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Sample records for attitude to death

  1. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their

  2. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  3. Personifications of personal and typical death as related to death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Jonathan F; McCann, Polly A; Cate, Kelly L

    2008-01-01

    The present article examined differences in personifications of personal and typical death as a function of attitudes about death. Ninety-eight students enrolled in psychology classes were randomly assigned to personify death as a character in a movie depicting either their own deathbed scene or the deathbed scene of the typical person prior to completing the Death Attitude Profile-Revised. The results supported the conceptual distinction between attitudes about personal death and death in general. Participants in the personal death condition personified death more frequently as a gentle-comforting image and less frequently as a cold-remote image than did participants in the typical death condition. The results also further validated the relation between personifications of death and death attitudes. Across both conditions, participants who selected the grim-terrifying image reported more fear of death and death avoidance; whereas, participants who selected the cold-remote or robot-like images reported more neutral acceptance. PMID:18680888

  4. College Students' Attitudes toward Death Today as Compared to the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Becker, DeAnne M.

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on attitudes toward death first administered to college students in 1935 was administered to college students in 1991. The students in 1991 showed much greater concern with and anxiety over death than did students in 1935. Cancer and car accidents remained causes of death most often anticipated in 1991 as in 1935 and 1970.

  5. College Students' Attitudes toward Death Today as Compared to the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Becker, DeAnne M.

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on attitudes toward death first administered to college students in 1935 was administered to college students in 1991. The students in 1991 showed much greater concern with and anxiety over death than did students in 1935. Cancer and car accidents remained causes of death most often anticipated in 1991 as in 1935 and 1970.…

  6. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  7. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  8. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  9. Attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. A model for understanding reactions to medical procedures after death.

    PubMed

    Sanner, M

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reach a deeper understanding of factors influencing the attitudes toward organ donation and other procedures with the dead body. From a survey of 400 inhabitants of Uppsala, a city in the middle of Sweden, concerning attitudes toward transplantation issues, 38 individuals with different attitudes toward donation of their own organs were selected for follow-up interviews. From the interviews, more than 600 statements concerning motives and reactions to medical procedures with the dead body were listed. These statements were summarized in 20 motive categories, in which 17 the nature of the motives were negative to organ donation and three promoting such a procedure. The categories were then analyzed and interpreted within a frame of reference of psychodynamic defense theory. In several cases it was possible to relate them to common death anxiety defenses. Six different motive complexes were extracted. These are called (1) illusion of lingering life; (2) protection of the value of the individual; (3) distrust, anxiety and alienation; (4) respecting the limits set by Nature or God; (5) altruism; and (6) rationality. Individuals not willing to donate their own organs were judged as either (a) reacting out of strenthened death anxiety defenses, or (b) as having a special outlook on life, where the idea of what is 'natural' was emphasized. The adverse reactions of the positive attitude group were seen as initial reactions perceived as derivations of common death anxiety defenses and weakened when confronted with altruistic and fact-stressing arguments. In the 'undecided group' of 14 persons, 11 arrived at a definite opinion. Seven decided for organ donation when their mistaken beliefs were corrected or when they took time to work through their initial uneasiness, while 4 persons actually were clearly negative. Three still remained uncertain. The stability of these attitudes seems to be high, often being experienced as a part of one's philosophy of life. PMID:8042059

  10. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  11. Near-Death Experiences and Antisuicidal Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyson, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close to death without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…

  12. Death Attitudes among Mid-Life Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Virginia; Sands, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Examined death attitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…

  13. Factors related to attitudes toward organ donation after death in the immigrant population in Spain.

    PubMed

    López, Jorge S; Valentín, María O; Scandroglio, Barbara; Coll, Elisabeth; Martín, María J; Sagredo, Encarnación; Martínez, José M; Serna, Emilio; Matesanz, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Considering the relevance of the migratory processes in Western societies, the attitudes toward organ donation after death are analyzed by means of a survey applied to a representative random sample of the resident immigrant population in Spain, comprising 1202 subjects (estimated margin of error of ± 2.88%, p = q, p < 0.05). Considered variables were disposition toward own organ donation, disposition toward deceased relatives' donation in different situations, arguments against donation, socio-demographic indicators, religious beliefs, social integration, and information about organ donation and transplantation. Predisposition to donate varies strongly across geographical origin and religious beliefs and also shows relationships with additional socio-demographic, social integration, and informative variables. In turn, the relationship between religious beliefs and attitude toward donation varies as a function of the degree of social integration. In Spain, the immigrant population is a heterogeneous collective that requires differential strategies to promote donation. Such strategies should be aimed at reinforcing the existing positive attitudes of citizens from West Europe and Latin America, and at familiarizing and informing about donation in citizens from the East, and at making specific efforts to break down the cultural and religious barriers toward donation in African citizens, with special emphasis on people of the Muslim faith. PMID:22283230

  14. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  15. Attitudes of Senegalese Secondary School Students Toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewiele, Michel

    1984-01-01

    Investigated attitudes toward death of 680 Senegalese boys and girls and their families. The main attitude of respondents and their parents, described as resigned and highly moralizing, was assumed to be the result of a four-century-old Islamization which supersedes the serener attitudes of the traditional society. (JAC)

  16. Contributions of Health and Demographic Status to Death Anxiety and Attitudes toward Voluntary Passive Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1980-01-01

    Greater death acceptance and anxiety were observed among rural as compared to urban-dwelling participants. Responses by a life-threatened geriatric subsample revealed differences in death fears related to type of medical disorder. Previous findings of no difference in the death fears of heart and cancer patients were replicated. (Author)

  17. East Asian Attitudes toward Death- A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  18. The Correlations of Attitudes toward Suicide with Death Anxiety, Religiosity, and Personal Closeness to Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Julianne D.; Brush, Lorelei R.

    1980-01-01

    A study of college students showed the more supportive students were about the right of people to commit suicide, the more anxious they felt about death, the less strongly they were committed to a religion, and the more seriously they had thought about committing suicide. (Author)

  19. Fear of death, death attitudes, and religious conviction in the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Smith, D K; Nehemkis, A M; Charter, R A

    The way in which an individual's belief system about death affects fear of death (FOD) has been largely neglected in the thanatology literature. The present study addresses the dimension of certainty or uncertainty with which beliefs about death are held and examines the way in which such attitudes might affect the FOD in dying patients. Twenty terminally ill patients were administered three FOD measures and a death perspective scale which assessed eight death attitudes. FOD among the terminally ill at both the conscious and fantasy level was low. Increased age was associated with declining conscious FOD, independent of life expectancy. Of the eight death perspectives, the attitudes toward death as afterlife-of-reward most directly tap the dimension of certainty or uncertainty. A significant curvilinear relationship emerged between this death perspective and FOD, suggesting that beliefs are a less critical determinant of death fear than is the certainty with which these beliefs are held. The study raises research and clinical issues pertinent to understanding FOD in dying patients. PMID:6654612

  20. Attitudes and Experiences of Death Workshop Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth; Worden, J. William

    1977-01-01

    Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)

  1. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  2. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  3. Factor Analysis of the Omega Scale: A Scale Designed To Measure the Attitudes of College Students toward Their Own Deaths and the Disposition of Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staik, Irene M.

    A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…

  4. The influence of death attitudes and knowledge of end of life options on attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Steven W

    End of life decisions, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS), have continued to be controversial as health care policy, moral, and individual health care issues. This study considers knowledge of end of life options and death attitudes as predictors of attitudes toward PAS. Data were gathered from approximately 300 adults through a mailing sent to a household research panel. Validated measures of attitudes toward PAS, knowledge about that state's assisted suicide laws, demographics, and attitudes toward death as measured through the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) were collected and analyzed. The data indicate that attitudes toward PAS are a function of knowledge of end of life options as well as death attitudinal factors. PMID:19435180

  5. Attitudes toward Life and Death, Religiosity, and Gender in Israeli Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; Florian, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Examined impact of religion and gender on fifth graders' (n=142) attitudes toward life and death. Although all children displayed high attraction and low repulsion to life and low attraction and high repulsion to death, religious children displayed higher attraction to death. Found main effect of gender and gender x religiosity interaction.…

  6. Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

  7. Attitudes Regarding Palliative Sedation and Death Hastening Among Swiss Physicians: A Contextually Sensitive Approach.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rose-Anna; Johnston, Wendy S; Bernard, Mathieu; Canevascini, Michela; Currat, Thierry; Borasio, Gian D; Beauverd, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, where assisted suicide but not euthanasia is permitted, the authors sought to understand how physicians integrate palliative sedation in their practice and how they reflect on existential suffering and death hastening. They interviewed 31 physicians from different care settings. Five major attitudes emerged. Among specialized palliative care physicians, convinced, cautious and doubtful attitudes were evident. Within unspecialized settings, palliative sedation was more likely to be considered as death hastening: clinicians either avoid it with an inexperienced attitude or practice it with an ambiguous attitude, raising the issue of unskilled and abusive uses of sedatives at the end of life. PMID:26107119

  8. Suicidality, hopelessness, and attitudes toward life and death in clinical and nonclinical adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cotton, C R; Range, L M

    1996-01-01

    To see if hopelessness and four attitudes (attraction to life and death and repulsion by life and death) account for the development of suicidality in children, 15 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 84 middle and high school students, average age 15.2 years, took a four-item version of the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale for Children (HSC), and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents (MAST-A). Profiles on the four attitudes differentiated adolescents at risk for suicide from those not at risk. Suicidality was negatively related to Attraction to Death and positively related to Repulsion by Life, Attraction to Death, Repulsion by Death, and hopelessness. Hopelessness was negatively related to Attraction to Life, and positively related to Repulsion by Life and Repulsion by Death. The best predictors of suicidality were hopelessness and Repulsion by Life. Results imply that reducing feelings of rejection by their families might lessen suicidality in adolescents. PMID:10169709

  9. Japanese Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Students Survivors of Parental Suicide: A Comparison With Other Stigmatized Deaths.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Japanese undergraduates' attitudes toward a fellow student whose parent has died by suicide. One hundred thirty-four participants responded to four versions of a brief fictional case describing a male undergraduate whose father had died. These presented fictional cases described the cause of the death as being suicide, cancer, AIDS, or murder. Results indicated that participants had more negative attitudes toward the suicide survivor student than the nonstigmatized death (cancer) survivor. Further, results indicated that participants viewed suicide survivors as more to blame for the death and had a more negative image of them than of the other stigmatized death (AIDS and murder) survivors. PMID:26152028

  10. Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward the Aged as a Function of Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackie, Norman K.

    A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…

  11. The Effect of Death Education on Specific Attitudes toward Death in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Rita T.

    1981-01-01

    After a course on death and dying students perceived themselves as more comfortable in interacting with the dying and bereaved and held stronger beliefs about rights of the dying. Little change was observed in attitudes towards life after death but a trend away from traditional burial preferences was noted. (JAC)

  12. Palliative and Curative Care Nurses' Attitudes Toward Dying and Death in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…

  13. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's

  14. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  15. Spiritual Development and Death Attitude in Female Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Masoumeh; Khalilian, Alireza; Dousti, Yarali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the differences regarding spiritual development dimensions and death attitude profiles, and also to determinate association between them, in patients suffering from type II diabetes. Methods: In a cross-sectional design study, 100 female outpatients who were suffering from type II diabetes were recruited in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran. Data were collected through two questionnaires including the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR). Analysis of the data involved analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) as post-hoc test plus the Pearson correlation. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in spiritual development dimensions and death attitude profile. The results showed that spiritual development were significantly associated with some items of death attitude profiles. Conclusion: Awareness of God was suitable in diabetic patients, but the quality of relationship with God indicated spiritually immature. It is necessary to provide instruction to improve patient's death attitude and following health behavior. PMID:25780376

  16. Experiences With and Attitudes Toward Death and Dying Among Homeless Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Edward R; Bartels, Dianne M.; Alderton, Lucy; Hudson, Brenda; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless persons face many barriers to health care, have few resources, and experience high death rates. They live lives of disenfranchisement and neglect. Few studies have explored their experiences and attitudes toward death and dying. Unfortunately, studies done in other populations may not apply to homeless persons. Exploring these experiences and attitudes may provide insight into life, health care, and end-of-life (EOL) concerns of this population. Objective To explore the experiences and attitudes toward death and dying among homeless persons. Design Qualitative study utilizing focus groups. Participants Fifty-three homeless persons recruited from homeless service agencies. Measurements In-depth interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Results We present seven themes, some of which are previously unreported. Homeless persons described many significant experiences with death and dying, and many participants suffered losses while very young. These encounters influenced participants’ attitudes toward risks and risky behavior: e.g., for some, these experiences provided justification for high-risk behaviors and influenced their behaviors while living on the streets. For others, they may be associated with their homelessness. Finally, these experiences informed their attitudes toward death and dying as well as EOL care; homeless persons believe that care will be poor at the EOL. Conclusions Findings from this study have implications for addressing social services, health promotion, prevention, and EOL care for homeless persons, as well as for others who are poor and disenfranchised. PMID:17372788

  17. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  18. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the

  19. Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients toward Death and Dying in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olokor, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…

  20. Eaten to death

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Charles; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-autophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) delivers cytoplasmic material to the lysosome for degradation, and has been implicated in many cellular processes, including stress, infection, survival, and death. While the regulation and role that autophagy plays in stress, infection, and survival is apparent, the regulation of and role that autophagy has during cell death remains relatively unclear. In this review, we highlight what is known about the role that autophagy can play during physiological cell death, and discuss the implications of better understanding cellular destruction that involves autophagy. PMID:25323556

  1. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Death and End-of-life Care

