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The study examines the relation of death experience todeathattitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard deathattitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…
Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley
It is 50 years since the death of the French Jesuit, Teilhard de Chardin, on Easter Sunday 1955. Besides commemorating the life of an extraordinary theologian, spiritual teacher, geologist and palaeontologist, this article focuses on Teilhard's attitudetodeath, a theme rarely emphasized or researched in the secondary literature. However, as I argue in company with his fellow Jesuit and
By means of living wills the attitude towards dying reaches a serious degree of ethical reflection which should have precise implications for later actions. This option can be distinguished from the trust in the normative logic of clinical and care institutions and from the illusionary wish to be delivered by a sudden death from the experience of dependency and loss of self-determination. PMID:19069744
Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)
Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter
To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…
Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)
Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to
William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw
Defense attorneys commonly suspect that the defendant's race plays a role in prosecutors' decisions to seek the death penalty, especially when the victim of the crime was white. When the defendant is convicted of the crime and sentenced todeath, it is equally common for such attorneys to question the racial attitudes of the jury. These suspicions are not merely
One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close todeath without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…
One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and the relationship of death concern to
ROBERT A. NEIMEYER; JOACHIM WITTKOWSKI; RICHARD P. MOSER
The purpose of this study was to measure various death-related attitudes of a group of adolescents and to determine if these attitudes remain sex-related. It was concluded that differences in attitudes toward death generally are still consistent with traditional sex roles. (Author)
The aim of our research is to examine the sociological, anthropological, and psychological aspects of attitudes towards death; review the different approaches as a complex system; present the altered death image and the changes of tendency; analyze and interpret the most significant anxiety generating factors according to gender, age, and occupation; validate the fear of death and attitudes towards death scales in the Hungarian population; review the possibilities of interventions designed to reduce anxiety generating fear of death. Our hypotheses of our quantitative research were the following: women are characterized by a marked fear of death and anxiety; young people are more afraid of death; health care workers have a higher level death anxiety in comparison to other professionals due to the fact that they are face the suddenness and inevitability of death on daily basis, and this itself is an anxiety generating factor. We validated, adapted and calibrated two psychometric scales measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. According to our findings, both the Neimeyer and Moore Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale proved valid and suitable for measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. The Hungarian version of the scales proved reliable. In accordance with our hypothesis, young people and women are characterized by higher level of fear of death and anxiety. Our hypothesis, namely that fear of death among health care workers higher as the normal population, was not confirmed. Yet, contrary to a segment of preceding measurements, lower level of fear and anxiety was found. PMID:19497841
Examined deathattitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…
The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected
Investigated attitudes toward death of 680 Senegalese boys and girls and their families. The main attitude of respondents and their parents, described as resigned and highly moralizing, was assumed to be the result of a four-century-old Islamization which supersedes the serener attitudes of the traditional society. (JAC)
Greater death acceptance and anxiety were observed among rural as compared to urban-dwelling participants. Responses by a life-threatened geriatric subsample revealed differences in death fears related to type of medical disorder. Previous findings of no difference in the death fears of heart and cancer patients were replicated. (Author)
One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and the relationship of death concern to aging, physical and mental health, religiosity, and terror management strategies. We conclude with several recommendations for improving the conceptual and practical yield of future work in this area. PMID:15129688
Neimeyer, Robert A; Wittkowski, Joachim; Moser, Richard P
In an Australian survey of community attitudes toward near-death experiences (NDEs), 173 respondents were asked to read a hypothetical description of an NDE and to select from a range of explanations that might approximate their own. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents believed the NDE was evidence of life after death, while less than 2 percent believed the NDE was a
Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…
A random digit dial survey examined the public's definitions of death and attitudes toward organ donation. The sample consisted of 1,358 individuals. 66.7% were urban and 33.3% rural dwellers. The sample included 23.0% African-American (AA) and 71.6% whit...
Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia todeath fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)
In this thesis, I discuss the notions of the denial and fear of death which are part of the North American attitude. As a contrast, I present Mayan attitudes and feelings towards death, dying, and grieving which tend to be accepting of death as a change, and therefore not as a thing to be afraid of. In this section I
Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)
One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and…
Neimeyer, Robert A.; Wittkowski, Joachim; Moser, Richard P.
In a survey of Chinese attitudes toward near-death experiences (NDEs), 197 respondents were read a hypothetical description of an NDE and asked to choose from a range of explanations and social reactions that might approximate their own. Fifty-eight percent of respondents believed that NDEs were probably hallucinations or dreams. Less than nine percent believed the NDE was evidence of life
A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…
In Japan, healthcare professionals are required by Article 21 of the Medical Practitioner's Law to report "unnatural deaths" to the police in cases of healthcare-associated patient death. The attitudes of medical personnel at the forefront of clinical medicine regarding reporting have not been described. We investigate the attitudes of physicians and risk managers (RMs) regarding reporting to the police under different circumstances. We sent standardized questionnaires to all hospitals in Japan that participate in the National General Residency Program. We asked physicians and RMs to indicate if they would report to the police or not under scenarios including cases where medical error is present, uncertain, or absent. We also asked if they would report when medical error had occurred and the cause-of-death was directly related, possibly related, or unrelated. We found most physicians believe they would report to the police if medical error clearly caused patient death. We found most RMs believe they would advise physicians to report given the same situation. Less but still a large number of participants favor reporting even when cause-of-death is not clearly related to medical care provided. This tendency persisted even when given a scenario where the hospital director opposed the decision to report. PMID:20817591
Opinion trends in this country indicate sharp divisions in public sentiment over a number of life-taking actions. While legal abortion and capital punishment clearly head a list, a number of other issues have gained national attention in recent years. The present paper explores the structure of belief systems giving rise to normative conflicts of this kind. Of particular interest is the notion of a "pro-life" or other generic life orientation (e.g., the alleged "right-to-die" orientation of those who favor "mercy killings" in the case of terminally ill patients) as a possible explanation for public attitudes toward specific issues such as suicide and euthanasia. The present analysis assesses the empirical claims associated with such a model. The results offer qualified support for the existence of generic value orientations as revealed by public attitudes toward legal abortion, suicide, euthanasia, and capital punishment. PMID:10260431
This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…
Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
This study examined changes in religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices in the lives of 50 near-death experiencers. I attempted to clarify whether these changes were to greater religiousness or to a deeper spirituality. I found that before the near-death experience (NDE), my respondents were no more religious or spiritually inclined than the general Australian population. Following the NDE there was
The present project investigated the relationship between death fear and threat, attitudes toward the elderly, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 145 nursing home employees and a matched comparison group of 130 individuals who worked in non-death related occupations. Contrary to predictions, nursing home personnel did not have higher levels of death threat when compared to controls; in fact, control group subjects had higher levels of death concern on two dimensions of death fear (fear of the dead and fear of significant others dying). However, the results also indicated that increasing levels of death concern were associated with greater anxiety toward aging, especially in the nursing home sample, and nursing personnel displayed significantly fewer positive attitudes toward the elderly than did controls. PMID:10122685
DePaola, S J; Neimeyer, R A; Lupfer, M B; Fiedler, J
I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death
The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal deathattitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…
Continues a study begun in 1973 on attitudes toward death, comparing Israeli and American adolescent offspring of Holocaust survivors in residential treatment program in Jerusalem, Israel. Biographical data, diagnostic classifications, a review of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and some dreams are presented. Israel is shown to be a therapeutic…
The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted. PMID:12749378
Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A
Reported is a summary of the responses of 363 college science and engineering students to a questionnaire designed to determine their attitude towards physics. The majority of students found physics moderately interesting.
Obstetricians and obstetrical residents (N=70) were polled on their attitudes regarding stillbirth and simultaneously were assessed for their level of death threat as measured by the Threat Index. No effect of death threat level on attitudes toward stillbirth was observed, even when extreme scores were isolated and compared. (Author/NRB)
Objectives To assess pharmacy students' attitudes toward death and end-of-life care. Methods Third-year pharmacy students enrolled in the Ethics in Christianity and Health Care course were administered a survey instrument prior to introduction of the topic of end-of-life care. Students' attitudes toward different professions' roles in end-of-life care and their comfort in discussing end-of-life issues were assessed. The survey instrument was readministered to the same students at the end of their fourth year. Results On most survey items, female students responded more favorably toward death and end-of-life care than male students. One exception was the perceived emotional ability to be in the room of a dying patient or loved one. Post-experiential survey responses were generally more favorable toward death and end-of-life care than were pre-discussion responses. Conclusions In general, when surveyed concerning death and end-of-life care, female students responded more favorably than male students, and responses at the end of the fourth year were more favorable than at the beginning of the course.
Objectives: After stillbirth or early infant death, parents often query when they can try for another pregnancy. We conducted a national survey of United States obstetricians to assess attitudes about optimal timing of next pregnancy and advice given to parents. Materials and Methods: The study was an anonymous mail survey of 1500 randomly-selected United States obstetricians asking about physician experiences with perinatal death. Results: 804/1500 obstetricians completed the survey for a 54% usable response rate. Two thirds of respondents endorsed a waiting time less than six months for parents bereaved by stillbirth who desired another pregnancy. Comment: Physicians in this national survey supported very short interpregnancy intervals for parents bereaved by perinatal death. Responses may reflect efforts to support parents emotionally while recognizing individuals vary in coping and clinical circumstances. However, this is a provocative finding since short intervals may confer greater fetal risks for poor outcome.
There is a considerable literature documenting the effects of a near-death experience (NDE) on persons who actually undergo the experience, in terms of their attitudes and opinions about NDEs. However, investigations of how much nonexperiencers know about NDEs and their attitudes towards them are in short supply. This study examined the relationship in people who have not had an NDE
Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…
Public support for the death penalty is something of an American tradition. Yet the bases of the American tradition of support for the death penalty are not well understood. An understanding of American attitudes toward capital punishment is important, not only because the United States is again executing criminal offenders, but because it provides a rough estimate of the level
Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudesto life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…
Eugenios Voulgaris (Corfu, Greece, 1716; St Petersburg, Russia, 1806) was an eminent theologian and scholar, and bishop of Kherson, Ukraine. He copiously wrote treatises in theology, philosophy and sciences, greatly influenced the development of modern Greek thought, and contributed to the perception of Western thought throughout the Eastern Christian world. In his Treatise on euthanasia (1804), Voulgaris tried to moderate the fear of death by exalting the power of faith and trust in the divine providence, and by presenting death as a universal necessity, a curative physician and a safe harbour. Voulgaris presented his views in the form of a consoling sermon, abundantly enriched with references to classical texts, the Bible and the Church Fathers, as well as to secular sources, including vital statistics from his contemporary England and France. Besides euthanasia, he introduced terms such as dysthanasia, etoimothanasia and prothanasia. The Treatise on euthanasia is one of the first books, if not the very first, devoted to euthanasia in modern European thought and a remarkable text for the study of the very early European attitudes towards "good death". In the Treatise, euthanasia is clearly meant as a spiritual preparation and reconciliation with dying rather than a physician-related mercy killing, as the term progressed to mean during the 19th and the 20th centuries. This early text is worthy of study not only for the historian of medical ethics or of religious ethics, but for everybody who is trying to courageously confront death, either in private or in professional settings. PMID:23674293
Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65–97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the DeathAttitude Profile–Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, ?.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.
Polls exploring attitudes toward the death penalty typically impose a simple, dichotomous response structure: respondents\\u000a are asked whether or not they support or oppose capital punishment. This polling strategy deprives respondents of expressing\\u000a an indication of the strength of their opinions. When asked whether they support (or oppose) the death penalty “strongly”\\u000a or “not strongly,” significant proportions of respondents select
JAMES D. UNNEVERtt; Francis T. Cullen; Julian V. Roberts
An in-depth survey of 144 English Canadian adults examined the motives behind, and other social psychological correlates of, attitudes toward capital punishment. The results suggested that for a substantial percentage of people the motive of retribution may be more important than deterence as a reason for favoring the death penalty. Other findings indicated that the more strongly people favored the
The final stage of cell division (mitosis), involves the compaction of the duplicated genome into chromatid pairs. Each pair is captured by microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles, aligned at the metaphase plate, and then faithfully segregated to form two identical daughter cells. Chromatids that are not correctly attached to the spindle are detected by the constitutively active spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Any stress that prevents correct bipolar spindle attachment, blocks the satisfaction of the SAC, and induces a prolonged mitotic arrest, providing the cell time to obtain attachment and complete segregation correctly. Unfortunately, during mitosis repairing damage is not generally possible due to the compaction of DNA into chromosomes, and subsequent suppression of gene transcription and translation. Therefore, in the presence of significant damage cell death is instigated to ensure that genomic stability is maintained. While most stresses lead to an arrest in mitosis, some promote premature mitotic exit, allowing cells to bypass mitotic cell death. This mini-review will focus on the effects and outcomes that common stresses have on mitosis, and how this impacts on the efficacy of mitotic chemotherapies.
Beginning counselors' levels of discomfort and ability to respond empathically to clients presenting with death-related issues was investigated. Fifty-eight masters-level counseling students completed the Threat Index and the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and viewed a series of 8 videotape vignettes depicting clients with death-related (e.g., grief, AIDS) and non-death-related problems (e.g., marital discord, physical handicap). As hypothesized, significantly higher levels of counselor discomfort were found in responding to client situations involving death and dying, especially when these involved serious illness in the client. In addition, personal fear of death predicted counselors' distress in death counseling. Contrary to expectations, counselors were actually slightly more empathic in responding to grief and loss than other conditions, although the overall level of empathy displayed was low in absolute terms. The least empathic responses were provided by counselors who construed death in fatalistic terms on the Threat Index, and who were "saturated" with death themes by the completion of deathattitude questionnaires prior to viewing the videos. The authors concluded that death and loss counseling presents unique challenges to beginning mental health providers, especially for those whose personal death anxieties leave them vulnerable to such work. PMID:10182421
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes and beliefs of nurses in Australia and the United States regarding aspects of passive euthanasia, or the "good death." Two foci guided the study: (a) the possible discrepancies that these nurses might perceive between what they thought would be done in a given clinical situation and what they thought ought to be done, and (b) the possible differences and similarities between the American and the Australian nurses. Responding to the 8 vignettes, 30 American and 32 Australian nurses took part in the study. The lack of agreement between the Australian and American nurses on issues of euthanasia reflects differences in the health care system; the general social position of nursing as a profession; the relationship among health professionals, patients and families, which serves as the context for definition of ethical duties and patient rights; and the role of the law in health care decisions. PMID:2925215
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be associated with the wish to hasten death (WTHD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and stability of WTHD and end-of-life attitudes in ALS patients, identify predictive factors, and explore communication about WTHD. We conducted a prospective questionnaire study among patients and their primary caregivers attending ALS clinics in Germany and Switzerland. We enrolled 66 patients and 62 caregivers. Half of the patients could imagine asking for assisted suicide or euthanasia; 14% expressed a current WTHD at the baseline survey. While 75% were in favour of non-invasive ventilation, only 55% and 27% were in favour of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and invasive ventilation, respectively. These attitudes were stable over 13 months. The WTHD was predicted by depression, anxiety, loneliness, perceiving to be a burden to others, and a low quality of life (all p < 0.05). Lower religiosity predicted whether patients could imagine assisted suicide or euthanasia. Two-thirds of patients had communicated their WTHD to relatives; no-one talked to the physician about it, yet half of them would like to do so. In conclusion, physicians should consider proactively asking for WTHD, and be sensitive towards neglected psychosocial problems and psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:24070371
The debate regarding the death qualification of juries usually concerns (a) whether death-qualified jurors have different attitudes and values to excludable jurors, or (b) whether death-qualified juries are more prone to convict. A pivotal question is whether excludable subjects in fact willever impose the death penalty. Subjects were presented with five grisly murder vignettes. Only 40% of excludable subjects refused
Today, young children are exposed todeath through various forms of media in their communities, schools, and home environments. With this inevitability of exposure, there is a need for death education in order to inform and support today's youth when facing the subject of death. Death is said to be one of the most emotional and complex…
Compares the reading attitudes of students with reading difficulties to teachers' impressions of their students' reading attitudes. Finds that teachers underestimate their students' positive attitude toward reading activities and that structured observation by teachers may increase teachers' knowledge of students' attitudes. (RS)
Two doctors on opposite sides of the globe eliminated crib death among their patient populations for 40 years using ascorbate supplementation. Unknown to each other they arrived at the same regimen. (2) Crib deaths nearly disappeared in Japan in 1975 when first inoculations were postponed until the 24th month of life. These findings and their explanation are explored. SID is
This article reports a study of initial teacher education students' attitudesto inclusion. The cohort investigated was the entire secondary Postgraduate Certificate of Education intake at a university that attracts many of its students from the local region. The study locates these findings among UK policy initiatives for inclusion, and makes…
The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale were examined in a sample of 415 Chinese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses of the present data disconfirmed the original 4-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to explore the underlying structure of the data set. A…
Only recently have mental health professionals realized the importance and impact of death and death anxiety in the lives of individuals, particularly clients. Indeed few empirical studies have examined the levels of death anxiety among clients, much less among counselors or counselors-in-training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether…
Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…
The concept of brain death was formulated in 1968 in the landmark report A Definition of Irreversible Coma. While brain death has been widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world, many of the controversies that surround it have not been settled. Some may be rooted in a misconstruction about the history of brain death. The concept evolved as a result of the convergence of several parallel developments in the second half of the 20th century including advances in resuscitation and critical care, research into the underlying physiology of consciousness, and growing concerns about technology, medical futility, and the ethics of end of life care. Organ transplantation also developed in parallel, and though it clearly benefited from a new definition of death, it was not a principal driving force in its creation. Since 1968, the concept of brain death has been extensively analyzed, debated, and reworked. Still there remains much misunderstanding and confusion, especially in the general public. In this comprehensive review, I will trace the evolution of the definition of brain death as death from 1968 to the present, providing background, history and context. PMID:24930367
Factors that affect students' attitudesto school science and to careers in science are many and varied, depending on the individual student. This study analyses the attitudes of students from age 11 to 16 (n=654) towards such careers and the effect of school science on those attitudes. It discusses the implications for teaching in the context of motivational factors, and highlights the need to allow students space to match their own motivational needs.
Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related todeath was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) todeath-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased todeath-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses todeath-related information.
The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and deathattitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…
This report is a summary of a survey of Tennessee chief prosecutors (district attorneys general), chief public defenders, and state legislators concerning their attitudes toward capital punishment. Global approval was compared with (1) approval when offered the options of life without parole and (2) life without parole and restitution to the victim's family. Additional items probed approval of capital punishment
We report on the results of a comprehensive statewide survey of death penalty attitudes in which respondents were categorized in terms of their death-qualified or excludable status under several different Supreme Court doctrines governing the death-qualification process. We found that although changes in public opinion with respect to the death penalty in general have altered the relative sizes of the
Focuses on the development and use of the attitude scale on a sample of Greek English language teachers whose classroom practices had been observed. The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using attitude scales to investigate teachers' attitudes towards the communicative approach. (46 references) (Author/CK)
Two studies explored the relationship between attitudes toward the death penalty and support for or rejection of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in a capital trial. Jurors serving on jury duty voluntarily completed questionnaires in the jury lounge. In Study 1, jurors strongly opposed to the death penalty were significantly more receptive to mitigating circumstances than were the remaining jurors. In
Many people in western society find it difficult to discuss their feelings, thoughts, and beliefs about death and dying. The exploration of Early Recollections (ER), part of an Adlerian approach which emphasizes knowledge of a person's private logic, offers one way of understanding attitudes toward death. This study was conducted in order to…
... and I will both live a long time.” Religion and death Religion is a prime source of strength and sustenance ... when they are dealing with death. But if religion has not played an important role in the ...
Two hypotheses about the relation between age and susceptibility toattitude change were tested. The impressionable years hypothesis proposes that individuals are highly susceptible toattitude change during late adolescence and early adulthood and that susceptibility drops precipitously immediately thereafter and remains low throughout the rest of the life cycle. The increasing persistence hypothesis proposes that people become gradually more
Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…
Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…
Background With current genetic technology, it is possible to detect mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a hereditary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. As a result, prospective parents diagnosed with LQTS will have to decide whether or not to prevent its transmission to future generations, either by not procreating or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies or prenatal testing. This paper explores how a hereditary predisposition to sudden cardiac death can influence reproductive decision making. Methods This study draws from interviews and focus groups with individuals who have personal or family histories of cardiac arrhythmia or sudden death. A keyword search was conducted on interview transcripts to identify quotes for analysis. Results Participants expressed complex, often ambivalent attitudes about the prospect of having a child with a predisposition to sudden cardiac death. Their comments reveal conflicting understandings of genetic responsibility and reflect the variable effects of personal experience on reproductive decision making. This paper compares attitudes towards LQTS and other genetic conditions in analyzing the themes that emerged in interviews and focus groups. Conclusions The “disability critique” of prenatal testing should be applied carefully to a context of genetic predisposition to sudden cardiac death in order to understand reproductive decision making. Firsthand experience with the condition, among other factors, can weigh heavily in those decisions.
