subjects, a massive group who would not ordinarily be subjected to imaging. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) currently is our primary parameter for risk stratification for sudden cardiac death but is a poor marker with low sensitivity and specificity. Current data shows that sophisticated imaging with techniques, mainly Cardiac magnetic resonance Imaging (CMR), have the potential to identify novel high-risk markers underlying SCD, beyond ejection fraction. Imaging seems to further refine risk in patients with low LVEF as well as in those with normal EF; this is a major strength of advanced imaging. Clinical application has been slow and not fully prime time. It is important to remember that while promising, imaging techniques including CMR, have not been tested in rigorous prospective studies and thus have not as yet replaced EF as the gatekeeper to ICD implantation. PMID:24568832

  12. Physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography in women 40 to 49 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patricia; Hum, Susan; Kakzanov, Vered; Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Heisey, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography, breast self-examination, and breast awareness in women aged 40 to 49 at average risk of breast cancer. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, both in Toronto, Ont. Participants Family medicine residents, fellows, and staff physicians at 2 academic family practice health centres affiliated with the University of Toronto (n = 95). Main outcome measures Physicians’ answers to questions about offering screening mammography and promoting breast self-examination and breast awareness. Results Fifty-two completed surveys were returned (response rate 55%). Less than half of all surveyed family physicians (46%) routinely offered screening mammography to women aged 40 to 49 who were at average risk of breast cancer. Although 40% of physicians did not think breast cancer screening was necessary for women aged 40 to 49, 62% indicated that they would offer screening if their patients requested it. Physicians’ reasons not to offer screening included no evidence of decreasing breast cancer deaths (63%), grade A recommendation to screen women starting at age 50 and not at age 40 (25%), and the harms of screening outweighing the benefits (19%). Physicians’ reasons to offer screening included patient request (55%), personal clinical practice experience or mentors’ recommendations (27%), and guideline recommendations (18%). Breast self-examination was not recommended by most physicians (74%), yet most encouraged women to practise breast awareness (81%). Conclusion Many women at average risk of breast cancer are not being offered the opportunity to discuss and initiate mammographic screening before 50 years of age. While breast-self examination is not recommended, most physicians promote breast awareness. PMID:22972742

  13. Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life. PMID:24316972

  14. Performance criteria for verbal autopsy-based systems to estimate national causes of death: development and application to the Indian Million Death Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available. PMID:24495287

  15. An autopsy case of infant death due to heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, T; Maeda, H; Takayasu, T; Fujioka, Y; Nakaya, T

    1992-09-01

    We report an autopsy case of infant death due to heat stroke. On a winter day, a 52-day-old female baby was placed under a Japanese electric foot warmer with a coverlet (kotatsu) on an electric carpet warmer in a heated room at home. After about 5 h, the mother noticed that the baby was unconscious and took her to a hospital. Spontaneous respiration, however, was already absent, and the pupils were dilated. The trunk was hot; body temperature was 41.3 degrees C. The skin of the whole body was dry. Autopsy revealed second-degree burn injuries on the left side of the face and the dorsum of the left hand. Numerous marked petechiae and ecchymoses were found in the thymus (capsule and parenchyma), pleurae (visceral and parietal), pericardial cavity (internal and external surfaces), epicardium, and beneath the serosa at the origin of the aorta. In addition, there was congestion in various organs, edema in the brain and lungs, and hemorrhage in the lungs. Histopathologically, macrophages without hemosiderin granules were present in the alveoli. When the heating conditions at the accident were reproduced experimentally, the temperature in the electric kotatsu warmer rose to 50-60 degrees C. Thus, we concluded that misuse of the electric kotatsu caused heat stroke in this infant. PMID:1476126

  16. Estimating the number needed to vaccinate to prevent diseases and death related to human papillomavirus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Brisson; Nicolas Van de Velde; Marie-Claude Boily

    2007-01-01

    Background: A vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 is now licensed for use in Canada and many other countries. We sought to estimate the number needed to vaccinate to prevent HPV-related diseases and death. Methods: A cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was developed. Model simulations were based on 209 different parameter