    PubMed Central

    Broeseker, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess pharmacy students' attitudes toward death and end-of-life care. Methods Third-year pharmacy students enrolled in the Ethics in Christianity and Health Care course were administered a survey instrument prior to introduction of the topic of end-of-life care. Students' attitudes toward different professions' roles in end-of-life care and their comfort in discussing end-of-life issues were assessed. The survey instrument was readministered to the same students at the end of their fourth year. Results On most survey items, female students responded more favorably toward death and end-of-life care than male students. One exception was the perceived emotional ability to be in the room of a dying patient or loved one. Post-experiential survey responses were generally more favorable toward death and end-of-life care than were pre-discussion responses. Conclusions In general, when surveyed concerning death and end-of-life care, female students responded more favorably than male students, and responses at the end of the fourth year were more favorable than at the beginning of the course. PMID:21045946

  2. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  3. Sibling Death and Death Fear in Relation to Depressive Symptomatology in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65–97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, −.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships. PMID:19181691

  4. Sibling death and death fear in relation to depressive symptomatology in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships. PMID:19181691

  5. Death Concern and Attitudes toward the Elderly in Nursing Home Personnel as a Function of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaola, Stephen J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between death fear, attitudes toward the elderly, and personal anxiety about aging in nursing home employees. Nursing professionals (registered nurses or licensed practical nurses) had lower levels of death concern than nursing assistants, and results also indicated that nursing assistants displayed significantly…

  6. Early European attitudes towards "good death": Eugenios Voulgaris, Treatise on euthanasia, St Petersburg, 1804.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, E; Dimoliatis, I D K

    2007-06-01

    Eugenios Voulgaris (Corfu, Greece, 1716; St Petersburg, Russia, 1806) was an eminent theologian and scholar, and bishop of Kherson, Ukraine. He copiously wrote treatises in theology, philosophy and sciences, greatly influenced the development of modern Greek thought, and contributed to the perception of Western thought throughout the Eastern Christian world. In his Treatise on euthanasia (1804), Voulgaris tried to moderate the fear of death by exalting the power of faith and trust in the divine providence, and by presenting death as a universal necessity, a curative physician and a safe harbour. Voulgaris presented his views in the form of a consoling sermon, abundantly enriched with references to classical texts, the Bible and the Church Fathers, as well as to secular sources, including vital statistics from his contemporary England and France. Besides euthanasia, he introduced terms such as dysthanasia, etoimothanasia and prothanasia. The Treatise on euthanasia is one of the first books, if not the very first, devoted to euthanasia in modern European thought and a remarkable text for the study of the very early European attitudes towards "good death". In the Treatise, euthanasia is clearly meant as a spiritual preparation and reconciliation with dying rather than a physician-related mercy killing, as the term progressed to mean during the 19th and the 20th centuries. This early text is worthy of study not only for the historian of medical ethics or of religious ethics, but for everybody who is trying to courageously confront death, either in private or in professional settings. PMID:23674293

  7. Facing Up to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  8. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance

  9. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  10. Changing Breton Responses to Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badone, Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Based on fieldwork conducted in Brittany, France, during 1983 and 1984, discusses changes in Breton responses to death which have accompanied modernization and economic development. Suggests that familiarity with death and acceptance of it are being replaced by the "denial of death" characteristic of contemporary Western culture. Notes parallel…

  11. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    PubMed

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  12. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  13. The effects of death education on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their families.

    PubMed

    Frommelt, K H

    1991-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of an education program on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members. The program, based on the hospice concept of care, included a didactic section based on Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying, and a role-play model designed by the researcher. Data were collected from 34 licensed nurses, aged 18 to 65, practicing in the midwestern United States. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) was designed by the researcher to assess nurses' attitudes. The FATCOD was found to be a valid and reliable tool. All nurses completed the tool before and after the education program (pre-test, post-test). Compared by a t-test, the scores for the nurses were significantly higher after participation in the educational program. The t-value was found to be 2.97, significant at the less than 0.01 level, 2-tailed probability = 0.006. These findings support the hypothesis that nurses have a more positive attitude toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members after participation in the program, than the same nurses had before participating in the program. Demographic information including age, years of experience in nursing, highest degree held, basic type of nursing preparation and previous education on death and dying were analyzed to determine their relationship to the nurses' attitudes. The only information which demonstrated any significant relationship to the nurses' attitudes was that of previous education on death and dying. These were computed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) F = 3.22, F prob = 0.04, significant at less than 0.05 level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1742142

  14. An approach to iatrogenic deaths.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Angela R; DeJoseph, Maura E; Gill, James R

    2016-03-01

    Iatrogenic deaths are a concern for patients, physicians, and public health specialists. Most medicolegal investigation jurisdictions in the United States have the legal authority and mandate to investigate deaths associated with diagnostic/therapeutic procedures. Given the decreasing trends of autopsies performed in U.S. hospitals, forensic pathologists are likely to take on an even greater role in investigating these deaths. This is an overview and forensic pathological approach to fatal complications due to diagnostic and therapeutic medical events. PMID:26820284

  15. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  16. Autoerotic death due to electrocution.

    PubMed

    Arkuszewski, P; Meissner, E; Szram, S

    2014-01-01

    Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area. PMID:25184426

  17. Attitudes towards hastened death in ALS: a prospective study of patients and family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stutzki, Ralf; Weber, Markus; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Simmen, Urs; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Jox, Ralf J

    2014-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be associated with the wish to hasten death (WTHD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and stability of WTHD and end-of-life attitudes in ALS patients, identify predictive factors, and explore communication about WTHD. We conducted a prospective questionnaire study among patients and their primary caregivers attending ALS clinics in Germany and Switzerland. We enrolled 66 patients and 62 caregivers. Half of the patients could imagine asking for assisted suicide or euthanasia; 14% expressed a current WTHD at the baseline survey. While 75% were in favour of non-invasive ventilation, only 55% and 27% were in favour of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and invasive ventilation, respectively. These attitudes were stable over 13 months. The WTHD was predicted by depression, anxiety, loneliness, perceiving to be a burden to others, and a low quality of life (all p < 0.05). Lower religiosity predicted whether patients could imagine assisted suicide or euthanasia. Two-thirds of patients had communicated their WTHD to relatives; no-one talked to the physician about it, yet half of them would like to do so. In conclusion, physicians should consider proactively asking for WTHD, and be sensitive towards neglected psychosocial problems and psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:24070371

  18. Teachers' Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Death Education in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engarhos, Paraskevi; Talwar, Victoria; Schleifer, Michael; Renaud, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today, young children are exposed to death through various forms of media in their communities, schools, and home environments. With this inevitability of exposure, there is a need for death education in order to inform and support today's youth when facing the subject of death. Death is said to be one of the most emotional and complex…

  19. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bilsen, Johan; Bauwens, Marc; Bernheim, Jan; Stichele, Robert Vander; Deliens, Luc

    2005-03-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n = 359). Most of the pharmacists who responded felt that patients have the right to end their own life (73%), and that under certain conditions physicians may assist the patient in dying (euthanasia: 84%; physician-assisted suicide: 61%). Under the prevailing restrictive legislation, a quarter of the pharmacists were willing to dispense lethal drugs for euthanasia versus 86% if it were legalized, but only after being well informed by the physician. The respondents-favour guidelines for pharmacists drafted by their own professional organizations (95%), and enforced by legislation (90%) to ensure careful end-of-life practice. Over the last two years, 7.3% of the responding pharmacists have received a medical prescription for lethal drugs and 6.4% have actually dispensed them. So we can conclude that community pharmacists in East Flanders were not adverse to physician-assisted death, but their cooperation in dispensing lethal drugs was conditional on clinical information about the specific case and on protection by laws and professional guidelines. PMID:15810755

  20. Treating the condemned to death.

    PubMed

    Sargent, D A

    1986-12-01

    Psychiatrists should refrain from treating mentally ill prisoners on death row in order to restore their "competency to be executed." Such "treatment" renders them double agents, in the service of the state as well as the prisoner. Participation in an act that will bring about a prisoner's death is expressly forbidden by the AMA Code of Ethics. It recalls the behavior of Nazi physicians, who used their professional skills not to heal but to kill. PMID:3804727

  1. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Lesson Series on Death and Dying in Changing Adolescents' Death Anxiety and Attitudes toward Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Knott, Elizabeth S.

    Whether a unit of study dealing with death and dying caused changes in adolescents' death anxiety and attitudes toward older adults is investigated. Randomly selected students from high schools in North Carolina participated in the study. The experimental group numbered 323; there were 152 students in the control group. The experimental group

  2. History of brain death as death: 1968 to the present.

    PubMed

    De Georgia, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The concept of brain death was formulated in 1968 in the landmark report A Definition of Irreversible Coma. While brain death has been widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world, many of the controversies that surround it have not been settled. Some may be rooted in a misconstruction about the history of brain death. The concept evolved as a result of the convergence of several parallel developments in the second half of the 20th century including advances in resuscitation and critical care, research into the underlying physiology of consciousness, and growing concerns about technology, medical futility, and the ethics of end of life care. Organ transplantation also developed in parallel, and though it clearly benefited from a new definition of death, it was not a principal driving force in its creation. Since 1968, the concept of brain death has been extensively analyzed, debated, and reworked. Still there remains much misunderstanding and confusion, especially in the general public. In this comprehensive review, I will trace the evolution of the definition of brain death as death from 1968 to the present, providing background, history and context. PMID:24930367

  3. Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1979-01-01

    Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

  4. Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2011-01-01

    The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…

  5. Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2011-01-01

    The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,

  6. Attitudes Toward Aging and Behaviors Toward the Elderly Among Young People as a Function of Death Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Charles A.; Salter, Carlota deLerma

    1976-01-01

    This study correlated Templer's Death Anxiety Scale among 65 college students with their attitudes and behaviors toward the elderly. There was no evidence for the anxiety-denial hypothesis that fear of aging and death results in repression of ideas associated with aging and with rejection of the elderly. (Author)

  7. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  8. Individualism, authoritarianism, and attitudes toward assisted death: cross-cultural, cross-regional, and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Wieczorkowska, Grazyna; Erb, Hans-Peter; Burnstein, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that in individualistic cultures, individualism predicts positive attitudes toward assisted death, whereas authoritarianism is negatively associated with favorable views of this issue. Study 1 confirmed this hypothesis in a Polish sample (n=100). Study 2, using a German sample (n=102), found the predicted relationships for forms of assisted death that involved the individual self-determination of a terminally ill patient. In Study 3 (n=72), we found experimental evidence that priming individualistic aspects of the self-concept results in more favorable views of physician-assisted suicide. Using a representative sample (n=1158), Study 4 found that across the United States, regional levels of individualism are reflected in corresponding patterns of support for assisted suicide. The discussion focuses on assisted suicide as a cultural phenomenon and explores the implications of growing levels of individualism for public opinion and policy on assisted suicide. PMID:12680373

  9. Ambitions fulfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after controlling for extrinsic goal attainment, intrinsic goal attainment contributed positively to subjective well-being and ego-integrity and negatively to despair, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was unrelated to psychological health and contributed positively to despair. Study 2 (N = 213, Mean age = 75.2 years) replicated and extended these results, showing that intrinsic goal attainment contributed to the acceptance of one's own death, lower ill-being, and less death anxiety, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was negatively associated with death acceptance. It is argued that the attainment of intrinsic goals is related to better psychological health, because intrinsic goals are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. PMID:19348103

  10. Teaching about Death to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others

    Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…

  11. Attitudes of medical students to necropsy.

    PubMed Central

    Botega, N J; Metze, K; Marques, E; Cruvinel, A; Moraes, Z V; Augusto, L; Costa, L A

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To compare the attitudes of students towards the necropsy at different stages of their undergraduate career. METHOD: Students in the first, fourth and sixth academic years (n = 283) were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire comprised of 26 attitude statements. These statements dealt with the importance of the necropsy in medicine, rapport with the bereaved family and emotional reactions to the necropsy. RESULTS: Of the students, 226 (80%) completed the questionnaire. Overall, the students agreed on/the importance of the necropsy. The three groups differed in 10 statements on the approach to the bereaved family and emotional reactions to the necropsy. First year students showed more personal involvement and would have more difficulties in approaching the family of the deceased as well as in attending a necropsy. These reactions were increasingly less noticeable with fourth and sixth year students. The latter group was also more inclined to accept cremation, organ donation and necropsy of their own corpses. CONCLUSION: The changes in attitudes towards the necropsy throughout undergraduate study may reflect both the influence of psychological defense mechanisms and the viewing of necropsy as a relevant tool in medical practice. Necropsy should be carefully and sensitively incorporated into programmes designed to teach students about death and dying. This might reduce both their reluctance to seek permission for necropsy and their difficulty in looking after the dying patient. PMID:9059360

  12. Tracking animals to their death.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C

    2014-01-01

    Migration may be a high-risk period. In a study involving three species of raptor migrating from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa, Klaassen et al. (2014) satellite-tracked 51 out of 69 birds to their deaths and showed that rate of mortality during migration was 6x that during stationary phases when birds were on their winter and summer grounds. Travel across the Sahara was particularly risky. Satellite tracking has also been used to infer mortality in other taxa (e.g. sea turtles) and may allow high-risk hotspots to be identified for wide-ranging species. PMID:24192383

  13. Contrasts and Similarities in Attitudes toward Death of Health Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Jeffrey Michael; Hashimoto, Shige

    Although death and the circumstances surrounding it are inevitable for all people, open discussions of this subject are considered morbid and thus taboo. The fear of death, however, greatly affects the care administered to dying patients in a health care setting by professionals, family, and friends. A mail survey was administered to 247…

  14. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J.; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. Methods A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Conclusion Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates. PMID:25906265

