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1

Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

2008-01-01

2

Police Recruits‘ Attitudes toward the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of police toward capital punishment help to shape public opinion regarding the death penalty. Prior research has not consistently identified the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of officers regarding capital punishment. This article examines that relationship, as well as the role of background factors and other attitudes.Survey questionnaires were given in 1995 to Boston area

Sylvia I. Mignon; William M. Holmes

1999-01-01

3

Death Education and Death-Related Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the impact of a death and dying course. Results showed no significant pre-test/post-test differences for the experimental or the control group, but indicated initial differences between the two groups, suggesting that students enrolling in a death and dying course have more favorable attitudes toward both suicide and abortion. (Author)

Hoelter, Jon W.; Epley, Rita J.

1979-01-01

4

Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

1997-01-01

5

Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to

William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw

1984-01-01

6

Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

Perkes, A. Cordell

1978-01-01

7

Death Attitudes and Self-reported Health-relevant Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are presented investigating the role of attitudes toward death in self-reported health-protective behavior. The Multidimensional Death Attitudes Scale (MDAS), based on three existing measures of death attitudes, was administered to a group of health professionals (N 5 348). A principal components analysis revealed five factors, labeled Acceptance, Fear, Death as Passage, Death as Relief and Avoidance. The five-factor

Chloé D. Martin; Peter Salovey

1996-01-01

8

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON DEATH ATTITUDES: AN OVERVIEW AND EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and the relationship of death concern to

ROBERT A. NEIMEYER; JOACHIM WITTKOWSKI; RICHARD P. MOSER

2004-01-01

9

Attitudes Toward Death, Anxiety, and Social Desirability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduates (34 males and 34 females) completed four scales of attitudes toward death including the Death Concern Scale, Templer Death Anxiety Scale, Tolor and Reznikoff Death Anxiety Scale, and Fear of Death and Dying Scale. Four scales showed moderate commonality reflecting 35 percent variance for males and females. (Author)

Dickstein, Louis S.

1978-01-01

10

Death and organ procurement: public beliefs and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While brain death and the dead donor rule (patients must not be killed by organ retrieval) have been clinically and legally accepted in the US as a prerequisite to organ removal, there is little data about public attitudes and beliefs concerning these matters.To examine the public attitudes and beliefs about the determination of death and its relationship to organ transplantation,

Laura A. Siminoff; Christopher Burant; Stuart J. Youngner

2004-01-01

11

East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America  

PubMed Central

The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

Lee, Sok K

2009-01-01

12

East Asian Attitudes toward Death- A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America.  

PubMed

The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

Lee, Sok K

2009-01-01

13

Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death

Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

1982-01-01

14

Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

Slezak, Michael E.

1982-01-01

15

Thanatophobia in medical students: approach to death and dying patients attitude scale (ADDPAS) for undergraduate years in medicine.  

PubMed

In recent decades growing efforts in Western countries in integrating end-of-life care issues into undergraduate medical education have been conspicuous. However, studies in this field are limited in Turkey. We aimed, therefore, as a first step, to develop an attitude scale in order to obtain objective data regarding medical students' approaches to death and dying patients. After applying the scale on medical students and performing exploratory factor analysis, it was found out to be composed of a two-dimensional structure. Then the internal construct validity of these dimensions was subjected to Rasch analysis and the reliability of them was tested by internal consistency and person separation index. As a result of overall analyses, we suggest a new scale which is capable of making valid and reliable measurements. PMID:21350932

Kavas, Mustafa Volkan; Oztuna, Derya

2011-12-01

16

The Effect of Bereavement Upon Death-Related Attitudes and Fears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and critiques existing theory and research on the issue of how attitudes and fears of death are influenced by recent bereavement. While the identification and validation of distinct stages of grief has demonstrated the powerful impact of death upon survivors, other research suggests that exposure to death does not alter one's attitudes or…

Tokunaga, Howard T.

1986-01-01

17

Death Attitudes Across the Life-Span: The Development and Validation of the Death Attitude Profile (DAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Death Attitude Profile was developed and four orthogonal factors were identified: Fear of Death/Dying, Approach-Oriented Death Acceptance, Escape-Oriented Death Acceptance, and Neutral Death Acceptance. An elderly sample (N=50) showed less fear of death and more acceptance (all three kinds of acceptance) than did middle aged (N=50) and young…

Gesser, Gina; And Others

1988-01-01

18

Relationship between attitudes toward life and death among elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To replicate and extend J. Durlak's earlier study with high school and college students, 39 female residents from retirement and nursing homes (mean age = 76 yr.) were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and 2 attitude scales employed by V. Frankl to measure purpose in life and personal fear of death. A significant negative correlation was obtained between purpose

Joseph A. Durlak

1973-01-01

19

Psychological Research on Death Attitudes: An Overview and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and…

Neimeyer, Robert A.; Wittkowski, Joachim; Moser, Richard P.

2004-01-01

20

Effects of Death Education on Fear of Death and Attitudes towards Death and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in a death education course were compared with students of sex education and introductory psychology. After the death education course, students viewed death as more approachable, and wished to experience death in a more interpersonal as compared to a technological context. (Author)

Leviton, Dan; Fretz, Bruce

1978-01-01

21

An Analysis of Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the affects of several factors; sex, age, occupation, size of residence, anomie, marital status, class, and world view, on attitudes towards death. The author's attitudes model is based upon the four-part basic Durkheimian typology, varying in degree and nature of an individual's integration in societal groups. Included in…

Cox, Gerry R.

22

CAN A TELEVISION SERIES CHANGE ATTITUDES ABOUT DEATH? A STUDY OF COLLEGE STUDENTS AND SIX FEET UNDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile—Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found

EDWARD SCHIAPPA; PETER B. GREGG; DEAN E. HEWES

2004-01-01

23

Can a Television Series Change Attitudes about Death? A Study of College Students and "Six Feet Under"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index,…

Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B.; Hewes, Dean E.

2004-01-01

24

Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon

2011-01-01

25

Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward the Aged as a Function of Death Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…

Blackie, Norman K.

26

Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

Hamilton, Josephine A.

2010-01-01

27

Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

Black, Kathy

2007-01-01

28

Death anxiety and voluntary passive euthanasia: Influences of proximity to death and experiences with death in important other persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

86 young and 62 elderly non-life-threatened and 63 elderly life-threatened persons (mean ages 19.5, 71.0, and 74.8 yrs, respectively) were given a standardized interview that included the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS). Age, but not health, was related to death anxiety. A significant Proximity to Death by Experience with Death in Important Others interaction occurred for both death anxiety and attitude

Gerald M. Devins

1979-01-01

29

Attitudes toward Death in Adolescent Offspring of Holocaust Survivors: A Comparison of Israeli and American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continues a study begun in 1973 on attitudes toward death, comparing Israeli and American adolescent offspring of Holocaust survivors in residential treatment program in Jerusalem, Israel. Biographical data, diagnostic classifications, a review of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and some dreams are presented. Israel is shown to be a therapeutic…

Schneider, Stanley

1988-01-01

30

Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South

C A Stevens; R Hassan

1994-01-01

31

Attitudes toward Stillbirth and Death Threat Level in a Sample of Obstetricians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obstetricians and obstetrical residents (N=70) were polled on their attitudes regarding stillbirth and simultaneously were assessed for their level of death threat as measured by the Threat Index. No effect of death threat level on attitudes toward stillbirth was observed, even when extreme scores were isolated and compared. (Author/NRB)

Kirkley-Best, Elizabeth; And Others

1985-01-01

32

Relationship between individual attitudes toward life and death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered the Purpose in Life Test and Lester's Fear of Death Scale to 80 college and 40 high school students. Significant negative correlations between the 2 measures support Frankl's notion that the meaning of life is enhanced as one finds meaning in suffering and death.

Joseph A. Durlak

1972-01-01

33

Effect of end of life education on medical students' and health care workers' death attitude.  

PubMed

One of the goals of education in end of life care is to make communication more open by exploring critical issues related to fear of dying and death in order to reduce anxiety and improve an individual's attitude to dying patients. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of courses for health care workers and medical students in care at the end of life. One hundred and twenty-seven health care professionals and 41 undergraduate medical students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) on the first and last day of the course. The most significant factors of fear of death are: Fear for Significant Others, Fear of the Dying Process and Fear of the Unknown. Overall fear of death scores were reduced as an effect of the courses. Changes in the components and level of fear of death are influenced by the participants' gender, age and profession. Improvement was evident in the attitudes to dying patients in both groups, which was related to an increase in knowledge of high-quality care of dying patients. PMID:18477721

Hegedus, K; Zana, A; Szabó, G

2008-04-01

34

American Death Penalty AttitudesA Critical Examination of Recent Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public support for the death penalty is something of an American tradition. Yet the bases of the American tradition of support for the death penalty are not well understood. An understanding of American attitudes toward capital punishment is important, not only because the United States is again executing criminal offenders, but because it provides a rough estimate of the level

ROBERT M. BOHM

1987-01-01

35

Death-Related Attitudes and Behavior among Mexican Americans: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review on death-related attitudes and behavior of Mexican Americans. The 1976 Kalish and Reynolds study concludes that Mexican Americans are more accepting of death than other ethnic groups. Some findings suggest the opposite may be true. Offers an alternative interpretation of findings plus future research suggestions.…

Markides, Kyriakos S.

1981-01-01

36

Knowledge of Criteria for Brain Death and Attitudes towards Organ Donation and Transplantation of Nursing Professionals in Tottori Prefecture, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nursing professional population in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, was studied for their knowledge of criteria towards brain death and their attitudes towards organ donation and organ transplantation. An attempt was also made to clarify factors involved in issues concerning organ donation and organ transplantation. We distributed 2200 questionnaires to 9 hospitals, and obtained 1879 responses, of which 1683 were valid.

Itoko Terada; Akiko Otani; Kimiko Hiramatsu; Miyoko Matsuo; Hisao Ito

37

Intrinsic religious motivation and attitudes toward death among the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five males and females ages 65 and older completed the Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale, a measure of faith development\\u000a (based on Fowler, 1981), and two multidimensional measures of death anxiety (the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale-Revised\\u000a and the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale). Individuals with intrin-sic religious motivation reported significantly lower\\u000a levels of various types of death anxiety than did

Richard Clements

1998-01-01

38

Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators  

PubMed Central

A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

2013-01-01

39

Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.  

PubMed

A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

2013-01-01

40

Not everyone strongly supports the death penalty: Assessing weakly-held attitudes about capital punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polls exploring attitudes toward the death penalty typically impose a simple, dichotomous response structure: respondents\\u000a are asked whether or not they support or oppose capital punishment. This polling strategy deprives respondents of expressing\\u000a an indication of the strength of their opinions. When asked whether they support (or oppose) the death penalty “strongly”\\u000a or “not strongly,” significant proportions of respondents select

JAMES D. UNNEVERtt; Francis T. Cullen; Julian V. Roberts

2005-01-01

41

Mothers' attitudes to preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers' attitudes to their preterm and term children were examined and compared using the Semantic-Differential and an interview related to the experiences of mothers during pregnancy and after birth. It was postulated that mothers would show more concern for their preterm infant than their term infant, but this hypothesis was not supported by the results. The attitudes of mothers were

R. T. Bidder; E. A. Crowe; O. P. Gray

1974-01-01

42

Retributive and Utilitarian Motives and Other Correlates of Canadian Attitudes Toward the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth survey of 144 English Canadian adults examined the motives behind, and other social psychological correlates of, attitudes toward capital punishment. The results suggested that for a substantial percentage of people the motive of retribution may be more important than deterence as a reason for favoring the death penalty. Other findings indicated that the more strongly people favored the

Neil Vidmar

1974-01-01

43

Attitudes towards hastened death in ALS: a prospective study of patients and family caregivers.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be associated with the wish to hasten death (WTHD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and stability of WTHD and end-of-life attitudes in ALS patients, identify predictive factors, and explore communication about WTHD. We conducted a prospective questionnaire study among patients and their primary caregivers attending ALS clinics in Germany and Switzerland. We enrolled 66 patients and 62 caregivers. Half of the patients could imagine asking for assisted suicide or euthanasia; 14% expressed a current WTHD at the baseline survey. While 75% were in favour of non-invasive ventilation, only 55% and 27% were in favour of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and invasive ventilation, respectively. These attitudes were stable over 13 months. The WTHD was predicted by depression, anxiety, loneliness, perceiving to be a burden to others, and a low quality of life (all p < 0.05). Lower religiosity predicted whether patients could imagine assisted suicide or euthanasia. Two-thirds of patients had communicated their WTHD to relatives; no-one talked to the physician about it, yet half of them would like to do so. In conclusion, physicians should consider proactively asking for WTHD, and be sensitive towards neglected psychosocial problems and psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:24070371

Stutzki, Ralf; Weber, Markus; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Simmen, Urs; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Jox, Ralf J

2014-03-01

44

What does “unwilling” to impose the death penalty mean anyway? another look at excludable jurors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate regarding the death qualification of juries usually concerns (a) whether death-qualified jurors have different attitudes and values to excludable jurors, or (b) whether death-qualified juries are more prone to convict. A pivotal question is whether excludable subjects in fact willever impose the death penalty. Subjects were presented with five grisly murder vignettes. Only 40% of excludable subjects refused

Robert J. Robinson

1993-01-01

45

Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

Marshall, Eliot

1979-01-01

46

Stressing mitosis to death.  

PubMed

The final stage of cell division (mitosis), involves the compaction of the duplicated genome into chromatid pairs. Each pair is captured by microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles, aligned at the metaphase plate, and then faithfully segregated to form two identical daughter cells. Chromatids that are not correctly attached to the spindle are detected by the constitutively active spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Any stress that prevents correct bipolar spindle attachment, blocks the satisfaction of the SAC, and induces a prolonged mitotic arrest, providing the cell time to obtain attachment and complete segregation correctly. Unfortunately, during mitosis repairing damage is not generally possible due to the compaction of DNA into chromosomes, and subsequent suppression of gene transcription and translation. Therefore, in the presence of significant damage cell death is instigated to ensure that genomic stability is maintained. While most stresses lead to an arrest in mitosis, some promote premature mitotic exit, allowing cells to bypass mitotic cell death. This mini-review will focus on the effects and outcomes that common stresses have on mitosis, and how this impacts on the efficacy of mitotic chemotherapies. PMID:24926440

Burgess, Andrew; Rasouli, Mina; Rogers, Samuel

2014-01-01

47

Teachers' Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Death Education in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, young children are exposed to death through various forms of media in their communities, schools, and home environments. With this inevitability of exposure, there is a need for death education in order to inform and support today's youth when facing the subject of death. Death is said to be one of the most emotional and complex…

Engarhos, Paraskevi; Talwar, Victoria; Schleifer, Michael; Renaud, Sarah-Jane

2013-01-01

48

The relative importance of gender role attitudes to male and female attitudes toward lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were

Bernie S. Newman

1989-01-01

49

Death Education and Death Fear Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the possibility of reducing the fear of death in early adolescents through a 12-lesson unit designed to assist the student to achieve an attitude of integration toward life and death. (NQ)

Mueller, Mary Louise

1976-01-01

50

Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…

Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

2011-01-01

51

Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest, curiosity, self-regulation, and humor. Moreover, the

Ryan M. Niemiec; Stefan E. Schulenberg

2011-01-01

52

Students' Attitudes to Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last ten years, there have been international concerns about school science education, in particular in many rich, highly developed countries where there is a decline in the recruitment of students to science and technology. These concerns relate particularly to the uptake of physical sciences, gender differences and students'…

Toplis, Rob

2011-01-01

53

Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

Devins, Gerald M.

1979-01-01

54

History of brain death as death: 1968 to the present.  

PubMed

The concept of brain death was formulated in 1968 in the landmark report A Definition of Irreversible Coma. While brain death has been widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world, many of the controversies that surround it have not been settled. Some may be rooted in a misconstruction about the history of brain death. The concept evolved as a result of the convergence of several parallel developments in the second half of the 20th century including advances in resuscitation and critical care, research into the underlying physiology of consciousness, and growing concerns about technology, medical futility, and the ethics of end of life care. Organ transplantation also developed in parallel, and though it clearly benefited from a new definition of death, it was not a principal driving force in its creation. Since 1968, the concept of brain death has been extensively analyzed, debated, and reworked. Still there remains much misunderstanding and confusion, especially in the general public. In this comprehensive review, I will trace the evolution of the definition of brain death as death from 1968 to the present, providing background, history and context. PMID:24930367

De Georgia, Michael A

2014-08-01

55

“Modern” death qualification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of a comprehensive statewide survey of death penalty attitudes in which respondents were categorized in terms of their death-qualified or excludable status under several different Supreme Court doctrines governing the death-qualification process. We found that although changes in public opinion with respect to the death penalty in general have altered the relative sizes of the

Craig Haney; Aida Hurtado; Luis Vega

1994-01-01

56

“Good Ol' Boys” and the Chair: Death Penalty Attitudes of Policy Makers in Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of a survey of Tennessee chief prosecutors (district attorneys general), chief public defenders, and state legislators concerning their attitudes toward capital punishment. Global approval was compared with (1) approval when offered the options of life without parole and (2) life without parole and restitution to the victim's family. Additional items probed approval of capital punishment

John T. Whitehead

1998-01-01

57

Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death  

PubMed Central

Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

2013-01-01

58

Measurement of Attitude to Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides definitions of "attitudes" and discusses these attitude measures: (1) Thurstone (equal-appearing) scales; (2) Likert scales; (3) (Osgood's) semantic differential scale; (4) inventories and checklists; (5) preference rankings; (6) projective techniques; (7) enrollments; (8) clinical and anthropological observations; and (9) psychological…

Leder, Gilah C.

1985-01-01

59

Death penalty beliefs and jurors' responses to aggravating and mitigating circumstances in capital trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies explored the relationship between attitudes toward the death penalty and support for or rejection of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in a capital trial. Jurors serving on jury duty voluntarily completed questionnaires in the jury lounge. In Study 1, jurors strongly opposed to the death penalty were significantly more receptive to mitigating circumstances than were the remaining jurors. In

James Luginbuhl; Kathi Middendorft

1988-01-01

60

From epitaph to obituaryDeath and celebrity in eighteenth-century British culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T • This article explores the emergence of the obituary in British eighteenth-century print journalism, at a moment when the verse epitaph was in irrevocable decline. The new form of death memorial that the obituary represents reflected a changing attitude to death, and a new phase in its relationship with fame. Many of

Elizabeth Barry

2008-01-01

61

A study of some psychological reactions during prepubescence to the idea of death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the fear of death constitutes a universal reaction common to so many human beings, it would appear that any study of attitudes toward death during pre-pubescence or adult life, would throw further light on the psychodynamics of human behavior. Perhaps it was Steket's brilliant hypothesis that \\

Frank S. Caprio

1950-01-01

62

Teaching about Death to Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…

Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others

63

After the Black Death: labour legislation and attitudes towards labour in late-medieval western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Death spurred monarchies and city-states across much of Western Europe to formulate new wage and price legislation. These legislative acts splintered in a multitude of directions that to date defy any obvious patterns of economic or political rationality. A comparison of labour laws in England, France, Provence, Aragon, Castile, the Low Countries, and the city-states of Italy shows

SAMUEL COHN

2007-01-01

64

Children's Reactions to the Word Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some research has been conducted in the past, few studies have investigated children's conceptions of life, death and dying. To study children's ideas about death, 112 children, age 4-18, were asked to draw what they thought of when they heard the word "death" and also to make verbal comments about their drawings. Three qualitatively…

Wenestam, Claes-Goran

65

Attitudes of junior medical staff to requesting permission for autopsy.  

PubMed Central

The attitudes of junior medical staff in a university teaching hospital to requesting postmortem examination were assessed. Following completion of 100 death certificates, autopsy was sought in only 28 cases (and refused in 18). The majority of staff were unaware of the reported benefits of autopsy, despite their inclusion in the local medical handbook and had received no training in how to seek permission for a necropsy. Formal education programmes have been shown to improve hospital autopsy rates and the results of this study suggest that these would be welcomed by junior medical staff. PMID:8183776

Hinchliffe, S. A.; Godfrey, H. W.; Hind, C. R.

1994-01-01

66

Examination of psychological variables related to nuclear attitudes and nuclear activism  

SciTech Connect

It was hypothesized that knowledge about nuclear arms developments would not be correlated with nuclear attitudes, that sense of efficacy would be positively correlated with magnitude of nuclear activism, and that death anxiety would be correlated with high level of nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes, but not with sense of power. It was also hypothesized that positive correlations would be found between nuclear activism and political activism, knowledge of nuclear facts, and degree of adherence to anti-nuclear attitudes. One hundred and forty three women and 90 men participated in this questionnaire study. Major findings are as follows. In general, the more people knew about nuclear developments, the more anti-nuclear were their attitudes. Also, regardless of nuclear attitudes, a positive correlation was found between knowledge of nuclear facts and nuclear activism. Death anxiety and powerlessness were not correlated. There was a positive correlation between anxiety and both nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes. A strong positive correlation was found between nuclear activism and anti-nuclear attitudes, and between political activism and nuclear activism. Internal locus of control did not correlate significantly with high sense of power or with high degree of nuclear activism.

Roy, P.J.

1985-01-01

67

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000

Standiford, Richard B.

68

Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

69

Unexpected death: anaphylactic intraoperative death due to Thymoglobulin carbohydrate excipient.  

PubMed

Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening allergic response characterized by severe hypotension, inducing tissue hypoperfusion with possible multi-organ failure and death. We describe the first case of fatal intra-operative anaphylactic shock due to prolonged infusion of Thymoglobulin during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT), resulting from recruitment of both mastocytes and basophils, activated and degranulated. Post-mortem serological analysis on a preserved, pre-OLT sample of the patient's blood revealed specific IgE against carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants (CCDs), such as MUXF3 and nAna c2, proving that anaphylactic reaction was triggered by the Thymoglobulin carbohydrate excipient (sugar alcohol mannitol), rather than anti-thymocyte globulin itself. Our findings are consistent with scientific data reported in the literature, where only one case of non-fatal anaphylaxis to Thymoglobulin has been described, despite the existence of proven cases of anaphylactic reaction to mannitol. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention in future not only to active substances but also to drug excipients, above all during intra-operative drug delivery. In view of the important role played by basophils in this kind of anaphylaxis, the basophil activation test (BAT) could prove useful in preventing anaphylactic death from CCDs. PMID:23540837

Roncati, Luca; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Scacchetti, Alda Tiziana; Busani, Stefano; Maiorana, Antonio

2013-05-10

70

Taking it to the grave: gender, cultural capital, and ethnicity in Turkish death announcements.  

PubMed

Popularly considered a great equalizer, death and the rituals around it nevertheless accentuate social distinctions. The present study focuses on a sample (N = 2554) of death announcements in a major Turkish daily newspaper (Hürriyet) from 1970 to 2006. Out of the liminal position of Turkish death announcements between obituaries and death notices emerges a large decentralized collection of private decisions responding to death, reflecting attitudes toward gender, ethnic/religious minority status and cultural capital, and echoing the aggregate efforts of privileged groups to maintain a particular self-image. Class closures lead to openings for traditionally under-represented minorities, such as Jewish Turkish citizens and citizens of Greek or Armenian origin. Results reveal that signs of status and power in announcements are largely monopolized by men of Turkish-Muslim origins. Although the changes in the genre-characteristics of death announcements are slow, they correspond to major turning points in Turkish social history. PMID:20222236

Ergin, Murat

71

Attachment Styles and Attraction to Death: Diversities Among Eating Disorder Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research was aimed at examining how attachment styles are connected to attraction to death among eating disorder (ED) patients. A sample of 34 anorexic and 34 bulimic patients was matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic status to 37 normal controls. They were administered the Adult Attachment Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Multi-Attitude Suicidal Tendency Scale. Results

Zipora Hochdorf; Yael Latzer; Laura Canetti; Eytan Bachar

2005-01-01

72

Measuring Fear of Death: A Reliability Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that the test/retest reliability coefficients for the "Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale" and the "Lester Attitude toward Death Scale" were significant, but only low to moderate in significance. (RL)

Larrabee, Marva J.