A review of literature concerning the attitudes of young Germans toward technology focuses on feelings about both technology itself and technological change, the process of socialization toward technology, and interest in computers. It is concluded that the popular German notion of widespread hostility toward technology is not supported. (MSE)
This article provides an overview of the scarce international literature concerning nurses' attitudesto euthanasia. Studies show large differences with respect to the percentage of nurses who are (not) in favour of euthanasia. Characteristics such as age, religion and nursing specialty have a significant influence on a nurse's opinion. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life, respect for autonomy and dissatisfaction with the current situation. Arguments against euthanasia are the right to a good death, belief in the possibilities offered by palliative care, religious objections and the fear of abuse. Nurses mention the need for more palliative care training, their difficulties in taking a specific position, and their desire to express their ideas about euthanasia. There is a need to include nurses' voices in the end-of-life discourse because they offer a contextual understanding of euthanasia and requests to die, which is borne out of real experience with people facing death. PMID:15253571
Verpoort, Charlotte; Gastmans, Chris; De Bal, Nele; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette
Introduction. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths in children is used to monitor the severity of influenza at the population level and to inform influenza prevention and control policies. The goal of this study was to better estimate pediatric influenza mortality in New York state (NYS). Methods. Death certificate data were requested for all passively reported deaths and any pneumonia and influenza (P&I) coded pediatric deaths occurring between October 2004 and April 2010, excluding New York City (NYC) residents. A matching algorithm and capture-recapture analysis were used to estimate the total number of influenza-associated deaths among NYS children. Results. Thirty-four laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and 67 death certificates had a P&I coded death; 16 deaths matched. No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death had a pneumonia code and no pneumonia coded deaths had laboratory evidence of influenza infection in their medical record. The capture-recapture analysis estimated between 38 and 126 influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurred in NYS during the study period. Conclusion. Passive surveillance for influenza-associated deaths continues to be the gold standard methodology for characterizing influenza mortality in children. Review of death certificates can complement but not replace passive reporting, by providing better estimates and detecting any missed laboratory-confirmed deaths.
Objective To study the relationship of Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) neonatologists' personal fear of deathto their forgoing life?sustaining treatment and hastening death in newborns destined for severe disability and newborns for whom further treatment is considered non?beneficial or overly burdensome. Design A self?report questionnaire survey of ANZ neonatologists. Setting Neonatologists registered in the 2004 ANZ Directory of Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Participants 78 of 138 (56%) neonatologists who responded to the study questionnaire. Main outcome measures Between?group differences in the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale. Results In newborns for whom further treatment was deemed futile, 73 neonatologists reported their attitudeto hastening death as follows: 23 preferred to hasten death by withdrawing minimal treatment, 35 preferred to hasten death with analgesia?sedation, and 15 reported that hastening death was unacceptable. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the three groups regarding fear of the dying process (F?=?3.78, p?=?0.028), fear of premature death (F?=?3.28, p?=?0.044) and fear of being destroyed (F?=?3.20, p?=?0.047). Post hoc comparisons showed that neonatologists who reported that hastening death was unacceptable compared with neonatologists who preferred to hasten death with analgesia?sedation had significantly less fear of the dying process and fear of premature death, and significantly more fear of being destroyed. Conclusions ANZ neonatologists' personal fear of death and their attitudeto hastening death when further treatment is considered futile are significantly related. Neonatologists' fear of death may influence their end?of?life decisions.
This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.
Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudesto life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial dissection and again after 9 weeks of anatomical dissection. Analysis of student responses to the idea of whole body donation by an unrelated stranger, a family member, or by the respondent showed that a priori attitudesto donation by a stranger did not change with exposure to dissection. However, student opposition to donation by a family member was evident immediately after the initial dissection and was sustained throughout the duration of this study. Support for the idea of donating their bodies to medical science decreased significantly among respondents after exposure to dissection (31.5% before dissection, 19.6% after dissecting for 9 weeks) but not to levels reported in the general population in other studies. This study demonstrates that where dissection forms a part of anatomy teaching, students expect to learn anatomy by dissecting donors whom they do not know. As a potential donor population, students are reluctant to become emotionally involved in the donation process and are unwilling to become donors themselves. PMID:19177413
This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern
This paper suggests a new approach toattitude scale construction. Instead of asking respondents to express the extent or the degree of opinion on a particular issue, respondents should be asked about the factors that are relevant for the issue of interest and how much weight respondents are willing to attach to each relevant piece of evidence.…
Background Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. Methods We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones. One-on-one interviews were conducted according to a pre-designed interview guide. A combination of open-ended questions, as well as clinical scenarios was presented to participants in order to understand what is meaningful and valuable to them when determining treatment options and management approaches. The results were analyzed, coded, and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques in order to arrive at several common overarching themes. Results Seven major themes were identified. In general, respondents were united in viewing brain cancer as unique amongst malignancies, due in large part to the premium placed on mental competence and cognitive functioning. Importantly, participants found their experiences, however difficult, led to the discovery of inner strength and resilience. Responses were usually framed within an interpersonal context, and participants were generally grateful for the opportunity to speak about their experiences. Attitudes towards religion, spirituality, and euthanasia were also probed. Conclusion Several important themes underlie the experiences of brain cancer patients and their caregivers. It is important to consider these when managing these patients and to respect not only their autonomy but also the complex interpersonal toll that a malignant diagnosis can have.
Lipsman, Nir; Skanda, Abby; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Bernstein, Mark
Starting with the relevance of the Spanish experience, this study analyses the population's disposition towards organ donation after death by means of a representative survey of the adult Spanish population (N = 1206, estimated error ±2.87%, P < 0.05). Of the participants, 8.1% were declared donors, 59.3% were likely to donate, 14.5% were against donating and 18.1% did not know or did not respond; 87.3% would donate relative's organs if the deceased favoured donation, 50.2% if the deceased's wishes were unknown and 13.1% even if the deceased opposed donation. Among people who were favourable towards donation, the main motives expressed were the will to save other people's lives, solidarity and knowing they might someday need a donation. The most important motives for not donating among participants who were against it were the fear of premature organ extraction, of premature pronouncement of death and of mutilation. Reticence to donate is associated with low socio-economic and cultural level, advanced age and high religious commitment; it is also associated with a low perception of transplant efficacy, not directly knowing any transplanted people and the lack of qualified information. The results support diverse potentially effective strategies for promoting donation in the general population. PMID:20964724
Scandroglio, Barbara; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; López, Jorge S; Valentín, María O; Martín, María J; Coll, Elisabeth; Martínez, José M; Miranda, Blanca; San José, María C; Matesanz, Rafael
Researchers have typically overlooked the possibility that responses to job attitude items might be produced "on the spot" using information that is temporally accessible to participants. In the current study, the authors test this possibility by examining context effects that occur when questionnaire content influences responses to subsequent…
This article is based on the author's previous studies on people's reactions to organ donation, including both questionnaire surveys and qualitative interviews. A model was developed where six anti-donation factors and two pro-donation factors influence the attitude toward organ donation. This model can be applied also to other procedures with the dead body such as autopsy, anatomical dissection, and burial.
Popularly considered a great equalizer, death and the rituals around it nevertheless accentuate social distinctions. The present study focuses on a sample (N = 2554) of death announcements in a major Turkish daily newspaper (Hürriyet) from 1970 to 2006. Out of the liminal position of Turkish death announcements between obituaries and death notices emerges a large decentralized collection of private decisions responding todeath, reflecting attitudes toward gender, ethnic/religious minority status and cultural capital, and echoing the aggregate efforts of privileged groups to maintain a particular self-image. Class closures lead to openings for traditionally under-represented minorities, such as Jewish Turkish citizens and citizens of Greek or Armenian origin. Results reveal that signs of status and power in announcements are largely monopolized by men of Turkish-Muslim origins. Although the changes in the genre-characteristics of death announcements are slow, they correspond to major turning points in Turkish social history. PMID:20222236
This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. The paper relies on an extensive review of empirical literature published in English after 2009, as well as an analysis of unpublished market research data from member companies of Vaccines Europe. Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudesto vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. We define hesitancy as an expression of concern or doubt about the value or safety of vaccination. This means that hesitant attitudes are not confined only to those who refuse vaccination or those who encourage others to refuse vaccination. For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. We find that healthcare professionals report increasing challenges to building a trustful relationship with patients, through which they might otherwise allay concerns and reassure hesitant patients. We also find a range of reasons for vaccination attitudes, only some of which can be characterised as being related to lack of awareness or misinformation. Reasons that relate to issues of mistrust are cited more commonly in the literature than reasons that relate to information deficit. The importance of trust in the institutions involved with vaccination is discussed in terms of implications for researchers and policy-makers; we suggest that rebuilding this trust is a multi-stakeholder problem requiring a co-ordinated strategy. PMID:24788111
This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).
Even though the use of electricity is an integral part of our lives, the number of accidents and deaths related to electricity is on the decline. This is due to increased awareness of electrical hazards and, in large part, to increased inclusion of safety mechanisms by manufacturers. However rare, electrical injury and related death can present a complicated case in the emergency department and for death investigators. Sometimes the circumstances of the physical scene are unclear because of intentional or accidental alterations or the investigator's inability to reconstruct events leading to the injury. This may hinder the initial clinical assessment. We present cases of typical and atypical deaths from electrical injury and review clinical and investigative procedures to assist in the treatment of patients with electrical injuries. PMID:8790308
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
This study was conducted to scale the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) with Rasch analysis. The ATIES records positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with various disabilities into regular classes. Rasch analysis resolved the nonlinear relationship between the finite range of recorded ATIES scores and the conceptually infinite range of attitudes. Results showed that the 16-item scale defined
Attitudes held with strong moral conviction (moral mandates) were predicted to have different interpersonal consequences than strong but nonmoral attitudes. After controlling for indices of attitude strength, the authors explored the unique effect of moral conviction on the degree that people preferred greater social (Studies 1 and 2) and physical (Study 3) distance from attitudinally dissimilar others and the effects
Linda J. Skitka; Christopher W. Bauman; Edward G. Sargis
Anxiety caused by conscious and unconscious fears of death and dying is the focus of 26 essays by 37 authors. The attitudes among the aged, the attitudes among the general population toward aging, and the attitudes among the chronically or terminally ill ...
College students' attitudes about AIDS and people with AIDS (PWAs) were measured over a 15-year period. The AIDS Attitude Scale, designed by Shrum, Turner, and Bruce (1989; AIDS Education and Prevention, 1, 222-230), was administered to introductory psychology students (n = 1,571) at one midsized southeastern university, thus allowing direct comparison of attitudes over time. Overall tolerance about AIDS and PWAs has increased from 1986 to 2000 and robust gender differences in attitudes have been apparent over time, with females expressing more tolerant attitudes. Concerns about contagion from casual contact are diminishing as well and perceived knowledge about AIDS has increased over time. Perceptions about personal susceptibility to HIV remain low and show little relationship toattitudes about AIDS and PWAs. These data may be used to help refine HIV prevention programs for college students and provide an example of a useful approach to monitor changes in attitudes over time. PMID:11718442
Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits Â§ 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits Â§ 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)
In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes).
Starting with the observation that attitudes towards death cannot be divorced from attitudes towards life, the author proceeds with a critical and reflective look at American society's poor management of death, both in terms of the dying person and the bereaved. Denial is the mechanism used to protect ourselves from facing the fact of death, and…
The aim of this clinicopathological study was to determine the frequency of infant deaths due to unnatural causes among cases of sudden and unexpected infant death. Nine institutes of legal medicine in Germany that took part in the German study on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (GeSID), representing 35% of the German territory, investigated in a 3-year period (from 1998 to
T. Bajanowski; M. Vennemann; M. Bohnert; E. Rauch; B. Brinkmann; E. A. Mitchell
... figures may have substantially underreported deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease in 2010 show two recent studies supported in part by NIA. Underreporting of Alzheimer’s as a cause of death on death certificates ...
Prescription drug abuse is a growing public health problem. In particular, methadone-associated overdose deaths--those in which methadone may have caused or contributed to the death--have risen sharply. Before the late 1990s, methadone was used mainly to ...
The hearing today was called for the committee to have a chance to listen to experts in the area of constitutional law, and individuals who have been dealing with the question of the death penalty in California, to discuss the issues that were raised by t...
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of systolic and diastolic blood pressure to fatal myocardial infarction, fatal stroke and other death related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD).METHODS: The study was based on a prospective longitudinal study conducted by the Veterans Administration at the Boston Outpatient Clinic. Participants are male volunteers from the greater Boston area. Main outcome measures are fatal myocardial infarction,
Mei-Ling T. Lee; Bernard A. Rosner; Scott T. Weiss
This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…
The demand for transplantable organs and tissues is steadily increasing and action is necessary to improve the organ and tissue donation rates. Previous research has suggested that nurses have a substantial influence on the rates of donation in the clinical area. Nurses (N = 150) were asked to complete a number of measures to assess positive and negative attitudes towards
Background The number of devices with alarms has multiplied in recent years, causing alarm fatigue in bedside clinicians. Alarm fatigue is now recognized as a critical safety issue. Objective To determine if attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms have changed since 2005. Methods The Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee developed an online survey for hospital personnel that addressed attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms. They administered it in 2005-2006 and in 2011 and compared the results. Results Respondents were asked about their level of agreement with 19 statements about alarms. Many of the statements revealed no significant differences between the 2 survey years, although some differences were apparent. Respondents to the 2011 survey were significantly more likely to agree with statements about alarm sounds differentiating the priority of alarm and the helpfulness of central alarm management. Respondents in 2011 were significantly less likely to feel that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care. Respondents also ranked the importance of 9 different alarm issues. In both years, they ranked frequent false alarms as the most important. In response to a new question in the 2011 survey, 18% of respondents reported patients' experiencing adverse events related to alarms at their institutions. Conclusions Since 2005-2006 when the first survey was conducted, not much has changed. False alarms continue to contribute to a noisy hospital environment, and sentinel events related to alarm fatigue persist. Alarm hazards are a significant patient safety issue. PMID:24786820
Funk, Marjorie; Clark, J Tobey; Bauld, Thomas J; Ott, Jennifer C; Coss, Paul
We calculate the dissipative dynamics of two-qubit quantum discord under Markovian environments. We analyze various dissipative channels such as dephasing, depolarizing, and generalized amplitude damping, assuming independent perturbation, in which each qubit is coupled to its own channel. Choosing initial conditions that manifest the so-called sudden death of entanglement, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord.
T. Werlang; S. Souza; F. F. Fanchini; C. J. Villas Boas
This study was designed to examine the relationship between gambling behaviour (gambling frequency and problem gambling severity)\\u000a and financial management practices (cash management, risk management, and general management), financial management attitudes,\\u000a and money attitudes (materialism, achievement, budget, obsession, and anxiety) in a sample of 118 participants (45 males,\\u000a 73 females) recruited from a university. The findings revealed that gambling frequency
This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with OCD in an outpatient child anxiety clinic, we used exploratory factor analysis
Tara S. Peris; Nili Benazon; Audra Langley; Tami Roblek; John Piacentini
Death certificate data are often used to study the epidemiology of poisoning deaths, but the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used to tabulate death data do not convey all of the available information about the drugs and other substances named on death certificates. In the United States and some other countries, the SuperMICAR computer system is used to assign ICD codes todeaths. The SuperMICAR system also stores a verbatim record of the text entered for the cause of death. We used the SuperMICAR text entries to study the 7,817 poisoning deaths that occurred among Washington State residents between 2003 and 2010. We tabulated the drugs named on death certificates and computed age-adjusted and age-specific death rates for the top-named drugs and for prescription and illicit drugs. Methadone was named on 2,149 death certificates and was the most frequently named substance, followed by alcohol, opiate, cocaine, oxycodone, and methamphetamine. For both men and women and at all ages, prescription drugs were involved in more deaths than were illicit drugs. Among the 25 drugs named most frequently, only 4 have unique ICD codes; the other 21 can be identified only by using the SuperMICAR data. PMID:24521559
We are faced with difficult and complex questions that cannot be answered by stating great principles or ideological convictions, because they refer to painful situations, always singular, in which each individual, in a unique way, faces his life and his death. But the debate can draw on shared convictions and values. Thus, before being a way of assuming death, the Christian faith is fundamentally a way of welcoming the life, in all times and in its fullness, that Christ has given us. The whole Bible and in particular the ministry of Jesus bear witness to that fight for life, against the scandal of suffering and the powers of death that are a denial of the good work of God. Suffering is never, as such, acceptable or justifiable, and truth is never to surrender to it, as if it was a meaningful destiny. And so all suffering that can be avoided must be so. Regarding death, it is often held back in the margins of our lives and societies, as if it was a sort of setback for our human abilities and especially for medicine. Of course those abilities exist but death is not an illness. It's the natural mark of our human finiteness and there is a time when caring is not intended to cure, but to make up for life that defaults, alleviate suffering. That is why what is called to-day palliative caring is so important. Because even when medicine is powerless in front of illness, it can still do something for the sick. Because of all that, the believer can only be opposed to euthanasia which is, after all, only the exact replica of the useless prolongation of life by medical means it pretends to oppose. It's the same activism, the same pretense, the Bible fights, through which human beings want to remain the masters of life and death. But death is not given, except in deathly violence. As life, it is welcomed and is accompanied. The end of a life is still life. To die is to the live to one's last breath. And that questions the claim to die "with dignity" when life can no more be lived in a "dignified way". But what "dignity" are we talking about? To-day, do we not mistake it with the image of the modern individual, master of himself and a match for the world, assured of his physical strength and of his conscientiousness enabling him to consent. As if the image of dignity was always the same, at every age, for all types of illness or simply of existence. When that image of dignity gets shaky, one discovers sorts of dignity that do not answer those criteria, but that testify that any "body" can be a subject, and that we know nothing about it. Lastly, no law or moral authority, be they lax or restrictive, can suppress compassion, nor the ethical responsibility of the patient, of the doctors, of the family circle. None can take the place of the common requirement: go along with life up todeath. PMID:10464998
This study examines peoples' attitudes toward money (the Money Ethic Scale, MES) as related to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, stress, and work-related attitudes in a sample of mental health workers. The results show that intrinsic job satisfaction is related to the attitude that money is freedom\\/power, whereas extrinsic job satisfaction is related to the notion that money is not
The Kalman filter accuracy study method is proposed. Application of the method is demonstrated by a satellite attitude determination algorithm which uses sun-sensor and magnetometer measurements. The algorithm was implemented on board of a microsatellite Chibis-M. The attitude determination algorithm study method validated using in-flight measurements.
...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death Â§ 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....
In the course of standard epidemiological survey conducted in rural medical district attitudeto health and willingness of population to participate in the preventive activities is studied. Rural population manifests great interest in popular medical knowledge and health, quite rightly considering it to be the most precious property in life and the overwhelming majority of population express willingness to spend efforts and time to preserve it and give up such bad habits as overeating, use of alcohol, smoking etc. However, the verbal behaviour of rural population does not correspond to their actual mode of life and the latter is not always adequate. The organization of health education is of major importance for the formation of proper behaviour. Health education activities in rural areas have some peculiarities. The role of feldshers in organizing health education is increasing. The establishment of sports and health promoting units in rural areas is also of importance. PMID:2595450
The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues relating to research in the area of high school pupils’ attitudesto science. Teachers appear to consider that pupils’ attitudesto science, and to what is being studied in science lessons, exert a profound influence on levels of engagement with the subject. Yet, perhaps because of the difficulties
Essential facts [Figure: see text] Cold weather has a direct effect on the number of people experiencing heart attacks, stroke, respiratory disease and flu. According to the Office for National Statistics, an estimated 31,100 excess winter deaths occurred in England and Wales in 2012/13 - a rise of 29 per cent compared with the previous year. Of these people, 25,600 were aged 75 or above. PMID:25052647
In the last week of life, the extent and kind of medical practice differ both in intention and in the degree of orientation on the outcome. Patients tend to put long-term prescriptions aside or ask for symptom-relieving medication and sometimes for palliative sedation, euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. Competent physicians are able to offer or withhold treatment. In case of unconsciousness or severe cognitive impairment, proxies may ask for medical relief of disturbing symptoms. Medical practice is subject to the Dutch Medical Treatment Act (1995). At the start of the specific Dutch law specifying judicial review of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (1993, implemented in 2002) 1.8% of deaths concerned euthanasia. In 2005, standard drugs (choice, dose and route of administration) were highly effective in all cases of euthanasia in which they were used (76%): death within a median of 3-4 min, maximum 90 min. In the absence of medical indications for drug overdose, morphine and other choices are now considered obsolete for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The definition of euthanasia must be based exclusively on a standard method and outcome: death on request by a standard medical method with a standard judicial review. PMID:16610495
Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudesto academic dishonesty and their attitudesto ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…
The paper explores attitudesto chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudesto chronic…
Central to current thinking on what makes companies competitive is the notion that “it's not what you do, it's the way that you do it”. The way a task is carried out in a company is itself very much related to the attitudes and opinions of the company's managers. This article focuses on top managers’ attitudesto product design and
A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…
This paper concerns organizational safety culture and the structure or architecture of employee attitudesto safety as part of that culture. It begins by reviewing the somewhat scant literature relevant to this area, and then reports a study, conducted in a European company, which collected and factor analysed data on employee attitudesto safety. The framework provided for the study
Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…
Analysis of longitudinal data on 4,948 adolescents, who were virgins aged 15-18 at first interview, found that the probability of having sex for the first time was lowered by religiosity, but only for females; was related to personal and relational attitudes regarding sex; and was only indirectly related to parental attitudes. Having sex…
Examines adult attitudes toward wetlands in order to assess perceptions and thus educational failings as a barrier to wetland restoration. Finds relatively positive attitudes with significant differences between social groups and near-significant differences between genders. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)
This paper presents the findings of surveys that have tracked mothers’ attitudes towards MMR over the period 1996–2006. The main aim was to demonstrate how attitudes in relation to MMR have evolved over the last 10 years incorporating the periods of time before, during and after the height of the MMR controversy within the UK.MMR vaccine remains the number one
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The
The Test of Counselor Attitudes (Porter) was administered to five groups representing different levels of counselor training and experience. Significant differences were found between the groups on all five of the counselor attitudes meased: (1) evaluative; (2) interpretive; (3) understanding; (4) supportive; and (5) probing. As students receive…
Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)
Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on deathattitudes. In the…
This paper explores the relationship between physicians' personal orientations toward death and their responses to patient death. A group of 25 pediatric residents were asked to complete the Threat Index and to respond to vignettes depicting personal death. Consistent with predictions derived from personal construct theory, particular death orientations were associated with various behavioral and psychophysiological reactions. Residents with high death threat and anxiety were more likely to adopt avoidance and denial strategies and to experience fewer psychophysiological symptoms when faced with a patient's death. Implications of these findings for further research and treatment are discussed. PMID:10263692
This case studies the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings observed in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Although TTP is a well-recognized syndrome, it is frequently undetected antemortem and represents a rare cause of sudden death. We recently were involved in a case of TTP in which an 18-year-old woman with no previous history died suddenly. The case was referred to our office for consultation because of a recent history of methamphetamine abuse. We report herewith our approach to the diagnostic workup of TTP and review relevant literature. PMID:3605013
Medical culture has portrayed intimate examinations as important in maintaining the sexual and reproductive health of patients. Intimate examinations have also been at the centre of high-profile scandals. Existing literature suggests there is considerable heterogeneity in the use of intimate examinations, as influenced by underlying attitudes. This study sought to ask how doctors make decisions to perform intimate examinations and negotiate the emotional aspects. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 doctors of different grades and from different areas of clinical practice in the South East of England. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo 9, adopting a constructivist approach. Findings indicate that doctors' emotional constructions of intimate examinations coalesce around feelings of embarrassment, fear and anxiety, and vulnerability. Understandings of gender, sex and power also influence emotional constructions. Doctors utilise varying methods to negotiate emotions, some of which may be detrimental to patient care. These emotional constructions lead doctors to attribute values to intimate examinations and to chaperones that extend beyond responding to indications or following guidelines for examination. Doctors who resolve their own feelings of embarrassment, anxiety and vulnerability may be more likely to perform intimate examinations when indicated, to use chaperones appropriately and to offer the best standards of patient care. PMID:24992376
Three groups of 109 undergraduates evidenced attitude shifts from participation to simulation games which were structured in accordance with either the cognitive dissonance or incentive models of attitude change. Identification was suggested as an extra factor influencing attitude change. (CMV)
Uses 2 instruments to compare 20 people who experienced the death of a parent between ages 12 and 18 with 22 people whose parents had not divorced, separated, or died. Higher correlations between threat as measured by these two instruments were found for the control group than the death-loss group alone. Theoretical and methodological issues are…
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation.
Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between deathattitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)
A document presents computational-simulation studies of a concept for stabilizing the attitude of a spacecraft during deployment of such structures as a solar sail or other structures supported by inflatable booms. Specifically, the solar sail considered in this paper is a square sail with inflatable booms and attitude control vanes at the corners. The sail inflates from its stowed configuration into a square sail with four segments and four vanes at the tips. Basically, the concept is one of controlling the rates of inflation of the booms to utilize in mass-distribution properties to effect changes in the system s angular momentum. More specifically, what was studied were the effects of staggering inflation of each boom by holding it at constant length for specified intervals between intervals of increasing length until full length is reached. The studies included sensitivity analyses of effects of variations in mass properties, boom lengths, rates of increase in boom length, initial rates of rotation of the spacecraft, and several asymmetries that could arise during deployment. The studies led to the conclusion that the final attitude of the spacecraft could be modified by varying the parameters of staggered inflation. Computational studies also showed that by feeding back attitude and attitude-rate measurements so that corrective action is taken during the deployment, the final attitude can be maintained very closely to the initial attitude, thus mitigating the attitude changes incurred during deployment and caused by modeling errors. Moreover, it was found that by optimizing the ratio between the holding and length-increasing intervals in deployment of a boom, one could cause deployment to track a desired deployment profile to place the entire spacecraft in a desired attitude at the end of deployment.
The renewed interest in active euthanasia and assisted suicide has occured in response to the power of medicine to extend life under poor circumstances and to impose aggressive, often unremitting treatment that appears unstoppable. A dampening of the push for medical progress and a willingness to accept death as part of the human condition will be necessary in order to oppose the growing impulse to legalize euthanasia. Two arguments in support of active euthanasia are analyzed and refuted: the claim that autonomy and patient rights extend as far as the right to be killed on request, and the assertion that the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die is no longer valid. PMID:11650125
...presumption is invoked, survivors are not eligible for benefits where the miner's death was caused by a traumatic injury (including suicide) or the principal cause of death was a medical condition not related to pneumoconiosis, unless the claimant...
Proponents of the disease concept of alcoholism have argued that its dissemination among the general public will promote humanitarian attitudes toward alcoholics. This claim was subjected to empirical scrutiny. A quota sample of 200 members of the general public completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs about alcoholism and attitudes toward alcoholics. As predicted, the majority of respondents endorsed a disease formulation. However, examination of the data using correlational and factor analytic techniques indicated that two humanitarian views--expressing sympathetic attitudes toward alcoholics and regarding them as deserving of public funds--were largely independent of endorsing a disease view. PMID:3429071
Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitudeto Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.
Our study was based on a retrospective analysis of terrorist bombing related deaths in Istanbul (Turkey) between 1976 and 2000. A total of 45,714 autopsy case reports from the Morgue Department of Council of Forensic Medicine were reviewed for this study. There were 120 (0.26%) deaths due to terrorist bombing. Terrorist bombing related deaths were significantly higher during the years
M. Sunay Yavuz; Mahmut Asirdizer; Gursel Cetin; M. Fatih Yavuz; F. Nuray Cansunar; R. Ozdemir Kolusayin
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D) Scale, the Distress Thermometer, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning, and Glock and Stark's Dimensions of Religious Commitment scales, and these assessments were compared between cancer patients with and without death anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after correlation analysis between death anxiety and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, pain scores, and negative believes about what will happen after death were found to be higher in patients having death anxiety than patients not having death anxiety. Also life expectancy was perceived as shortened in patients with death anxiety. Death anxiety was associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and beliefs about what will happen after death. In conclusion, death anxiety could not be regarded as a natural consequence of having cancer; it is associated with the unresolved psychological and physical distress. PMID:22571248
Aspects of the French cultural attitude toward death are explored, with reference made to a survey of public opinion and a magazine article about recognition of the anniversary of Charles De Gaulle's death. Attitudes about privacy, ritual, and family behavior are highlighted. (MSE)
Twenty-five pediatric house officers were surveyed (14 M; 11 F) to assess their behavioral and psychophysiologic responses to patient death. Vignettes about the deaths of two pediatric patients were included as part of a self-administered questionnaire. The vignettes were followed by 14 behavioral and 20 psychophysiologic responses to the deaths depicted, and physicians were asked to indicate the expected occurrence of these reactions for themselves and for an ideal physician. Reported reactions were found to be similar to grief responses experienced with the death of a loved one. Significant differences were found between the responses of female and male house officers to patient death. Additionally, differences were found between the manner in which the physicians personally responded to a patient's death in comparison to the way they considered an ideal physician would respond. Practical suggestions are given, based on these data, for inclusion of information in death education courses for physicians. PMID:10281657
Contents: Introduction; Process for Capital Murder Prosecutions (Chart); The Trial; Death Penalty: The Capital Appeals Process; TIER 1: The Direct Appeal; TIER 2: The Collateral/ 'Rule 32' Appeal; TIER 3: Federal Habeas Corpus Proceedings; Clemency; Execu...
A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac) classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies), two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy), a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal). For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions associated with them, and the most common clinical scenarios for future study and comparisons.
In this paper, a survey is conducted to study the attitudes of Hong Kong residents towards organ donation after death. It is found that 60.3% of the respondents are willing to donate organs, which is comparable to those cited in the literature. The results also indicate that the willingness to donate is related to age, occupation and attitude. A factor
To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers
The Joint Discussion on UV Astronmy: Stars from Birth toDeath was held during the IAU General Assembly of 2006, in August 2006. It was aimed to provide a forum where the accomplishments of UV astrophysics could be highlighted and a new roadmap for the future discussed. This meeting focussed in particular on stellar astrophysics. The understanding of stellar physics is at the very base of our understanding of the Universe. The chemical evolution of the Universe is controlled by stars. Supernovae are prime distance indicators that have allowed to measure the evolution of the curvature of the Universe and to detect the existence of dark energy. The development of life sustaining system depends strongly on the evolution of stars like our Sun. Some of the most extreme forms of matter in the Universe, the densest and more strongly magnetized, are the magnetars, debris of stellar evolution. The excellent contributions presented in this Joint Discussion dealt with the many aspects of stellar astrophysics from the analysis of dissipative processes in the atmosphere of cool stars and their impact on the evolution of the planetary systems to the study of the atmospheres and winds of the hot massive stars or the determination of the abundances in white dwarfs. The physics of disks, its role in the evolution of binary systems, and the formation of supernovae were among the main topics treated in the meeting. We should also not forget the role of starbursts and, in general, high mass stars in the chemical evolution of galaxies. The metallicity gradient in the Galaxy is traced in the UV spectrum of planetary nebulae. The evolution of young planetary disks and the role of the central stars in the photoevaporation of the giant gaseous planets that have been detected recently. The book contains a summary of the numerous and high quality contributions to this Joint Discussion classified in five chapters: * Chapter 1: Star Formation and Young Stellar Objects * Chapter 2: Life in Main Sequence * Chapter 3: Star Death * Chapter 4: Compact Objects * Chapter 5: The impact of stellar astrophysics in understanding the formation of life sustainable systems; That correspond to the five sessions held during the meeting. A summary of the current status of UV astronomy and the discussions that took place during the XXVIth I. A. U. General Assembly can be found in Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 14.
When cells die in vivo they trigger an inflammatory response. The ensuing hyperemia, leak of plasma proteins, and recruitment of leukocytes subserve a number of useful functions in host defense and tissue repair. However, this response can also cause tissue damage and in so doing contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Given the key role of inflammation in these processes it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive this response. The broad outline of this pathway is understood. Injured cells release “danger signals” that alert the host to cell death. Some of these molecules are recognized by cellular receptors that stimulate the generation of proinflammatory mediators. Other molecules released by dead cells stimulate the generation of mediators from extracellular sources. The resulting mediators then orchestrate the inflammatory response, eliciting its various vascular and cellular components. In addition to stimulating inflammation, dead cells also release danger signals that activate dendritic cells and promote the generation of immune responses to antigens in and around the dying cells. Many of the specific molecules and mechanisms involved in these various processes are still poorly understood. Here we review what is presently known about the sterile inflammatory response and its underlying mechanisms.
The research on work and retirement attitudes is discrepant; some studies report a positive relationship between work attitudes and retirement attitudes, while other investigations find a negative or no relationship. Anticipated work changes and work and retirement attitudes were examined to determine patterns of withdrawal from occupational roles…
Death as a result of anaphylaxis remains rare and is only occasionally related to ingestion of common substances. This article reports a death due to an allergic reaction to ethanol, as well as a review of the reported deaths in the literature attributed to ethanol. This report emphasizes the importance of awareness of such obscure allergies by forensic pathologists, the significance of antemortem testing, and the value of gathering accurate medical information, both antemortem and postmortem. PMID:7771382
Among persons who reported having had near-death experiences, 80% also reported subsequent auditory hallucinations. Experiencers’ attitudes toward these hallucinations were over-whelmingly positive, as contrasted with the overwhelmingly negative attitudes of patients with schizophrenia toward their auditory hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations not related to disease processes are common and may be highly valued by those who hear them.
The investigation of deaths that involve diving using a compressed breathing gas (SCUBA diving) is a specialized area of forensic pathology. Diving related deaths occur more frequently in certain jurisdictions, but any medical examiner or coroner's office may be faced with performing this type of investigation. In order to arrive at the correct conclusion regarding the cause and manner of death, forensic pathologists and investigators need to have a basic understanding of diving physiology, and should also utilize more recently developed technology and ancillary techniques. In the majority of diving related deaths, the cause of death is drowning, but this more often represents a final common pathway due to a water environment. The chain of events leading to the death is just as important to elucidate if similar deaths are to be minimized in the future. Re-enactment of accident scenarios, interrogation of dive computers, postmortem radiographic imaging, and slight alterations in autopsy technique may allow some of these diving related deathsto the better characterized. The amount and location of gas present in the body at the time of autopsy may be very meaningful or may simply represent a postmortem artifact. Medical examiners, coroners, and forensic investigators should consider employing select ancillary techniques to more thoroughly investigate the factors contributing a death associated with SCUBA diving. PMID:24166195
This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014
Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A
A perinatal death presenting as a possible homicide is reported. An infant was born with a cleft palate, but without other apparent abnormality, to a mother who experienced postpartum depression. The infant apparently died during feeding. A death certificate, giving cot death and congenital malformations as the causes of death, was rejected by the registering authority. The possibility of homicide was considered. Exhumation and autopsy showed multiple abnormalities, including congenital heart disease and the karyotype of DiGeorge's anomaly. The case highlights the value of the autopsy in such cases, and emphasizes the role of cytogenetics, even after considerable postmortem delay. PMID:8311051
This study compares the attitudes of primary children to school science between children from the Northern Ireland (UK) and Oman. Previous research has indicated that pupils in the more senior primary classes showed a marked decline in their enjoyment of school science, although most of this research was carried out in Europe, North America, and Australia. In this study, an instrument that had been used to measure attitudes of pupils in UK schools was adapted for use in Oman. Results reveal some striking similarities and interesting differences between attitudes of children towards school science. These findings are discussed in relation to the respective challenges facing primary teachers in regard to teaching science in the two regions.
An anonymous survey to assess the attitudesto smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854
The VSOP-2 project is a new space VLBI (very long baseline interferometer) radio astronomy mission, proposed to inherit the fruitful success of the VSOP mission with the HALCA satellite. One of the most important advances of VSOP-2 is the use of higher observation frequency, which requires fast alternating observation of a target and calibrator in order to remove the phase changes caused by the atmosphere. Typically, both sources must be observed within 60 sec, and this switching must be carried out over many hours. ``ASTRO-G" is a satellite planned for this VSOP-2 project, and one of technical challenges is to achieve such fast rest-to-rest maneuvers, and the proper hardware must be selected to account for this fast attitude maneuver. The controlled momentum gyro (CMG) is an actuator that provides high torque with small power consumption, and the fiber optical gyro is a sensor able to measure the high angular velocity with excellent accuracy. This paper first describes these components for attitude control. Another challenge of the ASTRO-G's attitude control system is to design the switching for the flexible mode of the satellite structure, containing a large deployable reflector and a large solar panel. These produce resonances with fast switching and these must be attenuated. To achieve high agility in a flexible satellite, the controller design is crucial. One design feature is a novel robust input shaper named ``nil mode exciting profiler". Another feature is the feedback controller design. The paper describes these features and other potential problems with fast switching..
Extensive programmed cell death occurs in the female germline of many species ranging from C. elegans to humans. One purpose for germline apoptosis is to remove defective cells unable to develop into fertile eggs. In addition, recent work suggests that the death of specific germline cells may also play a vital role by providing essential nutrients to the surviving oocytes.
While surveys of Australian nurses' attitudesto active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) have found that the majority are in favour, there may be important differences between subgroups of nurses. This paper investigates the role of the following nurse characteristics on nurses' attitudesto AVE: age, gender, religion, amount of contact with terminally ill patients, area of specialty, and degree of interest taken in the issue of AVE. A postal survey on AVE was carried out in late 1996 of 2000 randomly selected registered nurses from the Australian Capital Territory. Responses were received from 1218 nurses (61%). The survey included a question asking whether the law should be changed to allow doctors to take active steps to bring about a patient's death under some circumstances. Overall, 69% of respondents agreed that the law should be changed. Those nurses who were more likely to agree were under the age of 40 years, agnostic, atheist or of the Anglican religion, to have less contact with terminally ill patients, to work in the area of critical care or mental health, and to take less interest in the issue of AVE. Palliative care nurses were the only subgroup without a majority in favour (33%). There is other evidence in the euthanasia literature, that nurses and doctors are less in favour of AVE than the general public. Taken together with the present findings, it can be concluded that attitudes towards AVE are more favourable in people who have less contact with the terminally ill. PMID:9687132
Background In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation, and the low rate of registration as donors requires explanation. This study reports the findings of a survey of knowledge and attitudesto kidney donation among primary care patients in rural Crete, Greece. Methods Two rural primary care settings in the island of Crete, Anogia Health Centre and Vrachasi Practice, were involved in a questionnaire survey. This was conducted among primary care patients (aged 18 years and over) with routine appointments, to assess their knowledge and attitudesto kidney donation. General practitioners (GPs) recruited patients and questionnaires were completed following the patients' medical consultation. Pearson's chi square tests were used and crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated in order to investigate into the possible associations between the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and specific concerns in relation to their socio-demographic features. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences by geographical location. Results The 224 (92.5%) of the 242 primary care attenders who were approached agreed to participate. Only 2.2% (5/224) of the respondents carried a donor card. Most participants (84.4%, 189/224) did not feel well informed about registering as a kidney donor. More than half of the respondents (54.3%, 121/223) were unwilling to register as a kidney donor and donate kidneys for transplant after death. Over a third of respondents (35.4%, 79/223) were not confident that medical teams would try as hard as possible to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. People with a higher level of education were more likely to be willing to register as kidney donors [(OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.8–6.0), p < 0.001)] and to be less worried about their kidneys being removed after death [(OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.5), p < 0.001)] than those having a lower level of education. Conclusion Lack of knowledge and information regarding organ donation and negative attitudes related to registration as donors were the main findings of this study. Efforts should be based on targeting the attitudesto organ donation of individuals and population groups.
Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Komninos, Ioannis D; Antonakis, Nikos; Morgan, Myfanwy; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Chatziarsenis, Marios; Philalithis, Anastas; Jones, Roger
The appropriate approaches about "death education in early childhood" are addressed in this paper. It is recommended for early childhood teachers to take an advantage of children's daily lives to talk about death and dying of living things such as finding dead insects, corpses of small animals found outside, or plants that turn brown. By seizing…
In the state of California, the use of pesticides is closely regulated. Physicians are required to report all occupational illness attributable to pesticide use. The case of a death involving the handling of aldicarb, a potent methylcarbamate insecticide, is presented. Although the autopsy indicated trauma as the cause of death, subsequent analysis of tissue residues of aldicarb and its metabolites
A case of sudden death in a 14-year-old girl due to self administration of hair conditioner through an intravenous infusion pump is described. This report demonstrates difficulties that may occur in determining the manner of death in such cases and outlines a specific danger that may occur when adolescents have unsupervised access to intravenous infusion equipment. PMID:9760091
Knight, D M; James, R A; Sims, D N; Bourne, A J; Martin, J; Byard, R W
Mysterious disorder puts S.D. bees at riskhttp://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS/705150301/1001Queen Bees-In Hive or Castle, Duty Without Powerhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/science/15angi.htmlAre mobile phones wiping out our bees?http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.eceYou've saved whales and dolphins-now save the beeshttp://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/COLUMNISTS26/70515009/-1/opinionNature: Bee Anatomy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.htmlThe Beekeeping Portalhttp://www.beekeeping.org/Apiarists throughout the United States and the rest of the world have been asking one pressing question over the past several months: What is killing millions of honeybees? A number of theories have been proposed as of late, and the mysterious ailment known as colony collapse disorder is something that is puzzling both entomologists and those who derive their livelihood from honeybee-related activities. Bees have been leaving the hive and never returning, so researchers can't perform necropsies in many cases. While some people may just associate honeybees with their most popular product, namely honey, these tiny creatures are also responsible for pollinating over ninety different crops, including almonds, apples, cranberries, watermelon, and cucumbers. One potential explanation that has been advanced is that extensive radiation from mobile phones could be interfering with bees' navigation systems. An apiarist in South Dakota, Brad Folsand, remarked that "You always lose a few, maybe 10 percent or something like that. But there are guys who have lost 90 percent in some places." Apiculturists from the University of Illinois to the University of California, Davis are continuing to research this vexing situation, and it is hoped that they will be able to get the bottom of the situation in the near future. The first link will take users to a piece from this Tuesday's News-Herald about the difficult situation faced by beekeepers in northeast Ohio. Moving along, the second link leads to a similar story from the Sioux Falls Argus Leader. The third link will take users to a nice piece of science reporting from this Tuesday's New York Times about the world of the queen bee. The forth link leads to an article from the Independent which talks about the potential link between these recent honeybee deaths and mobile phones. The fifth link leads to a passionate editorial from the Nashua Telegraph's own Mike Morin about the importance of saving the honeybee population. The sixth link leads to a great interactive feature from the Nature program that provides details about the bee's anatomy, from the stinger all the way up to the antennae. Finally, the last link leads to the very exhaustive and interesting Virtual Beekeeping Gallery, which contains information on bee-keeping equipment, related associations, laboratories, and so on.