  15. The death system according to Robert Kastenbaum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    This article focuses on Robert Kastenbaum's seminal concept of the societal death system. Beginning with conflicting claims that America is a death-denying society versus a death-accepting society, the article reports Kastenbaum's definition and description of the death system in American society and sets forth the seven functions and five elements or components of that death system. Next, the article notes Kastenbaum's further claim that "All cultures, past and present, have had death systems." Finally, two basic lessons are drawn from the foregoing: (1) Kastenbaum's concept of the death system provides a robust framework to explain the networks societies interpose between their members and death, focusing in particular on a more or less integrated and dynamic network within American society whose functions and components are not difficult to recognize in the ways in which they organize many aspects of the lives of individuals who live within that society; and (2) It is preposterous to assert without qualification that America is a death-denying society when there are so many activities and components within that society that are in whole or in part related to death, i.e., although it may be true that many aspects of the contemporary American death system appear to seek to remove death from the mainstream of life, there is ample evidence to indicate that American society as a whole and individuals within that society both accept and deny death simultaneously. PMID:25351587

  16. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  17. Children's Reactions to the Word Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenestam, Claes-Goran

    Although some research has been conducted in the past, few studies have investigated children's conceptions of life, death and dying. To study children's ideas about death, 112 children, age 4-18, were asked to draw what they thought of when they heard the word "death" and also to make verbal comments about their drawings. Three qualitatively…

  18. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  19. Personality Correlates of Student Attitudes to Microteaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargie, Owen D. W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) was used to test the existence of a relationship between attitudes to microteaching and personality of students. A correlation between extroversion and favorable attitude to microteaching, and a negative relationship between neuroticism and favorable attitude to microteaching is demonstrated; however, the…

  20. Radiofrequency Ablation to Prevent Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Atoui, Moustapha; Gunda, Sampath; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Mahapatra, Srijoy

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation may prevent or treat atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since some of these arrhythmias are associated with sudden cardiac death, it has been hypothesized that ablation may prevent sudden death in certain cases. We performed a literature search to better understand under which circumstances ablation may prevent sudden death and found little randomized data demonstrating the long-term effects of ablation. Current literature shows that ablation clearly prevents symptoms of arrhythmia and may reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death in select patients, although data does not indicate improved mortality. Ongoing clinical trials are needed to better define the role of ablation in preventing sudden cardiac death. PMID:26306130

  1. The health care professional's attitudes towards brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation: the influence of cadaveric donor and transplantation programs--a Malaysian survey.

    PubMed

    Rozaidi, S W; Sukro, J; Dan, A

    2000-12-01

    One of the main reasons for poor response in organ donation is the lack of positive attitudes and knowledge present in health care professionals. Definite legislation, policies and programmes dealing with brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation have shown some favourable results in terms of increasing donor rates. These programmes are mainly Western based; therefore adopting such programmes to be used locally may not be adequate or proper. To address this issue, we decided to carry out a questionnaire in two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia, one with a well establish brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation programme and one with none. PMID:11221161

  2. Patient Attitudes to Tonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ubayasiri, Kishan; Kothari, Ravi; McClelland, Lisha; De, Mriganka

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Recent changes to primary care trusts' Procedures of Limited Clinical Value (PLCV) policy mean that otolaryngologists must now follow policy rather than exercising clinical judgment when listing patients for tonsillectomy. Objectives. To gauge perception within the general public of when tonsillectomy is acceptable and to compare this to the current policy. Method. All patients or their parents attending the adult and paediatric outpatient ENT departments were asked to anonymously complete questionnaires. Results. One hundred and twenty-five completed questionnaires were collected. Thirty-one percent of respondents thought tonsillectomy should be offered solely on patient request, 19% after one to three bouts, and 35% after four to six bouts of tonsillitis. Only 9% thought the current guidelines were reasonable. Patients who had suffered recurrent tonsillitis or had undergone previous tonsillectomy generally thought tonsillectomy advisable after more bouts of tonsillitis than those who had not. Fourteen patients fulfilled the SIGN guidelines for tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis. Of these, 13 (93%) felt that suffering 4–6 bouts of tonsillitis was reasonable before tonsillectomy. Conclusion. All patients we surveyed who meet the current PLCV and SIGN guidelines regarding the appropriateness of tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis perceive that they are excessive, believing that 4–6 bouts of recurrent tonsillitis are adequate to justify tonsillectomy. PMID:23320167

  3. Attitudes toward Suicide Survivors as a Function of Survivors' Relationship to the Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Francoise M. T.; Cimbolic, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward suicide survivors among 60 participants responding to case histories describing suicide of either child, spouse, or parent. Subjects first read either suicide- or death-related materials. Suicide information did not affect attitudes toward survivors. Reactions to survivors were generally negative; children of victims were…

  4. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Edwin S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…

  5. [A wish to hasten death : what is behind it].

    PubMed

    Stiel, S; Elsner, F; Pestinger, M; Radbruch, L

    2010-04-01

    "There's nothing more to do, so let's come to an end, Doc!" A request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is a dramatic expression of patients' suffering and causes difficulties for staff members to react to these questions. Great efforts have been made in the last two centuries to gain a deeper understanding of the wish for hastened death of terminally ill patients and to develop conclusions for the management of these situations. This article presents differences in international legislation on euthanasia and summarises the ethical background. The current results from the literature according to motivations for the wish for hastened death, communicative functions of the request, attitudes and practices of physicians and their willingness to accompany the patient in euthanasia as well as practical implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20376609

  6. Attitude of the medical profession to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, A; Bhugra, D

    1992-01-01

    The attitude of the medical profession to psychiatry carries important implications for the quality of personnel attracted into the specialty and for the treatment, in a general medical setting, of patients with mental disorders. This article examines the components of doctors' attitudes and reviews the literature with regard to their attitudes to psychiatrists themselves, psychiatric patients and psychiatry as a vocation. The implications of these findings for psychiatrists are discussed. PMID:1546540

  7. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may

  8. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  9. Nonverbal Cues to Sex-Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoist, Irving R.; Butcher, James N.

    1977-01-01

    Explores how self-reported sex-role attitudes, or masculinity and femininity, when assessed by an instrument based on sound item selection procedures (Minnesota Attitude Survey) are related to expressive, nonverbal behaviors as viewed by peers. Examines the possibility that personality characteristics, more frequently associated with one or the

  10. Deaths from heart failure: using coarsened exact matching to correct cause-of-death statistics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incomplete information on death certificates makes recorded cause-of-death data less useful for public health monitoring and planning. Certifying physicians sometimes list only the mode of death without indicating the underlying disease or diseases that led to the death. Inconsistent cause-of-death assignment among cardiovascular causes of death is of particular concern. This can prevent valid epidemiologic comparisons across countries and over time. Methods We propose that coarsened exact matching be used to infer the underlying causes of death where only the mode of death is known. We focus on the case of heart failure in US, Mexican, and Brazilian death records. Results Redistribution algorithms derived using this method assign the largest proportion of heart failure deaths to ischemic heart disease in all three countries (53%, 26%, and 22% respectively), with larger proportions assigned to hypertensive heart disease and diabetes in Mexico and Brazil (16% and 23% vs. 7% for hypertensive heart disease, and 13% and 9% vs. 6% for diabetes). Reassigning these heart failure deaths increases the US ischemic heart disease mortality rate by 6%. Conclusions The frequency with which physicians list heart failure in the causal chain for various underlying causes of death allows for inference about how physicians use heart failure on the death certificate in different settings. This easy-to-use method has the potential to reduce bias and increase comparability in cause-of-death data, thereby improving the public health utility of death records. PMID:20388206

  11. Cell death: a program to regenerate.

    PubMed

    Vriz, Sophie; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in Drosophila, Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, mice, indicate that cell death can open paths to regeneration in adult animals. Indeed injury can induce cell death, itself triggering regeneration following an immediate instructive mechanism, whereby the dying cells release signals that induce cellular responses over short and/or long-range distances. Cell death can also provoke a sustained derepressing response through the elimination of cells that suppress regeneration in homeostatic conditions. Whether common properties support what we name "regenerative cell death," is currently unclear. As key parameters, we review here the injury proapoptotic signals, the signals released by the dying cells, the cellular responses, and their respective timing. ROS appears as a common signal triggering cell death through MAPK and/or JNK pathway activation. But the modes of ROS production vary, from a brief pulse upon wounding, to repeated waves as observed in the zebrafish fin where ROS supports two peaks of cell death. Indeed regenerative cell death can be restricted to the injury phase, as in Hydra, Drosophila, or biphasic, immediate, and delayed, as in planarians and zebrafish. The dying cells release in a caspase-dependent manner a variety of signaling molecules, cytokines, growth factors, but also prostaglandins or ATP as recorded in Drosophila, Hydra, mice, and zebrafish, respectively. Interestingly, the ROS-producing cells often resist to cell death, implying a complex paracrine mode of signaling to launch regeneration, involving ROS-producing cells, ROS-sensing cells that release signaling molecules upon caspase activation, and effector cells that respond to these signals by proliferating, migrating, and/or differentiating. PMID:24512708

  12. Death as portrayed to adolescents through top 40 rock and roll music.

    PubMed

    Plopper, B L; Ness, M E

    1993-01-01

    Rock and roll music, an important influential communication source, provides adolescents with messages about death in our society. The first 37 years of Top 40 rock songs (1955-1991) were examined, and songs that included a past death or an impending death were identified. The popularity of the songs, cause of death, gender of the deceased, and relationships among characters were determined. Analysis of song content was conducted, with specific emphasis on attitudes toward and means of coping with death. Results indicate that death songs comprise a disproportionately popular subset of Top 40 music, males dominate the obituaries, and grieving responses are restricted. Findings are discussed from a sociocultural perspective, with attention to their significance for adolescents. PMID:8266835

  13. Young People's Attitudes to Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahler, Peter; Tully, Claus J.

    1991-01-01

    A review of literature concerning the attitudes of young Germans toward technology focuses on feelings about both technology itself and technological change, the process of socialization toward technology, and interest in computers. It is concluded that the popular German notion of widespread hostility toward technology is not supported. (MSE)

  14. Deranged sodium to sudden death

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Colleen E; Chen-Izu, Ye; Bers, Donald M; Belardinelli, Luiz; Boyden, Penelope A; Csernoch, Laszlo; Despa, Sanda; Fermini, Bernard; Hool, Livia C; Izu, Leighton; Kass, Robert S; Lederer, W Jonathan; Louch, William E; Maack, Christoph; Matiazzi, Alicia; Qu, Zhilin; Rajamani, Sridharan; Rippinger, Crystal M; Sejersted, Ole M; O'Rourke, Brian; Weiss, James N; Varró, András; Zaza, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In February 2014, a group of scientists convened as part of the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium to bring together experimental and mathematical modelling perspectives and discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. This paper summarizes the topics of presentation and discussion from the symposium, with a focus on the role of aberrant sodium channels and abnormal sodium homeostasis in cardiac arrhythmias and pharmacotherapy from the subcellular scale to the whole heart. Two following papers focus on Na+ channel structure, function and regulation, and Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+ ATPase. The UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium is a biannual event that aims to bring together leading experts in subfields of cardiovascular biomedicine to focus on topics of importance to the field. The focus on Na+ in the 2014 symposium stemmed from the multitude of recent studies that point to the importance of maintaining Na+ homeostasis in the heart, as disruption of homeostatic processes are increasingly identified in cardiac disease states. Understanding how disruption in cardiac Na+-based processes leads to derangement in multiple cardiac components at the level of the cell and to then connect these perturbations to emergent behaviour in the heart to cause disease is a critical area of research. The ubiquity of disruption of Na+ channels and Na+ homeostasis in cardiac disorders of excitability and mechanics emphasizes the importance of a fundamental understanding of the associated mechanisms and disease processes to ultimately reveal new targets for human therapy. PMID:25772289

  15. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  16. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  17. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  18. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  19. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  20. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  1. Research to stop tobacco deaths.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  2. Obesity Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn Death Infant deaths related to premature delivery are doubled in obese ... pregnancy appear to have an increased risk of death, according to a new study. But even though ...