1978-01-01

73

On the Interrelationships among Exposure to Death and Dying, Fear of Death, and Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both state and trait anxiety were positively related to fear of death, which held when controlling for the potential effects of exposure to death and dying. Emotional closeness to the deceased and time elapsed since exposure to death were related to fear of death and anxiety. (Author)

Hoelter, Jon W.; Hoelter, Janice A.

1980-01-01

74

Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

75

Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella Dipartimento di Informatica theory mental attitudes such as beliefs, desires, goals and intentions are attributed to autonomous it desires to do so. Boella and Lesmo [1] suggest that analogously we can attribute mental attitudes to nor

van der Torre, Leon

76

Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.

1993-01-01

77

Girls' Attitudes Toward Violence as Related to TV Exposure , Family Attitudes, and Social Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…

Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

78

Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…

van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

2010-01-01

79

Measuring Fear of Death: A Reliability Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in interest in death education among helping professionals and a concern for a lack of reliability and validity data on some instruments measuring attitudes about death is reviewed. The Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale and the Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale were administered twice to 20 graduate level male and female counselor trainees over a six-week interval. Test-retest

Marva J. Larrabee

1978-01-01

80

Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Responses to Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with…

Peris, Tara S.; Benazon, Nili; Langley, Audra; Roblek, Tami; Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

81

Attitudes of registered nurses toward euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify variables that contribute to euthanasia attitude and behavior, including demographics, death fears, experience with death, attitudes toward patient autonomy, and level of moral development.Subjects were 137 registered nurses from the southeastern United States representing 13 clinical nursing areas. Principal components analysis identified four factors that together explained 62.9% of total variance. These factors were belief in

Carolyn R. Shuman; Glenn P. Fournet; Paul F. Zelhart; Billy C. Roland; Robert E. Estes

1992-01-01

82

The Psychology of Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

Fields, B. Celestine

1976-01-01

83

Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

1988-01-01

84

The Effects of Death Anxiety and Mode of "Case Study" Presentation on Shifts of Attitude toward Euthanasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)

Hart, Edward J.

1978-01-01

85

Cell death: a program to regenerate.  

PubMed

Recent studies in Drosophila, Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, mice, indicate that cell death can open paths to regeneration in adult animals. Indeed injury can induce cell death, itself triggering regeneration following an immediate instructive mechanism, whereby the dying cells release signals that induce cellular responses over short and/or long-range distances. Cell death can also provoke a sustained derepressing response through the elimination of cells that suppress regeneration in homeostatic conditions. Whether common properties support what we name "regenerative cell death," is currently unclear. As key parameters, we review here the injury proapoptotic signals, the signals released by the dying cells, the cellular responses, and their respective timing. ROS appears as a common signal triggering cell death through MAPK and/or JNK pathway activation. But the modes of ROS production vary, from a brief pulse upon wounding, to repeated waves as observed in the zebrafish fin where ROS supports two peaks of cell death. Indeed regenerative cell death can be restricted to the injury phase, as in Hydra, Drosophila, or biphasic, immediate, and delayed, as in planarians and zebrafish. The dying cells release in a caspase-dependent manner a variety of signaling molecules, cytokines, growth factors, but also prostaglandins or ATP as recorded in Drosophila, Hydra, mice, and zebrafish, respectively. Interestingly, the ROS-producing cells often resist to cell death, implying a complex paracrine mode of signaling to launch regeneration, involving ROS-producing cells, ROS-sensing cells that release signaling molecules upon caspase activation, and effector cells that respond to these signals by proliferating, migrating, and/or differentiating. PMID:24512708

Vriz, Sophie; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

2014-01-01

86

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

87

20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

2012-04-01

88

20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

2014-04-01

89

20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

2013-04-01

90

20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

2010-04-01

91

20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

2011-04-01

92

Conflicting attitudes to corneal and organ donation: a study of nurses' attitudes to organ donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards

Bridie Kent; R. Glynn Owens

1995-01-01

93

THE USE OF DEATH METAPHORS TO UNDERSTAND PERSONAL MEANING OF DEATH AMONG HONG KONG CHINESE UNDERGRADUATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess the death metaphors of Hong Kong Chinese for

WING-SHAN CHEUNG; SAMUEL M. Y. HO

2004-01-01

94

Sleep Position Linked to Death Risk for Those with Epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Position Linked to Death Risk for Those With Epilepsy Researchers see similarities with sudden infant death syndrome (* ... 2015) Wednesday, January 21, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Epilepsy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21, 2015 ( ...

95

Attitudes to Colorectal Cancer Screening After Reading the Prevention Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the biggest barriers to increase colorectal cancer screening are negative attitudes to screening tests. These negative\\u000a attitudes might be evoked through reading cancer prevention information and impede the decision to get screened. Forty-two\\u000a adults aged ?50 years completed a 12-item attitude questionnaire after reading colorectal cancer prevention information. African-Americans\\u000a perceived that others had higher cancer risk than themselves whereas

Chiung-ju Liu; Tara Fleck; Joan Goldfarb; Casey Green; Elizabeth Porter

96

`By Death Divided. Scottish and English approaches to death certification in the nineteenth century'  

E-print Network

`By Death Divided. Scottish and English approaches to death certification in the nineteenth century main influence was in the presentation of the Scottish death statistics, and the theories underpinning his father-in-law, Adam Black, the publisher, former provost, and prospective MP for Edinburgh.3

Glasgow, University of

97

The Medicolegal Death Investigator An Evolution in Crime Scene Investigations Relating to Unexpected Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicolegal Death Investigation is an uncommon term used to describe the in- vestigation into the manner and causes of death. The name implies a combina- tion of medicine and law into a common discipline. However, the field is much more complex than this simple concept may indicate. Death investigation is com- prised of a multitude of forensic specialists. These include

Emil Moldovan

2008-01-01

98

Talking to Children about Death  

MedlinePLUS

... detailed questions about what happens physically to dead things. Although this interest may seem repulsive or morbid to us, it ... feel guilty or embarrassed about their curiosity. Their interest may provide ... living things die and make room for new living things. ...

99

Research to stop tobacco deaths  

PubMed Central

In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

2014-01-01

100

Research to stop tobacco deaths.  

PubMed

In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

2014-01-01

101

Measurement of attitudes of trainee professionals to people with disabilities.  

PubMed

The importance of measuring attitudes of trainee professionals to people with disabilities was addressed. A questionnaire which included the Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons (SADP) and the Intellectual Disability Misconceptions Scale (IDMS) was completed by first and final year tertiary students enrolled in a 3-year course on intellectual disability. The attitude measures did not discriminate between the two groups of students, psychometric properties were poor and the factor structure of the SADP did not replicate previous findings. As expected, there was some convergence between the two attitude measures, and relationships to subject variables were consistent with previous research. Recommendations for subsequent research were discussed. PMID:7579983

Beckwith, J B; Matthews, J M

1995-08-01

102

Attitudes of Counselor to Handicapped Studied.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decribes a two-year research study of attitude of first-year male and female camp counselors toward handicapped campers. Finds significant differences between males and females: females having more positive attitude toward the handicapped and more internalized locus of control. Emphasizes importance of counselor self-esteem and actual experience.…

Ruzicka, Sue

1987-01-01

103

Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini

2008-01-01

104

Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

2006-01-01

105

Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

2011-01-01

106

How to Estimate Attitude from Vector Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most robust estimators minimizing Wahba's loss function are Davenport's q method and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The q method is faster than the SVD method with three or more measurements. The other algorithms are less robust since they solve the characteristic polynomial equation to find the maximum eigenvalue of Davenport's K matrix. They are only preferable when speed or processor power is an important consideration. Of these, Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) is the most robust and faster than the q method. Robustness is only an issue for measurements with widely differing accuracies, so the fastest algorithms, Quaternion ESTimator (QUEST), EStimator of the Optimal Quaternion (ESOQ), and ESOQ2, are well suited to star sensor applications.

Markley, F. Landis; Mortari, Daniele

1999-01-01

107

20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

2010-04-01

108

20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.  

...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

2014-04-01

109

20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

2011-04-01

110

20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

2012-04-01

111

20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

2013-04-01

112

The campbell paradigm as a conceptual alternative to the expectation of hypocrisy in contemporary attitude research.  

PubMed

Hypocrisy-professing a general attitude without implementing corresponding attitude-relevant behavior-is, according to Ajzen and Fishbein (2005), commonly found in attitude research that aims to explain individual behavior. We conducted two studies that adopted the Campbell paradigm, an alternative to the traditional understanding of attitudes. In a laboratory experiment, we found that specific attitude-relevant cooperation in a social dilemma was a function of people's pre-existing general environmental attitude. In a quasi-experiment, we corroborated the reverse as well; engagement in attitude-relevant dietary practices was indicative of environmental attitude. When using Campbellian attitude measures, there is no room for hypocrisy: People put their general attitudes into specific attitude-relevant practices, and differences in people's general attitudes can be derived from their attitude-relevant behavior. PMID:25185705

Kaiser, Florian G; Byrka, Katarzyna

2015-01-01

113

Indicating the Attitudes of High School Students to Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…

Ozkan, Recep

2013-01-01

114

Attitudes to Wetland Restoration in Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire, UK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines adult attitudes toward wetlands in order to assess perceptions and thus educational failings as a barrier to wetland restoration. Finds relatively positive attitudes with significant differences between social groups and near-significant differences between genders. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)

Rispoli, Donna; Hambler, Clive

1999-01-01

115

Reenactment of Circumstances in Deaths Related to Restraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reenactment of the circumstances in deaths associated with restraint, utilizing participants and witnesses while memories are fresh, may help death investigators more accurately determine the cause of death. Two recent deaths in Ventura County that occurred during restraint are discussed. Within a day of the autopsies the restrainers agreed to participate in reenactments of the restraint process, utilizing live volunteers

2004-01-01

116

An Integrative Approach to Language Attitudes and Identity in Brittany.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the attitudes of young people in Brittany towards Breton and French, including questions of identity and perceptions of the future of the Breton language. Combined several different techniques within the same project to gain different insights into the issues and established techniques for gathering data on language attitudes

Hoare, Rachel

2001-01-01

117

Factors Related to Eating Attitudes of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered attitudes toward eating held by pregnant women can affect the nutritional status of the mother and fetus. This retrospective study consisted of 264 pregnant women who attended an obstetrics clinic during their first prenatal visit. Data from their medical records and nutritional evaluations including the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26) were used to pursue the objective. Mean EAT-26

C. M. Bowen; E. S. Parham; E. Applegate

1999-01-01

118

Attitudes to and use of baby walkers in Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The

M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall

1995-01-01

119

Death Education in the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the development of informal death education in the United Kingdom since Gorer's (Geoffrey) 1965 survey of attitudes to death, grief, and mourning. Shows how the media, exhibitions, courses, and reports contribute to the attainment of four goals originally applied in "American Death Education" by Gordon (Audrey) and Klass (Dennis) (1977).…

Clark, Valerie

1998-01-01

120

Religious and Nonreligious Spirituality in Relation to Death Acceptance or Rejection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the…

Cicirelli, Victor G.

2011-01-01

121

Death Outlook and Social Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between death attitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)

Feifel, Herman; Schag, Daniel

1980-01-01

122

Physics Graduate Studentsâ Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew J.

2010-01-18

123

Attitudes to disability of Russian occupational therapy and nursing students.  

PubMed

Positive student attitudes toward disability are essential to client-centred rehabilitation. Instilling such attitudes in students enrolled in the first occupational therapy (OT) and post-diploma nursing management (NM) courses in Russia was a key objective of the curriculum development team. The team's aim was to combat the traditional Russian attitude of pity, dependence and marginalization. To this end, the introductory classes were developed and taught by teachers from the All Russia Society of Disabled (ARSD). This paper examines the attitudes to disability in Russia and compares the attitudes of three groups of students. Students in the OT and NM programmes (n = 18) in Volgograd were compared to other nursing students in the same college (n = 21) and to nursing students in a Moscow medical school (n = 20). All completed the Scale of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons (SADP). The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistics revealed that students in the OT and NM programmes had significantly more positive scores (P = 0.01) than either of the other groups. This suggests that the strategies adopted by the curriculum team were successful in developing positive attitudes in students. PMID:10826124

Packer, T L; Iwasiw, C; Theben, J; Sheveleva, P; Metrofanova, N

2000-03-01

124

The Use of Death Metaphors to Understand Personal Meaning of Death among Hong Kong Chinese Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess…

Cheung, Wing-Shan; Ho, Samuel M. Y.

2004-01-01

125

From Death to LifePrison Behavior of Former Death Row Inmates in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disciplinary records of 39 Indiana death row inmates who were transferred to the general prison population following modification of their sentence from death to capital life between 1972 and 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. Overall prevalence for the entire period of incarceration indicated that 14 inmates (35.9%) were involved in 24 violent acts. Twenty-six percent were involved in these violent

THOMAS J. REIDY; MARK D. CUNNINGHAM; JON R. SORENSEN

2001-01-01

126

Death due to baclofen and dipyrone ingestion.  

PubMed

A fatal suicidal intoxication with unusual drugs is reported. A 56-year-old man was found dead in his house; near by the corpse several empty drugs boxes were found. An autopsy was performed and the biological fluids were submitted to a full toxicological work-up. The analytical results supported the hypothesis of a death due to the acute baclofen (4-amino-3-(p-chlorophenyl)butyric acid) and dipyrone (sodium [N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenylpyrazolin-4-yl)-N-methylamino] methanesulfonate) intoxication. PMID:11731193

De Giovanni, N; d'Aloja, E

2001-11-15

127

Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

128

Predicting counseling psychologists attitudes and clinical judgments with respect to older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine age, gender, training and experience in aging issues, fear of death, and multicultural competence in predicting counseling psychologists' global attitudes toward older adults and specific clinical judgments concerning a case vignette of an older client. A national sample of 364 practicing counseling psychologists participated in the study. Participants completed a demographic measure, Polizzi's refined version of the Aging Semantic Differential (Polizzi, 2003 ), a survey of professional bias based on a clinical vignette of a 70-year-old woman (James & Haley, 1995), the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale 3.0 (Lester, & Abdel-Khalek, 2003), the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002), and a Training and Experience Questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the extent to which the selected variables predicted more favorable attitudes toward older adults and less professional bias toward an older client beyond prediction by age and gender. Results revealed that older age and higher total scores on the MCKAS predicted less professional bias in clinical judgments. Gender was a significant predictor of global attitudes toward older adults. Findings suggest that multicultural knowledge, awareness, and skills are important in working with older adults. PMID:22913506

Tomko, Jody K; Munley, Patrick H

2013-01-01

129

Smoking Tied to Higher Death Risk After Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Smoking Tied to Higher Death Risk After Colon Cancer After 7 years of follow-up, researchers found ... of earlier death for people who've survived colon cancer, a new study warns. American Cancer Society researchers ...

130

Relationship of Death Anxiety Scale Factors to Subjective States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relationships between factors of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale and measures of subjective state. Findings revealed that, in a general population, Factor I, conceptualized as fear of death, was unrelated to anxiety and depression in contrast to positive correlations provided by Factors II-IV, which were collectively conceptualized as death

Gilliland, Jack C.; Templer, Donald I.

1986-01-01

131

Mitochondria and programmed cell death: back to the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, has in the past few years undoubtedly become one of the most intensively investigated biological processes. However, fundamental questions concerning the molecular and biochemical mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The central question concerns the biochemical steps shared by the numerous death induction pathways elicited by different stimuli. Heterogeneous death signals precede a common effector phase

Patrice X. Petit; Santos-Antonio Susin; Naoufal Zamzami; Bernard Mignotte; Guido Kroemer

1996-01-01

132

Deaths due to injury in the military  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: More military personnel die of injuries each year than any other cause. This paper provides a basic epidemiologic description of injury deaths in the military.Methods: Using fatality data from the Department of Defense Directorate of Information and Operations Reports and population data from the Defense Manpower Data Center, death rates of men and women in the military services for

Kenneth E Powell; Lois A Fingerhut; Christine M Branche; Dennis M Perrotta

2000-01-01

133

Fetal death ratios in a prospective study compared to state fetal death certificate reporting.  

PubMed Central

A cohort of 6,254 pregnancies surviving at least 20 weeks of gestation was identified through pregnancy testing and follow-up at three Kaiser Permanente medical offices in northern California in 1981-82. Fetal death ratios per 1,000 live births were 12.1 for all fetal deaths versus 5.0 for the subset of fetal deaths reported to the California state registrar. Only fetal deaths resulting in overnight hospitalization of the mother were reported. Seventy-nine percent of fetal deaths over 28 completed weeks since the last menstrual period (LMP) were reported versus only 10 percent between 20 and 28 completed weeks since the LMP. Ninety-three percent of fetuses over 400 grams were reported. The unreported fetal deaths were mainly those perceived by attending physicians as spontaneous abortion, especially missed or incomplete spontaneous abortion. Physicians apparently preferred the label of spontaneous abortion over stillbirth or fetal death whenever fetal maturity could not be substantiated, regardless of prior estimates of the date of the LMP. Fetuses as large and developed as potentially viable infants were the most likely to be reported. PMID:2764206

Goldhaber, M K

1989-01-01

134

Robustness of quantum discord to sudden death  

E-print Network

We calculate the dissipative dynamics of two-qubit quantum discord under Markovian environments. We analyze various dissipative channels such as dephasing, depolarizing, and generalized amplitude damping, assuming independent perturbation, in which each qubit is coupled to its own channel. Choosing initial conditions that manifest the so-called sudden death of entanglement, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. We show that in all cases where entanglement suddenly disappears, quantum discord vanishes only in the asymptotic limit, behaving similarly to individual decoherence of the qubits, even at finite temperatures. Hence, quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement against to decoherence so that quantum algorithms based only on quantum discord correlations may be more robust than those based on entanglement.

T. Werlang; S. Souza; F. F. Fanchini; C. J. Villas-Boas

2009-05-20

135

Death Imagery and Death Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined death to be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)

McDonald, Rita T.; Hilgendorf, William A.

1986-01-01

136

Retrograde Axonal Transport: Pathways To Cell Death?  

PubMed Central

Active transport along the axon is critical to the neuron. Motor-driven transport supplies the distal synapse with newly synthesized proteins and lipids, and clears damaged or misfolded proteins. Microtubule motors also drive long-distance signaling along the axon via signaling endosomes. While positive signaling initiated by neurotrophic factors has been well-studied, recent research has focused on stress signaling along the axon. Here, the connections between axonal transport alterations and neurodegeneration are discussed, including evidence for defective transport of vesicles, mitochondria, degradative organelles, and signaling endosomes in models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Defects in transport are sufficient to induce neurodegeneration, but recent progress suggests that changes in retrograde signaling pathways correlate with rapidly progressive neuronal cell death. PMID:20434225

Perlson, Eran; Maday, Sandra; Fu, Meng-meng; Moughamian, Armen J.; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

2010-01-01

137

How Schoolchildren's Acceptance of Self and Others Relate to Their Attitudes to Victims of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has indicated that harm to the mental health of children who are repeatedly victimised by their peers at school can be ameliorated through social or emotional support provided by other students. In this study we examined whether student provictim attitudes are related to more basic attitudes to self and attitudes to others.…

Rigby, Ken; Bortolozzo, Giulio

2013-01-01

138

Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths  

PubMed Central

A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac) classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies), two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy), a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal). For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions associated with them, and the most common clinical scenarios for future study and comparisons. PMID:19515228

Frøen, J Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon CS; Torabi, Rozbeh

2009-01-01

139

An approach to the sublime of death  

E-print Network

Death is an unknown and it is final. This makes it sublime. The sublime as an aesthetic category is experienced emotionally as the moral certitude of having embraced the absolute. In that sense, the nervous system is capable ...

Preston, Steven (Steven Joseph)

2010-01-01

140

14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes to animal research in 2014  

E-print Network

14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 1 Attitudes;14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014 2 © 2014 Ipsos MORI ­ all rights://www.ipsos-mori.com/terms. © Ipsos MORI 2014. #12;14-012982-01. Public Attitudes to the Use of Animals in Scientific Research in 2014

Napp, Nils

141

Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine  

PubMed Central

Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

2013-01-01

142

Adjustment to the death of a sibling.  

PubMed Central

Despite the recent increase in interest in terminally ill children and their families and the post death adjustment of parents, there has been little research examining the adjustment and self concept of surviving siblings in such families. This paper discusses the results of a preliminary descriptive study of 28 children (from 14 families) whose brother or sister had died of cancer between 18 and 30 months previously. Behaviour checklists were completed by parents and teachers and self concept scales administered to the children. A lengthy semistructured interview was carried out, and measures of parental adjustment were gathered. A high percentage of children were found to be exhibiting emotional or behavioural difficulties, or both, and the results indicated that low self esteem was common. Parental and child adjustment were not found to be related inter se, nor did they seem to relate to the child's self esteem. Thus for many children the loss of a sibling might cause long term distress. Further, many children who did not manifest overt difficulties perceived themselves unfavourably in comparison with either their ideal or their dead sibling. PMID:3963872

Pettle Michael, S A; Lansdown, R G

1986-01-01

143

Increases in heroin overdose deaths - 28 States, 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Nationally, death rates from prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) overdoses quadrupled during 1999-2010, whereas rates from heroin overdoses increased by <50%. Individual states and cities have reported substantial increases in deaths from heroin overdose since 2010. CDC analyzed recent mortality data from 28 states to determine the scope of the heroin overdose death increase and to determine whether increases were associated with changes in OPR overdose death rates since 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2010 to 2012, the death rate from heroin overdose for the 28 states increased from 1.0 to 2.1 per 100,000, whereas the death rate from OPR overdose declined from 6.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2012. Heroin overdose death rates increased significantly for both sexes, all age groups, all census regions, and all racial/ethnic groups other than American Indians/Alaska Natives. OPR overdose mortality declined significantly among males, persons aged <45 years, persons in the South, and non-Hispanic whites. Five states had increases in the OPR death rate, seven states had decreases, and 16 states had no change. Of the 18 states with statistically reliable heroin overdose death rates (i.e., rates based on at least 20 deaths), 15 states reported increases. Decreases in OPR death rates were not associated with increases in heroin death rates. The findings indicate a need for intensified prevention efforts aimed at reducing overdose deaths from all types of opioids while recognizing the demographic differences between the heroin and OPR-using populations. Efforts to prevent expansion of the number of OPR users who might use heroin when it is available should continue. PMID:25275328

Rudd, Rose A; Paulozzi, Len J; Bauer, Michael J; Burleson, Richard W; Carlson, Rick E; Dao, Dan; Davis, James W; Dudek, Jennifer; Eichler, Beth Ann; Fernandes, Jessie C; Fondario, Anna; Gabella, Barbara; Hume, Beth; Huntamer, Theron; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Largo, Thomas W; Miles, JoAnne; Newmyer, Ashley; Nitcheva, Daniela; Perez, Beatriz E; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Sabel, Jennifer C; Skiba, Jessica; Slavova, Svetla; Stone, Kathy; Tharp, John M; Wendling, Tracy; Wright, Dagan; Zehner, Anne M

2014-10-01

144

Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.  

PubMed

This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

2013-11-01

145

Attitudes toward a game-based approach to mental health.  

PubMed

Based on preliminary research, game-based treatments appear to be a promising approach to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, attitudes toward this novel approach must be better understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if video game self-efficacy mediates the relationship between expectations and reactions to a game-based treatment for PTSD. Participants played the serious game "Walk in My Shoes" (Novonics Corp., Orlando, FL) and completed a series of scales to measure attitudes toward the intervention. Video game self-efficacy was found to be a partial mediator of expectancies and reactions. These results suggest that enhancing attitudes via self-efficacy in a clinical setting may maximize treatment effectiveness. PMID:25584727

Kreutzer, Christine P; Bowers, Clint A

2015-01-01

146

Religious characteristics and the death penalty.  

PubMed

Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury. PMID:17546480

Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David

2008-04-01

147

Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders  

PubMed Central

Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g?=?-0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95?=?-0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of the effectiveness of doping prevention interventions. PMID:25209168

2014-01-01

148

Laboratory investigation of deaths due to anaphylaxis.  