A latent trait model for rating scales is used to ana lyze responses to an attitude-to-school questionnaire as part of an evaluation of projects operating in 10 West ern Australian schools under the Australian Priority Schools Program. The invariance of item parameter estimates over the 10 schools is examined, and varia tions in item estimates from school to school are
A study was undertaken to implement a series of chance games and activities in a Year 7 classroom, and investigate the students' knowledge about probability concepts, as well as their attitudesto chance. Initially, the project involved selecting a set of appropriate learning activities to develop key probability concepts which are integral to the…
PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In
Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart
Some recent advances in the understanding of brain function are considered in terms of their potential impact on death education. The notion of right- and left-brain cognitive styles is examined in terms of the pedagogic impact it may have on an individual's capacity to understand and therefore be educated on the subject of death. The idea that the human brain
The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses toattitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. PMID:22435844
It has commonly been assumed by thanatologists that client problems centering on death and dying are particularly demanding and difficult for the mental health professional. The present study tested this assumption by asking 81 beginning counselors to rate their degree of comfort with 15 counseling scenarios, 5 of which involved death or loss (e.g., terminal illness, suicide, AIDS, grief) and 10 of which concerned other focal issues (e.g., rape, marital problems). As predicted, counselors rated situations involving death and dying as substantially more uncomfortable than other presenting problems. However, counselors' levels of experience and personal death threat were unrelated to their response todeath situations, leaving the cause of their discomfort with such situations unexplained. PMID:10115708
Two forms of a new instrument, "Mathematics as a Gendered Domain" and "Who and Mathematics," were developed to replace one of the scales of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales. The aim of both instruments is to measure the extent to which students stereotype mathematics as a gendered domain. For "Mathematics as a Gendered Domain," a…
Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…
Traditionally, internships have provided a unique way for criminal justice students to gain work experience while earning academic credit. Questions remain, however, as to whether a student's educational experiences adequately reflect the realities of internship (and other work-related) experiences. As part of a larger study, we sought to explore student views and attitudes regarding their undergraduate curriculum and its relevance
Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…
Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei
A method to measure homeowners' housing consumption and investment attitudes was developed. Dimensions in the consumption scale were space, tenure, structure, quality, and neighborhood. The investment scale included tax benefits, equity, rate of return, leverage, and risk. Personal variables were hypothesized to have an effect on overall…
This paper demonstrates how to construct reliable scales for measuring attitudesto immigration by using a diversity methodology. It discusses underway the validity of the two most established presumptive criteria for creating quantitative scales: A dominant assumption in measurement theory is that there are common dimensions underlying multiple interrelated items. This paper asserts that this assumption may disable the resultant
The dimensionality of a new multidimensional benefits satisfaction questionnaire called the Attitudes Toward Benefits Scale was examined using a principal components analysis with an orthogonal rotation, and the parallel analysis criterion was used to determine the number of components to retain. It was found that the items loaded on three separate components, as had been hypothesized, and that only one
Rapid developments in education technology have provided educators and students new options in a constantly changing, competitive teaching and learning environment. As the number of online teaching resources continue to increase, research into student attitudes toward traditional and online methods of delivery is important in order to determine…
Reports the results of a survey in Adelaide (Australia) concerning public attitudes toward language diversity and the need to teach English and/or second languages to children in the schools. The survey analyzed responses on the basis of respondent's occupation, sex, income, and age, and found a high degree of support for language diversity. (MSE)
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
"Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…
This study investigated the relationships between demographic characteristics, motives and attitudesto studying, self-reported study behaviour and measures of outcome. Students taking courses by distance learning received a postal survey containing a short form of the Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Revised…
This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a…
Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon
This study compares the attitudes of primary children to school science between children from the Northern Ireland (UK) and Oman. Previous research has indicated that pupils in the more senior primary classes showed a marked decline in their enjoyment of school science, although most of this research was carried out in Europe, North America, and…
This article describes a pre-post survey given to medical students in a gross anatomy course addressing the attitudes toward becoming cadaver donators. Outcomes discuss the influence of actively dissecting a cadaver and how that shifts students away from donating one's body.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
In line with a recent study by Kemp, this study examined the possibility that closed-mindedness as measured by the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale may interfere with attitude-change findings in counselor education. Although the results were not statistically significant, the trends in the data conformed closely to those of Kemp. (Author)
Most research on faculty collective bargaining has focused on its extent and demographic variables such as age, salary, academic discipline, and rank. Little has been done to investigate individual differences which correlate with attitudes toward collective bargaining. The external validity of an earlier study done by Bigoness on correlates of…
Objective To determine if people dying from cancer are able to prolong their own life in order to experience a certain biographical event, or whether the appearance of such an occasion leads to increased deaths before the event. Methods We compared numbers of cancer deaths during a period of 1?week before and after biographically important occasions, which were birthday, Christmas and Easter. As a psychogenic postponement or hastening of death is most likely in chronic diseases (as opposed to accidents or cardiovascular events), we included cancer deaths only. We estimated relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding Bonferroni corrected CIs to assess effects of biographical events. All registered cancer deaths in Germany from 1995 to 2009 were included (3?257?520 individual deaths). Numbers of deaths were corrected for seasonality. Results Considering all cases, there were noticeably more deaths than expected in the week preceding Christmas, leading to an RR of dying after the event of 0.987 (CI 0.978 to 0.997). Estimates indicating a hastening of death were consistent over several subgroups. Other occasions showed inconsistent results, especially there was no convincing postponement effect in our data. Conclusions While there is no evidence of different death numbers before and after Easter and birthdays, the appearance of Christmas seems to increase deaths.
Tau pathology is characterized by intracellular aggregates of abnormally and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. It is encountered in many neurodegenerative disorders, but also in aging. These neurodegenerative disorders are referred to as tauopathies. Comparative biochemistry of the tau aggregates shows that they differ in both tau isoform phosphorylation and content, which enables a molecular classification of tauopathies. In conditions of dementia, NFD (neurofibrillary degeneration) severity is correlated to cognitive impairment and is often considered as neuronal death. Using tau animal models, analysis of the kinetics of tau phosphorylation, aggregation and neuronal death in parallel to electrophysiological and behavioural parameters indicates a disconnection between cognition deficits and neuronal cell death. Tau phosphorylation and aggregation are early events followed by cognitive impairment. Neuronal death is not observed before the oldest ages. A sequence of events may be the formation of toxic phosphorylated tau species, their aggregation, the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (from pre-tangles to ghost tangles) and finally neuronal cell death. This sequence will last from 15 to 25 years and one can ask whether the aggregation of toxic phosphorylated tau species is a protection against cell death. Apoptosis takes 24 h, but NFD lasts for 24 years to finally kill the neuron or rather to protect it for more than 20 years. Altogether, these data suggest that NFD is a transient state before neuronal death and that therapeutic interventions are possible at that stage. PMID:20658986
The 1987 attitudes of high school students toward individuals with mental retardation were compared with attitudes in 1998. Results indicate that positive shifts in attitude were small, occurred slowly, and were related to specific dimensions of attitudes. In both years, females had generally more positive attitudes than males, although male…
Krajewski, Junean J.; Hyde, Mark S.; O'Keeffe, Mary K.
We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case–control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%–44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, ?3% and ?4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable.
Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E.; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z.
We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case-control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%-44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, -3% and -4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable. PMID:24959688
Falagas, Matthew E; Tansarli, Giannoula S; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z
The purpose of this study was to examine the personological features of moral judgment and to determine the extent to which principled moral reasoning is politically biased. We also attempted to determine the relation between moral judgment and attitudeto authority and the developmental patterning of attitudeto authority from early to late adolescence. Attitudeto authority was assessed in
Daniel K. Lapsley; Michael R. Harwell; Leanne M. Olson; Daniel Flannery; Stephen M. Quintana
Protein folding by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is physiologically critical; its disruption causes ER stress and augments disease. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. If stress persists, the UPR induces apoptotic cell death, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that unmitigated ER stress promoted apoptosis through cell-autonomous, UPR-controlled activation of death receptor 5 (DR5). ER stressors induced DR5 transcription via the UPR mediator CHOP; however, the UPR sensor IRE1? transiently catalyzed DR5 mRNA decay, which allowed time for adaptation. Persistent ER stress built up intracellular DR5 protein, driving ligand-independent DR5 activation and apoptosis engagement via caspase-8. Thus, DR5 integrates opposing UPR signals to couple ER stress and apoptotic cell fate. PMID:24994655
Lu, Min; Lawrence, David A; Marsters, Scot; Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Kimmig, Philipp; Mendez, Aaron S; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Walter, Peter; Ashkenazi, Avi
One of the main responsibilities of teachers is to help individual students cope with life difficulties such as grief following a death. However, very little research explores teachers' views on death, dying, and how they handle grief and loss in schools. This study aims to explore university teachers' knowledge and attitudes on dying, death, and death education. Fifteen university teachers were recruited using a qualitative method. This study reveals that most teachers' views on death and related issues are largely affected by their death experiences, religious beliefs, professional background, and the mass media. Although they have a general negative response toward death and dying, some teachers begin to affirm their meanings of life and death. Most teachers agree that they do not feel adequate about managing and teaching on life and death issues, so they strongly support including death education in the formal programs in Hong Kong. PMID:23472324
Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…
Sexual behaviors may be related to or influenced by a range of factors including individuals' attitudes toward women's genitals. To date, however, no reliable and valid measure exists with which researchers or clinicians can assess individuals' attitudes toward women's genitals. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure attitudes toward women's genitals and
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how meanings adult daughters attached to their parent's death influenced the duration of their grief. The sample consisted of 67 adult daughters, ages 35 to 69 years, who had lost a parent 1 to 3 years earlier. Respondents were asked to explore their perceptions about their parent's death, their lifelong parent-daughter relationship, and any lifestyle changes that occurred after a parent's death. Categories were identified from the interview questions, and themes within each category were developed from the interview data. Results indicated that how respondents experienced a parent's death--including their guilt, regrets, or anticipatory grief, shifts in other family relationships, and changes in lifestyle--influenced the duration of their grief. The findings suggest that the subjective experience of grief may be an important area for further research as well as for assessment and intervention. PMID:7941483
A study found that white dental students' (n=144) perceptions of clinical ability, attitudes toward gay men, and white racial attitudes account for both their willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIV disease and their perception of the risk of occupational infection with the disease. Results suggest attitudes regarding cultural…
The study investigated whether perceived antenatal social support and attitudesto emotional expression are associated with postnatal distress in new parents and whether attitudesto emotional expression are themselves linked with perceptions of social support. Eighty?six women and 66 men expecting their first baby completed the DUKE?UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) and the Attitudes Towards Emotional Expression (AEE) both
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.
This paper presents an adaptive control approach to enhance the performance of current attitude control system used by the Space Station Freedom. The proposed control law was developed based on the direct adaptive control or model reference adaptive control scheme. Performance comparisons, subject to inertia variation, of the adaptive controller and the fixed-gain linear quadratic regulator currently implemented for the Space Station are conducted. Both the fixed-gain and the adaptive gain controllers are able to maintain the Station stability for inertia variations of up to 35 percent. However, when a 50 percent inertia variation is applied to the Station, only the adaptive controller is able to maintain the Station attitude.
Lam, Quang M.; Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Holmes, Eric B.; Sunkel, John
In this study, conducted at a tertiary care center, we surveyed visitors to patients in contact isolation to assess their knowledge and attitudes about contact isolation. Although response rates were low, we found that visitors had an overall positive perception and understanding of contact isolation. We think this is likely attributable to the communication and education provided by health care providers to the visitors. PMID:24485377
Programmed cell death claims up to 99.9% of the cells in the mammalian female germ line, which eventually drives irreversible infertility and ovarian failure — the menopause in humans. New insights into the mechanisms that underlie germ-cell apoptosis have been provided by the study of oocyte death in lower organisms and in genetically manipulated mice that lack apoptosis-regulatory proteins. With
Based upon the goal of scientific literacy and the importance of socioscientific issues (SSIs), the purpose of this study was to investigate the Taiwanese public's awareness of, inclinations to buy/use, and their attitudes towards three attributes of SSIs including genetically modified food (GM food), organic food, and DDT and malaria (DDT). Data from a total of 865 participants across ten populations (six different educational levels and four different vocations) were validated and analyzed. The results revealed that the awareness regarding GM food and DDT increased with the levels of education. The inclinations to buy/use and the attitudes towards the three SSIs, were not related to levels of education, vocation or gender, but were related to attributes of the SSIs. The implications for education and policy development are discussed. PMID:22397081
Marine recruit attitudes toward the toughness of Marines, spirit among Marines, affiliation with the Marine Corps, and authority in the Marine Corps were assessed on four occasions during basic training. Recruit characteristic variables such as age, educa...
? cell death is an important pathogenic component of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent findings indicate that cell signaling pathways emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play an important role in the regulation of ? cell death during the progression of diabetes. Homeostasis within the ER must be maintained to produce properly folded secretory proteins, such as insulin, in response to the body's need for them. However, the sensitive protein-folding environment in the ER can be perturbed by genetic and environmental factors leading to ER stress. To counteract ER stress, ? cells activate cell signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR functions as a binary switch between life and death regulating both survival and death effectors. The outcome of this switch depends on the nature of the ER stress condition, the regulation of UPR activation, and the expression and activation of survival and death components. This review will discuss the mechanisms and the components in this switch and highlight the roles of this UPR balancing act between life and death in ? cells.
Objectives To explore the attitudes of ethnic minority parents to preschool immunisations, particularly first MMR (measles, mumps and rubella vaccination).Design Focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 21 Pakistani, Somali and Afro-Caribbean mothers of infants aged 16 months to 3 years. Focus groups were held in the first language of participants.Setting and Method Focus groups were held at an inner-city health
Despite documented, negative effects of sexist language, some people still strongly oppose inclusive language. Their attitudes need study, but existing measures of attitude lack comprehensiveness or validity. This paper reports construction and validation of the 42-item Inventory of Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language (IASNL), which is based on a conceptual framework related to beliefs about language, recognition of sexist language, and
This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347-1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions ("frailty")? Many researchers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naïve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of age, sex, or frailty. If this were true, Black Death cemeteries would provide unbiased cross-sections of demographic and epidemiological conditions in 14th-century Europe. Using skeletal remains from medieval England and Denmark, new methods of paleodemographic age estimation, and a recent multistate model of selective mortality, we test the assumption that the mid-14th-century Black Death killed indiscriminately. Skeletons from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London are compared with normal, nonepidemic cemetery samples from two medieval Danish towns (Viborg and Odense). The results suggest that the Black Death did not kill indiscriminately-that it was, in fact, selective with respect to frailty, although probably not as strongly selective as normal mortality. PMID:18227518
Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347–1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions (“frailty”)? Many researchers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naïve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of age, sex, or frailty. If this were true, Black Death cemeteries would provide unbiased cross-sections of demographic and epidemiological conditions in 14th-century Europe. Using skeletal remains from medieval England and Denmark, new methods of paleodemographic age estimation, and a recent multistate model of selective mortality, we test the assumption that the mid-14th-century Black Death killed indiscriminately. Skeletons from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London are compared with normal, nonepidemic cemetery samples from two medieval Danish towns (Viborg and Odense). The results suggest that the Black Death did not kill indiscriminately—that it was, in fact, selective with respect to frailty, although probably not as strongly selective as normal mortality.
Death and dying are often surrounded by a conspiracy of silence. Usually it is an unconsciously organised silence, leaving those whose lives are threatened by terminal illness or an accelerated death with a physiological insult and without much-needed communication. The silence seems self-protecting for relatives, medical and nursing staff. Silence is a false reassurance and offers no emotional growth or understanding of the events which surround death in its finality. People who fear death of a close family member often begin the process of grieving their loss before actual loss occurs, and can remain locked in grief for years unless helped by the right communication. According to Hampe (1975) this phenomenon is known as 'anticipating grief' or grieving. If medical staff and nurses are to feel confident in anything to do with death and dying, or to feel comfortable in dealing with terminal illness, they should have some understanding of death itself. They should also feel confident in opening up and maintaining an effective dialogue. This requires training in the relevant interviewing, assessment and counselling skills (Maguire, 1985). A systematic approach is necessary to provide good care for the spouses of critically ill patients, who may suffer anticipatory grief. Excerpts from a very helpful paper by Breu (1982) and an adapted care plan are included (with permission) at the end of this paper. PMID:2754230
Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
This study investigated the relationships between adolescent religiosity and attitudesto HIV/AIDS based on two major techniques of analysis, factor and regression analysis towards informing preventive school education strategies. Using cross-sectional data of 448 adolescents in junior high school, the study incorporated survey in a self-administered questionnaire and sought to identify underlying factors that affect pupils' responses, delineate the pattern of relationships between variables and select models which best explain and predict relationships among variables. A seven-factor solution described the 'attitude' construct including abstinence and protection, and six for 'religiosity'. The results showed relatively high levels of religiosity and a preference for private religiosity as opposed to organisational religiosity. The regression analysis produced significant relationships between factors of attitudesto HIV/AIDS and of religiosity. Adolescent with very high private religiosity are more likely to abstain from sex but less likely to use condoms once they initiate: protection is inversely related to religiosity. The findings suggest that religious-based adolescent interventions should focus on intrinsic religiosity. Additionally, increasing HIV prevention information and incorporating culturally relevant and socially acceptable values might lend support to improved adolescent school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programmes. PMID:23234351
Background: Pharmaceutical opioid related deaths have increased. This study aimed to place pharmaceutical opioid overdose deaths within the context of heroin, cocaine, psychostimulants, and pharmaceutical sedative hypnotics, examine demographic trends, and describe common combinations of substances involved in opioid related deaths. Methods: We reviewed deaths among 15-64 year olds in the US from 1999-2009 using death certificate data available through the CDC Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) Database. We identified International Classification of Disease-10 codes describing accidental overdose deaths, including poisonings related to stimulants, pharmaceutical drugs, and heroin. We used crude and age adjusted death rates (deaths/100,000 person years [p-y] and 95% confidence interval [CI] and multivariable Poisson regression models, yielding incident rate ratios (IRRs), for analysis. Results: The age adjusted death rate related to pharmaceutical opioids increased almost 4-fold from 1999 to 2009 (1.54/100,000 p-y [95% CI 1.49-1.60] to 6.05/100,000 p-y [95% CI 5.95-6.16; p<0.001). From 1999 to 2009, pharmaceutical opioids were responsible for the highest relative increase in overdose death rates (IRR 4.22, 95% CI 3.03-5.87) followed by sedative hypnotics (IRR 3.53, 95% CI 2.11-5.90). Heroin related overdose death rates increased from 2007 to 2009 (1.05/100,000 persons [95% CI 1.00-1.09] to 1.43/100,000 persons [95% CI 1.38-1.48; p<0.001). From 2005-2009 the combination of pharmaceutical opioids and benzodiazepines was the most common cause of polysubstance overdose deaths (1.27/100,000 p-y (95% CI 1.25-1.30). Conclusion: Strategies, such as wider implementation of naloxone, expanded access to treatment, and development of new interventions are needed to curb the pharmaceutical opioid overdose epidemic.
Calcaterra, Susan; Glanz, Jason; Binswanger, Ingrid A.
Background In management of osteoporosis, several concerns here have been raised. The current issue included the utilization of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fracture-risk assessment (FRAX), screening of vitamin D deficiency and secondary osteoporosis, and long-term use of bisphosphonate and calcium supplements. There was no study on physicians' attitude on these current issues in Korea. Therefore, we investigated the physicians' attitude on these issues by survey. Methods We administered a 30-item questionnaire to all members of Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research by email survey form. One hundred participants answered the questionnaire. The questionnaire included the questions about the physicians' attitudeto current issues and the barriers to osteoporosis treatment in Korea. Results Most physicians used bone densitometry devices (99%) and, central DXA was the most accessible device (95%). Eighty-eight percent were aware of FRAX®, but among them, only 19.3% used it. The main reason for not using FRAX® was the lack of time in their proactive (76%). Screening for vitamin D status and secondary osteoporosis was performed by 59% and 52% of the respondents, respectively. The lack of awareness among patients and high costs of medication were perceived as the most important barriers to osteoporosis management in Korea. Conclusions This study provides physicians' perspective to the current issue for diagnostic and treatment of osteoporosis in Korea. To further improve osteoporosis management, educational programs for patients and doctors, and the improvement of reimbursement system should be considered in Korea.
Ha, Yong-Chan; Lim, Yong-Taik; Jang, Sun-Mee; Shin, Chan Soo
Objective: To determine the role of homicide and other injuries in maternal deaths in North Carolina over the three-year period from 1992 through 1994.Methods: Maternal deaths were identified from death certificates that indicated a maternal death and through an enhanced surveillance system that matches death certificates with live-birth and fetal-death certificates. Deaths were classified as direct, indirect, medically unrelated, or
We have begun a mixed methods study that uses longitudinal and interview data to inform our understanding of student's beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. We are also seeking the input of the broader Astro 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of an introductory astronomy course. We describe specific attitudinal categories that the survey questions are being designed to address. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Education and Public Outreach Program.
Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C.; CATS
Explicit closed-form formulas are presented for the RMS attitude-error response to sensor and actuator noise for co-located actuators/sensors as a function of both control-gain parameters and structure parameters. The main point of departure is the use of continuum models. In particular the anisotropic Timoshenko model is used for lattice trusses typified by the NASA EPS Structure Model and the Evolutionary Model. One conclusion is that the maximum attainable improvement in the attitude error varying either structure parameters or control gains is 3 dB for the axial and torsion modes, the bending being essentially insensitive. The results are similar whether the Bernoulli model or the anisotropic Timoshenko model is used.