  3. Sudden death due to undiagnosed primary amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jason; Schreiber, William E; Lee, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by abnormal deposition of amyloid protein within tissues throughout the body. The site of deposition can differ between patients, and therefore, clinical presentation can vary. Here, we present a case of previously undiagnosed amyloidosis presenting with sudden death. Autopsy demonstrated amyloid infiltration of intramural myocardial vessels, in the absence of myocardial involvement, leading to acute myocardial infarction and death. Postmortem analysis on femoral blood demonstrated an increase in the concentration of free lambda light chains with a significantly decreased kappa-to-lambda ratio, confirming the amyloidosis to be of AL type. While cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis is not uncommon, isolated intramural vessel involvement is rarely seen, and to our knowledge, no reported cases have resulted in sudden death. This case highlights the importance of investigating angina-like symptoms in patients with amyloidosis. It also demonstrates that free light chain analysis can be a useful tool for diagnosing and classifying amyloidosis in postmortem investigations. PMID:23181621

  4. Attributability of death to pneumoconiosis in beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Sadler, R. L. (1974).Thorax, 29, 699-702. Attributability of death to pneumoconiosis in beneficiaries. Coal workers and slate workers who were receiving in 1965 industrial disability benefit for pneumoconiosis were grouped according to the radiological extent of their disease and their disability assessment. They were followed up for 7·5 years. Standard mortality rates, and from these the percentage of all deaths which can be attributed to pneumoconiosis, were assessed. About 10% of the deaths in the coal workers and about 40% of those in the slate workers were found to be accelerated by their pneumoconiosis, the proportion varying directly with the radiological extent of the disease and with the disability assessment at the beginning of the survey. PMID:4281111

  5. Attitude of schizophrenics to computer videogames.

    PubMed

    Samoilovich, S; Riccitelli, C; Schiel, A; Siedi, A

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the initial attitude of 10 chronic, defected schizophrenic patients to a computer videogame session. Six of them enjoyed the experience and wanted to repeat it. Cooperation and performance were compared by means of videogames and a standard psychometric test (WAIS). Videogame performance correlated with the execution test IQ more than with the verbal test IQ. Computer games could be useful in these patients for evaluation of attitudes and responses, psychologic testing, motivation and reward. PMID:1448536

  6. Anaesthetists' attitudes to teamwork and safety.

    PubMed

    Flin, R; Fletcher, G; McGeorge, P; Sutherland, A; Patey, R

    2003-03-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work values, human error and organisational climate. The respondents generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards the interpersonal aspects of their work, such as team behaviours and they recognised the importance of communication skills, such as assertiveness. However, the results suggest that some anaesthetists do not fully appreciate the debilitating effects of stress and fatigue on performance. Their responses were comparable with (and slightly more favourable than) those reported in previous ORMAQ surveys of anaesthetists and surgeons in other countries. PMID:12603453

  7. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  8. Addiction to near Death in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from

  9. Addiction to near Death in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…

  10. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  11. The relationship of religious variables to death depression and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, K A; Templer, D I; Bresler, C; Thomas-Dobson, S

    1995-03-01

    The present research explored the relationship of religious variables to death anxiety and death depression in 200 persons from the general population in what is apparently the first study to correlate religious variables with death depression. Persons with lower death depression had greater strength of conviction, greater belief in afterlife, and were less likely to say that the most important aspect of religion is that it offers the possibility of life after death. Persons with less death anxiety were found to have greater strength of conviction. The findings were discussed in relationship to previous research that has suggested that religious belief is associated more closely with death anxiety level than is religious practice. PMID:7797643

  12. Suicide Ideation Associations with Attitudes toward Suicide, Quality of Life, and Attitudes toward Death and Dying among Chinese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy S.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame; Kanungsukkasem, Vijit; Li, Kaigang; Jones, Megan R.; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Suicide of an individual could leave devastating consequences for family, friends, relatives, and society. Suicide could be considered a serious concern and issue to public health, especially among adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of suicide ideation with attitudes toward suicide (ATS), quality of life (QOL), and…

  13. Danish ethics council rejects brain death as the criterion of death -- commentary 2: return to Elsinore.

    PubMed

    Pallis, Christopher

    1990-03-01

    No discussion of when an individual is dead is meaningful in the absence of a definition of death. If human death is defined as the irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness combined with the irreversible loss of the capacity to breathe spontaneously (and hence to maintain a spontaneous heart beat) the death of the brainstem will be seen to be the necessary and sufficient condition for the death of the individual. Such a definition of death is not something radically new. It is merely the reformulation -- in the language of the neurophysiologist -- of much older concepts such as the 'departure of the (conscious) soul from the body' and the 'loss of the breath of life'. All death -- in this perspective -- is, and always has been, brainstem death.... PMID:11642760

  14. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  15. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  16. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  17. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to pneumoconiosis....

  18. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  19. Death and the Oldest Old: Attitudes and Preferences for End-of-Life Care - Qualitative Research within a Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Jane; Farquhar, Morag; Brayne, Carol; Barclay, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing longevity means more people will be dying in very old age, but little is known about the preferences of the ‘oldest old’ regarding their care at the end of life. Aims To understand very old people’s preferences regarding care towards the end of life and attitudes towards dying, to inform policy and practice. Methods Qualitative data collection for n = 42 population-based cohort study participants aged 95–101 (88% women, 42% in long-term-care): topic-guided interviews with n = 33 participants and n = 39 proxy informants, most with both (n = 30: 4 jointly + separate interviews for 26 dyads). Results Death was a part of life: these very old people mainly live day-to-day. Most were ready to die, reflecting their concerns regarding quality of life, being a nuisance, having nothing to live for and having lived long enough. Contrasting views were rare exceptions but voiced firmly. Most were not worried about death itself, but concerned more about the dying process and impacts on those left behind; a peaceful and pain-free death was a common ideal. Attitudes ranged from not wanting to think about death, through accepting its inevitable approach to longing for its release. Preferring to be made comfortable rather than have life-saving treatment if seriously ill, and wishing to avoid hospital, were commonly expressed views. There was little or no future planning, some consciously choosing not to. Uncertainty hampered end-of-life planning even when death was expected soon. Some stressed circumstances, such as severe dependency and others’ likely decision-making roles, would influence choices. Carers found these issues harder to raise but felt they would know their older relatives’ preferences, usually palliative care, although we found two discrepant views. Conclusions This study’s rare data show ≥95-year-olds are willing to discuss dying and end-of-life care but seldom do. Formal documentation of wishes is extremely rare and may not be welcome. Although being “ready to die” and preferring a palliative approach predominated, these preferences cannot be assumed. PMID:27045734

  20. A Response to the Legitimacy of Brain Death in Islam.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Brain death is a novel construct of death for the procurement of transplantable organs. Many authoritative Islamic organizations and governments have endorsed brain death as true death for organ donation. Many commentators have reiterated the misconception that the Quranic text does not define death. We respond by clarifying: (1) the Quran does define death as biologic disintegration and clearly distinguishes it from the dying process, (2) brain death belongs scientifically within the spectrum of neurologic disorders of consciousness and should not be confused with death, and (3) religious and legal discord about brain death has grown in jurisdictions worldwide. We urge for public transparency and truthfulness about brain death and the accommodation and respect of religious objection to the determination of death by neurologic criteria. PMID:27010462

  1. Attitudes toward women and orientation to seeking professional psychological help.

    PubMed

    Zeldow, P B; Greenberg, R P

    1979-04-01

    Studied the relationship between attitudes toward the rights and proper roles of women in society and attitudes toward seeking professional help for emotional problems in a sample of 80 college students. Liberal attitudes toward women were associated with positive help-seeking attitudes in men and women, contrary to predictions based on prior research and on feminist criticisms of the mental health profession. No sex difference in attitudes toward help-seeking was found; however, the attitudes toward women variable appears to be at least as good a predictor of actual help-seeking as a person's attitude toward help-seeking, within the sample studied. PMID:457920

  2. Examination of psychological variables related to nuclear attitudes and nuclear activism

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    It was hypothesized that knowledge about nuclear arms developments would not be correlated with nuclear attitudes, that sense of efficacy would be positively correlated with magnitude of nuclear activism, and that death anxiety would be correlated with high level of nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes, but not with sense of power. It was also hypothesized that positive correlations would be found between nuclear activism and political activism, knowledge of nuclear facts, and degree of adherence to anti-nuclear attitudes. One hundred and forty three women and 90 men participated in this questionnaire study. Major findings are as follows. In general, the more people knew about nuclear developments, the more anti-nuclear were their attitudes. Also, regardless of nuclear attitudes, a positive correlation was found between knowledge of nuclear facts and nuclear activism. Death anxiety and powerlessness were not correlated. There was a positive correlation between anxiety and both nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes. A strong positive correlation was found between nuclear activism and anti-nuclear attitudes, and between political activism and nuclear activism. Internal locus of control did not correlate significantly with high sense of power or with high degree of nuclear activism.

  3. Implications for Improving Fetal Death Vital Statistics: Connecting Reporters' Self-Identified Practices and Barriers to Third Trimester Fetal Death Data Quality in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica; Toprani, Amita; Begier, Elizabeth; Genovese, Richard; Madsen, Ann; Gambatese, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Perinatal mortality prevention strategies that target fetal deaths often utilize vital records data sets shown to contain critical quality deficiencies. To understand the causes of deficient data, we linked survey responses of fetal death reporters with facility fetal death data quality indicators. Methods In 2011, we surveyed the person most responsible for fetal death reporting at New York City healthcare facilities on their attitudes, barriers, and practices regarding reporting. We compared responses by 2 facility data quality indicators (data completeness and ill-defined cause of fetal death) for third trimester fetal death registrations using Chi squared tests. Results Thirty-nine of 50 facilities completed full questionnaires (78 % response rate); responding facilities reported 84 % (n = 11,891) of all 2011 fetal deaths, including 329 third trimester fetal deaths. Facilities citing ≥1 reporting barrier were approximately five times more likely to have incomplete third trimester registrations than facilities citing no substantial barriers (37.5 vs 7.9 %; RR 4.7; 95 % CI [1.6-14.2]). Reported barriers included onerous reporting requirements (n = 10; 26 %) and competing physician priorities (n = 11; 28 %). Facilities citing difficulty involving physicians in reporting were more likely to report fetal deaths with nonspecific cause-of-death information (70.9 vs 56.6 %; RR 1.3; 95 % CI [1.1-1.5]). Conclusions Self-reported challenges correlate with completeness and accuracy of reported fetal death data, suggesting that such barriers are likely contributing to low quality data. We identified several improvement opportunities, including in-depth training and reducing the information collected, especially for early fetal deaths (<20 weeks' gestation), the majority of events reported. PMID:26518007

  4. Programmed death phenomena: from organelle to organism.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2002-04-01

    Programmed death phenomena appear to be inherent not only in living cells (apoptosis), but also in subcellular organelles (e.g., self-elimination of mitochondria, called mitoptosis), organs (organoptosis), and even whole organisms (phenoptosis). In all these cases, the "Samurai law of biology"--it is better to die than to be wrong--seems to be operative. The operation of this law helps complicated living systems avoid the risk of ruin when a system of lower hierarchic position makes a significant mistake. Thus, mitoptosis purifies a cell from damaged and hence unwanted mitochondria; apoptosis purifies a tissue from unwanted cells; and phenoptosis purifies a community from unwanted individuals. Defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of the primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo-, and phenoptoses, which is consistent with Harman's theory of aging. Here a concept is described that tries to unite Weismann's hypothesis of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the generally accepted alternative point of view that considers aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by a system(s) actuating a phenoptotic death program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system(s) in question are organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before the occasional injuries make impossible the functioning of the organism. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that, if overcome, might dramatically prolong the human life span. PMID:11976198

  5. Gender Differences Related to Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Ramu, Rajalakshmi; Selvi, Sugavana; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2016-02-01

    This descriptive study examined gender differences related to attitudes toward suicide among randomly selected urban residents. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Our findings revealed that men hold more pro preventive attitudes to help persons with suicidal thoughts (80.3 %, p = 0.05) and agreed that suicidal attempts are impulsive (78.6 %, p = 0.01). However, they hold permissive attitude to help persons with incurable diseases and expressing death wishes to die (66 %, p = 0.05). A majority of men (78.6 %) than women agreed that "suicidal attempt is essentially a cry for help" (χ (2) = 11.798, p = 0.05). These gender differences need to be taken into consideration when developing appropriate programs to prevent suicide. Further, decriminalizing the law, high-quality research and raising awareness about suicide prevention among the general population is crucial in developing countries like India. PMID:26293749

  6. Diagnosis on death certificates of sudden death due to ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Najem, G R; Najem, A J; Najem, N H; Najem, F S; Najem, A J; Najem, A D

    1980-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of diagnoses of sudden death (SD) caused by ischemic heart disease (IHD) on death certificates. A random sample of 10% (100 cases) was drawn from all such deaths which occurred in 1970 among Oklahoma City residents. The medical records of each case were reviewed and the quality of the diagnosis was rated, by the use of predetermined standard criteria, as confirmed and valid or unconfirmed and invalid. Among 100 IHD deaths, SD constitute 45%. Of these SDs, 18% were unobserved, without information as to the manifestations of the attack or the interval from onset of symptoms to death. According to criteria of the American Heart Association and WHO Expert Committee, the diagnosis in this 18% was unconfirmed and invalid. Thus there is insufficient quantitative evidence to justify the use of SD, as found on death certificates, as an indication of frequency of ischemic heart disease. PMID:7444553

  7. Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

  8. A near death experience: Shigella manipulates host death machinery to silence innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Denise N; O'Riordan, Mary Xd

    2014-10-01

    Release of mitochondrial contents often triggers inflammation and cell death, and modulating this process can be advantageous to invading pathogens. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Andree and colleagues reveal new findings that an intracellular bacterial pathogen exploits apoptotic machinery to suppress host immune signaling, yet avoids cell death. This study emphasizes the need to expand our understanding of the roles played by pro‐apoptotic proteins in non‐death scenarios. PMID:25180233

  9. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  10. A Different Approach to Attitude Scale Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    This paper suggests a new approach to attitude scale construction. Instead of asking respondents to express the extent or the degree of opinion on a particular issue, respondents should be asked about the factors that are relevant for the issue of interest and how much weight respondents are willing to attach to each relevant piece of evidence.…

  11. The Management of Death in the Middle Class American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Vidal S.

    Starting with the observation that attitudes towards death cannot be divorced from attitudes towards life, the author proceeds with a critical and reflective look at American society's poor management of death, both in terms of the dying person and the bereaved. Denial is the mechanism used to protect ourselves from facing the fact of death, and…

  12. The Effects of Death Anxiety and Mode of "Case Study" Presentation on Shifts of Attitude toward Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Edward J.