PubMed

To establish a useful laboratory protocol to investigate possible cases of fatal anaphylaxis, we measured mast-cell-derived tryptase levels and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody levels in sera obtained prior to or within 24 h after death from 19 anaphylaxis victims. Elevated serum tryptase levels (range = 12 ng/mL to 150 micrograms/mL) were found in nine of nine Hymenoptera sting fatalities, six of eight food-induced fatalities, and two of two reactions to diagnostic therapeutic agents. Tryptase levels were normal (less than 10 ng/mL) in 57 sequential sera obtained postmortem from six control patients. Tryptase could not be measured in pleural or pericardial fluids for technical reasons. Serum IgE antibodies were elevated in five of the nine Hymenoptera sting fatalities and in eight of the eight fatal food reactions; assays were unavailable for the two diagnostic/therapeutic agents. If elevated, the victim's serum IgE antibodies to food could be used to identify allergens in uneaten portions of foods consumed shortly before the anaphylactic event. IgE antibodies were moderately stable during storage in a variety of anticoagulants at room temperature for up to 11 weeks. Elevated mast-cell-derived tryptase levels in postmortem sera reflect antemortem mast cell activation and may be used as a marker for fatal anaphylaxis. If assays are available for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens, such assays provide evidence for antemortem sensitization; these assays may be modified to identify allergens in foods consumed by victims of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:1856650

Yunginger, J W; Nelson, D R; Squillace, D L; Jones, R T; Holley, K E; Hyma, B A; Biedrzycki, L; Sweeney, K G; Sturner, W Q; Schwartz, L B

1991-05-01

149

A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

2002-05-01

150

Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.  

PubMed

The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. PMID:22435844

Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

2012-03-01

151

Schoolboys' attitudes to careers in the building industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the vocational preferences of secondary modern school children, aged 13–15, in which answers to questionnaires were related to intelligence test findings, has brought to light the following facts about boys' attitudes to careers in the building industry.1. i. All the building trades except masonry and plastering were fairly popular occupations among these school leavers.2. ii. Carpentry was

Mary D. Wilson

1953-01-01

152

Caregiver Attitudes to Gynaecological Health of Women with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…

Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei

2011-01-01

153

Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…

Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

2008-01-01

154

Attitudes of mental health staff to routine outcome measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Routine outcome measurement is mandated in public mental health services in Australia, but uptake and compliance are variable. This may be because of uncertainties and resistances among clinicians. Aims: To survey attitudes and practices to routine outcome measurement among staff in adult area mental health services and to elucidate their correlates. Method: As part of a larger study, a

Tom Trauer; Tom Callaly; Helen Herrman

2009-01-01

155

Two New Instruments To Probe Attitudes about Gender and Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two forms of a new instrument, "Mathematics as a Gendered Domain" and "Who and Mathematics," were developed to replace one of the scales of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales. The aim of both instruments is to measure the extent to which students stereotype mathematics as a gendered domain. For "Mathematics as a Gendered Domain," a…

Leder, Gilah C.; Forgasz, Helen J.

156

Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

157

Attitudes of teenagers in Liverpool to breast feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the attitudes of teenagers to breast feeding in Liverpool, where only 30-35% of babies are breast fed, a questionnaire survey of 400 pupils aged 14 and 15 was carried out. Only 70 (18%) had been breast fed. Three quarters of the pupils thought breast feeding was healthier than bottle feeding and that it was natural, but 32 (8%)

J. E. Gregg

1989-01-01

158

Some reactions toward death among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain thoughts, attitudes, and behavior reactions toward death that were found among college students in two midwestern universities were analyzed. In general, the data indicated that sex differences are not sharply enough differentiated to be considered very significant. The great majority of the 825 subjects reported that they think of their own death very rarely or only occasionally. Some of

W. C. Middleton

1936-01-01

159

College Student Attitudes to ward Buddhism and Islam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 197 and a sample of 141 undergraduates from a larger population of 200 at a large southeastern American university revealed their attitudes toward Buddhism and Islam respectively. In regard to Buddhism, while over 90% of the respondents reported NOT being knowledgeable about Buddhism, they reported generally positive beliefs about Buddhism which is associated with spiritual enlightenment, positive

Derek Maher; David Knox; Angela DeCuzzi

2008-01-01

160

Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…

Townsend, Alfred S.

2011-01-01

161

Middle East Meets West: Comparing Children's Attitudes to School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the attitudes of primary children to school science between children from the Northern Ireland (UK) and Oman. Previous research has indicated that pupils in the more senior primary classes showed a marked decline in their enjoyment of school science, although most of this research was carried out in Europe, North America, and…

Murphy, Colette; Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Beggs, Jim

2006-01-01

162

Assessing the Attitudes of Administrators to Include Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to assess the attitudes of administrators in a medium sized school district in the Southeastern region of the United States. The researcher used a quantitative descriptive comparative pre-test and post-test design with a convenience sampling of the district administrators. There were 21 administrators at the…

Abernathy, Frederick Douglas

2012-01-01

163

Death, Don't Want to Talk about It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The appropriate approaches about "death education in early childhood" are addressed in this paper. It is recommended for early childhood teachers to take an advantage of children's daily lives to talk about death and dying of living things such as finding dead insects, corpses of small animals found outside, or plants that turn brown. By seizing…

Lee, Joo Ok

2006-01-01

164

Socialization of Death-Related Behavior: Environmental Factors and Social Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the proliferation of interest in the areas of death, dying and death-related behavior this work examines two areas related to the socialization of death attitudes in the United States. First, an elaboration of Blauner's seminal work concerning death and social structure is performed. This analysis reveals a social system which has…

Steele, Stephen F.

165

Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

2014-01-01

166

Factors relating to place of death of Japanese people from a small town in a rural area.  

PubMed

The objective of our retrospective study was to clarify factors relating to place of death of Japanese people from a small town in a rural area who had been bedridden for at least one week before dying. The caregivers of subjects aged 40 and above who died during a three-year period were surveyed by trained interviewers. Of 352 subjects who died, 312 caregivers responded and agreed to a face-to-face interview. A total of 213 subjects were considered as an eligible sample. The main outcome measures were odds ratios for death at home in relation to age, pain, cause of death, and home visit service. One hundred and two people died at home, while 112 people died in a hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of home death increased with age of the bedridden, lack of pain during the bedridden period, not having cancer as a cause of death, having senility as a cause of death, and receiving regular home visits by a Public Health Nurse. In conclusion, expansion of the home visit programs by Public Health Nurses may enable people to die at home as they so desire. Further prospective research is needed to explore the association between the attitude toward terminal care and the place of death. PMID:11211955

Yasumura, S; Haga, H; Shibata, H; Iwasaki, K; Nakamura, Y; Ahiko, T; Ihara, K; Oiji, A; Fujita, M; Imuta, H; Abe, H; Fukao, A

2000-12-01

167

The effects of perceived parental behaviors, attitudes, and substance-use on adolescent attitudes toward and intent to use psychoactive substances.  

PubMed

The effects of parental behaviors, attitudes, and drug-use as perceived by adolescents on the latter's attitudes toward and intent to use psychoactive substances were studied. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. On most parameters, the father's influence was significant, whereas the effect of the mother did not reach significance. Positive and significant relationships were also found between perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes and adolescent attitudes and intent to use psychoactive substances. No relationships were found between controlling parental behavior and adolescent attitudes and intent to use psychoactive substances. The role of the parents, as well as implications of the findings for prevention are discussed. PMID:10920598

Teichman, M; Kefir, E

2000-01-01

168

Selectivity of Black Death mortality with respect to preexisting health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347-1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions (''frailty'')? Many research- ers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naõ¨ve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of age, sex, or frailty. If this were true, Black

Sharon N. DeWitte; James W. Wood

2008-01-01

169

A root hair assay to expedite cell death research.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death can be defined as an organized cellular destruction and can be activated throughout plant development, as a defense response against invading pathogens or during environmental stress. The root hair assay presented herein enables in vivo quantitative measurements of programmed cell death based on the morphological changes of dying root hairs. Application of this novel, simple technique eliminates the need for establishing cell suspension cultures, resulting in a significant reduction in time, cost, and labor input. Here, we present a detailed root hair assay protocol for the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where results from germination to scoring of cell death can be obtained within 7 days. We also suggest and present a panel of cell death inducing treatments which can be used to study abiotic stress- and mycotoxin-induced programmed cell death in the root hair system in Arabidopsis. A root hair assay protocol for the monocotyledonous model species Brachypodium distachyon is also included. PMID:25408445

Kacprzyk, Joanna; McCabe, Paul F

2015-01-01

170

Normative Evaluations of Suicide and Death: A Cross-Generational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated attitudes toward suicide and death across two intrafamilial generations to better understand possible causal factors underlying increasing suicide rates among the young. Findings indicate support for the hypothesis that the youthful generation holds more "accepting" attitudes toward suicide and death than does the parental generation.…

Boldt, Menno

1982-01-01

171

Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal  

SciTech Connect

This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

Herman, K.L.

1987-01-01

172

An autopsy approach to bee sting-related deaths.  

PubMed

Although severe reactions to the sting of the common honey bee (Apis mellifera) are a common problem in Australia, reported deaths are uncommon, with the estimated mortality varying from one to four persons each year. The following study presents the postmortem findings in three cases of bee sting fatality, including one in which no observable sting was found. An autopsy approach to such cases is detailed. Overreporting of bee sting-related deaths may occur due to the inclusion of deaths unrelated to a reaction to bee venom, while under-reporting may be due to unexplained deaths where a history of a bee sting is not available or apparent at autopsy. A classification of bee sting-related deaths is proposed, which would allow more accurate reporting of bee sting-related fatalies. A serum tryptase and specific IgE to bee venom on serum obtained at autopsy can assist in confirming anaphylactic reaction to bee venom as the cause of death, particularly in the absence of observable stings. Although there are limitations to the usefulness of serum tryptase tests in the postmortem situation, it may still be useful to confirm suspected anaphylaxis in autopsy cases with an undetermined cause of death. PMID:12109787

Riches, Karen J; Gillis, David; James, Ross A

2002-06-01

173

Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

1993-01-01

174

Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

2014-01-01

175

Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

176

An Anthropocentric Approach to Saving Biodiversity: Kenyan Pupils' Attitudes towards Parks and Wildlife  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…

Ali, Ibrahim M.

2006-01-01

177

Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applications. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…

Zimbardo, Philip; Ebbesen, Ebbe B.

178

Childhood, death, and cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

Gerald P. Koocher

1973-01-01

179

Calcium efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum leads to ?-cell death.  

PubMed

It has been established that intracellular calcium homeostasis is critical for survival and function of pancreatic ?-cells. However, the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis in ?-cell survival and death is not clear. Here we show that ER calcium depletion plays a critical role in ?-cell death. Various pathological conditions associated with ?-cell death, including ER stress, oxidative stress, palmitate, and chronic high glucose, decreased ER calcium levels and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b expression, leading to ?-cell death. Ectopic expression of mutant insulin and genetic ablation of WFS1, a causative gene for Wolfram syndrome, also decreased ER calcium levels and induced ?-cell death. Hyperactivation of calpain-2, a calcium-dependent proapoptotic protease, was detected in ?-cells undergoing ER calcium depletion. Ectopic expression of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b, as well as pioglitazone and rapamycin treatment, could prevent calcium efflux from the ER and mitigate ?-cell death under various stress conditions. Our results reveal a critical role of ER calcium depletion in ?-cell death and indicate that identification of pathways and chemical compounds restoring ER calcium levels will lead to novel therapeutic modalities and pharmacological interventions for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and other ER-related diseases including Wolfram syndrome. PMID:24424032

Hara, Takashi; Mahadevan, Jana; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Hara, Mariko; Lu, Simin; Urano, Fumihiko

2014-03-01

180

[Organ donation after brain death due to child abuse].  

PubMed

More than 40 percent of deaths from child abuse occur among children younger than 5 years. The injury pattern in child abuse is block abuse head trauma which in the most severe cases produces brain death. Organ donation is uncommon in children younger than five years. We describe two cases of child abuse that caused brain death; subsequently they were subsidiary for organ donation. It is very important to establish a good coordination between health, social care and legal assistance teams to obtain organ donation. PMID:25622174

Del Villar-Guerra, Pablo; Rey Galán, Corsino; Vivanco Allende, Ana; Medina Villanueva, Alberto

2015-01-01

181

Desire to Work as a Death Anxiety Buffer Mechanism.  

PubMed

Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures. PMID:25384641

Yaakobi, Erez

2014-11-10

182

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

183

Assessing Changes to Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Science & Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have begun a mixed methods study that uses longitudinal and interview data to inform our understanding of student's beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. We are also seeking the input of the broader Astro 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of an introductory astronomy course. We describe specific attitudinal categories that the survey questions are being designed to address. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Education and Public Outreach Program.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C.; CATS

2010-01-01

184

Industrial Attitudes to Petroleum Prices: Policies and Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Industrial Attitudes to Petroleum Prices: Policies and Energy Efficiency Anna Monis Shipley, Therese Langer, and Sarah Black, ACEEE Anna Shipley Industrial Research Associate American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1001 Connecticut... Ave. NW Suite 801 Washington DC, 20036 ashipley@aceee.org phone: (202) 429-8873 x708 fax: (202) 429-2248 Bio: Anna Monis Shipley joined the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) in September of 1999 as a Research Associate...

Shipley, A. M.; Langer, T.; Black, S.

2007-01-01

185

Values destroyed by death  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that people who valued themselves highly (high self-esteem) should fear death more than those who do not, and what these people should fear most about death is the cessation of those activities in which they are greatly involved. These attitudes towards death should vary with such demographic variables as age, sex, social class, religion, and marital status.

James C. Diggory; Doreen Z. Rothman

1961-01-01

186

Euthanasia Acceptance as Related to Afterlife and Other Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)

Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.

1978-01-01

187

Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. METHODS: Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily

Yuko Maeda; Akihito Hagihara; Eiko Kobori; Takeo Nakayama

2006-01-01

188

Number of Alzheimer's Deaths Found to Be Underreported  

MedlinePLUS

... Alzheimer’s as a cause of death on death certificates is a well-known phenomenon. Some people with ... or causes of death are listed on death certificates, typically by a physician, and filed with the ...

189

Inhibition of SREBP1 sensitizes cells to death ligands  

PubMed Central

Evasion of death receptor ligand-induced apoptosis contributs to cancer development and progression. To better understand mechanisms conferring resistance to death ligands, we screened an siRNA library to identify sequences that sensitize resistant cells to fas activating antibody (CH-11). From this screen, we identified the Sterol-Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1 (SREBP1), a transcription factor, which regulates genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis including fatty acid synthase. Inhibition of SREBP1 sensitized PPC-1 and HeLa to the death receptor ligands CH-11 and TRAIL. In contrast, DU145 prostate cancer cells that are resistant to death ligands despite expressing the receptors on their cell surface remained resistant to CH-11 and TRAIL after knockdown of SREBP1. Consistent with the effects on cell viability, the addition of CH-11 activated caspases 3 and 8 in HeLa but not DU145 cells with silenced SREBP1. We demonstrated that knockdown of SREBP1 produced a marked decrease in fatty acid synthase expression. Furthermore, genetic or chemical inhibition of fatty acid synthase with shRNA or orlistat, respectively, recapitulated the effects of SREBP1 inhibition and sensitized HeLa but not DU145 cells to CH-11 and TRAIL. Sensitization to death receptor ligands by inhibition of fatty acid synthase was associated with activation of caspase 8 prior to caspase 9. Neither silencing of SREBP1 or fatty acid synthase changed basal expression of the core death receptor components Fas, caspase 8, FADD, caspase 3 or FLIP. Thus, inhibition of SREBP1 or its downstream target fatty acid synthase sensitizes resistant cells to death ligands. PMID:21406729

Eberhard, Yanina; Gronda, Marcela; Hurren, Rose; Datti, Alessandro; MacLean, Neil; Ketela, Troy; Moffat, Jason; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Schimmer, Aaron D.

2011-01-01

190

The Attitudes of the Aged to Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six older adults in Tasmania were interviewed about technology related to medical treatment, transportation, household appliances, banking, and computers. They were far less informed about computers; 34% overall and more than 50% of those over 60 were interested in learning more. (SK)

James, Jeff

1993-01-01

191

Using Aviation to Change Math Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…

Wood, Jerra

2013-01-01

192

Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

2014-01-01

193

Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

Riagain, Padraig O.

2007-01-01

194

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

195

20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

2010-04-01

196

20 CFR 718.304 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.304 Section...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. There is...

2012-04-01

197

20 CFR 718.304 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.304 Section...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. There is...

2011-04-01

198

20 CFR 718.304 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.304 Section...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. There is...

2013-04-01

199

20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

2011-04-01

200

20 CFR 718.304 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis.  

...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.304 Section...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. There is...

2014-04-01

201

20 CFR 718.304 - Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.304 Section...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. There is...

2010-04-01

202

Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R.

2012-01-01

203

38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

2011-07-01

204

38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

2011-07-01

205

38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

2012-07-01

206

38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

2013-07-01

207

38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

2010-07-01

208

38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

2010-07-01

209

38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

2012-07-01

210

38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.  

... 2014-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

2014-07-01

211

38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

2013-07-01

212

38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.  

...2014-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

2014-07-01

213

Exposure to radon in Sweden dwellings - attitudes and elimination  

SciTech Connect

Owners of 208 dwellings with radon daughter concentrations of 400 Bq/m{sup 3} EER or above were asked about attitudes and measures toward elimination via mailed questionnaires. The response rate was 88% and some steps toward elimination had been taken in 83 dwellings. For the remaining houses, no improvements had been made either because of financial problems, lack of technical advice, or doubts about radon daughter exposure as a health hazard. The results of this study suggest the need to more definitely assess the risk through epidemiologic studies, as well as to provide more information about technical solutions and financial support to house owners.

Jansson, B. (Karolinska Institute, Sundbyberg (Sweden)); Tholander, M. (Department of Environmental Health and Protection, Skoevde (Sweden)); Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

1989-01-01

214

Terminally ill cancer patients' wish to hasten death.  

PubMed

This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:12132547

Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M

2002-07-01

215

Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion  

SciTech Connect

The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

Frank, J.D.

1984-11-01

216

Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF  

PubMed Central

Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

2011-01-01

217

G-SRT Mt. Whitney to Death Valley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The Morris family is on a road trip through California. One day they are driving from Death Valley to Sequoia National Park. Death Valley is home to th...

218

[Bereavement related to the death of a close relative. Nursing care].  

PubMed

The authors publish a consensus document designed to assist nursing professionals to recognize and work with bereavement related to the death of an intimate family member or friend, inside the conceptual framework for nursing treatment and care. This project exposes bereavement in a fashion similar to that used by "NANDA" for its distinct diagnostic categories: title, definition and distinguishing characteristics. Furthermore, the authors include an evaluation guide which may facilitate making a diagnosis between normal and dysfunctional bereavement; the authors propose objectives and activities which a nurse can perform to help to complete the bereavement process in a healthy and adaptive manner. In order to deal with these situations, a consensus document may be useful; at the same time this can become a professional development aide which includes theoretical knowledge about bereavement, adroitness in relation to helpful measures and which facilitates a conscious awareness by health professionals regarding their own personal attitudes and difficulties in the face of death and bereavement. Adequate nursing care during the first phases of this process, which helps the individual or family to mobilize all their resources, may lead to a better evolution of this process and to a recuperation of the affective loss. PMID:14969203

Giacchi Urzainqui, Alain; Legarra Zubiría, Aranzazu M

2003-12-01

219

System for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.

Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

2001-01-01

220

Observe the life stages of stars from birth to death  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this resource, students in middle and high school Earth science classes can follow the life cycle of a star from its birth as a nebula to its death as a white dwarf or a black hole. The introduction explains how a star's death is determined by its solar mass. The resource presents an illustrated flowchart that shows the stages of stars, as well as points of divergence for stars of different masses. Students click on each stage to see an enlarged, telescopic image of a sample star. Each image is labeled with the name and location of the star. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

221

Life after death: A child's reaction to the death of a parent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death of a parent is a traumatic event for a child. This paper will correlate children's ideas about death with various developmental stages. In addition, it will provide suggestions from experts about how adults can help children go through the painful grieving process. Mental health professionals who work with children will find practical suggestions on helping children cope with

Luann Costa; Debra Holliday

1992-01-01

222

Unchanging attitudes to autologous transfusion in the UK.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess changes in attitudes to autologous transfusion amongst surgeons over a 10-year period in response to scientific evidence, public awareness, published guidelines, management and the increasing cost of blood products. Surgeons across the north-west of England completed questionnaires on knowledge, experience and attitude towards autologous transfusion in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Main outcome measures were changes in knowledge, experience and utilization of autologous transfusion; perceived advantages of autologous transfusion, obstacles to its implementation in surgical practice and preferences for specific techniques (preoperative autologous donation, acute normovolaemic haemodilution, intraoperative and postoperative cell salvage). There has been little change in practice over 10 years. Many more surgeons were keen to employ autologous transfusion than were using it. Autologous transfusion was only used in general, orthopaedic and cardiothoracic surgery. Safety and patient preference were the main arguments for implementation and logistics the main obstacles. Autologous transfusion was used sporadically in surgical practice. Clinical trials are needed to guide clinicians in the choice of transfusion techniques. PMID:11328567

Torella, F; Haynes, S L; Lardi, A; O'Dwyer, S T; McCollum, C N

2001-02-01

223

Young Adult Reactions to Death in Literature and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to understand young adult reactions to death by looking at their literature. Examines typical behaviors, such as resistance to authority, withdrawal, and hiding feelings, as represented in young adult fiction and nonfiction. Suggests healing responses and argues that adults can use books to make bereavement a therapeutic exercise. (RJM)

DeMinco, Sandrea

1995-01-01

224

The Death Penalty--An Obstacle to the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

September 11 seared our collective memory perhaps even more vividly than December 7, 1941, and has evoked a natural demand both for retribution and for measures to keep us safe. Given the existing statutory and judicial authority for capital punishment, the U.S. Government has to confront the issue whether to seek the death penalty against those who are linked to

Thomas Michael McDonnell

2004-01-01

225

Sudden unexpected death due to Fournier's gangrene.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Japanese male vagrant collapsed suddenly in a police station. The man was resuscitated in hospital but died about 13 h later. An autopsy revealed necrotizing fasciitis in the genitalia and lower abdominal wall. The man was considered to have died from endotoxic shock following on Fournier's gangrene. PMID:9168331

Bunai, Y; Nagai, A; Nakamura, I; Ohya

1997-01-01

226

Estimated Deaths Attributable to Social Factors in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We estimated the number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE search for all English-language articles published between 1980 and 2007 with estimates of the relation between social factors and adult all-cause mortality. We calculated summary relative risk estimates of mortality, and we obtained and used prevalence estimates for each social factor to calculate the population-attributable fraction for each factor. We then calculated the number of deaths attributable to each social factor in the United States in 2000. Results. Approximately 245?000 deaths in the United States in 2000 were attributable to low education, 176?000 to racial segregation, 162?000 to low social support, 133?000 to individual-level poverty, 119?000 to income inequality, and 39?000 to area-level poverty. Conclusions. The estimated number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States is comparable to the number attributed to pathophysiological and behavioral causes. These findings argue for a broader public health conceptualization of the causes of mortality and an expansive policy approach that considers how social factors can be addressed to improve the health of populations. PMID:21680937

Tracy, Melissa; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; DiMaggio, Charles; Karpati, Adam

2011-01-01

227

Student attitudes toward science-technology-society resulting from visitation to a science-technology museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are student attitudes toward science-technology-society (TSS) affected by visitation to science-technology museums? The purpose of this study was to determine whether such visitations affected student STS attitudes, and in what ways particular factors of the visitation impacted these attitudes. Factors examined included prior classroom experience with STS, instructional methodology employed by teachers, grade level, socioeconomic status, school type (public or

Kevin D. Finson; Larry G. Enochs

1987-01-01

228

A service learning based intervention to change attitudes toward obese individuals in kinesiology pre-professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to conduct an intervention to change attitudes toward obese individuals. Ninety-five Kinesiology\\u000a undergraduates conducted a FITNESSGRAM service-learning project with school-aged children. They completed anti-fat attitude\\u000a test (AFAT) and explicit attitude assessments before and after the intervention. The results indicated participants had anti-fat\\u000a bias toward obese individuals on the lazy\\/motivated scale, but not on the

Paul B. Rukavina; Weidong Li; Michael B. Rowell

2008-01-01

229

Segmentation studies provide insights to better understanding attitudes towards science and technology.  