  17. Women with gestational diabetes in Vietnam: a qualitative study to determine attitudes and health behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes is increasing in prevalence globally, notably amongst populations from low- and middle- income countries. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM), a precursor for type 2 diabetes, is increasing in line with this trend. Few studies have considered the personal and social effects of GDM on women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. Pregnant women, aged over 18 years, with GDM were eligible to participate. Women were purposely sampled to obtain a range of gestational ages and severity of disease. They were invited to attend a 1-hour focus group. Questions were semi structured around six themes. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated and cross-referenced. Non-verbal and group interactions were recorded. Thematic analysis was performed using a theoretical framework approach. Results From December 2010 to February 2011, four focus groups were conducted involving 34 women. Median age was 31.5 years (range 23 to 44), median BMI 21.8 kg/m2. Women felt confusion, anxiety and guilt about GDM. Many perceived their baby to be at increased risk of death. Advice to reduce dietary starch was confusing. Women reported being ‘hungry’ or ‘starving’ most of the time, unaware of appropriate food substitutions. They were concerned about transmission of GDM through breast milk. Several women planned not to breastfeed. All felt they needed more information. Current sources of information included friends, magazines, a health phone line or the Internet. Women felt small group sessions and information leaflets could benefit them. Conclusions This study highlights the need for culturally appropriate clinical education and health promotion activities for women with GDM in Vietnam. PMID:22873351

  18. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  19. AIDS deaths shift from hospital to home. AIDS Mortality Project Group.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J J; Chu, S Y; Buehler, J W

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study monitors trends in place of death among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as a measure of health care usage patterns and terminal health care among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS. Sixteen health departments collected death certificates for 55,186 persons with AIDS whose deaths occurred through 1991. Place of death was categorized as hospital, residence, hospice or nursing home, and other. RESULTS. The percentage of AIDS deaths at hospital facilities decreased from 92% in 1983 to 57% in 1991. In 1988, 23% of deaths occurred at home or in hospices and nursing homes. This trend was more evident among men, Whites, and men who had sex with men; less so among persons with other modes of exposure; and not at all among injecting drug users and children with perinatally acquired AIDS. Place of death varied by geographic location, with the greatest percentage of hospital deaths in the Northeast (91%) and the greatest percentage of at-home deaths in the West (27%). CONCLUSIONS. The percentage of AIDS deaths at home or in hospices and nursing homes has increased since 1983. These trends may reflect changes in hospital use for end-stage HIV infection. Decreasing hospitalization and increasing outpatient services and home care will decrease costs and may allow HIV-infected persons improved social support. PMID:8214234

  20. Pyrvinium targets autophagy addiction to promote cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Longfei; Lei, Yunlong; Liu, Rui; Li, Jingyi; Yuan, Kefei; Li, Yi; Chen, Yi; Liu, Yi; Lu, You; Edwards III, Carl K; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-𝒟-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23640456

  1. Translocation of C. elegans CED4 to Nuclear Membranes During Programmed Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fangli Chen; Bradley M. Hersh; Barbara Conradt; Zheng Zhou; Dieter Riemer; Yosef Gruenbaum; H. Robert Horvitz

    2000-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans Bcl-2-like protein CED-9 prevents programmed cell death by antagonizing the Apaf-1-like cell-death activator CED-4. Endogenous CED-9 and CED-4 proteins localized to mitochondria in wild-type embryos, in which most cells survive. By contrast, in embryos in which cells had been induced to die, CED-4 assumed a perinuclear localization. CED-4 translocation induced by the cell-death activator EGL-1 was blocked

  2. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death.

    PubMed

    Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H

    2014-05-20

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  3. TrackSAFE Update: Changing Attitudes to Change Behaviour

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    groups ·Academics tracksafefoundation.com.au #12;TrackSAFE aims: 1. Reduce suicide and suicide attempts tracksafefoundation.com.au #12;Suicide on rail · 150 fatalities annually, 1,000 attempts · 6-8% of national deaths by suicide · 2/3 of rail related fatalities · Impacts: · Social · Economic · Rail industry employees In our

  4. Using the TOSRA to Assess High School Students' Attitudes toward Science after Competing in the FIRST Robotics Competition: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anita G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined high school students' attitudes toward science after participating in a robotics competition. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories: Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude toward Scientific Inquiry,…

  5. Sentencing the Mentally Retarded to Death: An Eighth Amendment Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Blume; David Bruck

    1988-01-01

    Today, on death rows across the United States, sit a number of men with the minds of children. These people are mentally retarded. Typical of these individuals is Limmie Arthur, who currently is imprisoned at Central Correctional Institution in Columbia, South Carolina. Although Arthur is twenty-eight years old, all the mental health professionals who have evaluated him, including employees of

  6. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  7. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Nikolaev; Todd McLaughlin; Dennis D. M. O'Leary; Marc Tessier-Lavigne

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring axonal pruning and neuronal cell death help to sculpt neuronal connections during development, but their mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Here we report that beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21) activate a widespread caspase-dependent self-destruction program. DR6 is broadly expressed by developing neurons, and is required for normal cell body death

  8. Fatalities assessed by the Orange County child death review team, 1989 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Gellert, G A; Maxwell, R M; Durfee, M J; Wagner, G A