Evasion of death receptor ligand-induced apoptosis contributs to cancer development and progression. To better understand mechanisms conferring resistance todeath ligands, we screened an siRNA library to identify sequences that sensitize resistant cells to fas activating antibody (CH-11). From this screen, we identified the Sterol-Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1 (SREBP1), a transcription factor, which regulates genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis including fatty acid synthase. Inhibition of SREBP1 sensitized PPC-1 and HeLa to the death receptor ligands CH-11 and TRAIL. In contrast, DU145 prostate cancer cells that are resistant todeath ligands despite expressing the receptors on their cell surface remained resistant to CH-11 and TRAIL after knockdown of SREBP1. Consistent with the effects on cell viability, the addition of CH-11 activated caspases 3 and 8 in HeLa but not DU145 cells with silenced SREBP1. We demonstrated that knockdown of SREBP1 produced a marked decrease in fatty acid synthase expression. Furthermore, genetic or chemical inhibition of fatty acid synthase with shRNA or orlistat, respectively, recapitulated the effects of SREBP1 inhibition and sensitized HeLa but not DU145 cells to CH-11 and TRAIL. Sensitization todeath receptor ligands by inhibition of fatty acid synthase was associated with activation of caspase 8 prior to caspase 9. Neither silencing of SREBP1 or fatty acid synthase changed basal expression of the core death receptor components Fas, caspase 8, FADD, caspase 3 or FLIP. Thus, inhibition of SREBP1 or its downstream target fatty acid synthase sensitizes resistant cells todeath ligands.
This descriptive-exploratory study aimed to investigate nurses' attitudes towards the abilities to identify and to help alcoholic persons. Data were collected through an attitude scale in a sample of 171 nurses at a university hospital in São Paulo State. The results evidenced that the nurses feel skilled to help these patients achieve recovery, demonstrating positive attitudes; however, conflict was identified in attitudes towards the alcoholic patients' desire, revealing the influence of the moral model to explain alcoholism. It is concluded that overcoming these conflicts in attitudes will only be possible when they are acknowledged by the nurses and when this problem receives greater attention during professional education. PMID:20520988
This study was conducted to identify the specific techniques filmmakers use to plan and produce persuasive films and to determine if these techniques are related to six guidelines identified by Simonson in 1979 that, if included in the planning, productio...
250 women selected at random from outpatients of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were interviewed about their attitudes toward female sterilization by nurses with a standard questionnaire. Factors affecting attitudes toward sterilization were multiple and results are reported as percentages. The study population excluded women with infertility, a common problem, and further differed from the general population because the women were older and more highly educated. The number of living children was 3 or more in 59%; the ideal family size was at least 5 in 48%. 48% had used some type of contraception. 87.6% had heard of female sterilization, most often from medical personnel. Factors reported as affecting attitudes included: number of living children (59.6%); age of patient (52%); experience with complications of pregnancy and labor (45.2%); other medical disorders (36%); effect on reincarnation (17.6%); sex of living children (17.2%); fear of impotence (7.2%); and religion or culture (3.2%). The average age for female sterilization is 40 in Nigeria. A more extensive study of resistance to sterilization is indicated. PMID:12283795
There is a growing interest in increasing walking in urban areas, partly to reduce pollution and other problems related to transportation by cars, and partly to improve public health (through reasonable exercise such as walking). In this study several factors that influence the amount of pedestrian movement in Tehran (Iran) are explored. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews, and
Is there any sense in wondering if one can "die a good death" Indeed, the word "euthanasia" as such offers food for thought. Obviously, human beings must die. The only real question is: Can help and assistance be given (through others) to a person when facing this ineluctable issue; and, if so, in which way and how far? To make things clearer, two points may be taken into consideration. On the one hand, it is a fact that the roman-catholic tradition has been able to set up a practice of a "good death piety", or even a "good death pastoral". But, on the other hand, we must not forget that when we consider what "euthanasia" means for the end of life and bear in mind what "eugenism" means for the beginning of life as well as the way it has been used, then it can only put us on the alert for possible serious abuse.... Considering all this, the question may be put as follows: not: is it possible, under certain circumstances, to give someone his or her death; but: how must I help and assist a person to live his or her life to the very end, if possible up todeath? PMID:10464996
Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)
Aim: We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians’ attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. Materials and Methods: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). Results: The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem, provided the pain killers are properly titrated. Mild palliative sedation was considered acceptable. The interviewees disagreed whether palliative sedation can also be deep and continuous. Arguments mentioned against deep continuous palliative sedation were the conviction that it may cause unacceptable side effects, and impedes basic daily activities and social contacts. A few interviewees said that palliative sedation may hasten death. Conclusion: Due to fears and doubts regarding deep continuous palliative sedation, it may sometimes be too easily discarded as a treatment option for refractory symptoms.
Fifty-six older adults in Tasmania were interviewed about technology related to medical treatment, transportation, household appliances, banking, and computers. They were far less informed about computers; 34% overall and more than 50% of those over 60 were interested in learning more. (SK)
Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…
This study was undertaken to describe the attitudes of the personnel of a hospital toward automatic data processing. We describe also the change in the attitudes during a four-year adp-system development. In 1984 123 persons were interviewed in Varkaus district hospital in Eastern Finland. The number of interviewed persons in the same hospital in 1988 was 125. During the four years the attitudes became more positive. Nearly all personnel groups changed their attitudes. Only the clerical staff on the wards had more negative attitudes in 1988 than in 1984. That was mostly due to ample amount of faults both in hardware and software at the time interviewing took place. That was even seen in the attitudes of the out-patient clinic personnel who had to work with the same problems. High level both in base and in data processing education had effect on positive attitudes. PMID:2078365
This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:12132547
The development, testing, and characteristics of an instrument--Computers and Robots Attitude Questionnaire--that can be used to measure the attitudes of secondary students towards computers and robots are described. Individual questionnaire items are largely content-free and may be answered by students with no specialist knowledge of…
Efforts to generate biologically active proteins by de novo computational design have been limited to creating functional sites within pre-existing scaffolds. Procko et al. use an innovative computational design approach coupled with in-vitro-targeted evolution to produce a potent polypeptide inhibitor of a viral Bcl-2-like protein. This novel inhibitor triggers apoptosis of virus-infected cells. PMID:24949963
Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various…
The 19th century medical attitudeto normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone. PMID:18075842
The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.
... of Health & Human Services Search the NIH Website Enter Search Term(s): For Employees Staff Directory En Español Health Information ... Institute; and Hartwell Foundation. Search NIH Research Matters Enter terms to search NIH Research Matters: Popular Stories Physical Activity Program ...
... 2013-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits Â§ 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo.
We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed after having a physical altercation with her husband. Despite immediate resuscitation, she died on arrival at the hospital. The victim's parents requested an autopsy because they believed that their daughter was killed by her husband. Postmortem examination revealed that the victim had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland and cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no evidence of significant trauma on the body. Further postmortem thyroid function tests and review of her medical history indicated that her death was due to Graves' disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia from Graves' disease induced by physical and emotional stress associated with the criminal activity of another person. The autopsy findings are described. In addition, the literature is reviewed and the significance of postmortem evaluation of thyroid hormones in the cases of sudden death is discussed. PMID:23919315
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The Morris family is on a road trip through California. One day they are driving from Death Valley to Sequoia National Park. Death Valley is home to th...
With this resource, students in middle and high school Earth science classes can follow the life cycle of a star from its birth as a nebula to its death as a white dwarf or a black hole. The introduction explains how a star's death is determined by its solar mass. The resource presents an illustrated flowchart that shows the stages of stars, as well as points of divergence for stars of different masses. Students click on each stage to see an enlarged, telescopic image of a sample star. Each image is labeled with the name and location of the star. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Programmed cell death is a process defined as genetically regulated self-destruction or cell suicide. It can be activated by different internal and external factors, but few studies have investigated whether this process occurs under cold and freezing temperatures. In this study, a freezing treatment (-8 °C for 6 h) induced cell death with features of programmed cell death in suspension cultures of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This process occurred for 10 days after cold exposure. The death of cells in culture was slow and prolonged, and was accompanied by protoplast shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, and an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species. Other changes observed after the freezing treatment included an increase in the respiration rate, changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ), and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. These findings indicated that mitochondria are involved in the cell death process that occurs after a freezing treatment in cells of winter wheat. PMID:24126671
Lyubushkina, Irina V; Grabelnych, Olga I; Pobezhimova, Tamara P; Stepanov, Aleksey V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Voinikov, Victor K
Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…
Coupled oscillators are shown to experience two structurally different oscillation quenching types: amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD). We demonstrate that both AD and OD can occur in one system and find that the transition between them underlies a classical, Turing-type bifurcation, providing a clear classification of these significantly different dynamical regimes. The implications of obtaining a homogeneous (AD) or inhomogeneous (OD) steady state, as well as their significance for physical and biological applications and control studies, are also pointed out.
Infertility has serious consequences especially in Africa where a high premium is place on child bearing. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was administered on 396 consenting women seeking infertility treatment at the gynaecological clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan in an attempt to assess the attitude of infertile women in Nigeria to child adoption and its acceptability as a management option for infertility. Most (64%) believed its culturally unacceptable and only 17% will try it as an option. Sustained advocacy, community mobilization and enactment of supportive laws were some of the suggestions made by respondents to improve its uptake. PMID:22314902
Oladokun, A; Arulogun, O; Oladokun, R; Adenike Bello, F; Morhassan-Bello, I O; Bambgoye, E A; Adewole, I F; Ojengbede, O A
Objectives. We estimated the number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE search for all English-language articles published between 1980 and 2007 with estimates of the relation between social factors and adult all-cause mortality. We calculated summary relative risk estimates of mortality, and we obtained and used prevalence estimates for each social factor to calculate the population-attributable fraction for each factor. We then calculated the number of deaths attributable to each social factor in the United States in 2000. Results. Approximately 245?000 deaths in the United States in 2000 were attributable to low education, 176?000 to racial segregation, 162?000 to low social support, 133?000 to individual-level poverty, 119?000 to income inequality, and 39?000 to area-level poverty. Conclusions. The estimated number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States is comparable to the number attributed to pathophysiological and behavioral causes. These findings argue for a broader public health conceptualization of the causes of mortality and an expansive policy approach that considers how social factors can be addressed to improve the health of populations.
Tracy, Melissa; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; DiMaggio, Charles; Karpati, Adam
This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies. PMID:23038861
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES.Our aim was to review the evidence for a reduction in the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) with pacifier (“dummy” or “soother”) use, to discuss possible mechanisms for the reduction in SIDS risk, and to review other possible health effects of pacifiers. RESULTS.There is a remarkably,consistent reduction of SIDS with pacifier use. The
Use art to take on the grim topics of death and bodily decay by visting this exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. Highlights of the website include "Ohne Titel [Untitled]," 1965, by Gunter Brus, a collage documenting what Brus called a "Self-painting." Brus covered his body with white paint, and over-painted black lines suggesting cracks. The collage juxtaposes pins, razor blades and a pen knife alongside photographs of the artist in his white paint coating. There is also an installation video for Ernesto Neto's room-size work, "It happens when the body is anatomy of time," 2000, that resembles a forest of the skeletal legs of some large imaginary animal. In addition to the National Gallery website highlights, visit the associated article in "The Independent" for a slideshow of 12 works of art by Sarah Lucas, Louise Bourgeois, Rene Magritte, Marcel Duchamp, Matthew Barney, and others.
Aims Medication error reporting is an important measure to prevent medication error incidents in a healthcare system and can serve\\u000a as an important tool for improving patient safety. This study aimed to investigate attitudes of healthcare professionals (doctors,\\u000a nurses, and pharmacists) in reporting medication errors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fifty-six healthcare professionals working at a 900-bed tertiary referral hospital were surveyed. A questionnaire using two
The ability of a tumour cell to evade programmed cell death (apoptosis) is crucial in the development of cancer. The process of apoptosis is complex and involves the careful interplay of a host of signalling molecules. Cellular stresses, such as DNA-damage, can initiate apoptosis through multiple pathways, all of which eventually lead to eradication of damaged cells that may otherwise
Nine people died of traumatic asphyxia due to an uncon- trolled crowd at a community basketball game in New York City in 1991. We reviewed the circumstances, postmortem findings, and the causes of death. The majority of people had petechiae of the conjunc- tivae and face consistent with chest compression. There were minimal superficial blunt injuries and no fractures or
The investigators of the research grant conducted a population-based, case-control study in two different metropolitan areas to assess the strength and direction of any association between firearm ownership and the risk of violent death in the home. Case ...
This consensus paper describes the essential skills that clinicians need to help persons who are experiencing grief after the death of a loved one. Four aspects of the grieving process are reviewed: anticipatory grief, acute grief, normal grief reactions, and complicated grief. Techniques for assessment and recommendations about interventions and indications for referral are provided for each aspect. PMID:11177334
This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS). Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female) of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related). Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system.
Merrill, Ray M.; Hedin, Riley J.; Fondario, Anna; Sloan, Arielle A.; Hanson, Carl L.
This comparative survey contrasted 571 parents who lost children to various death causes: 48 to drug-related deaths and overdoses, 462 to suicide, 24 to natural death cases, and 37 to mostly accidental death cases. Groups were compared in terms of grief difficulties, mental health problems, posttraumatic stress, and stigmatization. Results did not show any appreciable differences in these respects between the suicide bereaved parents and those losing children to drug-related deaths. However, when the suicide and drug-related death survivors were specifically contrasted against accidental and natural death loss cases, a consistent pattern emerged showing the former group was consistently more troubled by grief and mental health problems than the latter two sub-groups. These differences remained when controls of time since the loss and gender differences were employed as covariates. These findings suggest that the powerful and intense stigma against drug use and mental illness, shared among the public-at-large, imposes challenges in healing of immense proportion for these parents as they find less compassionate responses from their significant others, following their losses. PMID:22010370
Feigelman, William; Jordan, John R; Gorman, Bernard S
We have recently observed that monoglycerides (MGs), a family of lipids consisting of a single fatty acid moiety attached to a glycerol backbone, induce rapid dose-dependent apoptosis in murine thymocytes. In this work, we evaluated the sensitivity of various normal and malignant immune and non-immune cells to MGs. We demonstrate that the propensity to MG-induced death displayed by both T and B lymphocytes is clearly modulated according to their differentiation and activation status. For instance, the earliest T and B cell precursors are refractory to MG-mediated cell death. In the T-cell lineage, immature thymocytes are the most susceptible to MG treatment, while B cells from peripheral lymphoid organs appear more sensitive than B-cell subsets from the bone marrow. On the other hand, both activated T and B cells are more resistant to MG exposure than their non-activated counterparts. In addition, other hematopoietic lineages such as natural killer cells, macrophages, and erythroid cells are quite resistant to MG-induced death. Furthermore, using various immortalized cell lines from different tissues, we found that lymphomas and thymomas are the most sensitive among all lineages tested, while epithelial cells and fibroblasts are unaffected by MG treatment. Finally, MG-induced death was shown to be independent of Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interactions. Altogether, our findings indicate that there is a cellular specificity related to MG-mediated cell death biased towards T and B lymphocytes. This suggests that MGs could potentially be used in the treatment of specific lymphoid disorders by bypassing the requirement for the Fas/FasL system. PMID:12095713
Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength toattitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…
Stem cell transplantation may repair the injured heart, but tissue regeneration is limited by death of transplanted cells. Most cell death occurs in the first few days post-transplantation, likely from a combination of ischemia, anoikis and inflammation. Interventions known to enhance transplanted cell survival include heat shock, over-expressing anti-apoptotic proteins, free radical scavengers, anti-inflammatory therapy and co-delivery of extracellular matrix molecules. Combinatorial use of such interventions markedly enhances graft cell survival, but death still remains a significant problem. We review these challenges to cardiac cell transplantation and present an approach to systematically address them. Most anti-death studies use histology to assess engraftment, which is time- and labor-intensive. To increase throughput, we developed two biochemical approaches to follow graft viability in the mouse heart. The first relies on LacZ enyzmatic activity to track genetically modified cells, and the second quantifies human genomic DNA content using repetitive Alu sequences. Both show linear relationships between input cell number and biochemical signal, but require correction for the time lag between cell death and loss of signal. Once optimized, they permit detection of as few as 1 graft cell in 40,000 host cells. Pro-survival effects measured biochemically at three days predict long-term histological engraftment benefits. These methods permitted identification of carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) as a pro-survival factor for human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte grafts. CEPO’s effects were additive to heat shock, implying independent survival pathways. This system should permit combinatorial approaches to enhance graft viability in a fraction of the time required for conventional histology.
Robey, Thomas E.; Saiget, Mark K; Reinecke, Hans; Murry, Charles E.
Data were gathered by content analysis from Chinese media statements from 1972 through 1975 and 1977 through 1980. These data were used to determine (1) what principal factors in the Sino-Soviet conflict appeared in the Chinese media before and after the death of Mao Zedong, (2) if there was any difference in the level of hostility in Chinese public statements
The objective of this paper was to determine wether the clinical and sociological factors are implicated on the social rejection against the death. This is an inmutable phenomenon it is also changing and it has historicity. On the western countries it has become a peculiar phenomenon the dying patients and the death has shifted from home to hospital. Death on the hospital has been deshumaniced. Also, the physical and social death are differentiated and social and historical factors and social attitude changer are analyzed. PMID:9522502
Sánchez Alhama, J; Gil Extremera, B; Iglesias de Ussel, J; Sanz López, C
Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals’ dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses todeath-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses todeath-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety.
The tragedies of William Shakespeare make frequent use of suicide, some accomplished, some merely contemplated. Although his intent was their dramatic context, the Bard nonetheless clearly anticipated many features being discussed today, including assisted suicide, imitative ("copycat") suicide, and suicidal ideation by individuals with depression or disabilities. Recent debate over how often these factors influence the incidence of suicide rarely invokes their historical longevity. They are not new, so changes over the years in societal, religious, legal, and medical attitudes toward suicide must be considered when trying to understand their role. This review attempts to show that many such features of and attitudes toward suicide circa 1600 were perceived by Shakespeare and incorporated into his plays. In the 15 plays classified as tragedies, there are 13 definite and 8 possible suicides, ie, a total of 21 incidents for evaluation. Among the 13 overt suicides, at least 7 are depicted as being admirable under the circumstances at the time. Also, in various ways, 4 of these 13 were assisted, and at least 3 others contain an imitative element. Overall, the action of taking one's life is presented in a neutral or even favorable light, and the audience is left with a mingling of pity and admiration for the victim, not reproach. PMID:10414473
The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker’s attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision experiences. Results suggest four key areas which appear to be strong factors in workers’ experiences and attitudes regarding group supervision: a. facilitator’s skill level; b. creativity; c. utilization of technology; and d. applicability. For organizations interested in overcoming potential barriers to adopting best practices, effectively addressing workers’ negative attitudes toward group supervision would be a worthy endeavor.
Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…
This article brings together the principles of designing Likert attitude scales and demonstrates the procedure through the development of a chemistry attitude scale. Design procedures and validity and reliability of the scale are each discussed, with a data summary for the 20-item chemistry scale. (MNS)
This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…
Objective To test the hypothesis that neutrophil adhesion to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and Dacron triggers cell death. Summary Background Data Vascular prosthetic infections are intransigent clinical dilemmas associated with excessive rates of death and complications. Impaired neutrophil function has been implicated in the infection of implanted cardiovascular devices. ePTFE and Dacron are potent neutrophil stimuli able to elicit activation responses such as reactive oxygen species production independent of exogenous/soluble agonists. Reactive oxygen species that are released into the medium when neutrophils are challenged by soluble agonists are known to cause self-destruction. The authors therefore sought to examine whether neutrophil adhesion to prosthetic graft materials decreases neutrophil viability by means of reactive oxygen species production. Methods Neutrophils were adhered to surfaces for up to 6 hours. Cell viability was monitored with propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. Results Within 6 hours of adhesion to ePTFE and Dacron, respectively, 59% ± 11% and 44% ± 5% (n = 7) of the neutrophils were stained by propidium iodide. Indistinguishable results were obtained with plasma-coated ePTFE and Dacron. In contrast, less than 2% of the neutrophils adherent to fibrinogen-, immunoglobin-, or fetal bovine serum-coated polystyrene surfaces for 6 hours were positive for propidium iodide. The increase in membrane permeability to propidium iodide was accompanied by a two- to threefold increase in lactate dehydrogenase release. Pretreatment of neutrophils with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, cytochalasin D, or cyclosporin A significantly reduced the number of propidium iodide-positive ePTFE and Dacron adherent neutrophils. Conclusions Neutrophil adhesion to ePTFE and Dacron triggers a rapid nonapoptotic cell death. The effect of ePTFE and Dacron on neutrophil viability appears to be caused by reactive oxygen species production. The premature death of graft-adherent neutrophils provides a novel explanation of the defect in neutrophil bacterial killing associated with vascular prosthetic grafts.
Nadzam, Geoffrey S.; De La Cruz, Carolyn; Greco, Ralph S.; Haimovich, Beatrice
Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem. PMID:21404733
Apoptotic cell death is a mechanism by which organisms eliminate superfluous or harmful cells. Expression of the cell death regulatory protein REAPER (RPR) in the developing Drosophila eye results in a small eye owing to excess cell death. We show that mutations in thread (th) are dominant enhancers of RPR-induced cell death and that th encodes a protein homologous to
OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of potentially avoidable complications contributing todeath of children with head injuries. DESIGN--Retrospective review of children who died with head injuries from 1979 to 1986 from data of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Hospital Activity Analyses, case notes, coroners' records, and necropsy reports. SETTING--District general hospitals and two regional neurosurgical centres in Northern region.