PubMed

Values-based studies of people's attitudes towards science and technology not only provide great insights into what drives different attitudes to issues like climate change and genetically modified foods, but allow for segmenting the general public by homogeneous values. Such segmentations both provide better predictions of people's attitudes to new technologies or contentious science issues than age, sex, or other standard demographics, and allow a better matching of different messages with different community values. PMID:24560351

Cormick, Craig; Romanach, Lygia Malzoni

2014-03-01

230

National Galleries of Scotland: From Death to Death and Other Small Tales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use art to take on the grim topics of death and bodily decay by visting this exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. Highlights of the website include "Ohne Titel [Untitled]," 1965, by Gunter Brus, a collage documenting what Brus called a "Self-painting." Brus covered his body with white paint, and over-painted black lines suggesting cracks. The collage juxtaposes pins, razor blades and a pen knife alongside photographs of the artist in his white paint coating. There is also an installation video for Ernesto Neto's room-size work, "It happens when the body is anatomy of time," 2000, that resembles a forest of the skeletal legs of some large imaginary animal. In addition to the National Gallery website highlights, visit the associated article in "The Independent" for a slideshow of 12 works of art by Sarah Lucas, Louise Bourgeois, Rene Magritte, Marcel Duchamp, Matthew Barney, and others.

231

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

232

Adolescent response to the death of a parent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants in the present study, while between the ages of 12 and 19, had a parent die. The death had occurred not less than 6 months and not more than 5 years prior to psychological testing and interview. The effects of loss, as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory and other measures, were considered in relation to a number of

Ross E. Gray

1987-01-01

233

Life and Death--A Cross-Cultural Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the celebration of death in Mexico and gives an alternative perspective from which to examine current U.S. attitudes and practices concerning death. Discusses the role that children play in the Todos Santos, or Day of the Dead, festival and the imagery and ceremonies of the festival. (LB)

Cohen, Stewart

1992-01-01

234

Adaptation to starvation: translating a matter of life or death.  

PubMed

There is much interest in defining the nutrient dependencies of cancer cells and their mechanisms of adaptation to nutrient depletion. In a recent issue of Cell, Leprivier and colleagues demonstrate that eEF2K, which can inhibit translation elongation acutely during protein synthesis, is a critical switch in the survival versus death fate of starved cancer cells. PMID:23763997

Manning, Brendan D

2013-06-10

235

Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues  

PubMed Central

Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals’ dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804

Shi, Zhenhao

2013-01-01

236

Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

2009-01-01

237

Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

Siebenaler, Dennis

2008-01-01

238

Modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale Created Using Principal-Components Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…

Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika

2011-01-01

239

Drosophila homologs of baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis proteins function to block cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptotic cell death is a mechanism by which organisms eliminate superfluous or harmful cells. Expression of the cell death regulatory protein REAPER (RPR) in the developing Drosophila eye results in a small eye owing to excess cell death. We show that mutations in thread (th) are dominant enhancers of RPR-induced cell death and that th encodes a protein homologous to

Bruce A. Hay; David A. Wassarman; Gerald M. Rubin

1995-01-01

240

Attitudes of Christians and Muslims to an Oocyte Donation Program in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are still controversial attitudes regarding oocyte donation (OD) programs. The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the opinions of Christians and Muslims regarding an OD program in Iran. 200 adults were randomly assigned to fill out the questionnaires. Part I contained demographic information, and Part II contained 20 questions to reveal their knowledge and attitudes about OD.

Mete Isikoglu; Mohammad A. Khalili

241

An Examination of Perceptions of Parental Influence on Attitudes to Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The assumption that parents have some effect on their children's attitudes to learning is one that few educationalists would challenge. The ways in which this influence is brought to bear are a slightly more complex and contentious matter, however. Purpose: The paper uses data from a tri-national PhD study on pupil attitudes to examine…

Bartram, Brendan

2006-01-01

242

Differential Sensitivity to Administration Format of Measures of Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Reluctance to reveal sensitive or socially undesirable attitudes has posed a problem for measurement of personal attributes such as attitudes toward older people. These have long been documented to be negative and likely arise both from fears of one's own aging and the modern societal emphasis on youth. In order to increase our knowledge…

Helmes, Edward; Campbell, Alistair

2010-01-01

243

Rational Norm Creation Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems, Part 2  

E-print Network

Rational Norm Creation Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems, Part 2 Guido Boella, bribing the system, et cetera. Consequently, to reason about the creation of norms, we need a model creation? 2. How can we formalize norm creation using the attri- bution of mental attitudes to normative

van der Torre, Leon

244

Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

2010-01-01

245

To end itself by death: suicide in Shakespeare's tragedies.  

PubMed

The tragedies of William Shakespeare make frequent use of suicide, some accomplished, some merely contemplated. Although his intent was their dramatic context, the Bard nonetheless clearly anticipated many features being discussed today, including assisted suicide, imitative ("copycat") suicide, and suicidal ideation by individuals with depression or disabilities. Recent debate over how often these factors influence the incidence of suicide rarely invokes their historical longevity. They are not new, so changes over the years in societal, religious, legal, and medical attitudes toward suicide must be considered when trying to understand their role. This review attempts to show that many such features of and attitudes toward suicide circa 1600 were perceived by Shakespeare and incorporated into his plays. In the 15 plays classified as tragedies, there are 13 definite and 8 possible suicides, ie, a total of 21 incidents for evaluation. Among the 13 overt suicides, at least 7 are depicted as being admirable under the circumstances at the time. Also, in various ways, 4 of these 13 were assisted, and at least 3 others contain an imitative element. Overall, the action of taking one's life is presented in a neutral or even favorable light, and the audience is left with a mingling of pity and admiration for the victim, not reproach. PMID:10414473

Kirkland, L R

1999-07-01

246

Attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

1973-01-01

247

The Relationship of Sex-Role Orientation to Death Anxiety in Middle-Aged Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between sex-role orientation and death anxiety in 237 middle-aged men who completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and Boyar's Fear of Death Scale. Results indicated neither amount of contact with death nor traditional male sex-role orientation were related to death anxiety. (JAC)

Downey, Ann M.

1984-01-01

248

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

Hendrix, Dean

2007-01-01

249

Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak

2012-01-01

250

Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the "attitudes toward science class" of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs--science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to

Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

2010-01-01

251

The Association between Adolescents' Beliefs in a Just World and Their Attitudes to Victims of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research which has investigated children's attitudes to bullying has found that the majority of children display anti-bullying attitudes. However, a small minority of children do appear to admire the bully and lack sympathy for victims of bullying. The just world belief theory has received a great deal of attention in recent years with…

Fox, Claire L.; Elder, Tracey; Gater, Josephine; Johnson, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

252

Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

2003-01-01

253

The Role of Outcome Expectations and Attitudes on Decisions to Seek Professional Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the predictors of seeking psychological services. Study 1 examined the role of attitudes in mediating the relationship between 11 psychological factors and intent to seek help for 3 psychological problems. The results demonstrated that (a) the psychological factors and attitudes predicted 62% of the variance in intent to seek help for interpersonal problems and 18% of the

David L. Vogel; Stephen R. Wester; Meifen Wei; Guy A. Boysen

2005-01-01

254

Maslow's Need Hierarchy Related to Educational Attitudes and Self-Concepts of Elementary Student Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Work Motivation Inventory, Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory, and Adjective Self Description Instrument were administered to 128 University of Houston student teachers. Results indicated that educational attitudes and self-concept, operating jointly, significantly contributed to the variance in Maslow's scales of basic, safety, and…

Noad, Brian

1979-01-01

255

The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers…

van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.

2010-01-01

256

A cross-validation study of nurses’ attitudes and commitment to organ donation in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the attitudes and commitment to posthumous organ donation among a group of nurses (N=314) in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Attitude was operationally defined by a self-report measure of favorable or unfavorable feelings and beliefs about organ donation, whereas commitment was defined by having signed a donor card. Consistent with findings reported in the West, nurses

Kam Weng Boey

2002-01-01

257

Family, Self, and Sociocultural Contributions to Body-Image Attitudes of African-American Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that influenced body-image attitudes were studied in 90 African American college women. Data analyses indicated that self and sociocultural variables were associated with evaluation of physical appearance, fitness, and investment in health. The relationship of family variables to body-image attitude is discussed. (SLD)

Harris, Shanette M.

1995-01-01

258

Sociodemographic factors and patient perceptions are associated with attitudes to kidney transplantation among haemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Treatment decisions made by patients with chronic kidney disease are crucial in the renal transplanta- tion process. These decisions are influenced, amongst other factors, by attitudes towards different treatment options, which are modulated by knowledge and perceptions about the disease and its treatment and many other subjective fac- tors. Here we study the attitude of dialysis patients to renal

Eszter Panna Vamos; Gabor Csepanyi; Monika Zambo; Miklos Zsolt Molnar; Janos Rethelyi; Agnes Kovacs; Adrienn Marton; Zsofia Nemeth; M arta Novak; Istvan Mucsi

2009-01-01

259

What are the people's attitudes toward spinal cord injury victims (from common to elite)  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the acutely fatal and prevalent crises in all societies is acute spinal cord injury. Individuals with a spinal cord injury are prone to numerous challenges, perturbation, and acute mental distresses. One of their concerns, often expressed generally and in the form of a complaint, is how people deal with them. The present study aims to analyze the experiences and interactions of the disabled with the society and to achieve a deep clarification of their internal attitudes and realistic approaches in various social classes (from common people to elite). Materials and Methods: The present study is a part of a greater research with a classical grounded theory approach conducted on 12 successful and nationally and internationally popular disabled people. Sampling was firstly purposive and then continued with snowball sampling. The data were collected by open deep interviews which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed by Graneheim content analysis method. Results: The findings obtained through analysis of the interviews yielded the theme of a socially suppressing attitude which contained four subthemes of compassionate attitude, disability attitude, inhuman attitude, and atonement attitude. Conclusions: The results showed that both groups of common, and educated and elite classes of Iranian society have identically suppressing attitudes and interactions toward spinal cord injury victims. It seems that traditional attitudes yet preponderate academic and scientific knowledge in Iranian society. This gap needs notable attention of all the Iranians, especially policy makers and social personalities. PMID:24949065

Hosseinigolafshani, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

2014-01-01

260

BETWEEN TRADITION AND MODERNIZATION: ATTITUDES TO WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA  

E-print Network

AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA By Marija Brajdi Vukovi, Institute for Social Research Zagreb Gunn Birkelund AND MODERNIZATION: ATTITUDES TO WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND GENDER ROLES IN CROATIA By Marija Brajdi Vukovi, Institute we analyze the attitudes toward gender roles and women's employment in Croatia. Using the SEESSP

Løw, Erik

261

Group Supervision Attitudes: Supervisory Practices Fostering Resistance to Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision…

Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

262

Responses of Deaf High School Students to an 'Attitudes toward Alcohol' Scale: A National Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national sample of 414 juniors and seniors in high schools for hearing impaired students was surveyed with an Attitudes Toward Alcohol scale developed for this purpose and administered in sign language. Four factors (hedonism, concern with health, value structure, and addiction) were identified as contributing to negative attitudes toward…

Sabin, Martha C.

1988-01-01

263

Design and Study of the Instrument to Assess Students' Attitude toward Graphing Calculator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…

Reznichenko, Nataliya

2007-01-01

264

Influence of Attitudes, Significant Others, and Aspirations on How Adolescents Intend to Resolve a Premarital Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how sexually active adolescent women intended to deal with premarital pregnancy and what influenced intentions. Subjects holding positive general attitudes toward abortion showed stronger intentions toward terminating unwanted pregnancy. Abortion attitudes of significant others influenced intentions. More career-oriented subjects…

Brazzell, Jan F.; Acock, Alan C.

1988-01-01

265

Internationalization at Home: Using Learning Motivation to Predict Students' Attitudes toward Teaching in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering foreign language proficiency is an important goal of university teaching. We identified German university students' (N = 1265) goal orientations developed during secondary school as predictors of attitudes toward receiving instruction in English at university. Mastery goal orientation was proposed to "directly" promote positive attitudes

Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian; Bohner, Gerd

2012-01-01

266

Using a Geriatric Mentoring Narrative Program to Improve Medical Student Attitudes towards the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined first-year medical student attitudes concerning the elderly before and after instituting a geriatric mentoring program. The program began and ended with a survey designed to assess students' attitudes toward the elderly. During the mentoring program, students visited the same senior for four visits throughout the academic year.…

Duke, Pamela; Cohen, Diane; Novack, Dennis

2009-01-01

267

Relation of Native-Language Reading and Spelling Abilities to Attitudes toward Learning a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid Assessment…

Scott, Katrinda Wills; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve

2009-01-01

268

Cot Deaths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

Tyrrell, Shelagh

1985-01-01

269

Sudden death in a child due to an intrathoracic paraganglioma.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy under treatment for asthma was found dead in his home. The autopsy revealed a large posterior mediastinal mass that completely compressed the upper lobe of the right lung and the associated airways. This mass extended from the right costovertebral sulcus into the thoracic spinal canal through the spinal foramen and compressed the spinal cord. It was located in the epidural space and was adherent to a nerve root. The histologic and immunocytochemical features were that of a paraganglioma. Although neurogenic tumors are the most common posterior mediastinal masses in the pediatric population, paragangliomas are rare, and spinal involvement has not been described in children. In addition, sudden death has not been reported in association with any of the 13 cases of posterior mediastinal paraganglioma described in the literature as involving the spine. This case illustrates an unusual cause of sudden death in a pediatric patient due to a benign neoplasm. PMID:10624926

Hutchins, K D; Dickson, D; Hameed, M; Natarajan, G A

1999-12-01

270

Sudden death due to Eagle syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

Eagle syndrome represents symptoms manifested by compression of regional structures by elongation of the styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid membrane. Various theories have been put forward toward the development of Eagle syndrome. Depending on the underlying pathogenetic mechanism and the anatomical structures compressed or irritated by the elongated styloid process, symptoms vary greatly, ranging from cervicofacial pain to cerebral ischemia. Because the symptoms are variable and nonspecific, patients land up in different clinics for treatment. In the present case, the victim had previous episode of unconsciousness along with frequent headache for which she visited various clinics on numerous occasions. The elongated styloid process was appreciated during the postmortem examination, and the diagnosis of sudden death due to mechanical irritation of the carotid sinus by elongated styloid process was made as the sign of acute cardiovascular failure was present and upon exclusion of other causes of death. PMID:23949139

Kumar, Pradeep; Rayamane, Anand P; Subbaramaiah, Mouna

2013-09-01

271

Sudden cardiac death secondary to antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs  

PubMed Central

A number of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs are known to increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Based largely on a concern over QT prolongation and the development of life-threatening arrhythmias, a number of antipsychotic drugs have been temporarily or permanently withdrawn from the market or their use restricted. Some antidepressants and antipsychotics have been linked to QT prolongation and the development of Torsade de pointes arrhythmias, whereas others have been associated with a Brugada syndrome phenotype and the development of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. This review examines the mechanisms and predisposing factors underlying the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death, associated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs in clinical use. PMID:18324881

Sicouri, Serge; Antzelevitch, Charles

2008-01-01

272

Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore\\u000ashopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of\\u000athe analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address\\u000athe issue of what causes the variation in psychological constructs such as perceived\\u000abehavioural control. A simplified version

Martin Dijst; Sendy Farag; Tim Schwanen

2005-01-01

273

Hormone Therapy Linked to Modest Increase in Breast Cancer Deaths  

Cancer.gov

Women who used combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy to treat menopausal symptoms during the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study had more cases of invasive breast cancer, more lymph-node positive breast cancer, and a slightly higher death rate from breast cancer and other causes than women who received a placebo, researchers reported in an 11-year follow-up report on the study's participants.

274

Autophagic Components Contribute to Hypersensitive Cell Death in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensi- tive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesionsspreadinplantswithreducedautophagygene expression. Here, we examined receptor-mediated HR PCD responses in autophagy-deficient Arabidop- sis knockout mutants (atg), and show that infection- induced lesions are contained

Daniel Hofius; Torsten Schultz-Larsen; Jan Joensen; Dimitrios I. Tsitsigiannis; Nikolaj H. T. Petersen; Ole Mattsson; Lise Bolt Jørgensen; Jonathan D. G. Jones; John Mundy; Morten Petersen

2009-01-01

275

Attitude Similarity and Attraction: The Predictability of a Stranger's Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribution theory raises the possibility that findings of a direct linear relationship between attitude similarity and interpersonal attraction are mediated by the predictability of the other's attitudes and behaviors. In a nonexperimental study, 288 subjects predicted the attitudes of a stranger and compared his attitudes to their own. Findings showed that attitude similarity was directly related to attraction only when

John C. Touhey

1973-01-01

276

Death Investigation Certificate  

E-print Network

Death Investigation Certificate What is Death Investigation? Medico-legal death investigation in death investigation in different ways. The study of death investigation trains students to identify and assemble a set of investigative tasks that are performed at every death scene. Modern medico- legal death

Saldin, Dilano

277

The Tribes that Bind: Attitudes to the Tribe and Tribal Leader in the Sudan Alexander Hamilton and John Hudson  

E-print Network

1 The Tribes that Bind: Attitudes to the Tribe and Tribal Leader in the Sudan Alexander Hamilton: Attitudes to the Tribe and Tribal Leader in Sudan Alexander Hamilton* and John Hudson** ABSTRACT Using a unique dataset we are able to examine the determinants of attitudes to the tribal leader in Sudan. We

Burton, Geoffrey R.

278

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

279

Does community ownership affect public attitudes to wind energy? A case study from south-west Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study of public attitudes to onshore windfarm development in south-west Scotland. Specifically, it explores the influences of different development models on attitudes to windfarms by comparing public attitudes towards a community-owned windfarm on the Isle of Gigha with attitudes towards several developer-owned windfarms on the adjacent Kintyre peninsula. The study, conducted in 2006,

Charles R. Warren; Malcolm McFadyen

2010-01-01

280

Identification and characterization of students' attitudes toward technology as related to environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

Viewing the role of technology as either the cause of or solution to environmental problems may be unrealistic, and such extreme attitudes may inhibit the resolution of environmental problems. Courses that present a particular orientation toward the role of technology may encourage these extreme attitudes. Identifying attitudes of students enrolled in such courses and designing instruction to foster specific attitudes can lead to a more rational and objective attitude toward technology as related to environmental problems. The Scientific-Environmental-Technological (SET) literacy model was suggested as an appropriate framework for presenting the role of technology to students. A 34 item Likert scale was developed to measure attitudes as defined by two constructs: PRO-technology and ANTI-technology. Students enrolled in three courses (E200, Environment and People, K201, The Computer in Business, E100, Freshman Engineering Lectures), were asked to respond to the survey at the beginning and end of the fall, 1980 semester. The findings indicate that the survey was useful in identifying and characterizing attitudes of certain populations. The differences between the E200 and E100 students indicate that instruction that recognizes and examines the full range of perspectives on the impact of technology should be provided for these students.

Lubbers, J.D.

1984-01-01

281

Imparting the knowledge of impending death to the intensive care patient who is unable to respond.  

PubMed

Silence during death is a communication deficit in the care of dying patients. In the ICU, patients are often unable to communicate, but may still be able to hear. Giving information of impending death to such patients is, therefore, done without their consent. Such information could be beneficial in enabling them to face death. Alternatively, it could cause emotional turmoil. Telling patients they are dying may help relatives to begin the grieving process. Guidelines are proposed to help nurses wishing to impart knowledge of impending death to their patients. PMID:9594128

Horton, S

1996-01-01

282

Attitudes to community psychiatry among urban and rural general practitioners.  

PubMed Central

General practitioners' requirements for community psychiatric services may differ according to the area in which they practise. A questionnaire survey of general practitioners' attitudes to community psychiatric services is reported from three contrasting areas: an inner city urban area, a new town and a rural area. General practitioners in all areas wanted more consultation with psychiatrists, and 53-68% wanted regular psychiatric outpatient clinics in their surgeries. There was enthusiasm for community psychiatric nurses and for help with psychotherapy. In the rural area general practitioners favoured surgery based psychiatric outpatient clinics and arranging emergency hospital admissions themselves; in urban areas domiciliary visits from psychiatrists to help with emergencies were favoured. These results appear to reflect the greater geographical distance between primary and hospital based secondary care in rural as opposed to urban areas. Overall, general practitioners wanted more support from community psychiatric services in carrying out their primary therapeutic role especially in rural areas far from hospital-based psychiatric services. PMID:1457152

Stansfeld, S A; Leek, C A; Travers, W; Turner, T

1992-01-01

283

Is Religiosity Related to Attitudes Toward Clinical Trials Participation?  

PubMed

Research indicates that a low percentage of cancer patients enroll in cancer clinical trials. This is especially true among minority groups such as Hispanic Americans. Considering the importance of religion in the Hispanic American community, it is important to understand its relationship to perceptions of clinical trials. Five hundred and three Latina women completed the Barriers to Clinical Trials Participation Scale and the Duke University Religion Index. For the total sample, higher organizational and intrinsic religiosity was significantly associated with a perceived lack of community support for clinical trials participation. In subgroup analysis, the relationship between organizational religiosity and lack of support was stronger among Latinas who were Spanish language preferred and Latinas who were Catholic. Intrinsic religiosity was associated with mistrust among Spanish language-preferred Latinas, and both organizational and intrinsic religiosities were associated with a lack of familiarity with clinical trials among Christian (non-Catholic) Latinas. These results indicate that religious institutions that serve Latinas may be an effective venue for disseminating clinical trial education programs to improve attitudes toward clinical trials participation. PMID:24953236

Daverio-Zanetti, Svetlana; Schultz, Kathryn; Del Campo, Miguel A Martin; Malcarne, Vanessa; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia Robins

2014-06-24

284

Distributions of observed death tolls govern sensitivity to human fatalities  

PubMed Central

How we react to humanitarian crises, epidemics, and other tragic events involving the loss of human lives depends largely on the extent to which we are moved by the size of their associated death tolls. Many studies have demonstrated that people generally exhibit a diminishing sensitivity to the number of human fatalities and, equivalently, a preference for risky (vs. sure) alternatives in decisions under risk involving human losses. However, the reason for this tendency remains unknown. Here we show that the distributions of event-related death tolls that people observe govern their evaluations of, and risk preferences concerning, human fatalities. In particular, we show that our diminishing sensitivity to human fatalities follows from the fact that these death tolls are approximately power-law distributed. We further show that, by manipulating the distribution of mortality-related events that people observe, we can alter their risk preferences in decisions involving fatalities. Finally, we show that the tendency to be risk-seeking in mortality-related decisions is lower in countries in which high-mortality events are more frequently observed. Our results support a model of magnitude evaluation based on memory sampling and relative judgment. This model departs from the utility-based approaches typically encountered in psychology and economics in that it does not rely on stable, underlying value representations to explain valuation and choice, or on choice behavior to derive value functions. Instead, preferences concerning human fatalities emerge spontaneously from the distributions of sampled events and the relative nature of the evaluation process. PMID:20018778

Olivola, Christopher Y.; Sagara, Namika

2009-01-01

285

Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

2007-01-01

286

Calsenilin contributes to neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Calsenilin is a calcium sensor protein that interacts with presenilin and increases calcium-triggered neuronal apoptosis, and ?-secretase activity. Notch is a cell surface receptor that regulates cell-fate decisions and synaptic plasticity in brain. The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of calsenilin as a regulator of the ?-secretase cleavage of Notch in ischemic stroke. Here, we determined the modulation of expression level and cellular distribution of calsenilin in neurons subjected to ischemic-like conditions. The levels of calsenilin and presenilin were increased in primary neurons after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Furthermore, calsenilin was found to enhance the ?-secretase cleavage of Notch and to contribute to cell death under ischemia-like conditions. The inhibition of ?-secretase activity and a presenilin deficiency were both found to protect against calsenilin-mediated ischemic neuronal death. The expression of calsenilin was found to be increased in brain following experimental ischemic stroke. These findings establish a specific molecular mechanism by which the induction of calsenilin enhances Notch activation in ischemic stroke, and identify calsenilin as an upstream of the ?-secretase cleavage of Notch. PMID:23211047

Park, Jong-Sung; Manzanero, Silvia; Chang, Jae-Woong; Choi, Yuri; Baik, Sang-Ha; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Li, Yu-I; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Woo, Ha-Na; Jang, Jiyeon; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Joo-Yong; Jung, Yong-Keun; Tang, Sung-Chun; Sobey, Christopher G; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Jo, Dong-Gyu

2013-07-01

287

School Governance and Teachers' Attitudes to Parents' Involvement in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study probes teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement in schools as a function of four types of school governance as suggested by Bauch and Goldring. Participants of the study included headteachers, chairpersons of parents' committees, and teachers of 11 primary schools in a medium-sized town in Israel. A discriminant analysis found…

Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Ainhoren, Ronit

2009-01-01

288

Students' Knowledge of Energy and Attitudes to Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected by pencil-and-paper instruments from 33 students in grade 10 in Perth, Western Australia. Data indicated that students were only slightly knowledgeable about energy and energy conservation; they had slightly positive attitudes toward energy conservation. (MNS)

Vlahov, Stephen J.; Treagust, David F.