    1995-07-01

    Interagency child death review teams have emerged in response to the increasing awareness of severe violence perpetrated against children in the United States. Child death review involves a systematic, multidisciplinary, and multiagency process to coordinate data and resources from the coroner, law enforcement, the courts, child protective services, and health care providers. The Orange County, CA team reviews all coroner's cases (unattended death or questionable cause of death) for children 12 years old and younger. This paper describes the interagency review in Orange County and provides data on the demographics of cases reviewed by the team (N = 637) compared to unreviewed deaths (N = 1,463) for the period 1989 to 1991. Trends were analyzed to assess differences in: (1) age distribution; (2) gender; (3) ethnicity; (4) cause of death (non-SIDS natural; non-natural including traffic deaths, SIDS, other injuries; homicide; and undetermined); and (5) cause of death by age, gender, and ethnicity. Implications of the data for other jurisdictions with child death review teams are discussed. PMID:7583745

  9. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

  10. Development of an Attitude Scale to Assess K-12 Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in…

  11. NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice

    PubMed Central

    Kymre, Ingjerd G.

    2014-01-01

    This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

  12. NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice.

    PubMed

    Kymre, Ingjerd G

    2014-01-01

    This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses' attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses' attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But "as much as possible" is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

  13. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  14. Content Analysis of Free-Response Narratives to Personal Meanings of Death among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Ching Yang; Shih-Fen Chen

    2006-01-01

    The study explores development of the concept of death among 204 Chinese children and adolescents and analyzes the relationships between death concept development and background variables. A coding manual for content analysis of death constructs adapted from R. A. Neimeyer et al. (1983) was used to classify each construct in the paragraphs written by participants regarding their views of death.

  15. Brief Intervention Impact on Truant Youth Attitudes to School and School Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James

    2014-01-01

    Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027

  16. Physicians' attitudes to and problems with truth-telling to cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Grassi; T. Giraldi; E. G. Messina; K. Magnani; E. Valle; G. Cartei

    2000-01-01

    Disclosure of a diagnosis of cancer to patients is a major problem among physicians in Italy. The aim of the study was to\\u000a assess physicians' attitudes to and opinions about disclosure. A convenience sample of 675 physicians in Udine (North Italy)\\u000a completed a ten-item questionnaire. About 45% indicated that, in principle, patients should always be informed of the diagnosis,\\u000a but

  17. Death Receptor Signaling Giving Life to Ectodermal Organs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irma Thesleff (Institute of Biotechnology at University of Helsinki; Developmental Biology Program REV)

    2002-05-07

    A new tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway has been identified that has an important function in the regulation of embryonic development. Three key components of this pathway are previously unknown proteins: the TNF ligand ectodysplasin (also known as EDA), its death domain-containing receptor EDAR, and the death domain adapter molecule EDARADD. This pathway was discovered and delineated through the cloning of genes that cause human hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) syndromes and by analysis of the corresponding mouse mutants (Tabby, downless, and crinkled) showing defects in hair, teeth, and several exocrine glands. EDAR signaling is mediated by the activation of nuclear factor kappa B, but other downstream targets are not known. Ectodysplasin-EDAR signaling mediates cell interactions within the ectoderm and regulates the initiation and morphogenesis of hair and teeth. It is also necessary for the development of fish scales, indicating that this pathway and its function have been conserved during the evolution of ectodermal organs.

  18. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Probability SEPARATION CUT-OFFS FOR BIRTH AND DEATH

    E-print Network

    Diaconis, Persi

    Submitted to the Annals of Applied Probability SEPARATION CUT-OFFS FOR BIRTH AND DEATH CHAINS a necessary and sufficient condition for a se- quence of birth and death chains to converge abruptly if the prod- uct of spectral gap and mixing time tends to infinity. We establishe this for arbitrary birth

  19. How to Live? What We Can Learn from Ivan Ilych's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felps, Maryann

    2012-01-01

    Near the first of every school year, the author has the opportunity to talk to her students about death, usually in the midst of their study of "Beowulf" or "Gilgamesh." Occasionally, the discussion results from the recent news of the death of a public figure or, closer to home, a family member. Regardless of the circumstance, her students learn…

  20. The construction of an instrument to measure attitudes of college students regarding radiological health

    E-print Network

    Weinstein, Ronald David

    1976-01-01

    OF LITERATURE Attitudes Defining Attitudes Formation of Attitudes Persistance and Change in Attitudes Measuring Attitudes Limitations of Attitude Scales Attitudes of College Students Radiological Health Medical Sources of Radiation Medical and dental x... of Radiation Medical sources of radiation include medical and dental x-ray exposure, radioisotopes, and radiation therapy. These sources and some of the biological and genetic effects of ionizing radiation are dis- cussed in this section. Based...