    1978-01-01

    College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)

  13. Changing Attitudes to Work and Life Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.

    The following statements summarize the author's analysis of changing attitudes to work and life styles in Western society: (1) a permissive society has fostered a change in authority roles; (2) general mistrust toward big busines is no longer limited to the public at large; (3) employees, supervisors, and managers all dislike and fear change; (4)…

  14. Changing Attitudes to Work and Life Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.

    The following statements summarize the author's analysis of changing attitudes to work and life styles in Western society: (1) a permissive society has fostered a change in authority roles; (2) general mistrust toward big busines is no longer limited to the public at large; (3) employees, supervisors, and managers all dislike and fear change; (4)

  15. The Use of Death Metaphors to Understand Personal Meaning of Death among Hong Kong Chinese Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing-Shan; Ho, Samuel M. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess…

  16. South African Primary Children's Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, A. W.; Manganye, H. T.

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes to science scales developed in England have been used in a rural region of South Africa with children aged 10 and 11 years in a two-stage data collection investigation. Cultural constraints on the use of "foreign" scales are explored. Factor analyses reveal differences between the South African and English children. A South African…

  17. Constructs and coping: physicians' responses to patient death.

    PubMed

    Neimeyer, G J; Behnke, M; Reiss, J

    1983-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between physicians' personal orientations toward death and their responses to patient death. A group of 25 pediatric residents were asked to complete the Threat Index and to respond to vignettes depicting personal death. Consistent with predictions derived from personal construct theory, particular death orientations were associated with various behavioral and psychophysiological reactions. Residents with high death threat and anxiety were more likely to adopt avoidance and denial strategies and to experience fewer psychophysiological symptoms when faced with a patient's death. Implications of these findings for further research and treatment are discussed. PMID:10263692

  18. Attitudes to vaccination: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Ohid; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Sevdalis, Nick; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. The paper relies on an extensive review of empirical literature published in English after 2009, as well as an analysis of unpublished market research data from member companies of Vaccines Europe. Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudes to vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. We define hesitancy as an expression of concern or doubt about the value or safety of vaccination. This means that hesitant attitudes are not confined only to those who refuse vaccination or those who encourage others to refuse vaccination. For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. We find that healthcare professionals report increasing challenges to building a trustful relationship with patients, through which they might otherwise allay concerns and reassure hesitant patients. We also find a range of reasons for vaccination attitudes, only some of which can be characterised as being related to lack of awareness or misinformation. Reasons that relate to issues of mistrust are cited more commonly in the literature than reasons that relate to information deficit. The importance of trust in the institutions involved with vaccination is discussed in terms of implications for researchers and policy-makers; we suggest that rebuilding this trust is a multi-stakeholder problem requiring a co-ordinated strategy. PMID:24788111

  19. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  20. Evidence for a heritable predisposition to death due to influenza.

    PubMed

    Albright, Frederick S; Orlando, Patricia; Pavia, Andrew T; Jackson, George G; Cannon Albright, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    Animal model studies and human epidemiological studies have shown that some infectious diseases develop primarily in individuals with an inherited predisposition. A heritable contribution to the development of severe influenza virus infection (i.e., that which results in death) has not previously been hypothesized or tested. Evidence for a heritable contribution to death due to influenza was examined using a resource consisting of a genealogy of the Utah population linked to death certificates in Utah over a period of 100 years. The relative risks of death due to influenza were estimated for the relatives of 4,855 individuals who died of influenza. Both close and distant relatives of individuals who died of influenza were shown to have a significantly increased risk of dying of influenza, consistent with a combination of shared exposure and genetic effects. These data provide strong support for a heritable contribution to predisposition to death due to influenza. PMID:18171280

  1. Number of Alzheimer's Deaths Found to Be Underreported

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stay Connected You are here Home Number of Alzheimer’s deaths found to be underreported May 22, 2014 ... figures may have substantially underreported deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease in 2010 show two recent studies supported ...

  2. Death Anxiety as Related to Helping Behaviour and Vocational Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Charles A.; Templer, Donald I.

    1979-01-01

    The Death Anxiety Scale and questions about helping the elderly were administered to undergraduates. An inverse relationship exists for females between death anxiety and the tendency to help the elderly. (Author)

  3. The road to maternal death in rural southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2010-03-01

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary health care, to strengthen referral system and community education. PMID:22434963

  4. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  5. Religious and Nonreligious Spirituality in Relation to Death Acceptance or Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the…

  6. Religious and Nonreligious Spirituality in Relation to Death Acceptance or Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the

  7. Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

  8. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.

  9. Nurses' attitudes to assisted suicide: sociodemographic factors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke

    This literature review seeks to explore the factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide. A poll conducted by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) showed that 49% of nurses supported assisted suicide while 40% were opposed to it. A literature review resulted in 16 articles being identified for data synthesis using a recognised critiquing framework. The articles revealed four key themes: nursing specialty, level of education, geographical location and religion. It was concluded that these four themes are key to understanding a nurse's attitude towards assisted suicide. Nursing staff need to be aware of their own influences on this topic, since they will inevitably be involved in the process in some way or another, in countries where assisted suicide has been legalised. PMID:26110854

  10. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…

  11. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a

  12. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Responses to Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Benazon, Nili; Langley, Audra; Roblek, Tami; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with…

  13. Dying to be thin: attachment to death in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Latzer, Yael; Hochdorf, Zipora

    2005-09-29

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) usually follows a prolonged course accompanied by significant morbidity and high mortality. AN patients have been found to have elevated and attempted suicide rates, with suicide being the second most common cause of death in AN after the complications of the disorder itself. The suicide risk in AN is similar to that in major depression or conduct disorder and linked mainly to longer duration of illness, lower weight, bingeing and purging, impulsivity-related manifestations, comorbid substance abuse, and affective disorder. This paper reviews suicidal tendency and disturbed body image, death and eating disorders, and attachment and death with clinical implications related to AN. PMID:16200328

  14. Attitudes to Science of Pupils in Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Akbar bin

    1984-01-01

    Attitudes toward science of 654 pupils aged 14-15 were assessed, and relationships between attitude and locality, achievement, and sex studied. Achievement was mildly correlated with attitude, but locality and sex had no influence. Other findings are also discussed. (MNS)

  15. Counseling to reduce road injuries and deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study undergraduate learning of and current clinical practice on counseling to reduce road injuries and deaths. DESIGN: Questionnaire on high-risk clinical scenarios. SETTING: Canadian medical schools, one family medicine program, and a Toronto trauma centre. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups: 338 final-year medical students from 12 Canadian universities, 183 family practice teachers from the Ontario-wide University of Toronto teaching network, and 45 trauma-team members from a Toronto regional trauma centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All health promotion items identified by students are relevant to the clinical scenarios presented to them were tabulated to identify general knowledge of health promotion counseling and specific knowledge of road trauma prevention. The trauma-related counseling practices of family practice teachers were tabulated from their responses to one of the student scenarios. The same process tabulated the counseling that trauma-team members would expect family physicians to do in busy practices. RESULTS: Students' knowledge about health promotion counseling was generally good, except for road trauma prevention, where counseling is seldom done unless heavily prompted. Family practice teacher responses indicated that approximately 15% have not accepted road trauma counseling as part of clinical practice. Trauma-team members ranked trauma prevention items similarly to family practice teachers, but had higher expectations for performance. The neck is the most commonly injured site, but no group identified headrest adjustment as important. CONCLUSIONS: Counseling to prevent road trauma is deficient both in practice and teaching. PMID:8939317

  16. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672

  17. Death Outlook and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifel, Herman; Schag, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between death attitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)

  18. Revisioning the death-drive: the compulsion to repeat as a death-in-life.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Gavriel

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a revisionary reading of Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Recognizing the power of Freud's meditation on a universal "death-drive" in living organisms, it argues that Freud makes a greater contribution by strengthening the compulsion to repeat to a form of figurative death. We recall that after shattering the presupposition of a universal pleasure principle, Freud demonstrates an equally strong pain-principle. The pain-principle entails a return to an old image in the mind, just as Freud identifies Eros, the transfigured pleasure-principle, with the movement toward something new, "a different individual." The moving backward toward old love in opposition to the moving forward to new love is an inspired narrative application of the Oedipus complex. The repetitive backward movement is a figurative death when the observing other or self encounters a deathlike affect of despair or persecution. Less persuasive because less experience-near is the concept of the death-drive. Freud writes in different voices, and the death-drive speculation is in the mode that privileges scientific speculation over other forms of thought, even as Freud shows a variety of stylistic modes for reaching the truth. Yet it is the mode that observes human interactions and transforms them to figurative narrative that moves most profoundly to the never-fully-knowable-human-unconscious. We discover the hidden motive for repetition as a return to the original rejection or rage that was a form of previous intimacy. The genre that these figurative narratives take is close to literary romance, and death, or the special suffering that Coleridge evocatively termed "life-in-death," is the hidden object of its dark quest. PMID:24555551

  19. New insights on brain stem death: from bedside to bench.

    PubMed

    Chan, Julie Y H; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H

    2005-12-01

    As much as brain stem death is currently the clinical definition of death in many countries and is a phenomenon of paramount medical importance, there is a dearth of information on its mechanistic underpinnings. A majority of the clinical studies are concerned only with methods to determine brain stem death. Whereas a vast amount of information is available on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cell death, rarely are these studies directed specifically towards the understanding of brain stem death. This review presents a framework for translational research on brain stem death that is based on systematically coordinated clinical and laboratory efforts that center on this phenomenon. It begins with the identification of a novel clinical marker from patients that is related specifically to brain stem death. After realizing that this "life-and-death" signal is related to the functional integrity of the brain stem, its origin is traced to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Subsequent laboratory studies on this neural substrate in animal models of brain stem death provide credence to the notion that both "pro-life" and "pro-death" programs are at work during the progression towards death. Those programs (mitochondrial functions, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, superoxide anion, coenzyme Q10, heat shock proteins and ubiquitin-proteasome system) hitherto identified from the RVLM are presented, along with their cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is proposed that outcome of the interplay between the "pro-life" and "pro-death" programs (dying) in this neural substrate determines the final fate of the individual (being dead). Thus, identification of additional programs in the RVLM and delineation of their regulatory mechanisms should shed new lights on future directions for clinical management of life-and-death. PMID:16376477

  20. Deaths in Broome, Western Australia, 1883 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Spargo, R M

    1996-10-01

    We examined all records of deaths held in the Derby Courthouse (1883 to 1895) and the Broome Courthouse (from 1896). Records of 3409 deaths (2659 males, 750 females) were analysed. Race of origin was ascertained from > 99 per cent of records: 35.9 per cent of deaths were of Aboriginals, 42.8 per cent of Asians and 21.3 per cent were among other races. In the early decades (1880s to 1920s) most deaths were of young Asian males and related to deep-sea diving in the pearling industry; many other deaths were caused by homicide and suicide. Pearling deaths declined after World War I and the number of Aboriginal deaths increased. The 80 to 100 deaths caused by the Japanese air raid in March 1942 were not entered into the Broome register. After World War II deaths among young males and Asians decreased and reported Aboriginal deaths increased; many were of malnourished infants and young children with infections. In the 1970s and 1980s deaths of young adults in motor vehicle accidents and of young adults from homicide and suicide increased; some occurred in custody. The pearling industry caused hundreds of deaths in the late nineteenth century and in the first two decades of this century, particularly among young Asian divers. Many were recorded in the Derby and Broome Death Registries but others were not recorded. These official records show changing patterns of mortality, for example, mortality associated with violence, infection and undernutrition (in young Aboriginal children), and more recently, motor vehicle accidents. PMID:8987221

  1. Caspases Connect Cell-Death Signaling to Organismal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; López-Soto, Alejandro; Kumar, Sharad; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-02-16

    Some forms of regulated cell death, such as apoptosis, are precipitated by the activation of cysteine proteases of the caspase family, including caspase 8, 9, and 3. Other caspases, such as caspase 1 and 4, are well known for their pro-inflammatory functions but regulate cell death in a limited number of pathophysiological settings. Accumulating evidence suggests that the most conserved function of mammalian caspases is not to control cell death sensu stricto, but to regulate inflammatory and immune reactions to dying cells and infectious challenges. Here, we review the molecular and cellular mechanisms though which mammalian caspases connect cell-death signaling to the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. PMID:26885855

  2. Recent modifications to the investigation of diving related deaths.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James

    2014-03-01

    The investigation of deaths that involve diving using a compressed breathing gas (SCUBA diving) is a specialized area of forensic pathology. Diving related deaths occur more frequently in certain jurisdictions, but any medical examiner or coroner's office may be faced with performing this type of investigation. In order to arrive at the correct conclusion regarding the cause and manner of death, forensic pathologists and investigators need to have a basic understanding of diving physiology, and should also utilize more recently developed technology and ancillary techniques. In the majority of diving related deaths, the cause of death is drowning, but this more often represents a final common pathway due to a water environment. The chain of events leading to the death is just as important to elucidate if similar deaths are to be minimized in the future. Re-enactment of accident scenarios, interrogation of dive computers, postmortem radiographic imaging, and slight alterations in autopsy technique may allow some of these diving related deaths to the better characterized. The amount and location of gas present in the body at the time of autopsy may be very meaningful or may simply represent a postmortem artifact. Medical examiners, coroners, and forensic investigators should consider employing select ancillary techniques to more thoroughly investigate the factors contributing a death associated with SCUBA diving. PMID:24166195

  3. [Multiple cardiac rhabdomyoma associated to intrauterine death].