1988-01-01

289

Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat  

PubMed Central

A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

2010-01-01

290

Host Responses to Group A Streptococcus: Cell Death and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are characterized by robust inflammatory responses and can rapidly lead to life-threatening disease manifestations. However, host mechanisms that respond to GAS, which may influence disease pathology, are understudied. Recent works indicate that GAS infection is recognized by multiple extracellular and intracellular receptors and activates cell signalling via discrete pathways. Host leukocyte receptor binding to GAS-derived products mediates release of inflammatory mediators associated with severe GAS disease. GAS induces divergent phagocyte programmed cell death responses and has inflammatory implications. Epithelial cell apoptotic and autophagic components are mobilized by GAS infection, but can be subverted to ensure bacterial survival. Examination of host interactions with GAS and consequences of GAS infection in the context of cellular receptors responsible for GAS recognition, inflammatory mediator responses, and cell death mechanisms, highlights potential avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of host symptoms during severe GAS disease will assist the development of improved treatment regimens for this formidable pathogen. PMID:25165887

Tsatsaronis, James A.; Walker, Mark J.; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L.

2014-01-01

291

20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...death? 408.816 Section 408.816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination § 408.816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death?...

2011-04-01

292

77 FR 60741 - Convening of an Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances Surrounding the Deaths...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances Surrounding the Deaths of Personnel Assigned in Support of the U.S. Government Mission...State Hillary Rodham Clinton has determined that the recent deaths of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, Information...

2012-10-04

293

Seroprevalence, risk factors and attitude to HIV1 in a representative sample of lesbians in Turin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate the HIV-1 seroprevalence, behavioural risks and attitude to HIV-1 infection among lesbians. SETTING--Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Italy. SUBJECTS--From March 1992 to May 1993, 181 lesbians were tested for HIV-1 and included in the study. METHODS--Sociodemographic details, nonsexual risks for HIV-1, sexual behaviour, STD history and attitude to HIV-1 were obtained from an anonymous, standardised, self-administered,

R Raiteri; R Fora; P Gioannini; R Russo; A Lucchini; M G Terzi; D Giacobbi; A Sinicco

1994-01-01

294

Association of Cancer Prevention-Related Nutrition Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes to Cancer Prevention Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate

LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND

1997-01-01

295

20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

2011-04-01

296

20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

2013-04-01

297

20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

2010-04-01

298

Sudden oak death survey findings to be presented in Santa Rosa By GUY KOVNER  

E-print Network

Sudden oak death survey findings to be presented in Santa Rosa By GUY KOVNER THE PRESS DEMOCRAT of sudden oak death infection in Sonoma County and around the Bay Area at a public meeting Friday night to protect their trees from the sudden oak death pathogen in two meetings, also free and open to the public

California at Berkeley, University of

299

20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

2012-04-01

300

20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...  

...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

2014-04-01

301

20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

2013-04-01

302

20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

2012-04-01

303

20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

2011-04-01

304

20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

2010-04-01

305

Pathogenic Ubqln2 gains toxic properties to induce neuron death.  

PubMed

Mutations in ubiquilin 2 (Ubqln2) is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A foremost question regarding Ubqln2 pathogenesis is whether pathogenically mutated Ubqln2 causes neuron death via a gain or loss of functions. To better understand Ubqln2 pathobiology, we created Ubqln2 transgenic and knockout rats and compared phenotypic expression in these novel rat models. Overexpression of Ubqln2 with a pathogenic mutation (P497H substitution) caused cognitive deficits and neuronal loss in transgenic rats at the age of 130 days. In the transgenic rats, neuronal loss was preceded by the progressive formation of Ubqln2 aggregates and was accompanied by the progressive accumulation of the autophagy substrates p62 and LC3-II and the impairment of endosome pathways. In contrast, none of these pathologies observed in mutant Ubqln2 transgenic rats was detected in Ubqln2 knockout rats at the age of 300 days. Together, our findings in Ubqln2 transgenic and knockout rats collectively suggest that pathogenic Ubqln2 causes neuron death mainly through a gain of unrevealed functions rather than a loss of physiological functions. PMID:25388785

Wu, Qinxue; Liu, Mujun; Huang, Cao; Liu, Xionghao; Huang, Bo; Li, Niansheng; Zhou, Hongxia; Xia, Xu-Gang

2015-03-01

306

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

307

Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

1993-01-01

308

Couples' attitudes to the husband's presence in the delivery room during childbirth.  

PubMed

We determined the attitudes of men and women in the Islamic Republic of Iran to the husband's presence in the delivery room. We randomly selected 150 couples awaiting delivery in 2002 and interviewed them with a standardized questionnaire. Mean ages and standard deviations (SD) of women and men were 26 (SD 4) and 30 (SD 5) years respectively. Most had high school diplomas or higher. Most women (58.1%) were employed and most men (77.6%) had non-educational jobs. Mean attitude scores were 100 (SD 15) for women and 97 (SD 16.5) for men. Attitude scores were significantly related to age, job and education (P< 0.0001). Most women (88.4%), men (82.1%) and couples (76.9%) had positive attitudes to the husband's presence in the delivery room. Providing facilities to accommodate husbands and training for their presence in the delivery room is recommended. PMID:16700400

Modarres Nejad, V

2005-07-01

309

Visitors to Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia--their characteristics, attitudes, satisfactions and preferences  

E-print Network

VISITORS TO OKEFENOKEE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE& GEORGIA? THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, ATTITUDES, SATISFACTIONS AND PREFERENCES A Thesis by RONALD LYNN FOWLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development VISITORS TO OKEFENOKEE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, GEORGIA? THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, ATTITUDES, SATISFACTIONS AND PREFERENCES A Thesis...

Fowler, Ronald Lynn

1972-01-01

310

Stoicism: Its Relation to Gender, Attitudes Toward Poverty, and Reactions to Emotive Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale was developed to test the hypotheses that stoicism would be more prevalent in British men (n = 30) than in British women (n = 32) and that stoicism would be related to negative attitudes toward the poor. It was also hypothesized that stoics would exhibit a weaker emotional reaction to stories that had emotive content. All three hypotheses

Graham F. Wagstaff; Andrea M. Rowledge

1995-01-01

311

Rotenone inhibits autophagic flux prior to inducing cell death.  

PubMed

Rotenone, which selectively inhibits mitochondrial complex I, induces oxidative stress, ?-synuclein accumulation, and dopaminergic neuron death, principal pathological features of Parkinson's disease. The autophagy-lysosome pathway degrades damaged proteins and organelles for the intracellular maintenance of nutrient and energy balance. While it is known that rotenone causes autophagic vacuole accumulation, the mechanism by which this effect occurs has not been thoroughly investigated. Treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with rotenone (10 ?M) induced the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles at 6 h and 24 h as indicated by Western blot analysis for microtubule associated protein-light chain 3-II (MAP-LC3-II). Assessment of autophagic flux at these time points indicated that autophagic vacuole accumulation resulted from a decrease in their effective lysosomal degradation, which was substantiated by increased levels of autophagy substrates p62 and ?-synuclein. Inhibition of lysosomal degradation may be explained by the observed decrease in cellular ATP levels, which in turn may have caused the observed concomitant increase in acidic vesicle pH. The early (6 h) effects of rotenone on cellular energetics and autophagy-lysosome pathway function preceded the induction of cell death and apoptosis. These findings indicate that the classical mitochondrial toxin rotenone has a pronounced effect on macroautophagy completion that may contribute to its neurotoxic potential. PMID:23259041

Mader, Burton J; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N; Flippo, Hilary M; Klocke, Barbara J; Roth, Kevin A; Mangieri, Leandra R; Shacka, John J

2012-12-19

312

Evaluating an educational intervention to improve the accuracy of death certification among trainees from various specialties  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The inaccuracy of death certification can lead to the misallocation of resources in health care programs and research. We evaluated the rate of errors in the completion of death certificates among medical residents from various specialties, before and after an educational intervention which was designed to improve the accuracy in the certification of the cause of death. METHODS: A

Jesús Villar; Lina Pérez-Méndez

2007-01-01

313

5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

2012-01-01

314

5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

2010-01-01

315

5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

2013-01-01

316

5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

2011-01-01

317

5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.  

...2014-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

2014-01-01

318

Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.  

PubMed

Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com). PMID:23857924

Aerni, Philipp

2013-10-01

319

Life course influences of physical and cognitive function and personality on attitudes to aging in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Reports of attitudes to aging from older people themselves are scarce. Which life course factors predict differences in these attitudes is unknown. Methods: We investigated life course influences on attitudes to aging in healthy, community-dwelling people in the UK. Participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed a self-report questionnaire (Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire, AAQ) at around age 75 (n = 792, 51.4% male). Demographic, social, physical, cognitive, and personality/mood predictors were assessed, around age 70. Cognitive ability data were available at age 11. Results: Generally positive attitudes were reported in all three domains: low Psychosocial Loss, high Physical Change, and high Psychological Growth. Hierarchical multiple regression found that demographic, cognitive, and physical variables each explained a relatively small proportion of the variance in attitudes to aging, with the addition of personality/mood variables contributing most significantly. Predictors of attitudes to Psychosocial Loss were high neuroticism; low extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; high anxiety and depression; and more physical disability. Predictors of attitudes to Physical Change were: high extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; female sex; social class; and less physical disability. Personality predictors of attitudes to Psychological Growth were similar. In contrast, less affluent environment, living alone, lower vocabulary scores, and slower walking speed predicted more positive attitudes in this domain. Conclusions: Older people's attitudes to aging are generally positive. The main predictors of attitude are personality traits. Influencing social circumstances, physical well-being, or mood may result in more positive attitudes. Alternatively, interventions to influence attitudes may have a positive impact on associated physical and affective changes. PMID:24622392

Shenkin, Susan D; Laidlaw, Ken; Allerhand, Mike; Mead, Gillian E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

2014-03-13

320

Contents of Douglas Gray, From the Norman Conquest to the Black Death. Conquest and Conqueror  

E-print Network

Contents of Douglas Gray, From the Norman Conquest to the Black Death. Conquest and Conqueror Guy, Bishop of Amiens, On the Battle of Hastings Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1087: The Death of William Edmund le Rei Edward Grim, The Death of Thomas Becket The Story of Little St Hugh of Lincoln Adgar

Oxford, University of

321

Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

Joseph, Janice

1996-01-01

322

I Have to Go on: The Effect of a Mother's Death on Her Daughter's Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents die during the lives of their children. If the child is an adolescent, that death will impact the student's education immediately or in subsequent years. Findings show the death of a mother does impact the daughter's education. It is imperative educators are willing to work with the student at the time the death occurs as well as in the…

Ratti, Theresa Helen McLuskey

2011-01-01

323

Teaching Child Care Providers to Reduce the Risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted…

Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan

2011-01-01

324

Communicator credibility compartmentalized: a functional approach to comparative validation of four unidimensional attitude scaling techniques  

E-print Network

such that a high score was indicative of a favorable attitude toward the issue. A coefficient of alter- native form reliability (r = . 932), a coefficient of reproducibility (Form A = . 822; Form B = . 832), and a coefficient of minimal marginal... and the relationship between in- telligence and attitudes toward a socially relevant issue. " Po- tential Ss were also advised at this time of the additional require- ment to take an intelligence test (Henmon-Nelson TOMA) at their personal convenience, but prior...

Hampton, Ralph Clinton

1972-01-01

325

Relation of Native-Language Reading and Spelling Abilities to Attitudes Toward Learning a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid Assessment Profile (S. M. Bell, R. S. McCallum, & E. A. Cox,

Katrinda Wills Scott; Sherry Mee Bell; R. Steve McCallum

2009-01-01

326

How to ascertain drug related deaths during clinical trials ?  

PubMed

Recent guidelines by the Drug Controller General of India require extra care by Investigators & Sponsors of Clinical Trials in India. The author, an eminent member & Chairman of various Independent Ethics Committees in Mumbai, proposes various concrete solutions for adherence to these guidelines. Insurance cover to the subjects, use of Internet databanks for drug interactions, active involvement by the pharmacologists in Ethics Committee, review of data from animal studies, being amongst them. In case of death due to trial, autopsies, or at least verbal autopsies, are essential in the interest of Science and Law. More importantly Anticipation and prevention of ADEs can be done by exclusion of subjects from trials by using newer technologies like cDNA in microarrays to determine several polygenic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and tests for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Drug manufacturers must provide prototypes of Affymetrix chips to clinicians and bear the cost in their own enlightened self-interest. PMID:24772730

Lele, R D

2013-10-01

327

The Relationship between University Students' Attitude to Listening to Music and Their Level of Optimism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between university students' attitude to listening to music and their level of optimism. The study group for the research consists of 508 students who studied at Aksaray University in the 2012-13 academic year. Simple random sampling is used. In this study, the "Attitude Scale for…

Aksoy, Nil

2014-01-01

328

Dentists' attitude to provision of care for people with learning disabilities in Udaipur, India.  

PubMed

This study determines and compares the attitudes of dentists to the provision of care for people with learning disabilities according to gender, qualification, previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities and work experience of dentists. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 dentists (166 men and 81 women) using a pretested structured questionnaire. This questionnaire assessed the respondent's attitude towards learning-disabled patients in five categories: beliefs about treating them, their capabilities, discrimination against these patients, their social behaviour and quality of care to be received by these patients. The information on dentist's gender, qualification, work experience and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities was also collected through questionnaire. The Student's t-test and anova test were used for statistical analysis. The mean attitude score was found to be 71.13 ± 8.97. A statistically significant difference was found in the mean attitude scores of dentists with work experience (p = 0.000). Study subjects with postgraduate qualification and previous experience of treating patients with learning disabilities had significantly greater mean attitude score than their counterparts (p = 0.000). The overall attitude of dentists towards provision of care for people with learning disabilities was favourable, which increased with higher qualification and past experience. PMID:22510055

Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri

2013-03-01

329

Into the valley of death: research to innovation.  

PubMed

The phase between research and successful innovation is known as the valley of death. Increasingly, researchers from the pharmaceutical industry and academia are working together, often encouraged by governments, to cross this 'valley' as they seek to bring basic research to the market. This is consistent with newer models of innovation policy that stress interaction between the different agents across the innovation process. Here, we examine this interaction in the UK, the EU and the USA using several specific examples, suggesting that cooperation is still far from perfect and that the return for academia on its research investment is relatively small. Countries are also beginning to use research as a tool of industrial economic policy. PMID:23402848

Hudson, John; Khazragui, Hanan F

2013-07-01

330

Death due to isolated jejunal tear following blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

Small intestinal injury following blunt abdominal trauma has been widely reported. Isolated jejunal tear which is caused by blunt abdominal trauma is rare and is most often seen in road traffic accidents. Here, we report a case of isolated jejunal tear in a 24-year-old male truck driver. He was admitted to a tertiary care hospital in a South Indian Metropolitan city with complaints of acute abdominal pain and tiredness following alleged accidental blunt trauma sustained to abdomen due to steering wheel impact. An isolated jejunal tear and adjacent mesenteric contusion and tear were missed by the treating physician even after preliminary investigations, and thus, the conservative management was instituted. The condition deteriorated gradually, and he succumbed to death. The autopsy revealed transverse tear of jejunum almost involving whole of its circumference on the antimesenteric border and peritonitis. Proper use of radio-diagnostic techniques and timely undertaken explorative laparotomy would have saved the life. PMID:24547969

Hugar, Basappa S; Yajaman, Girishchandra P; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

2014-09-01

331

Attitudes of Middle School Students: Learning Online Compared to Face to Face  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes

Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey

2013-01-01

332

From the bedroom to the budget deficit: mate competition changes men's attitudes toward economic redistribution.  

PubMed

How do economic recessions influence attitudes toward redistribution of wealth? From a traditional economic self-interest perspective, attitudes toward redistribution should be affected by one's financial standing. A functional evolutionary approach suggests another possible form of self-interest: That during periods of economic threat, attitudes toward redistribution should be influenced by one's mate-value-especially for men. Using both lab-based experiments and real-world data on voting behavior, we consistently find that economic threats lead low mate-value men to become more prosocial and supportive of redistribution policies, but that the same threats lead high mate-value men to do the opposite. Economic threats do not affect women's attitudes toward redistribution in the same way, and, across studies, financial standing is only weakly associated with attitudes toward redistribution. These findings suggest that during tough economic times, men's attitudes toward redistribution are influenced by something that has seemingly little to do with economic self-interest-their mating psychology. PMID:23895267

White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L

2013-12-01

333

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

334

Sudden death due to isolated segmentary coronary vasculitis.  

PubMed

Coronary vasculitis is a group of conditions occurring either independently or associated with another diseases characterized by an inflammation of the blood vessel's wall and subsequent fibrinoid necrosis, occlusion, stenosis, or aneurismal dilatations. Coronary vasculitis leading to sudden cardiac death has rarely been described in the scientific literature.We present the case of an 18-year-old football player who collapsed when playing football. The patient remained in a deep coma (glasgow coma scale = 3) in the hospital for another 4 hours before dying. During hospitalization, he was diagnosed with acute anterolateral myocardial infarction with ST elevation. An autopsy was performed the next day, and on the coronary vessels were identified a dilatation with luminal extension, which, based on clinical and pathological criteria, was considered to be an isolated, coronary polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:25361059

Dermengiu, Dan; Hostiuc, Sorin; Cristian Curca, George; Constantin Rusu, Mugurel; Paparau, Cristian; Ceausu, Mihai

2014-12-01

335

Death due to complications of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Ectodermal dysplasia comprises a group of disorders affecting ectodermal tissues. Severity depends on the genetic aberration; hyperpyrexia secondary to absence of sweat glands is a common complication. Treatment is supportive. This case report describes a 1-month, 27-day-old male infant with a diagnosis of X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. On the day of his death, his mother swaddled him in a blanket and placed him on the couch at 5:30 am. When she picked him up at 8:00 am, he was unresponsive. At the emergency department, his rectal temperature was 40°C. Postmortem blood culture was positive for group B streptococcus, a possible etiology for fever. It is vital to teach parents that close monitoring of children with ectodermal dysplasia is necessary, as an increase in body temperature can become life threatening. PMID:25069757

Ogden, Emily; Schandl, Cynthia; Tormos, Lee Marie

2014-11-01

336

78 FR 48456 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder AGENCY: U.S...Customs broker license cancellation due to death of the broker...cancelled without prejudice due to the death of the license holders....

2013-08-08

337

Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

Speer, Rita D.

338

Sudden death due to nonarrhythmic cause in a patient with L-TGA.  

PubMed

We report a case of sudden death in a clinically stable adult with l-transposition of the great arteries (l-TGA). Sudden death has been reported to be the leading cause of death in l-TGA and is often attributed to arrhythmias in the absence of another identifiable cause. However, the contribution of nonarrhythmic causes to the burden of sudden death in this population is unknown. Comprehensive postmortem investigation, including autopsy and pacemaker interrogation, demonstrated that the cause of death was massive pulmonary hemorrhage due to stenosis of the patient's mechanical tricuspid (systemic AV) valve. This report highlights the important contribution of nonarrhythmic causes of sudden death in this population and the value of autopsy and device interrogation in determining true cause of death. PMID:24118753

Hayward, Robert M; Ursell, Philip C; Foster, Elyse; Tseng, Zian H

2014-05-01

339

Women with gestational diabetes in Vietnam: a qualitative study to determine attitudes and health behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is increasing in prevalence globally, notably amongst populations from low- and middle- income countries. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM), a precursor for type 2 diabetes, is increasing in line with this trend. Few studies have considered the personal and social effects of GDM on women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. Pregnant women, aged over 18 years, with GDM were eligible to participate. Women were purposely sampled to obtain a range of gestational ages and severity of disease. They were invited to attend a 1-hour focus group. Questions were semi structured around six themes. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated and cross-referenced. Non-verbal and group interactions were recorded. Thematic analysis was performed using a theoretical framework approach. Results From December 2010 to February 2011, four focus groups were conducted involving 34 women. Median age was 31.5 years (range 23 to 44), median BMI 21.8 kg/m2. Women felt confusion, anxiety and guilt about GDM. Many perceived their baby to be at increased risk of death. Advice to reduce dietary starch was confusing. Women reported being ‘hungry’ or ‘starving’ most of the time, unaware of appropriate food substitutions. They were concerned about transmission of GDM through breast milk. Several women planned not to breastfeed. All felt they needed more information. Current sources of information included friends, magazines, a health phone line or the Internet. Women felt small group sessions and information leaflets could benefit them. Conclusions This study highlights the need for culturally appropriate clinical education and health promotion activities for women with GDM in Vietnam. PMID:22873351

2012-01-01

340

The Content and Function of Attitudes toward AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated components and functions of college students' (n=187) attitudes towards AIDS. Results indicated homophobia, fear of death, and a defensive attitude were predictive of a fearful attitude toward AIDS. Men were more defensive, more homophobic, less knowledgeable about AIDS, and less fearful of death than women. Racism, homophobia, and…

Brandyberry, Lisa J.; MacNair, Rebecca R.

1996-01-01

341

Using the TOSRA to Assess High School Students' Attitudes toward Science after Competing in the FIRST Robotics Competition: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined high school students' attitudes toward science after participating in a robotics competition. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories: Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude toward Scientific Inquiry,…

Welch, Anita G.

2010-01-01

342

[Attitudes and behaviors related to smoking habit among elementary and high school students].  

PubMed

Survey in Krakow (2001) preceding implementing of the anti-nicotine program in elementary schools and gymnasiums was done in order to determine the frequency of smoking, attitudes towards smoking habit and smokers and the influence of family on developing these attitudes. In this survey questionnaire consisting of 32-41 questions (depending on the school type) on socio-demographic data and attitudes scale was used. Statistical analyses were done using chi2 test to evaluate significant relations between variables and multilevel logistic regression models to establish risk. Obtained results show, that in the recent years the number of pupils initiating smoking is not diminishing (13.8% of gymnasium pupils and 3.0% of elementary school pupils smoke and 19.3% and 8.2% smoked in the past, respectively). In majority pupils' attitude towards smoking was negative (89.2% in elementary schools and 74.5% in gymnasiums). However, attitudes towards smokers were more differentiated. Lack of defined attitude towards smokers presented 62.6% of elementary school pupils and only 32.4% of gymnasium pupils. Although smoking is not approved by majority of pupils, in particular gymnasium pupils are more tolerant towards smokers and more often have positive attitude towards smokers (25.8%) in comparison with their younger colleagues. The fact of lack of determined attitude towards smokers among 42.1% of gymnasium pupils and 30.3% of elementary school pupils is distressing. Odds ratio of lack of determined attitude towards smokers increases when at least one of parents smokes (OR=2.05) and also when older colleagues smoke and peers do not smoke (OR=24.5). It decreases for those, who were characterized by lack of acceptance for smoking (OR=0.172). Obtained results confirm the role of social environment (especially family) in developing of attitudes towards smokers among pupils. They also the presence of pupils together with psychosocial immaturity characteristic for process of development favors ambivalence of judgments and beliefs connected with this habit. PMID:15794277

Marmon, Grazyna; Flak, Elzbieta

2004-01-01

343

Exploring Associations Between Exposure to Sexy Online Self-Presentations and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

2014-10-01

344

TrackSAFE Update: Changing Attitudes to Change Behaviour  

E-print Network

groups ·Academics tracksafefoundation.com.au #12;TrackSAFE aims: 1. Reduce suicide and suicide attempts tracksafefoundation.com.au #12;Suicide on rail · 150 fatalities annually, 1,000 attempts · 6-8% of national deaths by suicide · 2/3 of rail related fatalities · Impacts: · Social · Economic · Rail industry employees In our

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

345

NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice  

PubMed Central

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

Kymre, Ingjerd G.