  1. Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

  2. Return-to-launch-site three degree of freedom analysis, constant inertial attitude during the fuel dissipation phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, R. L.; Winans, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a study to show the effect of selecting a constant inertial attitude during the fuel dissipation phase of a return-to-launch-site abort. Results are also presented which show that the selection of the constant inertial attitude will affect the arrival point on the range-velocity target line. An alternate selection of the inertial attitude will provide control over the trajectory shape.

  3. Using the biographical grid method to explore parental grief following the death of a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Gerrish; Sue Bailey

    2012-01-01

    A child's death is regarded as among the most traumatic, incomprehensible and devastating of losses, with the potential to precipitate a crisis of meaning for bereaved parents. While complications in grieving are a significant possibility, bereaved parents can also respond in very constructive and adaptive ways to the death of a child. Creative and ethically sensitive assessment methods are needed

  4. The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F Anda; Maxia Dong; David W Brown; Vincent J Felitti; Wayne H Giles; Geraldine S Perry; Edwards J Valerie; Shanta R Dube

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood abuse and neglect, and serious household dysfunction, and premature death of a family member. Because ACEs increase the risk for many of the leading causes of death in adults and tend to be familial and intergenerational, we hypothesized that persons who report having more ACEs would be more

  5. Deaths in custody: Are some due to electronic control devices (including TASER® devices) or excited delirium?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Jauchem

    2010-01-01

    Deaths have occurred after law-enforcement incidents involving applications of electronic control devices (ECDs) (including TASER® devices). An “excited delirium” syndrome (reported in the literature prior to the development of ECDs currently in use), however, includes several factors that may be related to such deaths in custody. In this review, potential detrimental effects of ECDs are compared with possible changes due

  6. Death due to neurogenic shock following gastric rupture in an anorexia nervosa patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sinicina; H. Pankratz; A. Büttner; G. Mall

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of fatal gastric rupture discovered after death, which developed due to a bulimic attack of a 19-year-old woman suffering from anorexia nervosa. An autopsy revealed an acute gastric dilatation and rupture without commonly observed ischemic damage of gastric wall structures. However, it may be difficult to determine the cause of death despite the marked findings. The

  7. For some, Bin Laden's death harkens to Hitler's 66 years ago

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    For some, Bin Laden's death harkens to Hitler's 66 years ago By SCOTT EYMAN Palm Beach Post Staff celebrations with any equivalence to what resulted from the news of the death of Osama bin Laden, you have in Alfred Eisenstadt's unforgettable image of a clinch on Times Square, or in the black and white newsreel

  8. The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access to Sudden Oak Death Spatial Data1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tuxen; M. Kelly

    Access to timely and accurate sudden oak death (SOD) location data is critical for SOD monitoring, management and research. Several websites (hereafter called the OakMapper sites) associated with sudden oak death monitoring efforts have been maintained with up-to- date SOD location information for over five years, providing information and maps of the most current spatial and attribute data on Phytophthora

  9. Excited to death: different ways to lose your neurones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Dodd

    2002-01-01

    The selective loss of neurones in a range of neurodegenerative diseases is widely thought to involve the process of excitotoxicity,\\u000a in which glutamate-mediated neuronal killing is elaborated through the excessive stimulation of cell-surface receptors. Every\\u000a such disease exhibits a distinct regional and subregional pattern of neuronal loss, so processes must be locally triggered\\u000a to different extents to account for this.

  10. Learning social attitudes: children's sensitivity to the nonverbal behaviors of adult models during interracial interactions.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Luigi; De Dea, Cristina; Nesdale, Drew

    2008-11-01

    White children show marked ingroup race preferences and a relative devaluation of Black people. The origin of these early interracial attitudes is to a large extent still unclear. The studies here test the possibility that preschool-aged children are particularly sensitive to the nonverbal behaviors performed by White adults during interracial interactions. In Study 1, children were shown a video displaying an interaction between a White and a Black adult. Across conditions, the White adult's verbal behaviors were either friendly or neutral, whereas his nonverbal behaviors showed either easiness (e.g., closeness, high eye contact) or uneasiness (e.g., distance, avoidance of eye contact). Results revealed that participants shaped their attitudes toward the Black target accordingly, independently from the White adults' verbal behaviors. Study 2 replicated the basic findings and demonstrated that the observed effects generalized to other Black targets. Results are discussed in relation to current approaches to understanding the formation of racial attitudes among children. PMID:18716043

  11. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit: Application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  12. Does the thought of death contribute to the memory benefit of encoding with a survival scenario?