To assess the possible role of endotoxaemia in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), antibodies to endotoxin core (EndoCAb), which have previously been shown to be depressed by systemic endotoxaemia, were measured. IgG and IgM EndoCAb and total serum IgG and IgM were measured in serum samples from 25 children who had died from SIDS and 164 control
B A Oppenheim; G R Barclay; J Morris; F Knox; A Barson; D B Drucker; B A Crawley
The Writing-To-Learn Attitude Survey (WTLAS) was developed to measure the effects of using writing-to-learn activities in the classroom, but adequate psychometric data have not been reported for the measure. Using the pretest scores from 149 basic and RN-to-BSN nursing students enrolled in a Nursing Management and Leadership course, the reliability and validity of the WTLAS were evaluated. The initial 30-item measure demonstrated acceptable reliability, but the item intercorrelations suggested revision of the subscales was appropriate. After exploratory factor analyses, the WTLAS was revised to 21 items and consists of two factors: Apprehensions about Writing Abilities and Perceived Benefits of Writing-To-Learn Activities. Both subscales possess acceptable internal consistency reliability and conceptually sound, significant correlations with a separate measure of writing apprehension. The revised WTLAS appears to have adequate psychometric properties for further use in the evaluation of students' perceptions of writing-to-learn activities. PMID:17152305
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
Attitudesto predictive DNA testing for familial adenomatous polyposis were documented in 62 affected adults. Patient views on prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy for this disorder were sought, as were opinions on the most suitable age to offer predictive testing for at risk children and the most appropriate age to begin screening. While 15 (24%) of those questioned stated that they would proceed to termination of pregnancy if a prenatal test indicated that the unborn baby was affected, in clinical practice no one has yet requested this option. Six (10%) people who had refrained from having children for fear of passing on the polyposis gene felt that the arrival of prenatal testing would enable them to consider planning a family. The majority of patients (93%) said they would like their children tested by DNA analysis at birth or in infancy, but felt that 10 to 12 years was the most appropriate time to discuss the diagnosis with the child.
Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21). 146 deaths (60%) were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7) other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43%) of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%). The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03). Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.
This article is a reply to Bulzacchelli's argument via two routes. First, I argue that Bulzacchelli has not clarified what he means by the two key terms in his argument: person and reduction. Second, and more importantly, I argue that Bulzacchelli's argument involves a contradiction. He seems to think that determining death on the basis of physiological evidence (i.e. the cessation of organismic functioning) is reductionistic. But he also endorses arguments against whole brain death (WBD) and those arguments maintain that because organ systems function (with external support) in the setting of WBD, the person still exists. But to say that the person still exists simply in virtue of organ systems still functioning is the very reduction Bulzacchelli intimates is a problem.
Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer todeath. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief…
Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudesto Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudesto ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing.
Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudesto sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast. PMID:8061079
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignancies in children. It is a tumor that can clinically present with varied symptoms\\u000a that can mimic other entities, including child abuse. It is important that forensic pathologists are aware of the diseases\\u000a that can masquerade as child abuse. A case of sudden, unexpected death in a 2-year-old due to previously undiagnosed neuroblastoma
The authors present a case of malignant hyperthermia. The article discusses the death of a 4-year old boy who appeared to be perfectly healthy and underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia. The procedure went well at the beginning, but suddenly complications developed, such as cardiac rhythm disorders and increased body temperature, subsequently, muscle rigidity appeared. Such symptoms are characteristic for an inherited disease called malignant hyperthermia. Despite professionally performed resuscitation and help of an emergency unit, the patient died. PMID:23879013
Women who used combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy to treat menopausal symptoms during the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study had more cases of invasive breast cancer, more lymph-node positive breast cancer, and a slightly higher death rate from breast cancer and other causes than women who received a placebo, researchers reported in an 11-year follow-up report on the study's participants.
Given the importance of season ticket holders (STH) to sporting organisations, we empirically examine a scale for measuring their attitudesto the season ticket product. This involved identifying through qualitative research and past literature, the various elements that are perceived to comprise the season ticket package and developing items to measure STH attitudesto them. The season ticket package was
The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudesto, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudesto,…
Reported is a study to determine the attitudes of Israeli high school biology teachers to the Israeli adaptation of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) curriculum. Blankenship's Attitude Inventory, designed to determine teachers' reactions to BSCS materials, was translated into Hebrew. Copies were mailed to 200 high schools in Israel.…
Periodically debates on the legalization of active euthanasia are conducted in the Austrian media. In contrast to most European and North American countries, these debates are not based on local empirical data, because until now no studies on respective attitudes and values exist. In this study notion towards active euthanasia of (1) medical lays, (2) medical students and medical specialists in psychiatry, surgery and internal medicine are explored by means of a semistructured questionnaire. We found that increasing closeness to the medical profession is associated with an increasing refusal of active euthanasia. Among the medical specialists, specialists in internal medicine, who, after the legalization, would be most involved in decision-making processes as well as in the execution of active euthanasia, showed the greatest reservation concerning this question. PMID:19703382
Ritter, Kristina; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Stompe, Thomas
This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…
Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…
Objective: The Attitudesto Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…
Background: The assumption that parents have some effect on their children's attitudesto learning is one that few educationalists would challenge. The ways in which this influence is brought to bear are a slightly more complex and contentious matter, however. Purpose: The paper uses data from a tri-national PhD study on pupil attitudesto examine…
An instrument was developed to assess attitudes about science and administered to 505 fourth, fifth and sixth grade pupils. Attitudinal objectives found in the literature were selected and defined in behavioral terms by a panel of judges. Items for the Science Attitude Scale (SAS) were based on selected objectives and revised to appropriate…
There are still controversial attitudes regarding oocyte donation (OD) programs. The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the opinions of Christians and Muslims regarding an OD program in Iran. 200 adults were randomly assigned to fill out the questionnaires. Part I contained demographic information, and Part II contained 20 questions to reveal their knowledge and attitudes about OD.
Background: Attitudesto the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…
This thesis examines the ability of a persuasive communications and consumer-education campaign to produce attitude change and behavior change. The study involved a field experiment investigating the responses of residential consumers to an alternative electric rate designed to reduce the amount of electricity used during the utility's hours of peak demand. Knowledge and attitudes of treatment group subjects were experimentally
Young people are open to traffic accidents because of their age, their attitude, their lack of experience, and their tendency for risk-taking. This study sought an answer to the question of what are the perceptions, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors of young people that lead to traffic safety problems and/or interfere with their…
Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)
Feminist theorists have suggested that feminism provides a number of benefits for women, particularly regarding self-evaluations. However, most studies have conflated feminist attitudes and feminist identity. The main goal of this study was to assess the differential relationships of feminist attitudes and feminist identity to self-efficacy. Four…
Describes a program planned and implemented by community volunteers to facilitate the development of positive attitudes toward the disabled. The program was implemented over one semester in five public schools. The article discusses variables that contributed to the success of the program as well as some of the limitations of attitude change…
A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…
This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…
This article examines teacher educators' attitudesto standardised student feedback on the quality of their teaching in a teacher education college in Israel. It is part of a comprehensive study initiated by the management of the institution, and the focus in this writing is on teacher educators' attitudesto student feedback: the way they…
In this article Joseph Mintz explores the importance of developing positive attitudesto SEN and Inclusion among primary teacher trainees. The research reported indicates that student attitudes towards SEN/Inclusion were generally positive, but that such views are fluid and subject to change during a course of training. The article reinforces the…
The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational Attitudes Questionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…
The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…
We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…
Based on the hypothesis that managing pediatric death—particularly, communicating with survivors—is extremely difficult for most emergency physicians, 122 general emergency physicians at a written board review course were surveyed to assess their attitudes toward pediatric death. Sixty-six percent reported that communicating with the family of a child who had died was the most difficult experience in emergency medicine. Sixty-six percent
In the last few years programmed cell death in plants inspired many studies in development and environmental stresses. Some of these studies showed that hallmarks of animal programmed cell death were found at cellular or molecular level in plant cells in different experimental systems. Additionally the effect of over-expression in plants of animal genes implicated in programmed cell death has
Antoine Danon; Valérie Delorme; Nathalie Mailhac; Patrick Gallois
It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502
IN A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF ATTITUDES ON LEARNING, THE LITERAL AND INTERPRETATIVE COMPREHENSION ABILITIES OF INTERMEDIATE GRADE CHILDREN ON THEMATICALLY BASED READING SELECTIONS WERE COMPARED WITH THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD THAT MATERIAL. THREE OF THE MOST COMMON READING THEMES INHERENT IN CHILDREN'S STORIES WERE DETERMINED BY A PANEL OF…
We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637), using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little…
Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Loptson, Claire; Slaughter, Katherine A.
The relation between identity attitudes, or Black self-ac4ualization, and various affective states were investigated in 166 Black university students. Both pro-White/anti-Black and pro-Black/anti-White attitudes were associated with greater personal distress. Awakening Black identity was positively related to self-actualization tendencies and…
Examines racial identity attitudes that characterize African-American people at different stages of life and the relationship of these attitudesto several demographic variables, using the model of psychological nigrescence of W. E. Cross with 37 male and 77 female adults. Findings suggest that the model may require expansion. (SLD)
Over the last few decades, environmental work has increased significantly. An important part of this has to do with attitudes. This research presents the design and validation of an environmental attitudes scale aimed at university students. Detailed information on development and validation of the scale is provided. Similarly, it presents the…
Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Rodriguez-Barreiro, Luis; Carrasquer, Jose
The personal beliefs and attitudes of nurses can have serious implications for their practice. Yet there are a lack of studies on nurses' attitudesto cancer in the UK in general, and in Northern Ireland specifically. The need for such studies is further emphasized by the importance of nurses' role in the Cancer Units of district general hospitals, as proposed
Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have
Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey
Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have
Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey
Suggests a method of integrating user performance and attitudes toward the computer system into quality control procedures (QCP) and describes an application of user attitudesto the QPC in a class of novice computer users receiving instruction in BASIC programing language via formal classroom lecture with computer assisted instruction tutorials.…
This research note provides a rationale for the use of gender-specific subscales, rather than a single global measurement device, to assess respondents' differential attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. It then evaluates the reliability and validity of equivalent forms of the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLG) (Herek, 1994) when…
Successful inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in school settings depends largely on the attitudes of parents of peers without SEN. The purpose of the present study was to explore the attitudes of Greek parents of primary school children without SEN towards inclusion. The participants were 338 parents (182 fathers, 156…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the overall attitudes of consumers in Bangladesh toward marketing. The paper also empirically tests for associations between consumer attitudes toward marketing, satisfaction with marketing mix and perception of government regulation in least developing countries (LDCs) using the structural equations modelling. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multi-stage cluster sample of 600 consumers was
Background: One of the acutely fatal and prevalent crises in all societies is acute spinal cord injury. Individuals with a spinal cord injury are prone to numerous challenges, perturbation, and acute mental distresses. One of their concerns, often expressed generally and in the form of a complaint, is how people deal with them. The present study aims to analyze the experiences and interactions of the disabled with the society and to achieve a deep clarification of their internal attitudes and realistic approaches in various social classes (from common people to elite). Materials and Methods: The present study is a part of a greater research with a classical grounded theory approach conducted on 12 successful and nationally and internationally popular disabled people. Sampling was firstly purposive and then continued with snowball sampling. The data were collected by open deep interviews which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed by Graneheim content analysis method. Results: The findings obtained through analysis of the interviews yielded the theme of a socially suppressing attitude which contained four subthemes of compassionate attitude, disability attitude, inhuman attitude, and atonement attitude. Conclusions: The results showed that both groups of common, and educated and elite classes of Iranian society have identically suppressing attitudes and interactions toward spinal cord injury victims. It seems that traditional attitudes yet preponderate academic and scientific knowledge in Iranian society. This gap needs notable attention of all the Iranians, especially policy makers and social personalities.
This study examined first-year medical student attitudes concerning the elderly before and after instituting a geriatric mentoring program. The program began and ended with a survey designed to assess students' attitudes toward the elderly. During the mentoring program, students visited the same senior for four visits throughout the academic year.…
A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal. PMID:17037478
Analysing the use of marijuana is challenging in part because there is no widely accepted single measure of individual use. Similarly, there is no single response variable that effectively captures attitudes toward its social and moral acceptability. One approach is to view the joint distribution of multiple use and attitude indicators as a mixture of latent classes. Pooling items from
The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision…
Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…
In a longitudinal, prospective study of patient's decisions about influenza vaccination, the stability of attitudes about the flu and flu shots, the stability of flu shot decisions, and the relationship of attitude shifts to compliance were studied. In both 1981 and 1982 for 216 patients at high risk for complications of influenza, attitudes about 15 issues in the decision to obtain a flu shot were measured and each patient's behavioral intention and flu shot behavior ascertained. From one year to the other, 53% of patients had at least two substantial attitude shifts, yet 91% of patients expressed the same behavioral intention, and 85% of patients had the same flu shot behavior. Reversals in flu shot decisions were closely related to shifts in attitudes concerning side effects of the flu shot, an association that was supported by other findings, including a marked difference in prevalence of previous side effects in shot takers (11%) versus nontakers (60%). The results suggest: intention reversals were less frequent than attitude shifts because only specific attitude changes about flu shots were associated with reversals, and interventions that induce positive attitude changes, especially about the side effects of flu shots, should be effective in improving flu shot compliance. PMID:4010360
In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes. PMID:23982486
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy
The use of gimballed and strapped down star trackers for spacecraft attitude determination is a well-developed technology, but it presupposes some restricted degree of knowledge about the star positions and usually requires a special maneuver to obtain a favorable vehicle attitude. The paper considers the general problem of self-contained attitude determination in three axes without a priori knowledge of the star position-vehicle attitude relationship and without the need for any special maneuvers. Two approaches are discussed: The first approach concerns a search for a simple and unique star pattern and an optimum instrument geometry based upon the actual angular distribution of the stars. The second approach concerns the adaption of holography to the problem of a recognition of a star field for attitude determination. PMID:20076194
Introduction Organ transplantation in Libya depends exclusively on donations from live relatives. This limitation increases mortality and prolongs the patients’ suffering and waiting time. Objectives The aims of this study were to explore willingness to donate organs after death and to identify the reasons for refusal. Methods A population-based crosssectional study was conducted from April to July 2008 on a cluster sample of 1652 persons (58% males and 42% females). The questionnaire included demographic information and mainly enquired about willingness to donate organs after death and the reasons for refusal when applicable. Results About one-third (29.7%) of participants were in favor of donating their organs after death, 60.1% refused and 10.2% were undecided. Willingness was significantly associated with being male, younger age, having a college or graduate degree, and being single (P <0.05 for all). Lack of adequate knowledge about the importance of deceased organ donation and uncertainty about its religious implications were the most predominant reasons for refusal (43.8% and 39.5%, respectively). Other reasons included ethical concerns about retrieving organs from dead bodies (37.9%), preference for being buried intact (28%), and uneasiness about the idea of cadaver manipulation (33%). Conclusion There were a considerable resistance to deceased organ donation, especially among females, those of older age, married people, and those with a low education level. The barriers to cadaveric donations were lack of adequate knowledge, unease about body manipulation, and concerns about religious implications. Public educational campaigns should be coordinated with religious leadership.
Alashek, WA; Ehtuish, EF; Elhabashi, A; Emberish, W; Mishra, A
How we react to humanitarian crises, epidemics, and other tragic events involving the loss of human lives depends largely on the extent to which we are moved by the size of their associated death tolls. Many studies have demonstrated that people generally exhibit a diminishing sensitivity to the number of human fatalities and, equivalently, a preference for risky (vs. sure) alternatives in decisions under risk involving human losses. However, the reason for this tendency remains unknown. Here we show that the distributions of event-related death tolls that people observe govern their evaluations of, and risk preferences concerning, human fatalities. In particular, we show that our diminishing sensitivity to human fatalities follows from the fact that these death tolls are approximately power-law distributed. We further show that, by manipulating the distribution of mortality-related events that people observe, we can alter their risk preferences in decisions involving fatalities. Finally, we show that the tendency to be risk-seeking in mortality-related decisions is lower in countries in which high-mortality events are more frequently observed. Our results support a model of magnitude evaluation based on memory sampling and relative judgment. This model departs from the utility-based approaches typically encountered in psychology and economics in that it does not rely on stable, underlying value representations to explain valuation and choice, or on choice behavior to derive value functions. Instead, preferences concerning human fatalities emerge spontaneously from the distributions of sampled events and the relative nature of the evaluation process.
After discussing some defining questions concerning dignified death, active and passive euthanasia, assisted suicide and the criteria for free will and informed consent, the juridical situation in Germany is reported. Passive euthanasia according to the patients' free will is accepted, assisted suicide, active euthanasia, and passive euthanasia without informed consent are not accepted. The ethical discussion on these topics in Germany reveals a spectrum of opinions. There is somewhat more emphasis on the cons than on the pros. Humanistic and economic arguments merge in the debate. The philosophy of consequentialistic utilitarianism is heavily criticized by many authors who warn that respect even for the unproductive life must not fade. After some remarks on empirical studies on attitudes towards death and the history of attitudes towards euthanasia the conclusion lists the arguments, pros and cons, and gives a personal view. PMID:9179960
Relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are at increased risk of carrying a potentially fatal inherited cardiac disease. Hence, it is recommended to perform an autopsy on the victim and to refer his or her relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic for a full evaluation to identify those at risk and allow preventive measures to be taken. However, at present, the number of families attending a cardiogenetics clinic after the SCD of a young relative is low in the Netherlands. We performed a qualitative study and report on the experiences and attitudes of first-degree relatives who attended a cardiogenetics clinic for evaluation. In total, we interviewed nine first-degree relatives and one spouse of seven SCD victims about their experiences, considerations and emotions before attendance and at the first stage of the cardiogenetic evaluation before DNA results were available. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed. Medical professionals did not have an important role in informing or referring relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic. Importantly, all participants indicated that they would have appreciated a more directive approach from medical professionals, because their mourning process hampered their own search for information and decision-making. A need to understand the cause of death and wanting to prevent another SCD event occurring in the family were the most important reasons for attending a clinic. There are possibilities to improve the information process and better support their decision-making. The multidisciplinary cardiogenetic evaluation was appreciated, but could be improved by minor changes in the way it is implemented. PMID:23736216
van der Werf, Christian; Onderwater, Astrid T; van Langen, Irene M; Smets, Ellen M A
Branching models have a long history of biological applications, particularly in population dynamics. In this work, our interest is the development of mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of socially structured animal populations, focusing our attention on lineages, usually matrilines, as the basic structure in the population. Significant efforts have been made to develop models based on the assumption that all individuals behave identically with respect to reproduction. However, the reproduction phase has a large random component that involves not only demographic but also environmental factors that change across range distribution of species. In the present work, we introduce new classes of birth-death branching models which take such factors into account. We assume that both, the offspring probability distribution and the death probabilities may be different in each generation, changing either predictably or unpredictably in relation to habitat features. We consider the genealogical tree generated by observation of the process until a pre-set generation. We determine the probability distributions of the random variables representing the number of dead or living individuals having at least one ancestor alive, living individuals whose ancestors are all dead, and dead individuals whose ancestors are all dead, explicitly obtaining their principal moments. Also, we derive the probability distributions corresponding to the partial and total numbers of such biological variables, obtaining in particular the distribution of the total number of matriarchs in the genealogical tree. We apply the proposed models to describe the demographic dynamics of African elephant populations living in different habitats. PMID:23648183
Corbacho, Casimiro; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso
The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudesto vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs.
Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks of nonlinear oscillators is investigated both numerically and analytically. It is found that, as the coupling strength increases, the network will undergo three different stages in approaching the state of complete amplitude death (CAD). In the first stage of the transition, the amplitudes of the oscillators present a 'stair-like' arrangement, i.e. the squared amplitude of an oscillator linearly decreases with the number of links that the oscillator receives (node degree). In this stage, as the coupling strength increases, the amplitude stairs are eliminated hierarchically by descending order of the node degree. At the end of the first stage, except for a few synchronized oscillators, all other oscillators in the network have small amplitudes. Then, in the second stage of the transition, the synchronous clusters formed in the first stage gradually disappear and, as a consequence, the number of small-amplitude oscillators is increased. At the end of the second stage, almost all oscillators in the network have small but finite amplitudes. Finally, in the third stage of the transition, without the support of the synchronous clusters, the amplitudes of the oscillators are quickly decreased, eventually leading to the state of CAD.
Rotenone, which selectively inhibits mitochondrial complex I, induces oxidative stress, ?-synuclein accumulation, and dopaminergic neuron death, principal pathological features of Parkinson's disease. The autophagy–lysosome pathway degrades damaged proteins and organelles for the intracellular maintenance of nutrient and energy balance. While it is known that rotenone causes autophagic vacuole accumulation, the mechanism by which this effect occurs has not been thoroughly investigated. Treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with rotenone (10 ?M) induced the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles at 6 h and 24 h as indicated by Western blot analysis for microtubule associated protein-light chain 3-II (MAP-LC3-II). Assessment of autophagic flux at these time points indicated that autophagic vacuole accumulation resulted from a decrease in their effective lysosomal degradation, which was substantiated by increased levels of autophagy substrates p62 and ?-synuclein. Inhibition of lysosomal degradation may be explained by the observed decrease in cellular ATP levels, which in turn may have caused the observed concomitant increase in acidic vesicle pH. The early (6 h) effects of rotenone on cellular energetics and autophagy–lysosome pathway function preceded the induction of cell death and apoptosis. These findings indicate that the classical mitochondrial toxin rotenone has a pronounced effect on macroautophagy completion that may contribute to its neurotoxic potential.
Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to “historical” approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions) supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA “sublesions” and “lesions” as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal) chromosome aberrations, respectively.