2014-01-01

346

NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice.  

PubMed

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses' attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses' attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But "as much as possible" is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

Kymre, Ingjerd G

2014-01-01

347

Are Parental Attitudes Related to Adolescent Juvenile Offenders' Readiness to Change?  

PubMed

Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

2014-01-01

348

Death Runthrough  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: At a certain age, we all begin to feel our mortality. Here in South Korea, they're doing something about it. Test runs for death. Well, they're not really practicing dying. They're practicing with death's accessories. That is...

Hacker, Randi

2011-11-16

349

Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

2003-01-01

350

Brief Intervention Impact on Truant Youth Attitudes to School and School Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027

Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James

2014-01-01

351

Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death  

PubMed Central

Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life. PMID:24316972

Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

2013-01-01

352

How Lesbian and Heterosexual Parents Convey Attitudes about Gender to their Children: The Role of Gendered Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied associations among parents’ gender role attitudes, gender stereotyping in children’s environments, and children’s\\u000a gender role attitudes and whether these associations were similar for families with lesbian and heterosexual parents. Fifty-seven\\u000a 4- to 6-year-olds and 114 parents from the US participated. Parents completed self-report questionnaires and responded to\\u000a interview questions. Researchers collected data regarding the child’s environment and attitudes

Erin L. Sutfin; Megan Fulcher; Ryan P. Bowles; Charlotte J. Patterson

2008-01-01

353

Performance criteria for verbal autopsy-based systems to estimate national causes of death: development and application to the Indian Million Death Study  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available. PMID:24495287

2014-01-01

354

Predicting Breastfeeding Duration Related to Maternal Attitudes in a Taiwanese Sample  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine maternal attitudes and sociodemographic variables associated with Taiwanese mothers’ continuation of breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 140 in-hospital breastfeeding mothers was recruited in Taiwan. Participants completed the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) in the hospital prior to discharge. Postdischarge participants were contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 weeks postpartum to obtain information regarding their feeding method and duration. Findings revealed that in-hospital maternal breastfeeding attitudes are predictive of breastfeeding duration. Insufficient milk supply was the reason most often given for discontinuing breastfeeding. Women’s husband/partner was found to be the main source of breastfeeding support. We recommend health-care professionals add the IIFAS to their assessment to identify mothers at high risk for discontinuing breastfeeding and to develop and better evaluate breastfeeding promotion programs. PMID:22942621

Ho, Yen-Ju; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

2011-01-01

355

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

356

Assessing Changes to Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Science and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are creating a mixed-methods study to inform our understanding of students' beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. Additionally, we are seeking the input of the broader Astronomy 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of participating in an introductory astronomy course.

Mendelsohn, B.; Cormier, S.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Cats Collaboration

2011-09-01

357

Dairy producer attitudes to pain in cattle in relation to disbudding calves.  

PubMed

Pain is an important indicator of poor welfare of livestock. Despite this, pain has largely gone unrecognized in farm animals due to attitudes of producers and veterinarians, although they play a key role in monitoring and managing the perception of animal pain. Producer attitudes toward animal welfare influence livestock management and production. The aim was to quantify dairy producer attitudes to the painfulness of various cattle diseases and disbudding, a painful routine procedure performed on farm to ensure safer handling of cattle. A questionnaire on disbudding-related opinions and practices was sent to 1,000 Finnish dairy producers (response rate: 45%). Attitudes toward disbudding were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale and attitudes to cattle pain scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Principal components analysis was used to assess the loadings, which were further tested for differences between producer gender and housing systems with Mann-Whitney U-tests, and between herd milk yield, herd size, and age and work experience of producers with a Kruskal-Wallis test. Four main factors were identified: factor I ("taking disbudding pain seriously"), factor II ("sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases"), factor III ("ready to medicate calves myself"), and factor IV ("pro horns"). Female producers took disbudding pain more seriously, were more sensitive to pain caused to cattle by diseases, and were more ready to medicate disbudded calves than male producers. Producers with tie-stalls favored horns over producers with freestalls. Male producers with tie-stalls were sensitive to cattle pain and preferred horns over male producers with freestalls. Female producers with freestalls were more ready to medicate calves, but did not prefer horns more than female producers with tie-stalls. Taking disbudding seriously correlated with sensitivity to pain caused by cattle diseases. Producers with low-milk-yielding herds were less willing to medicate calves and more willing to keep cattle with horns than producers with higher-yielding herds. Older producers were more sensitive to cattle pain than middle-aged and younger producers. No effect was established for taking disbudding pain seriously: the pro-horn factor was associated with work experience, age, and herd size. Women rated pain higher and were more positive toward pain medication for animals than men. Maintaining horns are more important for producers with tie-stalls than for those with freestalls. PMID:24054284

Wikman, I; Hokkanen, A-H; Pastell, M; Kauppinen, T; Valros, A; Hänninen, L

2013-11-01

358

p73 regulates DRAM-independent autophagy that does not contribute to programmed cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evading programmed cell death is a common event in tumour development. The p53 family member, p73, is a potent inducer of death and a determinant of chemotherapeutic response, but different to p53, is rarely mutated in cancer. Understanding cell death pathways downstream of p53 and p73 is therefore pivotal to understand both the development and treatment of malignant disease. Recently,

D Crighton; J O'Prey; H S Bell; K M Ryan

2007-01-01

359

Sentencing the Mentally Retarded to Death: An Eighth Amendment Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, on death rows across the United States, sit a number of men with the minds of children. These people are mentally retarded. Typical of these individuals is Limmie Arthur, who currently is imprisoned at Central Correctional Institution in Columbia, South Carolina. Although Arthur is twenty-eight years old, all the mental health professionals who have evaluated him, including employees of

John H. Blume; David Bruck

1988-01-01

360

Responding to Student or Teacher Death: Preplanning Crisis Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that crisis caused by the sudden death of a student or teacher can be averted or diminished via a preplanned team intervention approach. Describes such an approach implemented successfully by the Easton, Massachusetts, public schools. Provides both guidelines and strategies of the field-proven intervention program. (Author/NB)

Sorensen, James R.

1989-01-01

361

Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death.  

PubMed

The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H

2014-05-20

362

Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death  

PubMed Central

The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

Gross, Samuel R.; O’Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H.

2014-01-01

363

Developing and Implementing a Parental Awareness Program To Enhance Children's Mathematics Performance and Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this practicum was to involve parents in their children's mathematics learning. To accomplish this aim, efforts were made to improve children's performance and attitudes toward mathematics; to enable teachers to recognize the value of activities and games as an alternate to learning by rote; and to offer opportunities for parents to

Goldberg, Susanne

364

Aging, health expenditure, proximity to death, and income in Finland.  

PubMed

This study revisits the debate on the 'red herring', i.e. the claim that population aging will not have a significant impact on health care expenditure (HCE), using a Finnish data set. We decompose HCE into several components and include both survivors and deceased individuals into the analyses. We also compare the predictions of health expenditure based on a model that takes into account the proximity to death with the predictions of a naïve model, which includes only age and gender and their interactions. We extend our analysis to include income as an explanatory variable. According to our results, total expenditure on health care and care of elderly people increases with age but the relationship is not as clear as is usually assumed when a naïve model is used in health expenditure projections. Among individuals not in long-term care, we found a clear positive relationship between expenditure and age only for health centre and psychiatric inpatient care. In somatic care and prescribed drugs, the expenditure clearly decreased with age among deceased individuals. Our results emphasize that even in the future, health care expenditure might be driven more by changes in the propensity to move into long-term care and medical technology than age and gender alone, as often claimed in public discussion. We do not find any strong positive associations between income and expenditure for most non-LTC categories of health care utilization. Income was positively related to expenditure on prescribed medicines, in which cost-sharing between the state and the individual is relatively high. Overall, our results indicate that the future expenditure is more likely to be determined by health policy actions than inevitable trends in the demographic composition of the population. PMID:18634626

Häkkinen, Unto; Martikainen, Pekka; Noro, Anja; Nihtilä, Elina; Peltola, Mikko

2008-04-01

365

Preparedness for Death and Adjustment to Bereavement among Caregivers of Recently Placed Nursing Home Residents.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment has not been studied prospectively. Little is known about pre-death factors associated with feeling prepared prior to the death of a loved one. Objective: Our aim was to prospectively assess the role of preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment in informal caregivers (CGs) who experienced the death of their loved one and to identify predictors and correlates of complicated grief, depression, and preparedness for death among informal CGs. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study using data collected for a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an intervention for CGs of recently placed care recipients (CRs). Subjects were 217 informal CGs of care recipients recently placed in nursing homes, and they were followed for 18 months. CGs were assessed in person by certified interviewers at 6-month intervals. Eighty-nine CGs experienced the death of their loved one in the course of the study. Measurements used included preparedness for death, advance care planning (ACP), complicated grief, depression, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: CGs who reported feeling more prepared for the death experienced lower levels of complicated grief post-bereavement. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model showed that spouses as opposed to adult child CGs were less prepared for the death, depressed CGs were less prepared, and patients who engaged in ACP had CGs who felt more prepared. CR overt expressions about wanting to die was also related to higher levels of preparedness in the CG. Conclusions: We show prospectively that preparedness for death facilitates post-bereavement adjustment and identify factors associated with preparedness. ACP can be an effective means for preparing informal CGs for the death of their CRs. PMID:25469737

Schulz, Richard; Boerner, Kathrin; Klinger, Julie; Rosen, Jules

2014-12-01

366

An attempt to change attitudes toward the aged by providing information on activity level  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Psychology AN ATTEMPT TO CHANGE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE AGED BY PROVIDING INFORMATION ON ACTIVITY LEVEL A Thesis by BETTY LEE BECK Approved as to style and content by: ( a e o of Committee) (Head... of Department) (Member) (Member) August 1979 ABSTRACT An Attempt to Change Attitudes Toward the Aged by Prov1ding Information on Activity Level. (August 1979) Betty Lee Beck, B. S. , Texas A&'4 University Chai rman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. Candi da...

Beck, Betty Lee

1979-01-01

367

Deaths associated with exposure to fumigants in railroad cars--United States.  

PubMed

Multiple incidents of illness and death following exposure to fumigated agricultural products in railroad cars have been reported by several states along the U.S.-Mexico border. From 1989 through 1993, the Texas Department of Health identified three incidents involving 11 exposed persons, resulting in two deaths. The California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, recorded two deaths in fumigated boxcars in 1989. This report summarizes the two most recent fatal incidents. PMID:8022394

1994-07-15

368

Predictive value of attitude, cognitive ability, and personality to science achievement in the middle school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the factors of attitude toward science, spatial ability, mathematical ability, and the scientific personality, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, in a sample of middle school students. Males and females with science grades of A and B were found to have several characteristics of the scientific personality, good grades in mathematics, but negative attitudes toward science. Males and females with science grades of C and D had a more positive attitude toward science, but poor mathematical and spatial abilities and few characteristics of the scientific personality. There were no sex differences except on the Thinking/Feeling (TF) scale of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. As expected females portrayed themselves as preferring the (F) scale, the use of personal values when making decisions and males portrayed themselves as preferring the (T) scale, the use of logical analysis when making decisions.

Baker, Dale R.

369

Medical Students’ and Physicians’ Attitudes toward Patients’ Consent to Participate in Clinical Training  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The responsibility of the medical training team towards a patient referring to an academic medical center has not been fully clarified. In this article we have looked at current practice in Medical University of Isfahan and evaluated the attitude of the medical team towards patients’consent to be involved in medical students’education. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we distributed self-administrated questionnaires among medical mentors, residents and students of academic hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. This researcher-made questionnaire consisted of several questions concerning dimensions of informed consent. The data were analyzed, using independent t-tests and ANOVA. Results: Ninety-one medical students (51 females) and 61 members of medical training team (25 females) completed the questionnaires. The overall average attitude score was 36.53±5.89 out of 60, which is classified as fair. The average attitude score for medical students and mentors were not significantly different. The average attitude score of the female students was classified as good, and was different from that of male students, significantly (p<0.05). By categorizing subjects into those with?5 years of managerial or educational experience and those below 5, a significant difference in average attitude score was documented (35.8±2.54 in?5and 34.0±2.9 in>5group). Conclusion: The attitude of the medical team is thoroughly far from what is expected. Thus, the need to provide both medical students and medical mentors with data on the importance of obtaining patients’ consent to be involved in medical education is highlighted. PMID:25587551

OMID, ATHAR; DANESHPAJOUHNEJAD, PARNAZ; PIRHAJI, OMID

2015-01-01

370

Are Death Anxiety and Death Depression Distinct Entities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of others,""brevity of…

Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others

1993-01-01

371

Triptolide sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced activation of the death receptor pathway.  

PubMed

The tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) causes cancer cell death, but many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, are resistant to TRAIL therapy. A combination of TRAIL and the diterpene triepoxide, triptolide, is effective in inducing pancreatic cancer cell death. Triptolide increases levels of death receptor DR5 and decreases the pro-survival FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which contribute to the activation of caspase-8. This combination further causes both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, resulting in cell death. Our study provides a mechanism by which triptolide sensitizes TRAIL resistant cells, which may become a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. PMID:24662747

Chen, Zhiyu; Sangwan, Veena; Banerjee, Sulagna; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M; Saluja, Ashok K

2014-06-28

372

A pilot test to measure attitudes toward recreational uses of National Wildlife Refuges  

E-print Network

Approved as to style and content by: ', Cha~rman of Lezmittee) o (idead of Depanbm nt) (Ner, er) r (i';o ooer. ) ('lember ) December 1970 ABSTPDCT A Pilot Test to I'ieasure Attitudes Toward Recreational Uses of Na. tional Wildlife R fuge . (D... with an understanding of' resource development through an educational use of such featur es of the land: cape as reservoir shore lines and refuges" (13). In October, 1967, Mr. Noble Buell, Assis ant Director of the BSFW, reinforced this attitude toward...

Sontag, William Harold

1970-01-01

373

FROM BIAS TO BISEXUAL HEALTH DISPARITIES: ATTITUDES TOWARD BISEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES  

PubMed Central

PUROPSE A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed “biphobia.” However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. METHODS Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values <.05); bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their straight counterparts (all p-values <.001); and bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their lesbian/gay counterparts (all p-values <.05). Within racial/ethnic minority respondents, biracial/multiracial status was associated with lower bi-negativity scores (all p-values <.05). CONCLUSION This study provides important quantitative support for theories related to biphobia and double discrimination. Our findings provide strong evidence for understanding how stereotypes and stigma may lead to dramatic disparities in depression, anxiety, stress, and other health outcomes among bisexual individuals in comparison to their heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women. PMID:25568885

Friedman, M. Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael

2014-01-01

374

An educational module to improve healthcare staffs' attitudes toward sickle cell disease patients.  

PubMed

Sickle cell disease is a genetic blood disorder primarily affecting individuals of African descent. Studies of healthcare providers suggest there is inadequate knowledge about the pathophysiology and clinical presentations of the disease, and misperceptions of patients' behaviors and communication during crisis that have led to inappropriate staff attitudes and thus become major barriers to the delivery of optimal care. In this article, the authors describe the effect of an educational module on improving healthcare staffs' attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:25237914

Hanik, Maria; Sackett, Kay M; Hartman, Lisa L

2014-01-01

375

A Cross-National Investigation of University Students' Complaining Behaviour and Attitudes to Complaining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how students from Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia differ in their propensity to complain and attitudes to complaining. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire was designed using established scales to assess respondent reactions to a service failure by a university. The…

Ferguson, Graham; Phau, Ian

2012-01-01

376

Teacher Adherence and Its Relation to Teacher Attitudes and Student Outcomes in an Elementary School-Based Violence Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined variability in teachers' reported adherence to a school-based violence prevention program, Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, and investigated the relations of teacher adherence to teachers' attitudes related to the intervention and students' attitudes about and responses to bullying. The results provide evidence…

Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Fonagy, Peter; Dill, Edward J.

2008-01-01

377

An Analogous Study of Children's Attitudes Toward School in an Open Classroom Environment as Opposed to a Conventional Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to determine whether intermediate age children exposed to open classroom teaching strategy have a more positive attitude toward school than intermediate age children exposed to conventional teaching strategy. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The study was limited to

Zeli, Doris Conti

378

Public attitudes toward depression and seeking professional help: baseline survey prior to the OSPI intervention in four European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes with regard to mental illness strongly impact upon whether and how professional help is sought by people affected and are important to understand stigmatisation. Several studies indicate rather negative attitudes among the general population, which, however, may be amenable to change. We undertook a general population survey in four European countries participating in the OSPI project, prior to

G Scheerder; C Van Audenhove; E Arensman

2010-01-01

379

Advantages of estimating rate corrections during dynamic propagation of spacecraft rates: Applications to real-time attitude determination of SAMPEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes real-time attitude determination results for the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), a gyroless spacecraft, using a Kalman filter/Euler equation approach denoted the real-time sequential filter (RTSF). The RTSF is an extended Kalman filter whose state vector includes the attitude quaternion and corrections to the rates, which are modeled as Markov processes with small time constants. The rate corrections impart a significant robustness to the RTSF against errors in modeling the environmental and control torques, as well as errors in the initial attitude and rates, while maintaining a small state vector. SAMPLEX flight data from various mission phases are used to demonstrate the robustness of the RTSF against a priori attitude and rate errors of up to 90 deg and 0.5 deg/sec, respectively, as well as a sensitivity of 0.0003 deg/sec in estimating rate corrections in torque computations. In contrast, it is shown that the RTSF attitude estimates without the rate corrections can degrade rapidly. RTSF advantages over single-frame attitude determination algorithms are also demonstrated through (1) substantial improvements in attitude solutions during sun-magnetic field coalignment and (2) magnetic-field-only attitude and rate estimation during the spacecraft's sun-acquisition mode. A robust magnetometer-only attitude-and-rate determination method is also developed to provide for the contingency when both sun data as well as a priori knowledge of the spacecraft state are unavailable. This method includes a deterministic algorithm used to initialize the RTSF with coarse estimates of the spacecraft attitude and rates. The combined algorithm has been found effective, yielding accuracies of 1.5 deg in attitude and 0.01 deg/sec in the rates and convergence times as little as 400 sec.

Challa, M. S.; Natanson, G. A.; Baker, D. F.; Deutschmann, J. K.

1994-01-01

380

Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes and Barriers to Help-Seeking in Young People in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research sought to understand the needs of Turkish university students related to adjustment to university, the sources they seek help from, their attitudes about and barriers to psychological help-seeking. Data analysis of interview transcriptions from 15 undergraduates identified several themes. Interpersonal problems,…

Koydemir, Selda; Erel, Ozge; Yumurtaci, Duygu; Sahin, Gozde Nur

2010-01-01

381

GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

Lock, Roger

1995-01-01

382

Attitudes toward Older People and Coworkers' Intention to Work with Older Employees: A Taiwanese Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N = 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived…

Lu, Luo

2010-01-01

383

Attitudes to the Application of a Web-Based Learning System in a Microbiology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. Here, a Web-based learning management system is employed by a medical university to support undergraduate courses. The objective was to help the university's staff to understand the readiness and attitudes of students to the use of information technology, their…

Masiello, I.; Ramberg, R.; Lonka, K.

2005-01-01

384

Development of an Instrument to Assess Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the authors in this study was to develop an instrument to assess fourth and fifth grade students' attitudes toward physical education. The methods for validation included (a) an elicitation study and instrument question development, (b) a pilot study, and (c) a series of analyses to assess, construct, and content validity and to

Phillips, Sharon R.; Silverman, Stephen

2012-01-01

385

Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

Spaulding, Irving A.

386

The Relationship Between Exposure to Sexual Music Videos and Young Adults' Sexual Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to sexual music videos and young people's sexual attitudes (i.e., premarital sexual permissiveness and endorsement of the sexual double standard). Items gauging exposure to 75 music videos ranging in sexual explicitness were used to measure sexual video viewing among a sample of 266 undergraduate students. As expected, exposure

Yuanyuan Zhang; Laura E. Miller; Kristen Harrison

2008-01-01

387

Effect of Principals' Leadership Style on Teachers' Attitude to Work in Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate why some principals prefer to embrace certain leadership styles and the effect of such styles on the teachers' attitude to work. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of teachers and principals from the secondary schools in Abeokuta…

Adegbesan, Sunday O.

2013-01-01

388

Death Receptor Signaling Giving Life to Ectodermal Organs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway has been identified that has an important function in the regulation of embryonic development. Three key components of this pathway are previously unknown proteins: the TNF ligand ectodysplasin (also known as EDA), its death domain-containing receptor EDAR, and the death domain adapter molecule EDARADD. This pathway was discovered and delineated through the cloning of genes that cause human hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) syndromes and by analysis of the corresponding mouse mutants (Tabby, downless, and crinkled) showing defects in hair, teeth, and several exocrine glands. EDAR signaling is mediated by the activation of nuclear factor kappa B, but other downstream targets are not known. Ectodysplasin-EDAR signaling mediates cell interactions within the ectoderm and regulates the initiation and morphogenesis of hair and teeth. It is also necessary for the development of fish scales, indicating that this pathway and its function have been conserved during the evolution of ectodermal organs.

Irma Thesleff (Institute of Biotechnology at University of Helsinki; Developmental Biology Program REV)

2002-05-07

389

An Approach to Changing Teacher Attitudes and Updating Teacher Information About Career Education: A Research Project in Procedures. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project was conducted to test the assumption that there is a positive correlation between teachers' knowledge about career education and their attitudes toward using it in the classroom. The projected goal was to implement career awareness activities for teachers in an inservice program in order to promote teacher attitude change. Results…

Brous, Susan D.

390

Access to Attitude-Relevant Information in Memory as a Determinant of Persuasion: The Role of Message and Communicator Attributes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research literature shows that people with access to attitude-relevant information in memory are able to draw on relevant beliefs and prior experiences when analyzing a persuasive message. This suggests that people who can retrieve little attitude-relevant information should be less able to engage in systematic processing. Two experiments were…

Wood, Wendy; And Others

391

Attitudes of Young People in China to Family Formation. A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Beijing and Sichuan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of young Chinese people toward family formation are examined giving insights to the varying attitudes of young men and women according to rural or urban setting, educational levels, types of employment, economic status, and proximity to centers of economic and social development. Information is also provided on population policies…

Zhang, Zhi Yi

392

The Reasons for Information Technologies Pre-Service Teachers to Prefer Teaching Profession and Their Attitudes towards the Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was carried out to determine the reasons for information technologies pre-service teachers for preferring teaching profession and whether their attitudes towards the profession differ according to the variables of gender, graduated high school, order of department preference, class level, the profession wanted to be worked and attitude

Akdag, Mustafa

2013-01-01

393

Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Environmental Responsibility, Character Development, and Attitudes toward School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examines the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures to develop and validate scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development and leadership, and attitudes toward school for environmental education programs servicing middle school children. The scales represent outcomes commonly of interest to

Powell, Robert Baxter; Stern, Marc J.; Krohn, Brian D.; Ardoin, Nicole

2011-01-01

394

Arts for Academic Achievement. Changing Student Attitudes toward Math: Using Dance To Teach Math.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results of a study that sought to answer the question, "How does integrating dance and math in an intense co-teaching model of integration affect student attitudes toward learning math?" The goal of the dance/math project was to engage students in math in ways that reached students' multiple intelligences and encouraged them to

Werner, Linnette

395

Multiprofessional learning: the attitudes of medical, nursing and pharmacy students to shared learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The belief that the effectiveness of patient care will improve through collaboration and teamwork within and between health care teams is providing a focus internationally for 'shared learning' in health professional education. While it may be hard to over- come structural and organizational obstacles to imple- menting interprofessional learning, negative student attitudes may be most difficult to change. This

Margaret Horsburgh; Rain Lamdin; Emma Williamson

2001-01-01

396

Attitudes to the Uses of Animals in Higher Education: Has Anything Changed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioscience staff and students at Glasgow University in session 2005-06 were questioned on their attitudes to animal uses in higher education, as follow-up to a similar survey 20 years before. Disapproval by students of animal use was generally reduced compared to 20 years ago, but students remained in a "moral bind", recognising the interest and…

Donaldson, Lynda; Downie, Roger

2007-01-01

397

The Application of an Unfolding Model of the PIRT Type to the Measurement of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple probabilistic model for unfolding data collected by a direct response design in which responses were scored dichotomously was applied to the measurement of attitudes toward capital punishment. Responses conformed to the unfolding mechanism. Scale values of the statements were statistically equivalent to those of Thurstone's methods. (SLD)

Andrich, David

1988-01-01

398

Saving, Reusing, and Remixing Web Video: Using Attitudes and Practices to Reveal Social Norms  

E-print Network

matters, social media sites like Facebook and Twitter make it easy to repost videos to reach new audiencesSaving, Reusing, and Remixing Web Video: Using Attitudes and Practices to Reveal Social Norms content, social norms about ownership have evolved accordingly, spelling out what people think

Marshall, Cathy

399

Attitudes towards computer science-computing experiences as a starting point and barrier to computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In which way do computing experiences shape attitudes towards computer science? Why do they foster some students' commitment to the subject while they deter others? By using a qualitative research approach we observed that computing experiences have impacts on several dimensions: They affect the self-image with regard to computing, the world-image with regard to conceptions of the subject, and habits

Carsten Schulte; Maria Knobelsdorf

2007-01-01

400

Desiring to be in touch in a changing communications landscape: attitudes of older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an exploration of the attitudes of older adults to keeping in touch with people who are important to them. We present findings from three focus groups with people from 55 to 81 years of age. Themes emerging from the findings suggest that older adults view the act of keeping in touch as being worthy of time and

Siân E. Lindley; Richard H. R. Harper; Abigail Sellen

2009-01-01

401

Understanding Barriers to Evidence-Based Assessment: Clinician Attitudes toward Standardized Assessment Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of evidence-based practice, why are clinicians not typically engaged in evidence-based assessment? To begin to understand this issue, a national multidisciplinary survey was conducted to examine clinician attitudes toward standardized assessment tools. There were 1,442 child clinicians who provided opinions about the psychometric…

Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Hawley, Kristin M.