    PubMed

    Bugaiska, Aurélia; Mermillod, Martial; Bonin, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Four studies tested whether the thought of death contributes to the survival processing advantage found in memory tests (i.e., the survival effect). In the first study, we replicated the "Dying To Remember" (DTR) effect identified by Burns and colleagues whereby activation of death thoughts led to better retention than an aversive control situation. In Study 2, we compared an ancestral survival scenario, a modern survival scenario and a "life-after-death" scenario. The modern survival scenario and the dying scenario led to higher levels of recall than the ancestral scenario. In Study 3, we used a more salient death-thought scenario in which people imagine themselves on death row. Results showed that the "death-row" scenario yielded a level of recall similar to that of the ancestral survival condition. We also collected ratings of death-related thoughts (Studies 3 and 4) and of survival-related and planning thoughts (Study 4). The ratings indicated that death-related thoughts were induced more by the dying scenarios than by the survival scenarios, whereas the reverse was observed for both survival-related and planning thoughts. The findings are discussed in the light of two contrasting views of the influence of mortality salience in the survival effect. PMID:24502242

  13. Community attitudes towards prenatal testing for congenital handicap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Evers-kiebooms; L. Denayer; M. Decruyenaere; H. Van Den Berghe

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of a heterogeneous group of participants in adult education classes towards prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination in a number of hypothetical situations: three situations of specified risk of physical handicap, mental handicap and early death, and one age-related risk situation (1% risk for Down's syndrome). We explored the impact of

  14. Death and Dying: Staying in Control to the End of Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Tish; And Others

    This "gray paper" addresses the concerns of older women regarding their control over death and dying. It is based on the observation that older women are devalued by society on account of both their age and gender, and hence are likely to be impoverished and vulnerable as they approach death. The paper begins by examining the legal, ethical, and…

  15. Direct Care Workers' Response to Dying and Death in the Nursing Home: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen K. Black; Robert L. Rubinstein

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. This paper is based on research that explored the cultural construction of dying and death in nursing homes and assisted living facilities in a large Northeastern city. It focuses on direct care workers' responses to elders' dying and death within the facility. Methods. Data were gathered in a multiyear, multisite study through formal ethnographic interviews, informal conversations, and on-site

  16. From Embryo to Adult: Persistent Neurogenesis and Apoptotic Cell Death Shape the Lobster Deutocerebrum

    E-print Network

    Beltz, Barbara S.

    From Embryo to Adult: Persistent Neurogenesis and Apoptotic Cell Death Shape the Lobster of the American lobster Homarus americanus from early embryonic through larval and juvenile stages into adult life indicate that, in juvenile and adult lobsters, birth and death of olfactory interneurons occur in parallel

  17. Contribution of alcohol to deaths in road traffic accidents in Tayside 1982-6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham R Foster; James A Dunbar; David Whittet; Gyan C A Fernando

    1988-01-01

    In Britain the precise number and relative proportions of deaths among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians in road traffic accidents related to alcohol are not known. These data were obtained in Tayside by cross matching police accident records with blood alcohol concentrations at necropsy. Of 71 alcohol-related deaths 30 were the drivers (or motorcyclists) themselves, nine were their passengers, 23 were

  18. On Death, Taxes, and the Convergence of Peer-to-Peer and Grid Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian T. Foster; Adriana Iamnitchi

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported [25] that life holds but two certainties, death and taxes. And indeed, it does appear that any society, and in the context of this article, any large-scale distributed system, must address both death (failure) and the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure (which we assert is a major motivation for taxes, so as to justify our title!).

  19. Franklin County, Ohio Deceased Child Review System. Working To Eliminate Preventable Child Deaths. 1992 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirner, Pamela; Griggs, Harry

    In 1988, Franklin County (Ohio) Children Services (FCCS) initiated the development of a bi-level, community-based, multi-disciplinary process to review all deaths of children in its open caseload, as well as child deaths in families with which FCCS had contact in the previous 12 months. This report examines the work of the Deceased Child Review…

  20. The Experiences of Parents Readjusting to the Workplace Following the Death of a Child by Suicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Gibson; Mary Gallagher; Mary Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Suicide among young people has become a growing concern in life in the 21st century and is a tragedy faced by an increasing number of families and in particular parents. This study set out to focus on the experiences of parents reentering the workplace following the death of a child by suicide. Although the immediate aftermath of experiencing traumatic death

  1. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to confirm brain death: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ackerstaff; G. Jansen; Adrianus J. van Vught; L. M. Monteiro; C. W. Bollen

    Objective: Barbiturate therapy or hypothermia precludes proper diagnosis of brain death ei- ther clinically or by EEG. Specific intracranial flow patterns indicating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA) can be visualized by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The aim of this study was to assess the validity of TCD in confirming brain death. Design: Meta-analysis of studies assessing the validity of TCD in