    PubMed

    Morales-Quispe, Jorge A; Espínola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Caballero-Caballero, Rocío; Brunner-Cruz, Guadalupe; Uribe Alcántara, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumor detected during fetal life and childhood; nevertheless its incidence is very low. This is a histologically benign tumor, but in some cases may cause hemodynamic repercussion with date of low cardiac output, arrhythmias and exceptionally intrauterine death as occurred in our case, which was detected by obstetric ultrasound and fetal echocardiogram and corroborated by histological study. PMID:21975236

  4. Are African American Fraternities Beating Themselves to Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Beating of pledges, frequently leading to lawsuits and sometimes to death, has become a serious problem in black fraternities. Although black fraternities officially cracked down on hazing in 1990 in response to a student's death, many fear underground hazing has become even more dangerous. Incidents occur both on black and on white campuses.…

  5. Death, Don't Want to Talk about It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joo Ok

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate approaches about "death education in early childhood" are addressed in this paper. It is recommended for early childhood teachers to take an advantage of children's daily lives to talk about death and dying of living things such as finding dead insects, corpses of small animals found outside, or plants that turn brown. By seizing…

  6. Personal meanings of death in older adults and young adults in relation to their fears of death.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, V G

    2001-12-01

    Age and gender differences in personal meanings of death have been noted from late childhood to middle adulthood but have been little studied in older adults, for whom death is less remote. Also, such meanings have not been related to their fears of death. Groups of 78 young adults (aged 19-29) and 68 older adults (aged 70-97) were compared on the Personal Meanings of Death (Extinction, After-life, Motivator, Legacy) and on 4 Multidimensional Fear of Death (MFODS) subscales. Analysis of variance indicated that the young scored higher (p <.05) than older adults on death as Motivator and on 3 MFODS subscales. Women scored higher than men on Motivator and fear of the dying process, but men had greater fear of the unknown. Death meanings After-life and Extinction were most strongly correlated with fear of death for both young and old. Further analysis revealed age differences within the older adult group. PMID:11883450

  7. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful. PMID:11219130

  8. Sudden unexpected death due to strangulated inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Raghavendra Babu, Y P; Naik, Ramadas; Kanchan, Tanuj; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Chawla, Khushboo

    2016-06-01

    Sudden unwitnessed, unexpected deaths when the bodies are found in public places require a complete and meticulous medicolegal autopsy to ascertain the cause and manner of death to avoid further unnecessary investigations by the legal authorities. Such deaths attributed to gastrointestinal causes at autopsy are relatively uncommon. We report a case of sudden unexpected death due to strangulated inguinal hernia in a 60-year-old man. The body was discovered in a public area near a place of worship. The present case illustrates a potentially preventable sudden unexpected death due to a surgically correctable gastrointestinal condition. In the present case, the individual feared being hospitalised for treatment of his scrotal swelling with potential surgery and the eventual loss of daily income. In our opinion, such apprehensions may have delayed the potentially life-saving hospital surgical intervention in the individual. PMID:26837567

  9. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  10. How to Estimate Attitude from Vector Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Mortari, Daniele

    1999-01-01

    The most robust estimators minimizing Wahba's loss function are Davenport's q method and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The q method is faster than the SVD method with three or more measurements. The other algorithms are less robust since they solve the characteristic polynomial equation to find the maximum eigenvalue of Davenport's K matrix. They are only preferable when speed or processor power is an important consideration. Of these, Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) is the most robust and faster than the q method. Robustness is only an issue for measurements with widely differing accuracies, so the fastest algorithms, Quaternion ESTimator (QUEST), EStimator of the Optimal Quaternion (ESOQ), and ESOQ2, are well suited to star sensor applications.

  11. Deaths attributable to Alzheimer's disease in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Ewbank, D C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study provided 2 estimates of the number of deaths attributable to Alzheimer's disease in the United States. METHODS: One estimate was based on data from the East Boston, Mass, study. The second was based on a simulation using population-based estimates of prevalence and separate estimates of excess death by duration of disease. RESULTS: Despite different methods and very different estimates of prevalence, these 2 methods led to very similar estimates of 173,000 and 163,000 excess deaths. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates suggest that 7.1% of all deaths in the United States in 1995 are attributable to Alzheimer's disease, placing it on a par with cerebrovascular diseases as the third leading cause of death. PMID:9987474

  12. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini

    2008-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

  13. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  14. Attitude to Language among Bilingual Children and Adults in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, E. Glyn

    1975-01-01

    Attitudes to Welsh and English are shown to clearly reflect the historical relations of the two languages. Effects of recent immigration and industrialization and urbanization are also shown to have an effect. Variables correlated with attitudes are linguistic background, age, sex, length of residence. (SCC)

  15. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a

  16. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic

  17. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  18. Deaths and major biographical events: a study of all cancer deaths in Germany from 1995 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Medenwald, Daniel; Kuss, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if people dying from cancer are able to prolong their own life in order to experience a certain biographical event, or whether the appearance of such an occasion leads to increased deaths before the event. Methods We compared numbers of cancer deaths during a period of 1 week before and after biographically important occasions, which were birthday, Christmas and Easter. As a psychogenic postponement or hastening of death is most likely in chronic diseases (as opposed to accidents or cardiovascular events), we included cancer deaths only. We estimated relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding Bonferroni corrected CIs to assess effects of biographical events. All registered cancer deaths in Germany from 1995 to 2009 were included (3 257 520 individual deaths). Numbers of deaths were corrected for seasonality. Results Considering all cases, there were noticeably more deaths than expected in the week preceding Christmas, leading to an RR of dying after the event of 0.987 (CI 0.978 to 0.997). Estimates indicating a hastening of death were consistent over several subgroups. Other occasions showed inconsistent results, especially there was no convincing postponement effect in our data. Conclusions While there is no evidence of different death numbers before and after Easter and birthdays, the appearance of Christmas seems to increase deaths. PMID:24694623

  19. Indicating the Attitudes of High School Students to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…

  20. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  1. Developing a Scale to Measure Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward chemistry lessons in school are important dependent variables in curriculum evaluation. Although a variety of instruments have been developed by researchers to evaluate student attitudes, they are plagued with problems such as the lack of theoretical rationale and of empirical evidence to support the construct validity…

  2. Adolescents' Transition to First Intercourse, Religiosity, and Attitudes about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ann M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data on 4,948 adolescents, who were virgins aged 15-18 at first interview, found that the probability of having sex for the first time was lowered by religiosity, but only for females; was related to personal and relational attitudes regarding sex; and was only indirectly related to parental attitudes. Having sex…

  3. Attitudes to Wetland Restoration in Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire, UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispoli, Donna; Hambler, Clive

    1999-01-01

    Examines adult attitudes toward wetlands in order to assess perceptions and thus educational failings as a barrier to wetland restoration. Finds relatively positive attitudes with significant differences between social groups and near-significant differences between genders. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)

  4. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor

  5. Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

    1994-07-01

    The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

  6. [The death certificate: how to draft and why?].

    PubMed

    Manaouil, C; Decourcelle, M; Gignon, M; Chatelain, D; Jardé, O

    2007-05-01

    The death certificate must be established within 24 hours following the death and handed to the mayor. The obligation to place in the coffin immediately is planned by a defined list of contagious diseases. Medicolegal obstacle must be ticked if there is a doubt on the cause of death. In order to look into the causes of the death, swabs can be asked by the physician. It is a medical or scientific autopsy to look into the causes of the death apart from a juridical procedure. The presence of a battery prosthesis (pacemaker) must be specified, so that it can be removed by a physician or a thanatopractionner before the placing in the coffin. Death certificate is passed on by the city hall to Insee, which updates the identification national register of physical people. Inserm receives anonymous data of the causes of death allowing to establish the mortality national statistics. In the absence of medicolegal obstacle or obligation to place in the coffin immediately, funeral operations can begin: preservation care, body transport, placing in the coffin and finally burial or cremation. PMID:17336488

  7. The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Inter-Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlberg, Lawrence; Davidson, Florence

    Psychological research on race and ethnic stereotypes and attitudes has been carried out from two points of view -- a social learning view and a psychodynamic view. Neither of these grasp essential components of young children's ethnic attitudes or prejudices, nor do they detail the major developmental factors leading to the growth of tolerance

  8. The Relationship of Counselor Attitudes to Training and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.; Finley, Robert E.

    The Test of Counselor Attitudes (Porter) was administered to five groups representing different levels of counselor training and experience. Significant differences were found between the groups on all five of the counselor attitudes meased: (1) evaluative; (2) interpretive; (3) understanding; (4) supportive; and (5) probing. As students receive…

  9. Subject Preference and Attitude to Religion in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, William K.

    1981-01-01

    Of 14 English public and private schools surveyed, only in the case of one girls' convent school could differences between beliefs and attitudes of arts and science-preferring pupils be found. In all other cases subject specialism or preference did not affect attitude to religion or a fundamental religious belief. (Author/SJL)

  10. The Structure and Implications of Children's Attitudes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul; Attwood, Gaynor; Fuller, Carol; Last, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports a study of children's attitudes to school based on a questionnaire survey of 845 pupils in their first year of secondary school in England, together with interviews with a sample of the children. A clearly structured set of attitudes emerged from a factor analysis which showed a distinction between instrumental and affective…

  11. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  12. Attributes Related to Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, Joanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to

  13. Deaths Attributable to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E.; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies from around the world published before April 9, 2012. Attributable death was defined as the difference in all-cause deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. Online databases were searched, and data were qualitatively synthesized and pooled in a metaanalysis. Nine studies met inclusion criteria: 6 retrospective case–control studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 1 prospective cohort study. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in 8 studies; bacteremia was the only infection in 5 studies. We calculated that 26%–44% of deaths in 7 studies were attributable to carbapenem resistance, and in 2 studies, which included bacteremia and other infections, −3% and −4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance. Pooled outcomes showed that the number of deaths was significantly higher in patients with carbapenem-resistant infections and that the number of deaths attributable to carbapenem resistance is considerable. PMID:24959688

  14. Religious characteristics and the death penalty.

    PubMed

    Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David

    2008-04-01

    Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury. PMID:17546480

  15. Desire to work as a death anxiety buffer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures. PMID:25384641

  16. Death qualification and prejudice: the effect of implicit racism, sexism, and homophobia on capital defendants' right to due process.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. PMID:18046739

  17. Dowry Deaths: Response to Weather Variability in India☆

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Sheetal; Storeygard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of rainfall shocks on dowry deaths using data from 583 Indian districts for 2002–2007. We find that a one standard deviation decline in annual rainfall from the local mean increases reported dowry deaths by 7.8 percent. Wet shocks have no apparent effect. We examine patterns of other crimes to investigate whether an increase in general unrest during economic downturns explains the results but do not find supportive evidence. Women’s political representation in the national parliament has no apparent mitigating effect on dowry deaths. PMID:25386044

  18. Sudden death of a child due to respiratory diphtheria.

    PubMed

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Behera, Chittaranjan; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Kundu, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    A four-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with respiratory distress. Death occurred despite attempted resuscitation. The illness was not clinically diagnosed. Her father revealed that she had a fever and sore throat for the last four days and was not immunised for diphtheria. Characteristic gross and microscopic pathology of respiratory diphtheria and microbiological findings were observed. The cause of death was acute respiratory failure consequent upon upper airway obstruction from diphtheria. Forensic pathologists should remember that the diphtheria cases can cause sudden death especially in developing countries. PMID:26768902

  19. Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Even among advocates of legalising physician-assisted death, many argue that this should be done only once palliative care has become widely available. Meanwhile, according to them, physician-assisted death should be banned. Four arguments are often presented to support this claim, which we call the argument of lack of autonomy, the argument of existing alternatives, the argument of unfair inequalities and the argument of the antagonism between physician-assisted death and palliative care. We argue that although these arguments provide strong reasons to take appropriate measures to guarantee access to good quality palliative care to everyone who needs it, they do not justify a ban on physician-assisted death until we have achieved this goal. PMID:25614156

  20. U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall

    MedlinePlus

    ... is good, liver cancer incidence and death rates rose sharply compared to other cancer types, the report revealed. Between 2008 and 2012, liver cancer cases rose an average of just over 2 percent a ...

  1. Changing attitudes to irradiation throughout the food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, C.

    2000-03-01

    Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation.

  2. Drug Attitude and Adherence to Anti-Glaucoma Medication

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Yoon, Jong Uk; Kang, Uicheon; Seong, Gong Je

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess patient attitudes towards anti-glaucoma medication and their association with adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits. Materials and Methods One hundred and forty-seven glaucoma patients were enrolled this study. The participants were divided into 'pharmacophobic' and 'pharmacophilic' groups according to their scores on the Modified Glaucoma Drug Attitude Inventory (MG-DAI). To establish a correlation with patient drug attitude, each group had their subjective drug adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits examined. For personality traits, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to sub-classify each group. Results Among the patients analyzed, 91 (72.80%) patients showed a 'pharmacophobic' attitude and 34 (27.20%) patients showed a 'pharmacophilic' attitude. The pharmacophobic group tended to have worse adherence than the pharmacophilic group. Personality dichotomies from the MBTI also showed different patterns for each group. Conclusion In glaucoma patients, pharmacological adherence was influenced by their attitude towards drugs; an association might exist between drug attitude and underlying personality traits. PMID:20191020

  3. Attitude Change and Simulation Games: The Ability of a Simulation Game to Change Attitudes when Structured in Accordance with Either the Cognitive Dissonance or Incentive Models of Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of 109 undergraduates evidenced attitude shifts from participation to simulation games which were structured in accordance with either the cognitive dissonance or incentive models of attitude change. Identification was suggested as an extra factor influencing attitude change. (CMV)

  4. Staggering Inflation To Stabilize Attitude of a Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; West, John

    2007-01-01

    A document presents computational-simulation studies of a concept for stabilizing the attitude of a spacecraft during deployment of such structures as a solar sail or other structures supported by inflatable booms. Specifically, the solar sail considered in this paper is a square sail with inflatable booms and attitude control vanes at the corners. The sail inflates from its stowed configuration into a square sail with four segments and four vanes at the tips. Basically, the concept is one of controlling the rates of inflation of the booms to utilize in mass-distribution properties to effect changes in the system s angular momentum. More specifically, what was studied were the effects of staggering inflation of each boom by holding it at constant length for specified intervals between intervals of increasing length until full length is reached. The studies included sensitivity analyses of effects of variations in mass properties, boom lengths, rates of increase in boom length, initial rates of rotation of the spacecraft, and several asymmetries that could arise during deployment. The studies led to the conclusion that the final attitude of the spacecraft could be modified by varying the parameters of staggered inflation. Computational studies also showed that by feeding back attitude and attitude-rate measurements so that corrective action is taken during the deployment, the final attitude can be maintained very closely to the initial attitude, thus mitigating the attitude changes incurred during deployment and caused by modeling errors. Moreover, it was found that by optimizing the ratio between the holding and length-increasing intervals in deployment of a boom, one could cause deployment to track a desired deployment profile to place the entire spacecraft in a desired attitude at the end of deployment.