2010-01-01

402

Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Communicate about Sex: Its Role in Condom Attitudes, Commitment, and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether and how self-efficacy to communicate with parents and peers about sex relate to sexually experienced adolescent males' and females' (N = 144, 112) condom attitudes, intentions, and use. Results showed that males who reported greater self-efficacy to communicate with parents used condoms more frequently; and both males…

Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

2004-01-01

403

Attitudes and Training of Public School Clinicians Providing Services to Speakers of Black English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate speech-language clinicians' attitudes regarding treatment goal setting for children who were speakers of Black English, questionnaires based on W. Wolfram and R. Fasold's conceivable goals in teaching standard English to speakers of nonstandard dialects were distributed to 103 clinicians. (Author/CL)

Bountress, Nicholas G.

1980-01-01

404

Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…

Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

2013-01-01

405

Investigating Students' Attitude and Intention to Use Social Software in Higher Institution of Learning in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Social software usage is growing at an exponential rate among the present generation of students. Yet, there is paucity of empirical study to understand the determinant of its use in the present setting of this study. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate factors that predict students' attitudes and intentions to use this…

Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Basha, Kamal Madarsha; AbdulRahman, Nik Suryani Nik; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

2011-01-01

406

Reactions of First-Year Men to a Rape Prevention Program: Attitude and Predicted Behavior Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year men (261) saw a rape prevention program and were asked to give their reactions to what they saw by answering four open-ended questions, requesting information about whether participants experience either attitude or behavior change resulting from the program, particularly in relation to situations involving alcohol and sexually intimate…

Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Donahue, Greg A.

2006-01-01

407

Knowledge, Attitudes of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, and Intention to Obtain Vaccine Among Korean Female Undergraduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge about the human papillomavirus and attitudes toward human papillomavirus and human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean female undergraduate students. Moreover, this study sought to identify factors associated with intention to obtain the human papillomavirus vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 297 Korean female undergraduate students. Data were collected using a self-administered

Hee-Young Kang; Jin-Sun Kim

2011-01-01

408

How to Live? What We Can Learn from Ivan Ilych's Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Near the first of every school year, the author has the opportunity to talk to her students about death, usually in the midst of their study of "Beowulf" or "Gilgamesh." Occasionally, the discussion results from the recent news of the death of a public figure or, closer to home, a family member. Regardless of the circumstance, her students learn…

Felps, Maryann

2012-01-01

409

Physicians' propensity to collaborate and their attitude towards EBM: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The healthcare management literature states that physicians often coordinate their activities within and between organizations through social networks. Previous studies have also documented the relationship between professional networks and physicians' attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM). The present study sought associations between physicians' self-reported attitudes toward EBM and the formation of inter-physician collaborative network ties. Methods Primary data were collected from 297 clinicians at six hospitals belonging to one of the largest local health units of the Italian National Health Service. Data collection used a survey questionnaire that inquired about professional networks and physicians' characteristics. Social network analysis was performed to describe inter-physician professional networks. Multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures were performed to assess the relationship between self-reported attitudes toward EBM and clinicians' propensity to collaborate. Results Physicians who reported similar attitudes toward EBM were more likely to exchange information and advice through collaborative relationships (? = 0.0198; p < 0.05). Similarities in other characteristics, such as field of specialization (? = 0.1988; p < 0.01), individual affiliations with hospital sites (? = 0.0845; p < 0.01), and organizational clinical directorates (? = 0.0459; p < 0.01), were also significantly related to physicians' propensity to collaborate. Conclusions Communities of practice within healthcare organizations are likely to contain separate clusters of physicians whose members are highly similar. Organizational interventions are needed to foster heterophily whenever multidisciplinary cooperation is required to provide effective health care. PMID:21787395

2011-01-01

410

A Comparative Study to Determine the Efficacy of Two Industrial Arts Program Approaches Upon Pupils' Attitudes Toward Manufacturing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experimental study was designed to determine the differences in attitudes toward the manufacturing industry among pupils enrolled in (1) a conventional industrial arts program, (2) an innovative industrial arts program, and (3) a parochial school having no industrial arts program. A self-constructed attitude scale was administered to 128…

Fazzini, Phillip Albert

411

Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to

Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

2009-01-01

412

Health Professionals' Attitudes towards AOD-Related Work: Moving the Traditional Focus from Education and Training to Organizational Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This article presents a critical review of research on health professionals' attitudes towards alcohol and other drug (AOD)-related work relevant to both researchers and practitioners. It moves beyond education and training programs to examine the relevance of organizational culture in influencing attitudes. Method: A review of research…

Skinner, Natalie; Roche, Ann M.; Freeman, Toby; Mckinnon, Anna

2009-01-01

413

Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

2013-01-01

414

Attitudes toward Police Response to Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating…

Sun, Ivan Y.; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning

2011-01-01

415

Exploring Reactions to Pilot Reliability Certification and Changing Attitudes on the Reduction of Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 70% of aviation accidents are attributable to human error. The greatest opportunity for further improving aviation safety is found in reducing human errors in the cockpit. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, mixed-method research was to evaluate whether there was a difference in pilot attitudes toward reducing human error in the…

Boedigheimer, Dan

2010-01-01

416

Vicarious Exposure to Diversity as a Means of Influencing Young Children's Ethnic/Racial Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing preschool-age children to people of diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds and cultural practices is becoming one of the central features of early educational programming. This study used a pre-test post-test design with a control to assess such an educational intervention aimed at positively influencing American preschoolers' attitudes

Kowalski, Kurt

417

Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

Abrie, A. L.

2010-01-01

418

Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

2005-01-01

419

Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium. [with application to autonomous navigation and attitude/orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard and real time image processing to enhance geometric correction of the data is discussed with application to autonomous navigation and attitude and orbit determination. Specific topics covered include: (1) LANDSAT landmark data; (2) star sensing and pattern recognition; (3) filtering algorithms for Global Positioning System; and (4) determining orbital elements for geostationary satellites.

Fuchs, A. J. (editor)

1979-01-01

420

Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

Kross, Carolyn Sue

421

East Tennessee State University Faculty Attitudes and Student Perceptions in Providing Accommodations to Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine ETSU faculty attitudes and student perceptions in providing academic accommodations to students with disabilities. Participants of the study were ETSU students with disabilities who are registered with the Disabilities Services office and faculty members of ETSU. Students with disabilities were…

Byrd, Terre Davenia Michelle

2010-01-01

422

Exposure to Internet Pornography and Taiwanese Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines use of Internet pornography by adolescents in Tai- wan and the relationships between exposure to Internet pornography and the sexual attitudes and behavior of surveyed teens. Results show that about 38% of the sample had some exposure to Internet pornogra- phy. Further, this exposure was associated with greater acceptance of sexual permissiveness and the greater likelihood of

Ven-hwei Lo; Ran Wei

2005-01-01

423

Using Computers To Improve Writing Skills and Attitudes of Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practicum used computers to improve the use of standard English and the attitude towards writing of a group of middle school students in a predominantly Nicaraguan neighborhood in a large metropolitan area. The project was directed towards 32 sixth- to eighth-graders of average ability who were enrolled in an introductory computer…

Shields, Mark H.

424

Exploration of Critical Consciousness and Its Relationship to Teaching Perspectives and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationships of educators' levels of critical consciousness, attitudes about poverty and poor people, and teaching perspectives. Critical consciousness was defined by Freire (2000) as the ability of individuals to assess their own identities related to the sociopolitical realities that surround them and critically…

Weis, Lisa Kaye Hamling

2012-01-01

425

The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include…

McColl, Lisa

2007-01-01

426

Attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese to traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine: survey and cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether within a cohort of Hong Kong out-patients definable subtypes exist based on their attitudes to traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Design: Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Setting: The sample of 503 subjects was recruited at two local outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Main outcome measures: The study employs demographic variables, illness status, the

M. F. Chan; E. Mok; Y. S. Wong; T. F. Tong; M. C. Day; C. K. Y. Tang; D. H. C. Wong

2003-01-01

427

Having to Take a Stand: The Interactive Effects of Task Framing and Source Status on Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some research has found that a minority message source is less persuasive than a majority source on personally relevant issues. In that research, participants were forewarned that they would have to report their attitudinal reactions. We hypothesized that if recipients were given an opinion-irrelevant (recall) task instead, source status would not affect attitudes. Participants were asked to read a strong,

Amani El-Alayli; Ernest S. Park; Lawrence A. Messé; Norbert L. Kerr

2002-01-01

428

Pre-Service Teachers' Experience of and Attitudes to Teaching SPHE in Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: National policy in Ireland states that all teachers are teachers of Social Personal and Health Education (SPHE). However national evaluations identify that all teachers do not subscribe to this view. This research aimed to examine the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students towards teaching SPHE. Design/methodology/approach:…

Mannix McNamara, Patricia; Moynihan, Sharon; Jourdan, Didier; Lynch, Raymond

2012-01-01

429

Food shoppers' nutrition attitudes and relationship to dietary and lifestyle practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared dietary and lifestyle practices of 5689 adults in the US Department of Agriculture's Diet and Health Knowledge Survey conducted in 1994 to 1996. The adults were grouped based on their attitudes toward the importance of nutrition when buying food. A high percentage of women (69.8%) than men (55.2%) reported that nutrition was very important to them when

Shanthy A. Bowman

2005-01-01

430

Faculty Attitudes toward, Confidence in, and Barriers to Undergraduate Student Advising at Idaho State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore faculty attitudes toward, confidence in, and perceived barriers to providing faculty advising for undergraduate students at Idaho State University. Extensive research has been conducted for many years on faculty advising from the student perspective, but very little research exists on the topic of faculty…

Erickson, Lance V.

2012-01-01

431

Evaluation of Student Attitudes to Learning the Java Language Michael Madden and Desmond Chambers  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Student Attitudes to Learning the Java Language Michael Madden and Desmond Chambers Visual Basic and some scripting languages in first and second year. MIT students may or may not have-Oriented Language that is taught to students. This paper discusses the results of a wide-ranging survey conducted

Madden, Michael

432

The Impact of Enterprise Education on Attitudes to Enterprise in Young People: An Evaluation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present evidence on the impact of enterprise education on young people still at school in London, UK. The study was designed to measure the effect of participation in a Young Enterprise (YE) Company Program on young people's attitudes toward starting a business, and on their enterprise potential.…

Athayde, Rosemary

2012-01-01

433

Using Multimedia to Enhance Knowledge of Service Attitude in the Hospitality Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having used a quasi-experimental research model and the ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) calibration method to gather and implement data, the researcher developed an interactive multimedia assisted learning (MAL) program promoting proper service attitudes in the hospitality industry. In order to gauge MAL program's…

Kuo, Chun Min

2012-01-01

434

The Relationship of Gender, Sex Role, and Law-and-Order Attitudes to Nuclear Opinions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effect of gender, sex role orientation, and political orientation on attitudes among 46 male and 62 female first-year university students in Perth, Australia, concerning nuclear weapons. Females were found to be more opposed to their development and use. Discusses practical implications for political behavior. (DM)

Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

1990-01-01

435

From plants to animals; the role of plant cell death in ruminant herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell death occurring as a result of adverse environmental conditions is known to limit crop pro- duction. It is less well recognized that plant cell death processes can also contribute to the poor environmen- tal footprint of ruminant livestock production. Al- though the forage cells ingested by grazing ruminant herbivores will ultimately die, the lack of oxygen, elevated temperature,

Alison H. Kingston-Smith; Teri E. Davies; Joan E. Edwards; Michael K. Theodorou

2008-01-01

436

Death Education for Teachers: A Refocused Concern Relative to Medically Fragile Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at the roles and responsibilities of teachers concerning both their own and their students' reactions to death, in the context of the increasing numbers of medically fragile children in the classroom. The importance of teacher self-awareness, helping children understand and react to death, and providing parental assistance is…

Thornton, Claire; Krajewski, Junean

1993-01-01

437

Fear of personal death: Attribution, structure, and relation to religious belief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that individuals attribute the fear of their own death to the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal consequences of human mortality. A multidimensional measure of fear of personal death was constructed and administered together with an index of Jewish belief and practice to 178 18–30 yr old males. Principal-components factor analysis of this measure uncovered a factor structure that paralleled the

Victor Florian; Shlomo Kravetz

1983-01-01

438

TICAL BIOSCIENCES A birth-and-death procms population model is formulated to include positive and  

E-print Network

TICAL BIOSCIENCES ABSTRACT A birth-and-death procms population model is formulated to include of the mean and variance are derived for constant birth and death parameters, and the values of the control is extended to include piecewise constant parameters. 1. INTRODLJCTION The formulation of a birth

Getz, Wayne M.

439

Piloted Simulator Investigation of Techniques to Achieve Attitude Command Response with Limited Authority Servos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the study was to develop generic design principles for obtaining attitude command response in moderate to aggressive maneuvers without increasing SCAS series servo authority from the existing +/- 10%. In particular, to develop a scheme that would work on the UH-60 helicopter so that it can be considered for incorporation in future upgrades. The basic math model was a UH-60A version of GENHEL. The simulation facility was the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Evaluation tasks were Hover, Acceleration-Deceleration, and Sidestep, as defined in ADS-33D-PRF for Degraded Visual Environment (DVE). The DVE was adjusted to provide a Usable Cue Environment (UCE) equal to two. The basic concept investigated was the extent to which the limited attitude command authority achievable by the series servo could be supplemented by a 10%/sec trim servo. The architecture used provided angular rate feedback to only the series servo, shared the attitude feedback between the series and trim servos, and when the series servo approached saturation the attitude feedback was slowly phased out. Results show that modest use of the trim servo does improve pilot ratings, especially in and around hover. This improvement can be achieved with little degradation in response predictability during moderately aggressive maneuvers.

Key, David L.; Heffley, Robert K.

2002-01-01

440

Attitude to Substance Abuse: Do Personality and Socio-Demographic Factors Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background: Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Results: Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P < 0.001). Extraversion had no significant role in prediction of positive attitude to substance abuse (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs.

Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh

2014-01-01

441

The attitudes of medical students to the objective structured practical examination.  

PubMed

The objective structured practical examination (OSPE) together with the classical practical examination (CPE) form the basis for evaluation of laboratory teaching at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Students' attitudes to OSPE and CPE were assessed by preparing a questionnaire containing 32 item statements on Likert's 5-point scale (LS) and 11 bipolar adjectives on Osgood's 7-point Semantic Differential Scale (OSDS). The questionnaire was administered to 50 medical undergraduates before their final examination. Forty-two (84%) students responded to the questionnaire. The LS showed high internal consistency and validity. Attitude scoring on LS and OSDS revealed a high degree of correlation. The majority of students showed a positive attitude to OSPE, and high-rank students had a greater intensity of positive attitude. OSPE was rated as a reliable, effective, useful, interesting and challenging examination, although considered taxing, mentally and physically. The students preferred a combination of OSPE and CPE as in the present system to a complete change-over to the OSPE. The item analysis of the questionnaire is discussed. PMID:3357446

Malik, S L; Manchanda, S K; Deepak, K K; Sunderam, K R

1988-01-01

442

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

443

Knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians  

PubMed Central

Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930

2014-01-01

444

Sensitivity to social information, social referencing, and safety attitudes in a hazardous occupation.  

PubMed

Social referencing, or seeking information cues from others, occurs when a worker must make sense of those aspects of work, like safety hazards, that are ambiguous. This is a central argument of Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT), a social referencing and job characteristics theory of work attitudes. Adapting SIPT to the understanding of safety perceptions and attitudes, this paper hypothesizes relationships between the worker's sensitivity to social information, the worker's social safety cognitions, and the worker's own safety attitudes. Findings from a field study of workers in a hazardous occupation, emergency care/firefighting, confirmed SIPT-predicted relationships among these factors: the worker's belief in management's willingness to provide a safe work environment, the degree of risk the worker associates with his or her job, the worker's concern about the frequency of exposure to hazards, and the worker's personal experiences with hazards. These findings also suggest that a social referencing and job characteristics perspective like SIPT provides a logical and useful theoretical framework for understanding workers' interpretations of safety conditions. This perspective also helps relate theories of safety attitudes to a broad set of theories of social information and organizational behavior. PMID:24933593

McLain, David L

2014-10-01

445

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

2005-01-01

446

Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students toward Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome According to Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing students (n=236) completed the AIDS Knowledge Scale and AIDS Attitude Scale. Results showed most stigma attached to AIDS acquired through drug use or sexual contact, the least through maternal transmission or blood transfusion. Demographic characteristics did not influence attitudes. (SK)

West, Andrea M.; And Others

1996-01-01

447

The Examination of Elementary School Students' Environmental Knowledge and Environmental Attitudes with Respect to the Different Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine seventh and eighth grade students' environmental knowledge and their attitudes toward environment in terms of different variables in 2005-2006 academic years in Amasya. Survey method was used in this study. The environmental knowledge test and the attitude scale were developed by benefiting from Leeming et al. (1995). The results showed that there

Oktay ASLAN; Arzu CANSARAN

448

Adherence to Asian and European American Cultural Values and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Asian American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Possible relations among enculturation and acculturation to cultural values and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were examined among 146 Asian American college students. In addition, possible relations between various dimensions of Asian values and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were examined. As…

Kim, Bryan S. K.

2007-01-01

449

The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

2012-01-01

450

Does the thought of death contribute to the memory benefit of encoding with a survival scenario?  

PubMed

Four studies tested whether the thought of death contributes to the survival processing advantage found in memory tests (i.e., the survival effect). In the first study, we replicated the "Dying To Remember" (DTR) effect identified by Burns and colleagues whereby activation of death thoughts led to better retention than an aversive control situation. In Study 2, we compared an ancestral survival scenario, a modern survival scenario and a "life-after-death" scenario. The modern survival scenario and the dying scenario led to higher levels of recall than the ancestral scenario. In Study 3, we used a more salient death-thought scenario in which people imagine themselves on death row. Results showed that the "death-row" scenario yielded a level of recall similar to that of the ancestral survival condition. We also collected ratings of death-related thoughts (Studies 3 and 4) and of survival-related and planning thoughts (Study 4). The ratings indicated that death-related thoughts were induced more by the dying scenarios than by the survival scenarios, whereas the reverse was observed for both survival-related and planning thoughts. The findings are discussed in the light of two contrasting views of the influence of mortality salience in the survival effect. PMID:24502242

Bugaiska, Aurélia; Mermillod, Martial; Bonin, Patrick

2015-03-01

451

An Easy A or a Question of Belief: Pupil Attitudes to Catholic Religious Education in Croatia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the results of a mixed model research that, as the first of its kind, aimed to determine the nature of, and underlying factors influencing, Croatian elementary pupils' attitudes towards confessional Catholic religious education (RE). Analyses of the questionnaire responses of the eighth-grade pupils from the stratified…

Jokic, Boris; Hargreaves, Linda

2015-01-01

452

Effects of Group and Situational Factors on Pre-Adolescent Children's Attitudes to School Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect on pre-adolescent children's attitudes to bullying of one group-based variable (group status) and two situational variables (rule legitimacy and rule consistency). Pre-adolescent boys (n = 229) read a story about a group of boys who had high or low (handball) status. The legitimacy (high versus low) of the rules…

Nesdale, Drew; Scarlett, Michael

2004-01-01

453

Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A study focusing on genetically modified (GM) foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from 31 different provinces. The study not only revealed important results about the perceptions of

Ali Demirci

2008-01-01

454

Using children's literature to enhance views of nature of science and scientific attitude in fourth graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was an effort to study the effect of integrating children's trade books into the fourth grade science curriculum on the students' views of the nature of science and their scientific attitude. The effect on the students' reading and language achievement, and science content knowledge was also analyzed. This was done by comparing the nature of science views and

Kathryn Walker Hampton

2007-01-01

455

Parental Attitudes to Open and Traditional Education. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major focus of interest in the present research is the question of congruence between parental and school attitudes toward issues of authority and freedom. It was hypothesized that the child's adjustment to his/her particular type of classroom (either open or traditional) would be affected by whether he/she came from a family which shared…

Waterhouse, Marie

456

A Comparison of Attitudes to the Police Between Greek Cypriots and Ethnic Minorities Living in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of 66 ethnic minorities and 152 Cypriots toward the police were examined according to age, experience of criminal victimization, and race. Questions were based on the British Crime Survey (BCS) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and were translated into Greek. Results showed low levels of experience of possession crime and crime against the person in Cypriots

Alexia Zalaf; Jane Wood

2009-01-01

457

Willingness to Pay for Genetic Testing: A Study of Attitudes in a Canadian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This article reports results of a 2008 telephone survey of approximately 1,200 residents of the Province of Alberta, Canada. The majority of respondents reside in urban centers, have some post-secondary education, and report annual family income near or above the Canadian average. The goal was to explore attitudes and interest regarding different types of genetic tests. Methods: Respondents were

N. M. Ries; R. Hyde-Lay; T. Caulfield

2010-01-01

458

A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

2005-01-01

459

Relationships of Homework Motivation and Preferences to Homework Achievement and Attitudes in Turkish Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether students' motivation, organizational approaches, physical needs, and environmental and interpersonal preferences during the homework process predict homework achievement and attitudes toward homework was examined in 1,776 Turkish students in Grades 5 through 8. The Homework Motivation and Preference Questionnaire was utilized to assess…

Iflazoglu, Ayten; Hong, Eunsook

2012-01-01

460

Development of an instrument to assess views on nature of science and attitudes toward teaching science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and field test of an instrument, the Views on Science and Education Questionnaire, designed to measure participants' concepts of the nature of science (NOS) and relevant teaching attitudes. The questionnaire includes 15 questions, each followed by several items representing different philosophical positions. Participants rank each item on a five-point scale. The items were empirically based

Sufen Chen

2006-01-01

461

Increasing Student Interest and Attitudes in STEM: Professional Development and Activities to Engage and Inspire Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The iQUEST (investigations for Quality Understanding and Engagement for Students and Teachers) project is designed to promote student interest and attitudes toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The project targets seventh- and eighth-grade science classrooms that serve high percentages of Hispanic students.…

Hayden, Katherine; Ouyang, Youwen; Scinski, Lidia; Olszewski, Brandon; Bielefeldt, Talbot

2011-01-01

462

Linear Time-Varying Approach to Satellite Attitude Control Using Only Electromagnetic Actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently small satellite missions have gained considerableinterest due to low-cost launch opportunities andtechnological improvement of micro-electronics. Requiredpointing accuracy of small, inexpensive satellitesis often relatively loose, within a couple of degrees.Application of cheap, lightweight, and powerefficient actuators is therefore crucial and viable. Thispaper discusses linear attitude control strategies for alow earth orbit satellite actuated by a set of mutually...