The aim of this study was to investigate what the self-efficacy and attitudes of pre-school teachers and student teachers towards inclusive education were and to elucidate the relationship between self-efficacy and the attitudes on inclusion. Therefore, the present study investigated the self-efficacy perceptions and attitudes of student teachers…
This article reports on attitude changes of 300 children, aged 10 or 11 years, from four schools, who visited the UK National Space Centre. Attitudes toward science and space were explored by examining responses to five different attitude scales. These were administered before, immediately after, and 2 months and 4-5 months after a visit to the…
This study examined the influences of cognitive resources and motivation on how young and older adults process different quantities of persuasive arguments. In the first experiment session, both young and older adults rated their attitudes toward marijuana legalization and capital punishment. After a week, they read either 3 or 9 similar-quality arguments supporting marijuana legalization and capital punishment. Half of participants were assigned to the high-involvement condition (i.e., told that they were going to discuss the arguments later with the experimenter) and the other half were assigned to the low-involvement condition (i.e., given no instructions). After reading the arguments, participants rated their attitudes toward those 2 social issues again. Highly involved young adults changed their attitudes regardless of the quantity of arguments, whereas lowly involved young adults' attitude change was influenced by the argument quantity. Older adults in both high-involvement and low-involvement conditions changed their attitudes according to the argument quantity. Working memory was found to mediate the age effects on attitude change. This finding demonstrated the importance of a cognitive mechanism in accounting for age differences in attitude change. PMID:16953719
A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.
Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark
Background. Road traffic crashes are an important cause of death and disability in India. Reliable and accurate data are necessary to plan strategies to reduce death and disability due to road traffic crashes. We assessed the utility of the available data on deaths due to road traffic crashes for road crash surveillance for a major metropolitan city of southern India.
...Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances Surrounding the Deaths of Personnel Assigned in Support of the U.S. Government Mission...State Hillary Rodham Clinton has determined that the recent deaths of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, Information...
Background: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may con- tribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unex- pectedly. Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 21 cases
Michael S. Pollanen; David A. Chiasson; James T. Cairns; James G. Young
This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudesto adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…
A single family of proteases, the caspases, has long been considered the pivotal executioner of all programmed cell death. However, recent findings of evolutionarily conserved, caspase-independent controlled death mechanisms have opened new perspectives on the biology of cell demise, with particular implications for neurobiology, cancer research and immunological processes.
Describes the reactions of group-therapy patients on a psychiatric ward of a general hospital to the death of a group member who died in the hospital the day before the session in question took place. The circumstances of this patient's death were ambiguous as to whether the death was due to suicide or accident. In view of the ambiguity of
Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…
...2010-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...
...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...
Recent guidelines by the Drug Controller General of India require extra care by Investigators & Sponsors of Clinical Trials in India. The author, an eminent member & Chairman of various Independent Ethics Committees in Mumbai, proposes various concrete solutions for adherence to these guidelines. Insurance cover to the subjects, use of Internet databanks for drug interactions, active involvement by the pharmacologists in Ethics Committee, review of data from animal studies, being amongst them. In case of death due to trial, autopsies, or at least verbal autopsies, are essential in the interest of Science and Law. More importantly Anticipation and prevention of ADEs can be done by exclusion of subjects from trials by using newer technologies like cDNA in microarrays to determine several polygenic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and tests for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Drug manufacturers must provide prototypes of Affymetrix chips to clinicians and bear the cost in their own enlightened self-interest. PMID:24772730
This paper introduces the controversy surrounding active voluntary euthanasia and describes the legal position on euthanasia and assisted suicide in the UK. Findings from studies of the nurses' attitudesto euthanasia from the national and international literature are reviewed. There are acknowledged difficulties in carrying out research into attitudesto euthanasia and hence the review of findings from the published studies is followed by a methodological review. This methodological review examines the research design and data collection methods used in the published studies, problems with understanding definitions of euthanasia and the measurement of attitudes. The paper concludes with a discussion of how research in this area may influence nursing practice. PMID:18798897
Discusses some of the similarities and differences between the attitudes of Japanese and American citizens toward science. Reports on major discrepancies between the two populations' views about such things as evolution, the development of new plants and animals, and the effect of rocket launchings on the weather. (TW)
Several cases which have been considered by the courts in recent years have highlighted the legal dilemmas facing doctors whose decisions result in the ending of a patient's life. This paper considers the case of Dr Cox, who was convicted of attempting to murder one of his patients, and explores the roles of motive, diminished responsibility and consent in cases of "mercy killing". The Cox decision is compared to that of Tony Bland and Janet Johnstone, in which the patients were in a persistent vegetative state. In all three cases, the doctors believed that their patients' quality of life was so poor that their continued existence was of no benefit to them, and decided that their lives should not be unduly prolonged, yet the doctor who was prosecuted was the one whose dying patient had requested that her death be hastened. The paper examines the law's seemingly contradictory approaches to such cases. PMID:9451606
The phase between research and successful innovation is known as the valley of death. Increasingly, researchers from the pharmaceutical industry and academia are working together, often encouraged by governments, to cross this 'valley' as they seek to bring basic research to the market. This is consistent with newer models of innovation policy that stress interaction between the different agents across the innovation process. Here, we examine this interaction in the UK, the EU and the USA using several specific examples, suggesting that cooperation is still far from perfect and that the return for academia on its research investment is relatively small. Countries are also beginning to use research as a tool of industrial economic policy. PMID:23402848
Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young
...2013-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits Â§ 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...
To estimate the public attitude of the Belarus population to possible ways of overcoming of energy crisis and, in particular, to nuclear power engineering development in the republic, Institute of Sociology, the Belarus Training, Research and Information ...
E. M. Babosov A. M. Grishchenko A. A. Mikhalevich N. M. Grusha A. I. Stavrov
The motions of robotic manipulators mounted on spacecraft can disturb the spacecraft's positions and attitude. These disturbances can surpass the ability of the system's attitude control reaction jets to control them, for the disturbances increase as manipulator speeds increase. If the manipulator moves too quickly the resulting disturbances can exceed the saturation levels of the reaction jets, causing excessive spacecraft motions. A method for planning space manipulator's motions is presented, so that tasks can be performed as quickly as possible without saturating the system's attitude control jets.
Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome. PMID:24378980
Fairbanks, Stacy L; Vest, Rebekah; Verma, Saurabh; Traystman, Richard J; Herson, Paco S
According to the document of death, 34-year-old forester sustained a crush injury to his lower extremity and pelvis as was pinned between the wood log and ground. During autopsy intramuscular bleeding was observed in the left pelvic region the left femoral region femur was detected intact there was no fracture, but there was observed a traumatic transection of the common femoral artery and vein, which was accompanied with massive bleeding in the surrounding soft tissues and muscles. We presented rare case of traumatic transection of the common femoral artery and vein in a patient without an femoral fracture caused by blunt trauma. Keywords: blunt trauma - peripheral vascular injury - autopsy. PMID:23121033
The hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome is a hyperimmune disorder characterized by lymphohistiocytic infiltrations, elevated cytokine levels in the blood, macrophage activation, and hemophagocytosis, frequently presenting with a febrile septic picture. This unusual disease is more common in infancy and childhood than adulthood. It is classified as primary or familial when a genetic defect is identified and secondary or acquired when triggered by certain infections, autoimmune disorders, or malignancies. If or when such patients expire, they typically do so within a hospital or under a physician's care and so such cases rarely come to the attention of forensic pathologists. We report on the unexpected deaths of two hospitalized adult cases of HLH brought to autopsy without a premortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination demonstrated marked hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy in association with hemophagocytosis. Although very uncommon HLH must be considered in infants, children, or adults who die unexpectedly with an undiagnosed septic presentation. PMID:23682740
Chute, Dennis J; Rawley, James; Cox, John; Bready, Robert J
Background Since most patients prefer out-of-hospital death, place of death can be considered an indicator of end-of-life care quality.\\u000a The study of trends in place of death is necessary to examine causes of shifts, to evaluate efforts to alter place of death\\u000a and develop future policies. This study aims to examine past trends and future projections of place of death.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Analysis
Dirk Houttekier; Joachim Cohen; Johan Surkyn; Luc Deliens
Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults. The median survival never exceeds 12 months, owing to inherent resistance to both radio and chemotherapies. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is amplified, overexpressed, and/or mutated in glioblastomas (GBM), making it a rational for therapy. Erlotinib, an EGFR kinase inhibitor is strongly associated with clinical response in several cancers. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by erlotinib were investigated in U87-MG and DBTRG-05MG, two human glioblastoma cell lines. The expression of several apoptosis-related proteins was investigated in these cell lines and in tumoral tissue from glioblastomas. Both cell lines expressed wild-type EGFR but were deficient for PTEN. Erlotinib induced a marked accumulation of the BIM protein, but the activation of caspase-3 machinery was missing, regardless of the decrease in XIAP. Moreover, in U87-MG, erlotinib promoted accumulation of ?B-crystallin a small heat shock protein capable to impair caspase activation. DBTRG-05MG was found deficient for procaspase 3 and constitutively overexpressed ?B-crystallin. Similarly, deficiencies in PTEN and procaspase 3 were constantly found in samples from glioblastoma samples, while ?B-crystallin expression was inconsistent. In cell lines, high concentrations of erlotinib induced cell death through a caspase independent process and an autophagic process was evidenced in U87-MG. Inhibition of autophagy induced a marked increase in the death-inducing activity of erlotinib. These results confirm that glioblastoma cell lines exhibit several anti-apoptotic mechanisms, and underline that EGFR targeted therapy must be associated to other inhibitors to achieve an antitumoral effect. PMID:21508666
...FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS...the time of death, and the nature...the miner's coal mine employment...employed in a coal mine at the time of death; (2)...
...FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS...the time of death, and the nature...the miner's coal mine employment...employed in a coal mine at the time of death; (2)...
Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)
...of reprieve or commutation of a death sentence imposed by a United States District...for reprieve or commutation of a death sentence should be filed before proceedings...one request for commutation of a death sentence will be processed to...
A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed.
BackgroundClinical guidelines are important for ensuring quality of treatment and care. For this reason, it is essential that clinicians adhere to guidelines. Review studies conclude that barriers to using guidelines are context specific. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies that compare the attitudes of different groups of doctors to guidelines.ObjectivesTo survey the attitudes of Norwegian medical practitioners to clinical
This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive attitude toward science vs. gender was undertaken. An initial significant difference in positive attitude toward science between females and males in the experimental group was established (p =.05). There was no significant difference in positive attitude toward science between those same females and males after the experimental period. Consistent with other results, attitudes toward science for both males and females in the control group became less positive after the study, while males and females in the experimental group had a more positive attitude toward science after four months of using constructivist strategies. Looking at females only, the control group started out with a significantly more positive attitude toward science (mean = 43.40) compared to the experimental group (mean = 39.26, p =.0261). Although a significant difference in positive attitude between females in both groups was not found after the treatment period, the mean attitude score for females in the experimental group increased 2.044, while the mean attitude score for females in the control group decreased by 1.750. Constructivist strategies and their relationship with fostering positive attitudes toward science, might prove a viable solution for addressing the major concern of gender equity and enrollment in higher level science and mathematics courses.
OBJECTIVE The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of blood pressure (BP) in adults with diabetes and investigate the association of trajectory patterns with mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A nonconcurrent longitudinal design was used to monitor 3,766 Medicare patients with diabetes from 2005 through 2008. Data were extracted from a registry of Medicare beneficiaries, which was developed by a large academic practice that participated in the Physician Group Practice Medicare Demonstration. The relationship between BP trajectories and all-cause mortality was modeled using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS During the 4-year study period, 10.7% of the patients died, half of whom were aged ?75 years. The crude and adjusted models both showed a greater decline in systolic and diastolic BP in patients who died than in those who did not die. In a model adjusted for age, sex, race, medications, and comorbidities, the mean systolic BP decreased by 3.2 mmHg/year (P < 0.001) in the years before death and by 0.7 mmHg/year (P < 0.001) in those who did not die (P < 0.001 for the difference in slopes). Similarly, diastolic BP declined by 1.3 mmHg/year for those who died (P < 0.001) and by 0.6 mmHg/year for those who did not die (P < 0.001); the difference in slopes was significant (P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS Systolic and diastolic BP both declined more rapidly in the 4 years before death than in patients who remained alive.
Rogers, Mary A.M.; Ward, Kathleen; Gure, Tanya R.; Choe, Hae M.; Lee, Pearl G.; Bernstein, Steven J.; Blaum, Caroline S.
Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudesto cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate
LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND
We propose that metaphor is a mechanism by which motivational states in one conceptual domain can influence attitudes in a superficially unrelated domain. Two studies tested whether activating motives related to the self-concept influences attitudes toward social topics when the topics' metaphoric association to the motives is made salient through linguistic framing. In Study 1, heightened motivation to protect one's own body from contamination led to harsher attitudes toward immigrants entering the United States when the country was framed in body-metaphoric, rather than literal, terms. In Study 2, a self-esteem threat led to more positive attitudes toward binge drinking of alcohol when drinking was metaphorically framed as physical self-destruction, compared with when it was framed literally or metaphorically as competitive other-destruction. PMID:19845888
This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.
Many assert that the use of animals for dissections in the secondary and undergraduate class is unnecessary. This article describes a study conducted to compare the attitudes and achievement of students who use interactive methods instead of conventional dissection. (ZWH)
Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)
The objective of the study was to explore sexual dysfunction in adults with enduring mental health problem treated with psychotropic medications, focusing on associations between drug-induced sexual dysfunction and attitudeto prescribed medications. Participants were invited to complete an anonymous self-administered survey questionnaire, which comprised of the 10-Item Drug Attitude Inventory and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). In addition,
Tunde Apantaku-Olajide; Pat Gibbons; Agnes Higgins
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudesto Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality,
The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitudeto laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitudeto laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitudeto laboratory work are made.
Aims: To explore the attitudes of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) and nurses to secondary alcohol prevention (early identification of, and intervention for, alcohol-related problems) and compare it to their attitudesto other important lifestyle behaviours such as smoking, stress, exercise, and overweight. Methods: An adjusted version of The WHO Collaborative Study Questionnaire for General Practitioners was posted to all GPs
The relation between racial identity attitudes derived from Cross's (1971) model of psychological nigrescence, or black self-actualization, and various affective states hypothesized to be relevant to the racial identification process were investigated through multiple regression analysis. Subjects were 166 black university students. Both prowhite-antiblack (preencounter) and problack-antiwhite (immersion) attitudes were associated with greater personal distress as indicated by negative relations
Misinformation-defined as information that is initially assumed to be valid but is later corrected or retracted-often has an ongoing effect on people's memory and reasoning. We tested the hypotheses that (a) reliance on misinformation is affected by people's preexisting attitudes and (b) attitudes determine the effectiveness of retractions. In two experiments, participants scoring higher and lower on a racial prejudice scale read a news report regarding a robbery. In one scenario, the suspects were initially presented as being Australian Aboriginals, whereas in a second scenario, a hero preventing the robbery was introduced as an Aboriginal person. Later, these critical, race-related pieces of information were or were not retracted. We measured participants' reliance on misinformation in response to inferential reasoning questions. The results showed that preexisting attitudes influence people's use of attitude-related information but not the way in which a retraction of that information is processed. PMID:24005789
Ecker, Ullrich K H; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Fenton, Olivia; Martin, Kelsey
Background In order to protect the rights of the mentally ill, legislation on the standards and procedures of compulsory detention has been made at the local and national level in China. Aims This study aims to examine psychiatrists’ attitudeto seeking involuntary admission in China mainland. Method Three hundred and fourteen qualified members of Chinese Psychiatrist Association (CPA) were surveyed using a questionnaire to assess their attitudes about the procedure of involuntary admission to mental hospitals. Data were analyzed using chi-squares and logistic regression. Results Some psychiatrists in CPA had several arbitrary attitudes in the process of admission. Female, age under 35, low education level and low position in institution are associated with stricter attitudes in the procedure of involuntary admission. Areas with mental health legislation showed significant positive relations with stricter attitudes. Conclusions Every effort needs to be made to minimize these arbitrary attitudesto prevent negative outcomes. Protecting the rights of people diagnosed with mental illness still has a long way to go.
This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. PMID:20832438
Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar
Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes…
This paper provides empirical evidence that distinguishes between alternative conceptualizations of the risky decision making process. Two studies investigate whether cross-situational differences in choice behavior should be interpreted in the expected utility framework as differences in risk attitude (as measured by risk-averse vs. risk-seeking utility functions) or as differences in the perception of the relative riskiness of choice alternatives as
Science locus of control (SciLOC) orientation is examined as a predictor of attitudes toward science teaching among 104 preservice elementary school teachers. SciLOC orientation refers to beliefs people hold regarding their personal efficacy, or ability to influence the outcome of events, in situations where decisions or actions require either the application of scientific knowledge or the use of reasoning skills associated with scientific thinking. A causal model that links such beliefs toattitudes toward science teaching was formulated and tested in this study. Multiple regression analysis demonstrates that 46% of the variance in attitudes toward science teaching expressed by subjects in the sample studied can be explained by SciLOC orientation. Path analysis of the proposed causal model accounts for 57% of the variance in expressed attitudes and 11% of the variance in SciLOC orientation. These results are interpreted as evidence that SciLOC orientation is a major contributor toattitudes expressed toward science teaching among preservice elementary teachers, with the major contributors to SciLOC orientation remaining to be identified. A troublesome relationship between expressed attitudes and academic performance in college science is also noted.
In Parkinson’s disease, impaired function of mitochondrial complex I is involved in selective degeneration of dopamine neurons\\u000a in the substantia nigra. Mitochondria are now considered to play an active role in neuronal death process through activating\\u000a “intrinsic” apoptotic signaling, in addition to production of reactive oxygen species. This paper presents our recent findings\\u000a on new functions of mitochondria in regulation
...Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due toDeath of the License Holder AGENCY: U.S...Customs broker license cancellation due todeath of the broker...cancelled without prejudice due to the death of the license holders....
We report a case of sudden death in a clinically stable adult with l-transposition of the great arteries (l-TGA). Sudden death has been reported to be the leading cause of death in l-TGA and is often attributed to arrhythmias in the absence of another identifiable cause. However, the contribution of nonarrhythmic causes to the burden of sudden death in this population is unknown. Comprehensive post-mortem investigation, including autopsy and pacemaker interrogation, demonstrated that the cause of death was massive pulmonary hemorrhage due to stenosis of the patient’s mechanical tricuspid (systemic AV) valve. This report highlights the important contribution of nonarrhythmic causes of sudden death in this population and the value of autopsy and device interrogation in determining true cause of death.
Hayward, Robert M.; Ursell, Philip C.; Foster, Elyse; Tseng, Zian H.
We report a case of sudden death in a clinically stable adult with l-transposition of the great arteries (l-TGA). Sudden death has been reported to be the leading cause of death in l-TGA and is often attributed to arrhythmias in the absence of another identifiable cause. However, the contribution of nonarrhythmic causes to the burden of sudden death in this population is unknown. Comprehensive postmortem investigation, including autopsy and pacemaker interrogation, demonstrated that the cause of death was massive pulmonary hemorrhage due to stenosis of the patient's mechanical tricuspid (systemic AV) valve. This report highlights the important contribution of nonarrhythmic causes of sudden death in this population and the value of autopsy and device interrogation in determining true cause of death. PMID:24118753
Hayward, Robert M; Ursell, Philip C; Foster, Elyse; Tseng, Zian H
...required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? 10.912 Section...EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity Â§ 10.912 What is required to establish a claim for the death gratuity payment? Claim...
This paper analyses the influence of commuters’ attitudes toward the benefits of travel by bicycle (e.g. convenience, low cost, health benefits) on the mode choice decision for commutes to work. We assume that when the commute journey intensifies, either in terms of distance or frequency, attitudes toward cycling become more positive. Factor analysis reveals three underlying attitudinal factors toward cycling
Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.
Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian
In 2007 the Maryland Medical Examiner noted a potential cluster of fatal vascular access hemorrhages among hemodialysis patients, many of whom died outside of a health-care setting. To examine the epidemiology of fatal vascular access hemorrhages, we conducted a retrospective case review in District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia from January 2000 to July 2007 and a case-control study. Records from the Medical Examiner and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were reviewed, from which 88 patients were identified as fatal vascular access hemorrhage cases. To assess risk factors, a subset of 20 cases from Maryland was compared to 38 controls randomly selected among hemodialysis patients who died from non-vascular access hemorrhage causes at the same Maryland facilities. Of the 88 confirmed cases, 55% hemorrhaged from arteriovenous grafts, 24% from arteriovenous fistulas, and 21% from central venous catheters. Of 82 case-patients with known location of hemorrhage, 78% occurred at home or in a nursing home. In the case-control analysis, statistically significant risk factors included the presence of an arteriovenous graft, access-related complications within 6 months of death, and hypertension; presence of a central venous catheter was significantly protective. Psychosocial factors and anticoagulant medications were not significant risk factors. Effective strategies to control vascular access hemorrhage in the home and further delineation of warning signs are needed. PMID:22695325
Ellingson, Katherine D; Palekar, Rakhee S; Lucero, Cynthia A; Kurkjian, Katherine M; Chai, Shua J; Schlossberg, Dana S; Vincenti, Donna M; Fink, Jeffrey C; Davies-Cole, John O; Magri, Julie M; Arduino, Matthew J; Patel, Priti R
To assess the possible role of endotoxaemia in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), antibodies to endotoxin core (EndoCAb), which have previously been shown to be depressed by systemic endotoxaemia, were measured. IgG and IgM EndoCAb and total serum IgG and IgM were measured in serum samples from 25 children who had died from SIDS and 164 control children under 1 year of age. Twelve (48%) of the 25 children who had died from SIDS had no detectable IgG EndoCAb compared with 28 (17%) of the 164 control children, and this difference was concentrated in children aged less than 3 months. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the percentage of children with no IgM EndoCAb, nor in the total IgG and IgM concentrations. For IgM EndoCAb, the younger children who had died from SIDS had higher concentrations than the controls. These results suggest that, in children who have died from SIDS, due to either unusually early or severe exposure to endotoxin, maternal IgG EndoCAb have been depleted and early IgM EndoCAb triggered.