  2. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  3. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajalakshmi R Lakshman; Jill R Landsbaugh; Annie Schiff; Wendy Hardeman; Ken K Ong; Simon J Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Background  There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any\\u000a behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development\\u000a and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire

  4. Collapsin response mediator protein 3 deacetylates histone H4 to mediate nuclear condensation and neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Sheng T.; Jiang, Susan X.; Aylsworth, Amy; Cooke, Matthew; Zhou, Lei

    2013-01-01

    CRMP proteins play critical regulatory roles during semaphorin-mediated neurite outgrowth, neuronal differentiation and death. Albeit having a high degree of structure and sequence resemblance to that of liver dihydropyrimidinase, purified rodent brain CRMPs do not hydrolyze dihydropyrimidinase substrates. Here we found that mouse CRMP3 has robust histone H4 deacetylase activity. During excitotoxicity-induced mouse neuronal death, calpain-cleaved, N-terminally truncated CRMP3 undergoes nuclear translocation to cause nuclear condensation through deacetylation of histone H4. CRMP3-mediated deacetylation of H4 leads to de-repression of the E2F1 gene transcription and E2F1-dependent neuronal death. These studies revealed a novel mechanism of CRMP3 in neuronal death. Together with previous well established bodies of literature that inhibition of histone deacetylase activity provides neuroprotection, we envisage that inhibition of CRMP3 may represent a novel therapeutic approach towards excitotoxicity-induced neuronal death. PMID:23443259

  5. Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: A meta-analysis of the literature from 1970 to 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    A meta-analysis covering the literature between 1970 and 1991 was conducted using an approach similar to that suggested by Glass, McGaw, and Smith (1981) and Hedges, Shymansky, and Woodworth (1989). This analysis examined gender differences in student attitudes toward science, and correlations between attitudes toward science and achievement in science. Thirty-one effect sizes and seven correlations representing the testing of 6,753 subjects were found in 18 studies. The mean of the unweighted effect sizes was .20 (SD = .50) and the mean of the weighted effect size was .16 (SD = .50), indicating that boys have more positive attitudes toward science than girls. The mean correlation between attitude and achievement was .50 for boys and .55 for girls, suggesting that the correlations are comparable. Results of the analysis of gender differences in attitude as a function of science type indicate that boys show a more positive attitude toward science than girls in all types of science. The correlation between attitude and achievement for boys and girls as a function of science type indicates that for biology and physics the correlation is positive for both, but stronger for girls than for boys. Gender differences and correlations between attitude and achievement by gender as a function of publication date show no pattern. The results for the analysis of gender differences as a function of the selectivity of the sample indicate that general level students reflect a greater positive attitude for boys, whereas the high-performance students indicate a greater positive attitude for girls. The correlation between attitude and achievement as a function of selectivity indicates that in all cases a positive attitude results in higher achievement. This is particularly true for low-performance girls. The implications of these finding are discussed and further research suggested.

  6. Spatial ability, motivation, and attitude of students as related to science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Judy Ann

    Understanding student achievement in science is important as there is an increasing reliance of the U.S. economy on math-, science-, and technology-related fields despite the declining number of youth seeking college degrees and careers in math and science. A series of structural equation models were tested using the scores from a statewide science exam for 276 students from a suburban north Texas public school district at the end of their 5th grade year and the latent variables of spatial ability, motivation to learn science and science-related attitude. Spatial ability was tested as a mediating variable on motivation and attitude; however, while spatial ability had statistically significant regression coefficients with motivation and attitude, spatial ability was found to be the sole statistically significant predictor of science achievement for these students explaining 23.1% of the variance in science scores.

  7. Student psychiatric nurses' approval of containment measures: relationship to perception of aggression and attitudes to personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Alexander, Jane; Simpson, Alan; Ryan, Carl; Carr-Walker, Paola

    2007-03-01

    Difficult and challenging behaviour by inpatients is a feature of acute psychiatric ward life. Different methods are used to contain these behaviours, and there is international variation in which are approved of or used. Previous research suggests that staff attitudes to patients may affect their willingness to use, or choice of, method. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between approval of containment measures, perception of aggression and attitude to personality disorder. A survey of student psychiatric nurses was conducted, and using three attitudinal questionnaires related to aggression and containment. An association was found between positive attitude to patients and the approval of containment methods that involved nurses being in personal contact with patients. There was evidence that students' attitudes to patients deteriorated over time. The results highlighted the importance of (and linkage between) staffs' feelings of anger and fear towards patients, and their preparedness to use containment measures. PMID:17336606