Rafal Wisniewski

2000-01-01

463

Relationships between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes toward Relationships among African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…

Bryant, Yaphet

2008-01-01

464

Entitled or Excluded? Attitudes toward Access to Postsecondary Education for Undocumented Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the determinants of attitudes towards undocumented immigrant students' access to higher education, an area that has received little attention in the literature on immigration and public opinion. Theories of symbolic politics and labor market competition frame our research question. Using data from the 1994 General Social…

Palmer, Courtney; Davidson, Theresa

2011-01-01

465

Public Attitudes to and Awareness of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed public attitude toward, and awareness of possible problems and risks associated with, the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Results indicated a high awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific effects to the offspring, and of quantities and frequency of consumption of alcohol which would have teratogenic effects were…

Oei, Tian P. S.; And Others

1986-01-01

466

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

2009-01-01

467

ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION The Temporal Pattern to the Experience of Regret  

E-print Network

ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION The Temporal Pattern to the Experience of Regret Thomas Gilovich cause more pain in the short-term, but inactions are regretted more in the long run. Support and Tversky (1982a): Thomas Gilovich and Victoria Husted Medvec, Department of Psy- chology, Cornell

468

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

469

Enduring Love? Attitudes to Family and Inheritance Law in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the findings from a large-scale study of public attitudes to inheritance law, particularly the rules on intestacy. It argues that far from the assumption that the family' is in terminal decline, people in England and Wales still view their most important relationships, at least for the purposes of inheritance law, as centred on a narrow, nuclear

Gillian Douglas; Hilary Woodward; Alun Humphrey; Lisa Mills; Gareth Morrell

2011-01-01

470

A Factor Analytic Approach to Studying Changes in Student Attitudes Toward Other Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study to explore the impact of experimental social studies materials on student attitudes toward other nations. The experimental materials were developed as part of the Global Studies Project sponsored by the Social Studies Development Center at Indiana University. Designed for the junior high level, the materials focused on…

Smith, Victor A.

471

Informed Consent and Users' Attitudes to Logging in Large Scale Trials  

E-print Network

Informed Consent and Users' Attitudes to Logging in Large Scale Trials Abstract The HCI community informed consent from potential participants before logging data on their use of the software. We note of informed consent from trial participants. Accepted ethical practice in a more standard trial dictates

Chalmers, Matthew

472

Stigmatizing Attitudes About Mental Illness and Allocation of Resources to Mental Health Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests a social psychological model (Skitka & Tetlock, 1992). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 491–522; [1993]. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 1205–1223 stating that policy maker decisions regarding the allocation of resources to mental health services are influenced by their attitudes towards people with mental illness and treatment efficacy. Fifty four individuals participated in a

Patrick W. Corrigan; Amy C. Watson; Amy C. Warpinski; Gabriela Gracia

2004-01-01

473

Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…

Willoughby, Brian J.

2014-01-01

474

Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior across the Transition to Parenthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work.…

Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Priess, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet S.

2010-01-01

475

A Partnership Approach to Improving Student Attitudes about Sharks and Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the methods and impact of a student-teacher-scientist research partnership on student attitudes. The partnership objective was to teach students about the diverse roles of sharks in the marine environment while personally connecting students with scientific study. Students (N = 229) participated in lessons about shark…

Duncan Seraphin, Kanesa

2010-01-01

476

Fuel cells for a sustainable future II: stakeholder attitudes to the barriers  

E-print Network

Fuel cells for a sustainable future II: stakeholder attitudes to the barriers and opportunities for stationary fuel cell technologies in the UK Michael Peters and Jane Powell November 2004 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 64 #12;1 Fuel cells for a sustainable future II Stakeholder

Watson, Andrew

477

The Experiences of Parents Readjusting to the Workplace Following the Death of a Child by Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide among young people has become a growing concern in life in the 21st century and is a tragedy faced by an increasing number of families and in particular parents. This study set out to focus on the experiences of parents reentering the workplace following the death of a child by suicide. Although the immediate aftermath of experiencing traumatic death

Joan Gibson; Mary Gallagher; Mary Jenkins

2010-01-01

478

Franklin County, Ohio Deceased Child Review System. Working To Eliminate Preventable Child Deaths. 1992 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1988, Franklin County (Ohio) Children Services (FCCS) initiated the development of a bi-level, community-based, multi-disciplinary process to review all deaths of children in its open caseload, as well as child deaths in families with which FCCS had contact in the previous 12 months. This report examines the work of the Deceased Child Review…

Schirner, Pamela; Griggs, Harry

479

On Death, Taxes, and the Convergence of Peer-to-Peer and Grid Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported [25] that life holds but two certainties, death and taxes. And indeed, it does appear that any society, and in the context of this article, any large-scale distributed system, must address both death (failure) and the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure (which we assert is a major motivation for taxes, so as to justify our title!).

Ian T. Foster; Adriana Iamnitchi

2003-01-01

480

Use of free amino acid composition of shell to estimate age since death of recent molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of death assemblage formation requires a measurement of time since death of constituent individuals. A new dating technique based on the measurement of the free amino acid content of mollusc shells has been developed which is inexpensive, rapid, and effective in dating time scales of a few decades to a few centuries. Since the breakdown of proteins of

A. M. Logan; E. N. Powell; R. J. Jr. Stanton

1985-01-01

481

Death and Dying: Staying in Control to the End of Our Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "gray paper" addresses the concerns of older women regarding their control over death and dying. It is based on the observation that older women are devalued by society on account of both their age and gender, and hence are likely to be impoverished and vulnerable as they approach death. The paper begins by examining the legal, ethical, and…

Sommers, Tish; And Others

482

Contribution of alcohol to deaths in road traffic accidents in Tayside 1982-6  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Britain the precise number and relative proportions of deaths among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians in road traffic accidents related to alcohol are not known. These data were obtained in Tayside by cross matching police accident records with blood alcohol concentrations at necropsy. Of 71 alcohol-related deaths 30 were the drivers (or motorcyclists) themselves, nine were their passengers, 23 were

Graham R Foster; James A Dunbar; David Whittet; Gyan C A Fernando

1988-01-01

483

Explaining Attitudes and Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication: The Development of a Process Model  

PubMed Central

Although nonadherence to antipsychotic medication poses a threat to outcome of medical treatment, the processes preceding the intake behavior have not been investigated sufficiently. This study tests a process model of medication adherence derived from the Health Belief Model which is based on cost-benefit considerations. The model includes an extensive set of potential predictors for medication attitudes and uses these attitudes as a predictor for medication adherence. We conducted an online study of 84 participants with a self-reported psychotic disorder and performed a path analysis. More insight into the need for treatment, a higher attribution of the symptoms to a mental disorder, experience of less negative side effects, presence of biological causal beliefs, and less endorsement of psychological causal beliefs were significant predictors of more positive attitudes towards medication. The results largely supported the postulated process model. Mental health professionals should consider attitudes towards medication and the identified predictors when they address adherence problems with the patient in a shared and informed decision process. PMID:24693426

Rief, Winfried; Lincoln, Tania M.

2014-01-01

484

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Uterotonic Drugs during Childbirth in Karnataka, India: A Qualitative Research Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities–for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers’ and community members’ current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India’s Karnataka state. Methods 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Results Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. Conclusions These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and other interventions to address identified gaps in knowledge and ensure that providers and pharmacists have up-to-date information regarding proper usage of uterotonic drugs. PMID:23638148

Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana

2013-01-01

485

School- and community-based associations to hypermasculine attitudes in African American adolescent males.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school. PMID:23889016

Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M

2013-01-01

486

Use of hair testing to determine methadone exposure in pediatric deaths.  

PubMed

A case of death attributed to methadone acute poisoning in an infant aged 11 months is reported. A sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was suspected, whereas a traumatic cause of death was excluded regarding autopsy findings. Specimens were submitted to a large toxicological analysis, which included ethanol measurement by HS-GC-FID, a targeted screening for drugs of abuse and various prescription drug classes followed by quantification using UPLC-MS/MS methods. Methadone and its metabolite (EDDP) were detected in all the tested fluids, as well as in hair, with a blood concentration of methadone considered as lethal for children (73 ng/mL). The cause of death was determined to be acute "methadone poisoning", and the manner of death was "accidental". A discussion of the case circumstances, the difficulties with the interpretation of toxicological findings in children (blood concentration and hair testing), and the origin of exposure are discussed. PMID:24588273

Tournel, Gilles; Pollard, Jocelyn; Humbert, Luc; Wiart, Jean-François; Hédouin, Valéry; Allorge, Delphine

2014-09-01

487

Robust Adaptive Geometric Tracking Controls on SO(3) with an Application to the Attitude Dynamics of a Quadrotor UAV  

E-print Network

This paper provides new results for a robust adaptive tracking control of the attitude dynamics of a rigid body. Both of the attitude dynamics and the proposed control system are globally expressed on the special orthogonal group, to avoid complexities and ambiguities associated with other attitude representations such as Euler angles or quaternions. By designing an adaptive law for the inertia matrix of a rigid body, the proposed control system can asymptotically follow an attitude command without the knowledge of the inertia matrix, and it is extended to guarantee boundedness of tracking errors in the presence of unstructured disturbances. These are illustrated by numerical examples and experiments for the attitude dynamics of a quadrotor UAV.

Lee, Taeyoung

2011-01-01

488

Attitudes about high school physics in relationship to gender and ethnicity: A mixed method analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an achievement gap and lack of participation in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) by minority females. The number of minority females majoring in STEM related fields and earning advanced degrees in these fields has not significantly increased over the past 40 years. Previous research has evaluated the relationship between self-identity concept and factors that promote the academic achievement as well the motivation of students to study different subject areas. This study examined the interaction between gender and ethnicity in terms of physics attitudes in the context of real world connections, personal interest, sense making/effort, problem solving confidence, and problem solving sophistication. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was given to 131 students enrolled in physics classes. There was a statistically significant Gender*Ethnicity interaction for attitude in the context of Real World Connections, Personal Interest, Sense Making/Effort, Problem Solving Confidence, and Problem Solving Sophistication as a whole. There was also a statistically significant Gender*Ethnicity interaction for attitude in the context of Real World Connections, Personal Interest, and Sense Making/Effort individually. Five Black females were interviewed to triangulate the quantitative results and to describe the experiences of minority females taking physics classes. There were four themes that emerged from the interviews and supported the findings from the quantitative results. The data supported previous research done on attitudes about STEM. The results reported that Real World Connections and Personal Interest could be possible factors that explain the lack of participation and achievement gaps that exists among minority females.

Hafza, Rabieh Jamal

489

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

PubMed

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

2005-04-01

490

Identification of soft tissue sarcoma deaths in cohorts exposed to dioxin and to chlorinated naphthalenes.  

PubMed

Identification of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) in epidemiologic mortality studies is complicated by nosologic coding rules that require that STSs arising in a visceral organ must be coded in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) category for that organ, rather than in the ICD category for malignant neoplasms of connective tissue. Moreover, prior studies have shown poor agreement between diagnoses recorded on death certificates compared with those in hospital records for these tumors. We reviewed deaths from STS among workers in a registry of 6,716 dioxin-exposed workers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and in a NIOSH cohort mortality study of 10,240 workers exposed to chlorinated naphthalenes. We identified 19 subjects with STSs. Of these, 17 (89%) were identifiable by reading the entries on selected death certificates, and two (11%) were found only by reviewing medical records of cases coded to ICD categories likely to have contained STS. Of the 17 STSs identified from death certificates, only nine (53%) had been coded as underlying cause of death to the ICD category "malignant neoplasms of soft and connective tissue." Medical records were obtained for 14 of the 17 cases (82%), and in each case, the STS diagnosis was verified. Tissue blocks from tumors were available for review in nine of the 17 cases identified from death certificates, and the diagnosis of STS was verified in seven (78%). Nosologic rules reduce the sensitivity of cohort mortality studies to detect excesses of STS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8420575

Suruda, A J; Ward, E M; Fingerhut, M A

1993-01-01

491

Influence of attitudes on pharmacists' intention to report serious adverse drug events to the Food and Drug Administration  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the influence of pharmacists' attitudes on intention to report serious adverse drug events (ADEs) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). METHODS This cross-sectional study used a mail survey to collect data from hospital and community pharmacists practicing in Texas, United States. Three and 16 items were used to measure intention and attitudes, respectively, using a seven-point bipolar scale. Pharmacists' demographic and practice characteristics, and past reporting were also measured. RESULTS The response rate was 26.4% (n = 377/1500 pharmacists). Most pharmacists intended (n = 297, 78.8%) to report serious ADEs that they will encounter to the FDA through MedWatch. Overall, pharmacists held favourable attitudes towards reporting serious ADEs (mean = 24.5, SD = 6.7, possible range 1–49, neutral = 16). Pharmacists intending to report serious ADEs had more favourable attitudes than those who did not (P < 0.001). About 90% of the pharmacists believed that reporting serious ADEs would improve patient safety. However, 72.6% indicated that reporting serious ADEs was time consuming and over half (55.5%) of the respondents believed that reporting serious ADEs disrupted the normal workflow. Non-intenders held stronger beliefs that ADE reporting would disrupt the normal workflow and was time consuming compared with intenders. Years of experience, number of hours worked and practice setting were associated with pharmacists' attitudes towards reporting (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Most pharmacists held moderately favourable attitudes and high intentions toward reporting serious ADEs to the FDA. This study's findings contribute to an increased understanding of individual factors that influence pharmacists' attitude and intention towards reporting serious ADEs to the FDA. PMID:21332572

Gavaza, Paul; Brown, Carolyn M; Lawson, Kenneth A; Rascati, Karen L; Wilson, James P; Steinhardt, Mary

2011-01-01

492

A comparison of two surveillance systems for deaths related to violent injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare violent injury death reporting by the statewide Medical Examiner and Vital Statistics Office surveillance systems in Oklahoma. Methods: Using a standard study definition for violent injury death, the sensitivity and predictive value positive (PVP) of the Medical Examiner and Vital Statistics violent injury death reporting systems in Oklahoma in 2001 were evaluated. Results: Altogether 776 violent injury deaths were identified (violent injury death rate: 22.4 per 100 000 population) including 519 (66.9%) suicides, 248 (32.0%) homicides, and nine (1.2%) unintentional firearm deaths. The Medical Examiner system over-reported homicides and the Vital Statistics system under-reported homicides and suicides and over-reported unintentional firearm injury deaths. When compared with the standard, the Medical Examiner and Vital Statistics systems had sensitivities of 99.2% and 90.7% (respectively) and PVPs of 95.0% and 99.1% for homicide, sensitivities of 99.2% and 93.1% and PVPs of 100% and 99.0% for suicide, and sensitivities of 100% and 100% and PVPs of 100% and 31.0% for unintentional firearm deaths. Conclusions: Both the Vital Statistics and Medical Examiner systems contain valuable data and when combined can work synergistically to provide violent injury death information while also serving as quality control checks for each other. Preventable errors within both systems can be reduced by increasing training, addressing sources of human error, and expanding computer quality assurance programming. A standardized nationwide Medical Examiners' coding system and a national violent death reporting system that merges multiple public health and criminal justice datasets would enhance violent injury surveillance and prevention efforts. PMID:15691992

Comstock, R; Mallonee, S; Jordan, F

2005-01-01

493

Identifying and quantifying misclassified and under-reported AIDS deaths in Brazil: a retrospective analysis from 1985 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background A retrospective analysis of deaths registered in the Brazilian Mortality System was conducted to quantify the under-reporting of HIV/AIDS deaths and those misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in the 15–49?years old population in Brazil. Methods Death rates for AIDS-related diseases were calculated by age and sex for 1985–2009. Changes in the age-sex-specific death rates over time were used to identify conditions likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths and to quantify the corresponding number of misclassified deaths. Deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed across all other natural causes of death. The resulting total number of AIDS deaths was further adjusted for incompleteness of the mortality reporting system. Results Out of the 28 potential causes of death investigated, five increased in the same distinct age pattern as AIDS: pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, other immunodeficiencies, other septicaemia and toxoplasmosis. 18 490 deaths due to these five causes were recoded to HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009. 38 145 deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed to AIDS and 15?485 were added to the number of AIDS deaths to correct for completeness of the mortality system in Brazil. Altogether, 72?120 deaths were recoded to AIDS between 1985 and 2009 and added to the reported 194?445 AIDS related deaths in the country, representing 27% misclassification of AIDS deaths in Brazil. Conclusions This study demonstrated that AIDS mortality is underestimated by the official mortality information system in Brazil. Efforts need to be made to reduce misclassification of causes of death in the future and identify ways in which the confidentiality of information regarding cause of death can be maintained. PMID:23172349

Fazito, Erika; Cuchi, Paloma; Ma Fat, Doris; Ghys, Peter Denis; Pereira, Mauricio G; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati

2012-01-01

494

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation  

E-print Network

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation Dipl. -Ing. Karsten-forward and practical introduction to quaternion operation and calculation for rigid-body attitude representation other attitude representation parameters are summarized. The quaternion computation rules are supported

Berlin,Technische Universität

495

Autophagy deficiency leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, ER stress, and cell death in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a homeostatic degradation and recycling process that is also involved in defense against microbial pathogens and in certain forms of cellular suicide. Autophagy has been proposed to negatively regulate plant immunity-associated cell death related to the hypersensitive response (HR), as older autophagy-deficient mutants are unable to contain this type of cell death 5 to 10 d after infection. Such spreading cell death was found to require NPR1 (nonexpressor of PR genes 1), but surprisingly did not occur in younger atg mutants. In contrast, we find that npr1 mutants are not impaired in rapid programmed cell death activation upon pathogen recognition. Furthermore, our molecular evidence suggests that the NPR1-dependent spreading cell death in older atg mutants may originate from an inability to cope with excessive accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and ER stress which derive from salicylic acid (SA)-dependent signaling (e.g., systemic acquired resistance). We also demonstrate that both senescence and immunity-related cell death seen in older atg mutants can be recapitulated in younger atg mutants primed with ER stress. We therefore propose that the reduction in SA signaling caused by npr1 loss-of-function is sufficient to alleviate the stress levels accumulated during aging in autophagy deficient cells which would otherwise become insurmountable and lead to uncontrolled cell death. PMID:25046116

Munch, David; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Bressendorff, Simon; Park, Ohkmae K; Hofius, Daniel; Petersen, Morten

2014-09-01

496

Fetal Deaths and Proximity to Hazardous Waste Sites in Washington State  

PubMed Central

Background The in utero period is one of increased susceptibility to environmental effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants on various adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal death, are not well understood. Objective We examined the risk of fetal death in relation to maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study using Washington State vital records for 1987–2001. Cases were women with fetal deaths at ? 20 weeks (n = 7,054). Ten controls per case were randomly selected from live births. Locations of 939 hazardous waste sites were identified from the Department of Ecology registry. We measured distance from maternal residence at delivery to the nearest hazardous waste site, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The risk of fetal death for women residing ? 0.5 miles, relative to > 5 miles, from a hazardous waste site was not increased (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.90–1.25). No associations were observed for any proximity categories ? 5 miles from sites with contaminated air, soil, water, solvents, or metals; however, fetal death risk increased among women residing ? 1 mile from pesticide-containing sites (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13–1.46). Conclusion These results do not suggest that fetal death is associated with residential proximity to hazardous waste sites overall; however, close proximity to pesticide-containing sites may increase the risk of fetal death. PMID:17520067

Mueller, Beth A.; Kuehn, Carrie M.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Tomashek, Kay M.

2007-01-01

497

Cell death and DNA damage in peritoneal macrophages of mice (Mus musculus) exposed to inorganic lead.  

PubMed

Lead is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern and there is growing evidence that it is toxic to the human immune system. In this regard, this study examined the effect of lead (Pb) exposure to peritoneal macrophages (Mvarphis) of mice (Mus musculus) cultivated in DMEM medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, in order to investigate cell damage related to cell death. Cells were exposed to two concentrations of inorganic lead [Pb(II)] for 4, 24 and 72h. Cell viability declined during the treatment, with responses including cell death, cellular damage and DNA damage. Cell death images were found in treated cells with an increase in Bax expression, but the inorganic lead failed to induce the loss of membrane asymmetry (Annexin V conjugates), suggesting that cell death was mainly due to necrosis induction. The effects of Pb(II) on the mechanisms of cell death is not completely understood, but the immunosuppression due to DNA damage and Mvarphis death is discussed here. We have previously shown the effect of inorganic lead in mitochondria and phagocytosis in Mvarphis, suggesting here a pathway for the effect of the metal on mechanisms of cell death, also discussing its effects on the immune system. PMID:16757190

Gargioni, R; Filipak Neto, F; Buchi, D F; Randi, M A F; Franco, C R C; Paludo, K S; Pelletier, E; Ferraro, M V M; Cestari, M M; Bussolaro, D; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

2006-07-01

498

From Agents to Objects: Sexist Attitudes and Neural Responses to Sexualized Targets  

PubMed Central

Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers’ sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs (“handle”) and clothed women with third-person action verbs (“handles”) than the inverse, as compared to their less sexist peers. In study 2, hostile sexism correlated negatively with activation of regions associated with mental state attribution—mPFC, posterior cingulate, temporal poles—but only when viewing sexualized women. Heterosexual men best recognized images of sexualized female bodies (but not faces), as compared with other targets’ bodies; however, neither face nor body recognition were related to hostile sexism, suggesting the fMRI findings are not explained by more or less attention to sexualized female targets. Diminished mental-state attribution is not unique to targets that people prefer to avoid, as in dehumanization of stigmatized people. The current studies demonstrate that appetitive social targets may elicit a similar response depending on perceivers’ attitudes toward them. PMID:20350187

Cikara, Mina; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Fiske, Susan T.

2013-01-01

499

The Development and Psychometric Validation of the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Develop and validate the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (DA-IAT). Participants: Two hundred twenty-three rehabilitation counseling students. Outcome Measures: DA-IAT, Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale, Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Collett–Lester Fear of Death Scale, Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice Toward People With Disabilities Scales, Contact With Disabled Persons Scale, and demographics. Results: DA-IAT congruent associations (disability

Steven R. Pruett; Fong Chan

2006-01-01

500

Contribution of Individual Diseases to Death in Older Adults with Multiple Diseases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine empirically the diseases contributing most commonly and strongly to death in older adults, accounting for coexisting diseases. Design Longitudinal Setting United States Participants Twenty two thousand eight hundred ninety Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey participants, a national representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries, enrolled during 2002 – 2006. Measurements Chronic and acute diseases were ascertained from Medicare claims data. Diseases contributing to death during follow-up were identified empirically via regression models among all diseases with a frequency of ? 1% and hazard ratio for death of > 1. The additive contributions of these diseases, adjusting for co-existing diseases, were calculated using a longitudinal extension of average attributable fraction; 95% confidence intervals were estimated from bootstrapping. Results Fifteen diseases and acute events contributed significantly to death, together accounting for nearly 70% of death. Heart failure (20.0%), dementia (13.6%), chronic lower respiratory disease (12.4%), and pneumonia (5.3%) made the largest contributions to death. Cancers, including lung, colorectal, lymphoma, and head and neck, together contributed to 5.6% of death. The other disease and events included acute kidney injury, stroke, septicemia, liver disease, myocardial infarction, and unintentional injuries. Conclusion The extent of the contribution of some diseases such as dementia and respiratory disease to death in older adults may be underappreciated, while the contribution of other diseases may be overestimated, with methods that focus on determining a single underlying cause. Current conceptualization of a single underlying cause may not account adequately for the contribution to death of coexisting diseases experienced by older adults. PMID:22734792

Tinetti, Mary E.; McAvay, Gail J.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Gross, Cary P.; Lin, Haiqun; Allore, Heather G.

2012-01-01