  5. Selectivity of Black Death mortality with respect to preexisting health

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.; Wood, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Was the mortality associated with the deadliest known epidemic in human history, the Black Death of 1347–1351, selective with respect to preexisting health conditions (“frailty”)? Many researchers have assumed that the Black Death was so virulent, and the European population so immunologically naïve, that the epidemic killed indiscriminately, irrespective of age, sex, or frailty. If this were true, Black Death cemeteries would provide unbiased cross-sections of demographic and epidemiological conditions in 14th-century Europe. Using skeletal remains from medieval England and Denmark, new methods of paleodemographic age estimation, and a recent multistate model of selective mortality, we test the assumption that the mid-14th-century Black Death killed indiscriminately. Skeletons from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London are compared with normal, nonepidemic cemetery samples from two medieval Danish towns (Viborg and Odense). The results suggest that the Black Death did not kill indiscriminately—that it was, in fact, selective with respect to frailty, although probably not as strongly selective as normal mortality. PMID:18227518

  6. National Trends in Pharmaceutical Opioid Related Overdose Deaths Compared to other Substance Related Overdose Deaths: 1999-2009

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Susan; Glanz, Jason; Binswanger, Ingrid A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical opioid related deaths have increased. This study aimed to place pharmaceutical opioid overdose deaths within the context of heroin, cocaine, psychostimulants, and pharmaceutical sedative hypnotics, examine demographic trends, and describe common combinations of substances involved in opioid related deaths. Methods: We reviewed deaths among 15-64 year olds in the US from 1999-2009 using death certificate data available through the CDC Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) Database. We identified International Classification of Disease-10 codes describing accidental overdose deaths, including poisonings related to stimulants, pharmaceutical drugs, and heroin. We used crude and age adjusted death rates (deaths/100,000 person years [p-y] and 95% confidence interval [CI] and multivariable Poisson regression models, yielding incident rate ratios (IRRs), for analysis. Results: The age adjusted death rate related to pharmaceutical opioids increased almost 4-fold from 1999 to 2009 (1.54/100,000 p-y [95% CI 1.49-1.60] to 6.05/100,000 p-y [95% CI 5.95-6.16; p<0.001). From 1999 to 2009, pharmaceutical opioids were responsible for the highest relative increase in overdose death rates (IRR 4.22, 95% CI 3.03-5.87) followed by sedative hypnotics (IRR 3.53, 95% CI 2.11-5.90). Heroin related overdose death rates increased from 2007 to 2009 (1.05/100,000 persons [95% CI 1.00-1.09] to 1.43/100,000 persons [95% CI 1.38-1.48; p<0.001). From 2005-2009 the combination of pharmaceutical opioids and benzodiazepines was the most common cause of polysubstance overdose deaths (1.27/100,000 p-y (95% CI 1.25-1.30). Conclusion: Strategies, such as wider implementation of naloxone, expanded access to treatment, and development of new interventions are needed to curb the pharmaceutical opioid overdose epidemic. PMID:23294765

  7. Death Concern and the Helping Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Janet; Garlie, Norman W.

    The authors rewiew the literature on the current state of training for health professionals to cope with death and dying. They also comment on recent changes in cultural attitudes toward death. Representatives of the helping professions (counselors, teachers, nurses, doctors, clergy, social workers) should be better prepared to help people deal

  8. Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

    Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

  9. A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Smoking Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Raymond J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the construction and validity of a scale to measure student attitudes toward marihuana. The scale could be used as a means to select the best presentation for drug education in schools. (KH)

  10. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption... at the time of his death, or whose death is determined to have been due to pneumoconiosis....

  11. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption... at the time of his death, or whose death is determined to have been due to pneumoconiosis....

  12. Quality insights of university teachers on dying, death, and death education.

    PubMed

    Mak, Mui-Hing June

    One of the main responsibilities of teachers is to help individual students cope with life difficulties such as grief following a death. However, very little research explores teachers' views on death, dying, and how they handle grief and loss in schools. This study aims to explore university teachers' knowledge and attitudes on dying, death, and death education. Fifteen university teachers were recruited using a qualitative method. This study reveals that most teachers' views on death and related issues are largely affected by their death experiences, religious beliefs, professional background, and the mass media. Although they have a general negative response toward death and dying, some teachers begin to affirm their meanings of life and death. Most teachers agree that they do not feel adequate about managing and teaching on life and death issues, so they strongly support including death education in the formal programs in Hong Kong. PMID:23472324

  13. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

  14. Religion and nurses' attitudes to euthanasia and physician assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this review of empirical studies we aimed to assess the influence of religion and world view on nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. We searched PubMed for articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Most identified studies showed a clear relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. Differences in attitude were found to be influenced by religious or ideological affiliation, observance of religious practices, religious doctrines, and personal importance attributed to religion or world view. Nevertheless, a coherent comparative interpretation of the results of the identified studies was difficult. We concluded that no study has so far exhaustively investigated the relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide and that further research is required. PMID:19372125

  15. The Right to Choose Life or Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Evan R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The right of terminally ill patients to decide whether they want to be kept alive by extraordinary means is discussed. Efforts of the Society for the Right to Die, including the living will, are described. (RM)

  16. Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

  17. Terminally ill cancer patients' wish to hasten death.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M

    2002-07-01

    This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:12132547

  18. DAMPs from Cell Death to New Life

    PubMed Central

    Vénéreau, Emilie; Ceriotti, Chiara; Bianchi, Marco Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Our body handles tissue damage by activating the immune system in response to intracellular molecules released by injured tissues [damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)], in a similar way as it detects molecular motifs conserved in pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns). DAMPs are molecules that have a physiological role inside the cell, but acquire additional functions when they are exposed to the extracellular environment: they alert the body about danger, stimulate an inflammatory response, and finally promote the regeneration process. Beside their passive release by dead cells, some DAMPs can be secreted or exposed by living cells undergoing a life-threatening stress. DAMPs have been linked to inflammation and related disorders: hence, inhibition of DAMP-mediated inflammatory responses is a promising strategy to improve the clinical management of infection- and injury-elicited inflammatory diseases. However, it is important to consider that DAMPs are not only danger signals but also central players in tissue repair. Indeed, some DAMPs have been studied for their role in tissue healing after sterile or infection-associated inflammation. This review is focused on two exemplary DAMPs, HMGB1 and adenosine triphosphate, and their contribution to both inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:26347745

  19. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244

  20. Microteaching: From Infant Death to Immortality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brian K.

    A general introduction to the concept of microteaching and its development is presented, and the generally accepted format and the skills practiced for microteaching are described. Aspects of microteaching commonly perceived as favorable and unfavorable are addressed, and a review of current research is provided and followed by a discussion of the…

  1. How to avoid 'death by benchmarking'.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Dave; Libby, Darin

    2015-08-01

    Hospitals and health systems should adopt four key principles and practices when applying benchmarks to determine physician compensation: Acknowledge that a lower percentile may be appropriate. Use the median as the all-in benchmark. Use peer benchmarks when available. Use alternative benchmarks. PMID:26548140

  2. Microteaching: From Infant Death to Immortality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brian K.

    A general introduction to the concept of microteaching and its development is presented, and the generally accepted format and the skills practiced for microteaching are described. Aspects of microteaching commonly perceived as favorable and unfavorable are addressed, and a review of current research is provided and followed by a discussion of the

  3. Talking about Death: Implementing Peer Discussion as a Coping Mechanism to Overcome Fears about Dissection, Death, and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various…

  4. Talking about Death: Implementing Peer Discussion as a Coping Mechanism to Overcome Fears about Dissection, Death, and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various

  5. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    PubMed

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes. PMID:26567160

  6. Sudden Death Due to Undiagnosed Wilkie Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baber, Yeliena Fay; OʼDonnell, Chris

    2016-06-01

    A 56-year-old transgender woman with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes syndrome and diabetes presented to hospital with headaches and experiencing with malnutrition. She was agitated and refused medical and physical assistance. Soon after admission, she started to vomit and developed abdominal pain, becoming rapidly unresponsive on the ward after attending the radiology department, and was pronounced deceased. Autopsy revealed a cachectic transgender woman with a grossly distended stomach and proximal duodenum containing 2 L of liquid. The postmortem computed tomography scan showed compression of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery, diagnostic of Wilkie syndrome. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, or Wilkie syndrome, was first described in 1861 by Von Rokitansky. It is an uncommon but well-recognized clinical entity characterized by compression of the third, or transverse, portion of the duodenum between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. This results in chronic, intermittent, or acute complete or partial duodenal obstruction. It is a well-recognized complication of anorexia. PMID:26963629

  7. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  8. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  9. Characteristics of persons approving of physician-assisted death.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A; Werth, James L

    2005-09-01

    The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N = 101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses indicated they were a well-adjusted group with little evidence of depressive symptoms or past suicidal ideation. Current attitudes were differentially related to future care preferences. Findings suggest a need for longitudinal research on the stability of current attitudes and how they relate to PAD among non-terminally ill supporters of assisted death. PMID:16136708

  10. The effect on survival of continuing chemotherapy to near death

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overuse of anti-cancer therapy is an important quality-of-care issue. An aggressive approach to treatment can have negative effects on quality of life and cost, but its effect on survival is not well-defined. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, we identified 7,879 Medicare-enrolled patients aged 65 or older who died after having survived at least 3 months after diagnosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 1991 and 1999. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, propensity scores, and instrumental variable analysis (IVA) to compare survival among patients who never received chemotherapy (n = 4,345), those who received standard chemotherapy but not within two weeks prior to death (n = 3,235), and those who were still receiving chemotherapy within 14 days of death (n = 299). Geographic variation in the application of chemotherapy was used as the instrument for IVA. Results Receipt of chemotherapy was associated with a 2-month improvement in overall survival. However, based on three different statistical approaches, no additional survival benefit was evident from continuing chemotherapy within 14 days of death. Moreover, patients receiving chemotherapy near the end of life were much less likely to enter hospice (81% versus 51% with no chemotherapy and 52% with standard chemotherapy, P < 0.001), or were more likely to be admitted within only 3 days of death. Conclusions Continuing chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC until very near death is associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving hospice care but not prolonged survival. Oncologists should strive to discontinue chemotherapy as death approaches and encourage patients to enroll in hospice for better end-of-life palliative care. PMID:21936940

  11. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency. PMID:21188869

  12. [Coming to terms with death - a determinant of successful aging?].

    PubMed

    Wittkowski, J

    1980-01-01

    Besides the process of individuation some physical, psychical, and social experiences were demonstrated which can be regarded as stimuli for a confrontation with one's own finitude at the beginning of the second half of life. The meaning of overcoming the prospect of death and dying within the second half of life was shown with reference to the concepts of "developmental task" and "crisis". Religiosity, future time perspective, life satisfaction, self-esteem and social integration were introduced as the most important variables which provide hypotheses concerning the process of working up death related experiences. PMID:7210789

  13. Attitude to the Study of Chemistry and Its Relationship with Achievement in an Introductory Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen J.; White, Sue; Sharma, Bibhya; Wakeling, Lara; Naiker, Mani; Chandra, Shaneel; Gopalan, Romila; Bilimoria, Veena

    2015-01-01

    A positive attitude to a subject may be congruent with higher achievement; however, limited evidence supports this for students in undergraduate chemistry--this may result from difficulties in quantifying attitude. Therefore, in this study, the Attitude to the Study of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI)--a validated instrument to quantify attitude, was…

  14. Validity Issues in the Likert and Thurstone Approaches to Attitude Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.; Wedell, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the theoretical differences between the approaches of R. Likert (1932) and L. Thurstone (1928) to attitude measurement. Uses real and simulated data on attitudes toward abortion to illustrate that attitude researchers should pay more attention to the empirical-response characteristics of items on a Likert attitude questionnaire. (SLD)

  15. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  16. Autoerotic Asphyxiation: A Challenge to Death Educators and Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garos, Sheila

    1994-01-01

    Notes that approximately 250 to 1,000 deaths in United States annually are result of autoerotic asphyxiation, hangings that were intended to enhance sexual excitement. Reviews scattered literature on autoerotic asphyxiation and includes observations by two psychiatrists and medical examiner. Notes that much remains to be learned about this

  17. How Schoolchildren's Acceptance of Self and Others Relate to Their Attitudes to Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Ken; Bortolozzo, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that harm to the mental health of children who are repeatedly victimised by their peers at school can be ameliorated through social or emotional support provided by other students. In this study we examined whether student provictim attitudes are related to more basic attitudes to self and attitudes to others.…

  18. Report to the Nation shows cancer death rates dropping

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2009, shows that overall cancer death rates continued to decline in the United States among both men and women, among all major racial and ethnic groups, and for all of the most common cancer s

  19. Ceramide starves cells to death by downregulating nutrient transporter proteins

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Garret G.; Peralta, Eigen R.; Rosales, Kimberly Romero; Wong, Susan Y.; Siskind, Leah J.; Edinger, Aimee L.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramide induces cell death in response to many stimuli. Its mechanism of action, however, is not completely understood. Ceramide induces autophagy in mammalian cells maintained in rich media and nutrient permease downregulation in yeast. These observations suggested to us that ceramide might kill mammalian cells by limiting cellular access to extracellular nutrients. Consistent with this proposal, physiologically relevant concentrations of ceramide produced a profound and specific downregulation of nutrient transporter proteins in mammalian cells. Blocking ceramide-induced nutrient transporter loss or supplementation with the cell-permeable nutrient, methyl pyruvate, reversed ceramide-dependent toxicity. Conversely, cells became more sensitive to ceramide when nutrient stress was increased by acutely limiting extracellular nutrients, inhibiting autophagy, or deleting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Observations that ceramide can trigger either apoptosis or caspase-independent cell death may be explained by this model. We found that methyl pyruvate (MP) also protected cells from ceramide-induced, nonapoptotic death consistent with the idea that severe bioenergetic stress was responsible. Taken together, these studies suggest that the cellular metabolic state is an important arbiter of the cellular response to ceramide. In fact, increasing nutrient demand by incubating cells in high levels of growth factor sensitized cells to ceramide. On the other hand, gradually adapting cells to tolerate low levels of extracellular nutrients completely blocked ceramide-induced death. In sum, these results support a model where ceramide kills cells by inducing intracellular nutrient limitation subsequent to nutrient transporter downregulation. PMID:18981422