  8. Medical Students’ and Physicians’ Attitudes toward Patients’ Consent to Participate in Clinical Training

    PubMed Central

    OMID, ATHAR; DANESHPAJOUHNEJAD, PARNAZ; PIRHAJI, OMID

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The responsibility of the medical training team towards a patient referring to an academic medical center has not been fully clarified. In this article we have looked at current practice in Medical University of Isfahan and evaluated the attitude of the medical team towards patients’consent to be involved in medical students’education. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we distributed self-administrated questionnaires among medical mentors, residents and students of academic hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. This researcher-made questionnaire consisted of several questions concerning dimensions of informed consent. The data were analyzed, using independent t-tests and ANOVA. Results: Ninety-one medical students (51 females) and 61 members of medical training team (25 females) completed the questionnaires. The overall average attitude score was 36.53±5.89 out of 60, which is classified as fair. The average attitude score for medical students and mentors were not significantly different. The average attitude score of the female students was classified as good, and was different from that of male students, significantly (p<0.05). By categorizing subjects into those with?5 years of managerial or educational experience and those below 5, a significant difference in average attitude score was documented (35.8±2.54 in?5and 34.0±2.9 in>5group). Conclusion: The attitude of the medical team is thoroughly far from what is expected. Thus, the need to provide both medical students and medical mentors with data on the importance of obtaining patients’ consent to be involved in medical education is highlighted. PMID:25587551

  9. FROM BIAS TO BISEXUAL HEALTH DISPARITIES: ATTITUDES TOWARD BISEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M. Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PUROPSE A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed “biphobia.” However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. METHODS Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values <.05); bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their straight counterparts (all p-values <.001); and bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their lesbian/gay counterparts (all p-values <.05). Within racial/ethnic minority respondents, biracial/multiracial status was associated with lower bi-negativity scores (all p-values <.05). CONCLUSION This study provides important quantitative support for theories related to biphobia and double discrimination. Our findings provide strong evidence for understanding how stereotypes and stigma may lead to dramatic disparities in depression, anxiety, stress, and other health outcomes among bisexual individuals in comparison to their heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women. PMID:25568885

  10. An educational module to improve healthcare staffs' attitudes toward sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hanik, Maria; Sackett, Kay M; Hartman, Lisa L

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a genetic blood disorder primarily affecting individuals of African descent. Studies of healthcare providers suggest there is inadequate knowledge about the pathophysiology and clinical presentations of the disease, and misperceptions of patients' behaviors and communication during crisis that have led to inappropriate staff attitudes and thus become major barriers to the delivery of optimal care. In this article, the authors describe the effect of an educational module on improving healthcare staffs' attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:25237914

  11. Contributions of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale to Measuring Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Oliver; Sarah L. Murphy; Daniel R. Ferland; Michael J. Ross

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to separate the contributions of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Dysfunctional\\u000a Attitude Scale (DAS) to maladaptive cognitive patterns in their relations to symptoms of depression and their potential developmental\\u000a origins: emotional maltreatment, parents’ typical feedback styles, and parents’ dysfunctional attitudes regarding their offspring.\\u000a Other objectives were to examine these relations in

  12. Development, content validity, and piloting of an instrument designed to measure managers' attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding employees through efforts influencing managerial attitude. PMID:22542265

  13. Current attitudes to, and use of, peri-operative analgesia in dogs and cats by veterinarians in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VM Williams; BDX Lascelles; MC Robson

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the attitudes of veterinary practitioners in New Zealand to pain and analgesia, and their use of analgesic drugs, in dogs and cats.METHODS: A questionnaire posted to 1,200 practising veterinarians was used to gather information about the use of analgesia in dogs and cats, assessment of pain, attitudes to pain relief, analgesic drugs and procedures used, factors affecting

  14. An attempt to change attitudes toward the aged by providing information on activity level

    E-print Network

    Beck, Betty Lee

    1979-01-01

    presented to young people which is designed to d1spel mis- conceptions of old age may be effective 1n changing attitudes. ACKNONLEDGMENT The author w1shes to express her deepest apprec1at1on to Dr. Candida Lutes. Her input to this project was invaluable...

  15. A Cross-National Investigation of University Students' Complaining Behaviour and Attitudes to Complaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Graham; Phau, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how students from Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia differ in their propensity to complain and attitudes to complaining. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire was designed using established scales to assess respondent reactions to a service failure by a university. The…

  16. Identifying and quantifying misclassified and under-reported AIDS deaths in Brazil: a retrospective analysis from 1985 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fazito, Erika; Cuchi, Paloma; Ma Fat, Doris; Ghys, Peter Denis; Pereira, Mauricio G; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati

    2012-01-01

    Background A retrospective analysis of deaths registered in the Brazilian Mortality System was conducted to quantify the under-reporting of HIV/AIDS deaths and those misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in the 15–49?years old population in Brazil. Methods Death rates for AIDS-related diseases were calculated by age and sex for 1985–2009. Changes in the age-sex-specific death rates over time were used to identify conditions likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths and to quantify the corresponding number of misclassified deaths. Deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed across all other natural causes of death. The resulting total number of AIDS deaths was further adjusted for incompleteness of the mortality reporting system. Results Out of the 28 potential causes of death investigated, five increased in the same distinct age pattern as AIDS: pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, other immunodeficiencies, other septicaemia and toxoplasmosis. 18 490 deaths due to these five causes were recoded to HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009. 38 145 deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed to AIDS and 15?485 were added to the number of AIDS deaths to correct for completeness of the mortality system in Brazil. Altogether, 72?120 deaths were recoded to AIDS between 1985 and 2009 and added to the reported 194?445 AIDS related deaths in the country, representing 27% misclassification of AIDS deaths in Brazil. Conclusions This study demonstrated that AIDS mortality is underestimated by the official mortality information system in Brazil. Efforts need to be made to reduce misclassification of causes of death in the future and identify ways in which the confidentiality of information regarding cause of death can be maintained. PMID:23172349

  17. NLRP3 activation induces ASC-dependent programmed necrotic cell death, which leads to neutrophilic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, T; Kambe, N; Matsue, H

    2013-01-01

    NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor that regulates innate immune responses by forming a protein complex, the inflammasome. It leads to production of proinflammatory cytokine productions such as interleukin 1? (IL-1?). We and others demonstrated that an induction of activated NLRP3 also induced cell death. However, little is known about the characteristics and mechanisms of the cell death and its involvement in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions. In this study, we established cell lines in which NLRP3 was induced by doxycycline using a tetracycline-inducible expression (Tet-on) system. Using this system, the expression of NLRP3 mutants in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) patients was sufficient for the induction of necrotic cell death without lipopolysaccharide stimulation or generation of mature IL-1?. We also found that CA074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, blocked cell death before oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), whereas Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked the cell death after the oligomerization. Silencing of the ASC gene (Pycard) by small hairpin RNA treatment inhibited the NLRP3 mutant-induced cell death, but silencing of the caspase-1 gene (Casp1) did not. Taken together, these results indicated that ASC was indispensable for NLRP3-mediated programmed necrotic cell death, and that this type of cell death was distinct from ‘pyroptosis', which requires caspase-1. Finally, we demonstrated in an in vivo model that the programmed necrotic cell death induced by activated NLRP3 could cause neutrophil infiltration, indicating a possible role of cell death in neutrophil infiltration of skin lesions in CAPS patients. PMID:23703389

  18. NLRP3 activation induces ASC-dependent programmed necrotic cell death, which leads to neutrophilic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T; Kambe, N; Matsue, H

    2013-01-01

    NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor that regulates innate immune responses by forming a protein complex, the inflammasome. It leads to production of proinflammatory cytokine productions such as interleukin 1? (IL-1?). We and others demonstrated that an induction of activated NLRP3 also induced cell death. However, little is known about the characteristics and mechanisms of the cell death and its involvement in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions. In this study, we established cell lines in which NLRP3 was induced by doxycycline using a tetracycline-inducible expression (Tet-on) system. Using this system, the expression of NLRP3 mutants in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) patients was sufficient for the induction of necrotic cell death without lipopolysaccharide stimulation or generation of mature IL-1?. We also found that CA074-Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, blocked cell death before oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), whereas Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked the cell death after the oligomerization. Silencing of the ASC gene (Pycard) by small hairpin RNA treatment inhibited the NLRP3 mutant-induced cell death, but silencing of the caspase-1 gene (Casp1) did not. Taken together, these results indicated that ASC was indispensable for NLRP3-mediated programmed necrotic cell death, and that this type of cell death was distinct from 'pyroptosis', which requires caspase-1. Finally, we demonstrated in an in vivo model that the programmed necrotic cell death induced by activated NLRP3 could cause neutrophil infiltration, indicating a possible role of cell death in neutrophil infiltration of skin lesions in CAPS patients. PMID:23703389

  19. The dual impact of traditional and national cultural values on expatriate ethnic groups' attitudes and willingness to buy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yamen Koubaa; Gaelle Ulvoas; Patricia Chew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the dual influence of traditional Chinese and national Singaporean cultural values on the attitude towards skin beauty and the purchase intention relating to skin care cosmetics among Chinese Singaporean women. It aims is to investigate how ethnic and national cultures might interact to influence the attitude towards skin beauty and

  20. An Analogous Study of Children's Attitudes Toward School in an Open Classroom Environment as Opposed to a Conventional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeli, Doris Conti

    A study sought to determine whether intermediate age children exposed to open classroom teaching strategy have a more positive attitude toward school than intermediate age children exposed to conventional teaching strategy. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The study was limited to