Oppenheim, B A; Barclay, G R; Morris, J; Knox, F; Barson, A; Drucker, D B; Crawley, B A; Morris, J A
The United States leads all nations in the incidence of deaths due to fire. In the past two decades significant technologic advances have resulted in the development of inexpensive and reliable smoke detectors. These detectors can provide early warning to allow sleeping residents easy exist when a fire ocfurs in the house. Currently, there are three major types of early warning devices: heat detectors, photoelectric smoke detectors, and ionization smoke detectors. Heat detectors sound an alarm in response to rapid increases in temperature and/or ambient temperatures above 135 F. Photoelectric smoke detectors are particularly effective for smoldering fires, because they are less influenced by the smaller particles of combustion emitted during household cooking or from automobile exhaust than are ionization smoke detectors. The ionization smoke detectors respond more quickly than photoelectric smoke detectors to fast burning fires and have been proved effective in sounding an early alarm in the vast majority of home fires. For best all-around fire protection, a home should have more than one type of detector. Detectors should be located on the ceiling or high on the ceiling of every level of the house close to each bedroom. Properly installed and maintained smoke detectors can reduce the tragic consequences of home fires, but even greater gains can be made by combining these early warning systems with a reduction in home fire hazards and in practicing a well planned fire escape route. PMID:7367077
Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life.
Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.
Background Diabetes is increasing in prevalence globally, notably amongst populations from low- and middle- income countries. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM), a precursor for type 2 diabetes, is increasing in line with this trend. Few studies have considered the personal and social effects of GDM on women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. Pregnant women, aged over 18 years, with GDM were eligible to participate. Women were purposely sampled to obtain a range of gestational ages and severity of disease. They were invited to attend a 1-hour focus group. Questions were semi structured around six themes. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated and cross-referenced. Non-verbal and group interactions were recorded. Thematic analysis was performed using a theoretical framework approach. Results From December 2010 to February 2011, four focus groups were conducted involving 34 women. Median age was 31.5 years (range 23 to 44), median BMI 21.8 kg/m2. Women felt confusion, anxiety and guilt about GDM. Many perceived their baby to be at increased risk of death. Advice to reduce dietary starch was confusing. Women reported being ‘hungry’ or ‘starving’ most of the time, unaware of appropriate food substitutions. They were concerned about transmission of GDM through breast milk. Several women planned not to breastfeed. All felt they needed more information. Current sources of information included friends, magazines, a health phone line or the Internet. Women felt small group sessions and information leaflets could benefit them. Conclusions This study highlights the need for culturally appropriate clinical education and health promotion activities for women with GDM in Vietnam.
Abstract Background: To investigate changes in TBI mortality in Austria during 1980-2012 and to identify causes for these changes. Methods: Statistik Austria provided data (from death certificates) on all TBI deaths from January 1980-December 2012. Data included year/month of death, age, sex, residency of the cases and mechanism of accident. Data regarding the size of the age groups was obtained from Statistik Austria. Mortality rates (MR; deaths/10(5) population/year) were calculated for male vs. female patients and for different age groups. Changes in mechanisms of TBI were evaluated. Results: The MR decreased from 28.1 to 11.8 deaths/10(5) population/year. Traffic-related TBI deaths decreased from 62% to 9%. This caused a significant decrease in TBI deaths in younger age groups. Fall-related TBI deaths (mostly geriatric cases) remained unchanged. Falls became the leading cause; its rate increased from 22% to 64% of all TBI deaths. Thus, the mean age of fatal TBI cases increased by 20 years and the rate of cases aged <60 years decreased from 71% to 28%. Another important cause was suicide by firearms; its rate increased from 10% to 23% of all TBI deaths. Conclusions: These findings warrant better prevention of falls in the elderly and of suicides. PMID:24734881
Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Leitgeb, Johannes
Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-𝒟-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy.
Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23640456
Over 1.8 million people have died of AIDS in South Africa, and it continues to be a death sentence for many women. The purpose of this study was to examine the broader context of death and loss from HIV/AIDS and to identify the cultural factors that influenced existing beliefs and attitudes. The participants included 110 women recruited from 3…
Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401
Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N
Hettiaratchy and Butler (Lancet 2002;360:5-6) framed face transplantation as the next logical step on the reconstructive ladder for severe facial injury, in particular, pan-facial burns. The procedure formed the basis for a Royal College of Surgeons of England working party report. Ethical, surgical, and psychological issues were identified as research priorities before face transplantation is attempted in the United Kingdom. Public engagement is a vital mechanism if people are to be informed about the risks and benefits of the technique and ultimately to be able to consent to either receiving or donating facial tissue. To sample public opinion about the procedure, 304 people attending the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition were sampled by online questionnaire to determine their attitude toward face transplantation. Although people were more cautious about face transplantation when comparing this with solid-organ transplantation, most of the sample were in favor of the procedure, whether receiving a donor face or donating their own face after their death. Only 10% were against the idea in principle. Concerns about altered identity were not a barrier to face transplantation for 69% of the sample, with most people appropriately identifying the long-term problems of immunosuppression as the issue that most concerned them. There is a substantial population of people who, given the right circumstances, would contemplate face transplantation for themselves and would be willing to donate their own face for transplantation after their death. PMID:16679911
Clarke, Alex; Simmons, Jon; White, Paul; Withey, Simon; Butler, Peter E M
Background Verbal autopsy (VA) has been proposed to determine the cause of death (COD) distributions in settings where most deaths occur without medical attention or certification. We develop performance criteria for VA-based COD systems and apply these to the Registrar General of India’s ongoing, nationally-representative Indian Million Death Study (MDS). Methods Performance criteria include a low ill-defined proportion of deaths before old age; reproducibility, including consistency of COD distributions with independent resampling; differences in COD distribution of hospital, home, urban or rural deaths; age-, sex- and time-specific plausibility of specific diseases; stability and repeatability of dual physician coding; and the ability of the mortality classification system to capture a wide range of conditions. Results The introduction of the MDS in India reduced the proportion of ill-defined deaths before age 70 years from 13% to 4%. The cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) at ages 5 to 69 years for independently resampled deaths and the MDS were very similar across 19 disease categories. By contrast, CSMFs at these ages differed between hospital and home deaths and between urban and rural deaths. Thus, reliance mostly on urban or hospital data can distort national estimates of CODs. Age-, sex- and time-specific patterns for various diseases were plausible. Initial physician agreement on COD occurred about two-thirds of the time. The MDS COD classification system was able to capture more eligible records than alternative classification systems. By these metrics, the Indian MDS performs well for deaths prior to age 70 years. The key implication for low- and middle-income countries where medical certification of death remains uncommon is to implement COD surveys that randomly sample all deaths, use simple but high-quality field work with built-in resampling, and use electronic rather than paper systems to expedite field work and coding. Conclusions Simple criteria can evaluate the performance of VA-based COD systems. Despite the misclassification of VA, the MDS demonstrates that national surveys of CODs using VA are an order of magnitude better than the limited COD data previously available.
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
There have been numerous reports of sudden cardiac death following blunt trauma to the chest, but there is lack of such references in forensic literature. It is the court of law which makes decision about trauma precipitating natural events. The forensic pathologist is scientifically trained in the medical field and would be in a better position to give clear picture about the victim's general status at the time of death, exact nature and severity of the illness he is suffering from if any. He can also assess the nature and severity of injuries sustained, and thus, his opinion as to the possible role played by the traumatic event in bringing about the death is valuable. This paper will discuss the mechanism of cardiac injury or possible cardiac injury and sudden death of an apparently healthy 36-year-old male following blunt chest trauma sustained during alleged assault by his neighbor. PMID:24576075
This study examined high school students' attitudes toward science after participating in a robotics competition. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories: Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude toward Scientific Inquiry,…
It is common for patients who are faced with physical or psychological suffering, particularly those in the advanced stages of a disease, to have some kind of wish to hasten death (WTHD). This paper reviews and summarises the current state of knowledge about the WTHD among people with end-stage disease, doing so from a clinical perspective and on the basis of published clinical research. Studies were identified through a search strategy applied to the main scientific databases. Clinical studies show that the WTHD has a multi-factor aetiology. The literature review suggests-perhaps in line with better management of physical pain-that psychological and spiritual aspects, including social factors, are the most important cause of such a wish. One of the difficulties facing clinical research is the lack of terminological and conceptual precision in defining the construct. Indeed, studies frequently blur the distinction between a generic wish to die, a WTDH (whether sporadic or persistent over time), the explicit expression of a wish to die, and a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. A notable contribution to knowledge in this field has been made by scales designed to evaluate the WTHD, although the problems of conceptual definition may once again limit the conclusions, which can be drawn from the results. Studies using qualitative methodology have also provided new information that can help in understanding such wishes. Further clinical research is needed to provide a complete understanding of this phenomenon and to foster the development of suitable care plans. PMID:20821377
Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Balaguer, Albert
This article presents a theoretical analysis of attitude formation and the relationship to stated behavioral intentions as it relates to the decision to donate organs. This analysis reveals the presence of three distinct paths to behavior of potential donors, groups differing in their involvement with organ donation. Promotional objectives and campaign strategies designed to influence attitudes and behaviors should differ according to the behavioral path in operation and the involvement of the audience. Mass media campaigns are likely to reach high involvement groups only. Therefore, personal selling, underutilized in previous donation campaigns, should be brought into the donation strategy to appeal to low involvement groups. By recognizing differences in audience involvement and implementing different strategies, overall donation rates could substantially increase. PMID:15018000
We investigate the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord of two qubits in liquid state homonuclear NMR. Applying a phenomenological description for NMR under relaxation process, and taking a group of typical parameters of NMR, we show that when a zero initial state $|00> $ experiences a relaxation process, its entanglement disappears completely after a sequence of so-called sudden deaths
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can be used as a messengers in normal cell functions. However, at oxidative stress levels they can disrupt normal physiological pathways and cause cell death. Such a switch is largely mediated through Ca2+ signaling. Oxidative stress causes Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment and from the endoplasmic reticulum or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER\\/SR)
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in…
To understand the attitude of the laypersons in DMAT in performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation during CPR, we designed a prospective study to investigate the likelihood of the laypersons in doing CPR with mouth-to-mouth ventilation and discuss the possible interfering factors involved. We enrolled the specialists and experts of disaster medicine and designed the basic training course of local DMAT since January
Attitudesto aging in mid-life have been found to be a predictor of health and well-being. The main purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire (RAQ) to the understanding of middle-aged women's attitudes towards their aging. An additional purpose was to expand the existing information regarding the dimensions of the new version of the RAQ. Middle-aged Melbourne women (n = 381) were asked to complete the RAQ, in addition to another attitudes-to-aging scale (Worries About Aging). Factor analysis of the RAQ was used to explore its dimensionality, and frequencies of responses were used to assess the spread of response of both instruments. The factors extracted in the factor analysis of the RAQ were interpretable and meaningful in terms of emotions related to aging. They were also similar to the factors described by previous data. The RAQ was more effective in its distribution ability than the Worries About Aging Scale. With some modifications, the RAQ may be more informative than was the Worries About Aging Scale in its ability to assess emotions, opinions and beliefs associated with aging in middle-aged women. PMID:11770187
Netz, Y; Guthrie, J R; Garamszegi, C; Dennerstein, L
Availability and accuracy of genetic testing in ophthalmology has increased yet the benefits are unclear especially for those conditions where cure or treatments are limited. To explore attitudesto and patients' understanding of possible advantages and disadvantages of genetic testing for inherited retinal disease, we undertook focus groups in three West Yorkshire towns in the UK. Most of our participants had retinitis pigmentosa and one of the focus groups consisted of participants from (British) Asian ethnic background. Here, we report only those attitudes which were common in all three focus groups. Some of the attitudes have already been reported in the literature. Novel findings include attitudes held towards informed choice and life planning, particularly among more severely affected participants. For example, participants appreciated that genetic testing increases informed choice and enables life planning, but these understandings tended to be in a specific sense: informed choice whether to have children and family planning in order to prevent illness recurrence. We conclude that even though these patients are not a homogeneous group, their attitudes tend to be underpinned by deep anxiety of passing their visual impairment onto their children. In this respect, they differ importantly from a small minority of the deaf who would prefer to have children with hearing loss, and from the more general population who do not believe that blindness is a "severe" enough disability to warrant avoiding having children. PMID:24366860
Potrata, Barbara; McKibbin, Martin; Lim, Jennifer Nw; Hewison, Jenny
Using multiple-cause-of-death data, this study examines diabetes mellitus as a cause of mortality. During the 2004-to-2008 period, diabetes mellitus was listed as either the underlying cause or a contributing cause of 119,617 deaths. It was more than twice as likely to be a contributing than the underlying cause of death. When it was identified as the underlying cause of death, diabetes mellitus was rarely the only cause. The diabetes mellitus mortality rate was relatively high among males, older individuals, and people living in lower-income neighbourhoods. Provincial/Territorial differences in rates of death from diabetes mellitus were considerable. When diabetes mellitus was the underlying cause of death, cardiovascular diseases were listed as a contributing cause most often, and when diabetes mellitus was a contributing cause, cardiovascular diseases were most likely to be the underlying cause. PMID:24648135
This paper compares excerpts from Chuang Tzu's writings and the descriptions of near-death experiencers (NDErs). Similarities between the beliefs of NDErs and those of Taoist patriarch Chuang Tzu suggest that NDErs have experienced a kind of awakening that leads them to reject conventional attitudes toward life and death.
The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400
Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura
Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making (Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable.' This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should express more supportive and favourable attitudes toward science. Research investigating the notion that 'to know science is to love it' has provided only weak empirical support and has itself been criticised for representing science and technology as a unified and homogenous entity. In practice, it is argued, how knowledge impacts on the favourability of attitudes will depend on a multiplicity of actors, not the least of which is the particular area of science in question and the technologies to which it gives rise (Evans & Durant, 1992). This article uses a new method for examining the knowledge-attitude nexus on a prominent area of 21st century science--biotechnology. The idea that greater scientific knowledge can engender change in the favourability of attitudes toward specific areas of science is investigated using data from the 2000 British Social Attitudes Survey and the 1999 Wellcome Consultative Panel on Gene Therapy. Together the surveys measure public opinion on particular applications of genetic technologies, including gene therapy and the use of genetic data, as well as more general attitudes towards genetic research. We focus our analysis on how two different measures of knowledge impact on these attitudes; one a more general measure of scientific knowledge, the other relating specifically to knowledge of modern genetic science. We investigate what impact these knowledge domains have on attitudes toward biotechnology using a regression-based modelling technique (Bartels, 1996; Althaus, 1998; Sturgis, 2003). Controlling for a range of socio-demographic characteristics, we provide estimates of what collective and individual opinion would look like if everyone were as knowledgeable as the currently best-informed members of the general public on the knowledge domains in question. Our findings demonstrate that scientific knowledge does appear to have an important role in determining individual and group attitudesto genetic science. However, we find no support for a simple 'deficit model' of public understanding, as the nature of the relationship itself depends on the application of biotechnology in question and the social location of the individual. PMID:16552916
Sturgis, Patrick; Cooper, Helen; Fife-Schaw, Chris
The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced todeath. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209
Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H
The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced todeath. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States.
Gross, Samuel R.; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H.
The purpose of this study was to design a psychometrically sound instrument to measure adolescents' attitudes toward school, attitudes toward teachers, goal-valuation, motivation, and general academic self-perceptions that could be used to explore the underachievement of academically able secondary school students. The final School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) instrument consisted of 35 questions, each of which being an indicator of
This study was conducted to describe trends in US lead poisoning-related deaths between 1979 and 1998. The predictive value of relevant ICD-9 codes was also evaluated. Multiple cause-of-death files were searched for records containing relevant ICD-9 codes, and underlying causes and demographic characteristics were assessed. For 1979–1988, death certificates were reviewed; lead source information was abstracted and accuracy of coding
Rachel B Kaufmann; Catherine J Staes; Thomas D Matte
Naturally occurring axonal pruning and neuronal cell death help to sculpt neuronal connections during development, but their mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Here we report that beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21) activate a widespread caspase-dependent self-destruction program. DR6 is broadly expressed by developing neurons, and is required for normal cell body death
Anatoly Nikolaev; Todd McLaughlin; Dennis D. M. O'Leary; Marc Tessier-Lavigne
All forms of life are confronted with environmental and genetic perturbations, making phenotypic robustness an important characteristic of life. Although development has long been viewed as a key component of phenotypic robustness, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report that the determinative developmental cell lineages of two protostomes and one deuterostome are structured such that the resulting cellular compositions of the organisms are only modestly affected by cell deaths. Several features of the cell lineages, including their shallowness, topology, early ontogenic appearances of rare cells, and non-clonality of most cell types, underlie the robustness. Simple simulations of cell lineage evolution demonstrate the possibility that the observed robustness arose as an adaptation in the face of random cell deaths in development. These results reveal general organizing principles of determinative developmental cell lineages and a conceptually new mechanism of phenotypic robustness, both of which have important implications for development and evolution.
SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2007 National Cancer Institute a US Mortality Files, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age
SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004 National Cancer Institute a NCHS public use data file for the total US. Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130). b The SEER 17 areas are San Francisco,
The selective loss of neurones in a range of neurodegenerative diseases is widely thought to involve the process of excitotoxicity,\\u000a in which glutamate-mediated neuronal killing is elaborated through the excessive stimulation of cell-surface receptors. Every\\u000a such disease exhibits a distinct regional and subregional pattern of neuronal loss, so processes must be locally triggered\\u000a to different extents to account for this.
The tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) causes cancer cell death, but many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, are resistant to TRAIL therapy. A combination of TRAIL and the diterpene triepoxide, triptolide, is effective in inducing pancreatic cancer cell death. Triptolide increases levels of death receptor DR5 and decreases the pro-survival FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which contribute to the activation of caspase-8. This combination further causes both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, resulting in cell death. Our study provides a mechanism by which triptolide sensitizes TRAIL resistant cells, which may become a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. PMID:24662747
Chen, Zhiyu; Sangwan, Veena; Banerjee, Sulagna; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M; Saluja, Ashok K
As the major transporters and distributors of water and minerals, xylem vessels and tracheids are the lifeline of plants. Interestingly, the building blocks of these water pipes are dead tracheary elements and vessel elements that have the process of cell death integrated into their differentiation programme. Using the Zinnia in vitro model system for xylogenesis, a key nuclease that is responsible for nuclear degradation during the terminal stages of tracheary element differentiation has been identified recently. PMID:14557040
Thepurposeofthis study wastoinvestigate theeffects ofdaily exercise onsusceptibil- ity tosudden cardiac death. A 2mincoronaryocclusion was initiated during thelast minute ofan exercise stress testandcontinued for1minafter cessation ofexercise inchronically instrumented dogs with ahealed anterior wall myocardial infarction. Thirteen dogsdeveloped ventricular fibrillation (VF; susceptible), while five didnot(resistant). Before theexercise plus ischemia test, thebaroreflex was evaluated with abolus injection ofphenylephrine (10gg\\/kg). Thechanges inheart ratecaused bya30
Very little information is available on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) with respect to epilepsy among schoolchildren from developing countries. We quantified KAP with respect to epilepsy among 1213 tenth-grade students of Kerala, southern India. Ninety-eight percent of them had heard or read about epilepsy. However, nearly 60% of students thought that epilepsy was a form of insanity. Allopathic treatment was preferred by more than half of the respondents; however, many had faith in exorcism and visiting religious places as ways to cure epilepsy. Half of the students considered epilepsy a hindrance to education, employment, and marriage. Thirteen percent would be unwilling to sit adjacent to or play with a child with epilepsy. We conclude that although familiarity with epilepsy was high among high school students in Kerala, misconceptions and negative attitudes were alarmingly high. Persistent and effective information campaigns, therefore, are necessary to change their attitudes toward fellow students with epilepsy. PMID:16971188
Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Santosh, Deetha; Kumar, T Santosh; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath
Results are presented of a study to show the effect of selecting a constant inertial attitude during the fuel dissipation phase of a return-to-launch-site abort. Results are also presented which show that the selection of the constant inertial attitude will affect the arrival point on the range-velocity target line. An alternate selection of the inertial attitude will provide control over the trajectory shape.
We present the space debris operational process in the context of real circumstances that would have required early assessment, prompt warning, and responsive mitigations. We have applied several widely used collision and explosion models to the prompt debris environment, short term moderation of the debris cloud through reentry, mid-term assessment of conjunctions with operational satellites, and identification of the long term persistent aftermath. We provide distributions of fragment sizes, masses, and radar cross sections which we use to identify the trackable population and the remaining population which is either imperceptible to space surveillance radars. We examine predicted conjunctions between FY1C Debris (Catalog 31473)/Meteor 2-2, FY1C Debris (31379)/Meteor 2-12, and ISIS-2/Cosmos 2271. These illustrate early assessment of collision probability and consequences, triage among high probability conjunctions to conduct additional analysis judiciously, and the consequences of collisions between objects of disparate masses. We highlight deficiencies in essential analytical tools and databases. We offer guidance for further investigation and seek better capabilities to serve this important need.
Survey data on 1217 adults living in Alberta, Canada were collected by Ipsos Reid Public Affairs and made available to us for analysis. The survey questioned participants on issues related to science including their perceived knowledge of science, attitudes toward science, and trust in science and technology. We developed a structural equation model to account for the causal relations implied by the correlations among the variables in the data set. Results show that trust in generalized science and technology is a large determiner of trust in specific technologies, but that trust in specific technologies is not a determinant of overall trust in science and technology. We also found that attitudes towards science have an effect on trust in generalized science and technology whereas perceived knowledge does not. Education and gender contribute toattitudes supporting an increased personal attachment to