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

  1. Sudden death of a young woman attributed to diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2013-11-01

    A young woman's death at home was attributed to new onset diabetic ketoacidosis with subsequent litigation supported by several expert consultants, despite a history and postmortem findings inconsistent with this diagnosis. More thorough tissue study of the heart and analysis of the circumstances led to a credible explanation of the entire scenario. PMID:24237820

  2. Parental grief after a child's drug death compared to other death causes: investigating a greatly neglected bereavement population.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, William; Jordan, John R; Gorman, Bernard S

    2011-01-01

    This comparative survey contrasted 571 parents who lost children to various death causes: 48 to drug-related deaths and overdoses, 462 to suicide, 24 to natural death cases, and 37 to mostly accidental death cases. Groups were compared in terms of grief difficulties, mental health problems, posttraumatic stress, and stigmatization. Results did not show any appreciable differences in these respects between the suicide bereaved parents and those losing children to drug-related deaths. However, when the suicide and drug-related death survivors were specifically contrasted against accidental and natural death loss cases, a consistent pattern emerged showing the former group was consistently more troubled by grief and mental health problems than the latter two sub-groups. These differences remained when controls of time since the loss and gender differences were employed as covariates. These findings suggest that the powerful and intense stigma against drug use and mental illness, shared among the public-at-large, imposes challenges in healing of immense proportion for these parents as they find less compassionate responses from their significant others, following their losses. PMID:22010370

  3. Sudden infant death due to Lactococcal infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, K; Nakayama, M; Nakahira, K; Nakura, Y; Kanagawa, N; Yanagihara, I; Miyaishi, S

    2016-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) of infants is rare, most of which occur associated with congenital heart disease or its cardiac surgery. We experienced a case of sudden death of a four-month-old male infant without congenital heart disease. It was elucidated by postmortem examination that the dead had suffered severe IE, which led him to death. In the microbiological genetic analysis using histological section, the pathogen causing inflammation in the present case was identified as Lactococcus lactis subspecies, although Staphylococci have been reported to be common and important one. Previously reported infectious diseases by Lactococcus lactis subspecies were all adult cases and this is the first report of an infantile death due to Lactococcal IE according to our knowledge. Any fatal disease may be included in sudden death cases targeted for forensic autopsy, even if it is rare. It is expected for forensic pathologists that they note such case and share each experience among themselves and other medical fields to develop a strategy for prevention. PMID:26277368

  4. An approach to death as an adverse event following immunization.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael S; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Amarasinghe, Ananda; MacDonald, Noni E

    2016-01-01

    Co-incidental death occurring proximate to vaccination may be reported as an adverse event following immunization. Such events are particularly concerning because they may raise community and health provider concerns about the safety of the specific vaccine and often the immunization programme in general. Coincidental events need to be differentiated from vaccine reactions, such as anaphylaxis, which may very rarely result in death. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated manual for the Causality Assessment of an AEFI. The purpose of this review is to apply the WHO causality methodology to death when this is reported as an AEFI. The causality assessment scheme recommends a four step process to enable classification of the AEFI and to differentiate events which are causally consistent from those that are inconsistent with immunization. However, for some events causality maybe indeterminate. Consistent causal reactions that may result in death are very rare and maybe related to the vaccine product (e.g. anaphylaxis, viscerotrophic disease), vaccine quality defect (e.g. an incompletely attenuated live vaccine agent) or an immunization error (e.g. vaccine vial contamination). Events that are inconsistent with immunizations are due to co-incidental conditions that may account for infant and childhood mortality. In countries with a high infant mortality rate the coincidental occurrence of death and immunization may occur not infrequently and a robust mechanism to obtain information from autopsy and perform an AEFI investigation and causality assessment is essential. Communication with the community and all stakeholders to maintain confidence in the immunization programme is critical. PMID:26608326

  5. Systems Approaches to Preventing Transplanted Cell Death in Cardiac Repair

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Thomas E.; Saiget, Mark K; Reinecke, Hans; Murry, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation may repair the injured heart, but tissue regeneration is limited by death of transplanted cells. Most cell death occurs in the first few days post-transplantation, likely from a combination of ischemia, anoikis and inflammation. Interventions known to enhance transplanted cell survival include heat shock, over-expressing anti-apoptotic proteins, free radical scavengers, anti-inflammatory therapy and co-delivery of extracellular matrix molecules. Combinatorial use of such interventions markedly enhances graft cell survival, but death still remains a significant problem. We review these challenges to cardiac cell transplantation and present an approach to systematically address them. Most anti-death studies use histology to assess engraftment, which is time- and labor-intensive. To increase throughput, we developed two biochemical approaches to follow graft viability in the mouse heart. The first relies on LacZ enyzmatic activity to track genetically modified cells, and the second quantifies human genomic DNA content using repetitive Alu sequences. Both show linear relationships between input cell number and biochemical signal, but require correction for the time lag between cell death and loss of signal. Once optimized, they permit detection of as few as 1 graft cell in 40,000 host cells. Pro-survival effects measured biochemically at three days predict long-term histological engraftment benefits. These methods permitted identification of carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) as a pro-survival factor for human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte grafts. CEPO’s effects were additive to heat shock, implying independent survival pathways. This system should permit combinatorial approaches to enhance graft viability in a fraction of the time required for conventional histology. PMID:18466917

  6. Retromer Contributes to Immunity-Associated Cell Death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Munch, David; Teh, Ooi-Kock; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Liu, Qinsong; Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; El Kasmi, Farid; Brodersen, Peter; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2015-01-01

    Membrane trafficking is required during plant immune responses, but its contribution to the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death (PCD) associated with effector-triggered immunity, is not well understood. HR is induced by nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors and can involve vacuole-mediated processes, including autophagy. We previously isolated lazarus (laz) suppressors of autoimmunity-triggered PCD in the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant accelerated cell death11 (acd11) and demonstrated that the cell death phenotype is due to ectopic activation of the LAZ5 NB-LRR. We report here that laz4 is mutated in one of three VACUOLAR PROTEIN SORTING35 (VPS35) genes. We verify that LAZ4/VPS35B is part of the retromer complex, which functions in endosomal protein sorting and vacuolar trafficking. We show that VPS35B acts in an endosomal trafficking pathway and plays a role in LAZ5-dependent acd11 cell death. Furthermore, we find that VPS35 homologs contribute to certain forms of NB-LRR protein-mediated autoimmunity as well as pathogen-triggered HR. Finally, we demonstrate that retromer deficiency causes defects in late endocytic/lytic compartments and impairs autophagy-associated vacuolar processes. Our findings indicate important roles of retromer-mediated trafficking during the HR; these may include endosomal sorting of immune components and targeting of vacuolar cargo. PMID:25681156

  7. A Practical and Theoretical Approach to Assessing Computer Attitudes: The Computer Attitudes Measure (CAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes study conducted at the University of Toronto that assessed the attitudes of student teachers toward computers by using a multicomponent model, the Computer Attitude Measure (CAM). Cognitive, affective, and behavioral attitudes are examined, and correlations of computer literacy, experience, and internal locus of control are discussed.…

  8. Attitudes and responses of parents to pre-adolescent masturbation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J H

    1985-10-01

    As part of a larger study of parental roles in sex education, a stratified probability sample of 1482 parents of three- to eleven-year-old children were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with reference to "masturbation" on the part of their children. A large majority of parents accepted the fact that children did masturbate, a smaller majority agreed that masturbation among children was alright, but less than half wanted their children as adolescents to have a positive attitude toward masturbation. Identified events of masturbation were reported to be more common among boys than girls, with mothers reporting higher incidences for both boys and girls than fathers reported. Parents with higher levels of education and liberal sexual attitudes were more positive on most attitudinal items about masturbation and reported a higher incidence of such conduct among their children. Parents who attended church more frequently were less likely to report positive views and conduct. Parents who reported they had masturbated as children were most likely to report positive views and a high incidence of masturbation on the part of their children. In general mothers played a more important role than fathers in transmitting knowledge and were more liberal in their attitudes. Negative information and attitudes toward masturbation remains a common response of parents when they are confronted with children's masturbation. PMID:4062541

  9. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  10. To Be or Not to Be: It's "Still" a Question of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskerville, Roger A.

    Attitudes expressed in Iowa's news media recently show a change of attitude from an urban or metropolitan slant to a more pro-rural, pro-agrarian point of view. Iowa's major daily news medium is now saying that the state's character, culture, economy, values, beliefs, and social attitudes are in jeopardy, and Iowans should have the moral and…

  11. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

  12. Attitudes toward a game-based approach to mental health.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Christine P; Bowers, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Based on preliminary research, game-based treatments appear to be a promising approach to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, attitudes toward this novel approach must be better understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if video game self-efficacy mediates the relationship between expectations and reactions to a game-based treatment for PTSD. Participants played the serious game "Walk in My Shoes" (Novonics Corp., Orlando, FL) and completed a series of scales to measure attitudes toward the intervention. Video game self-efficacy was found to be a partial mediator of expectancies and reactions. These results suggest that enhancing attitudes via self-efficacy in a clinical setting may maximize treatment effectiveness. PMID:25584727

  13. Finding death in meaninglessness: Evidence that death-thought accessibility increases in response to meaning threats.

    PubMed

    Webber, David; Zhang, Rui; Schimel, Jeff; Blatter, Jamin

    2016-03-01

    The meaning maintenance model proposes that violations to one's expectations will cause subsequent meaning restoration. In attempts to distinguish meaning maintenance mechanisms from mechanisms of terror management, previous research has failed to find increased death-thought accessibility (DTA) in response to various meaning threats. The present research suggests that this failure may have resulted from methodological differences in the way researchers measured DTA. Studies 1a and 1b found that by replacing this method with a standard method employed when studying worldview and self-esteem threats, DTA increased in response to two different meaning violations. Study 2 found increased DTA, but only among individuals high in personal need for structure, when using this standard DTA procedure, but not when using the procedure taken from previous meaning maintenance studies. Interestingly, these studies did not find increased meaning restoration, so an additional study (Study 3) was designed to provide a theoretically informed examination of this null effect. A meaning restoration effect was observed after removing the standard DTA assessment procedure, but only among participants high in personal need for structure. Implications for the threat-compensation literature are discussed. PMID:26040421

  14. Attitudes to smoking on submarines: results of a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H

    2002-07-01

    An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854

  15. Changing Medical Students Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajita

    2015-01-01

    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to others. Some feel that psychiatry is unscientific, imprecise and treatment is not effective. Traditional teaching methods are directed more towards imparting knowledge than changing the attitudes of students. Newer teaching and assessment techniques should be used to bring about attitudinal changes and develop interest among medical students. Case based and problem based learning, small group teaching, simulated patients, using movies, multidisciplinary seminars, integrated teaching, attitude questionnaires, objective structured clinical examinations etc., could be introduced in the curriculum to achieve this objective. PMID:25838738

  16. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    PubMed Central

    Frøen, J Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon CS; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-01-01

    A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac) classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies), two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy), a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal). For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions associated with them, and the most common clinical scenarios for future study and comparisons. PMID:19515228

  17. Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenhao

    2013-01-01

    Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals’ dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses to death-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804

  18. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of the effectiveness of doping prevention interventions. PMID:25209168

  19. Rational Development of a Cytotoxic Peptide to Trigger Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Boohaker, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Ge; Lee, Michael W.; Nemec, Kathleen N.; Santra, Santimukul; Perez, J. Manuel; Khaled, Annette R.

    2012-01-01

    Defects in the apoptotic machinery can contribute to tumor formation and resistance to treatment, creating a need to identify new agents that kill cancer cells by alternative mechanisms. To this end, we examined the cytotoxic properties of a novel peptide, CT20p, derived from the C-terminal, alpha-9 helix of Bax, an amphipathic domain with putative membrane binding properties. Like many anti-microbial peptides, CT20p contains clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues that could enable the peptide to associate with lipid membranes. CT20p caused the release of calcein from mitochondrial-like lipid vesicles without disrupting vesicle integrity and, when expressed as a fusion protein in cells, localized to mitochondria. The amphipathic nature of CT20p allowed it to be encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) that have the capacity to harbor targeting molecules, dyes or drugs. The resulting CT20p-NPs proved an effective killer of colon and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, using a murine breast cancer tumor model. By introducing CT20p to Bax deficient cells, we demonstrated that the peptide’s lethal activity was independent of endogenous Bax. CT20p also caused an increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential that was followed by plasma membrane rupture and cell death, without the characteristic membrane asymmetry associated with apoptosis. We determined that cell death triggered by the CT20p-NPs was minimally dependent on effector caspases and resistant Bcl-2 over-expression, suggesting that it was independent of the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. Furthermore, use of CT20p with the apoptosis-inducing drug, cisplatin, resulted in additive toxicity. These results reveal the novel features of CT20p that allow nanoparticle-mediated delivery to tumors and the potential application in combination therapies to activate multiple death pathways in cancer cells. PMID:22591113

  20. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21). 146 deaths (60%) were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7) other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43%) of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%). The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03). Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found. PMID:21078190

  1. [Attitude of Danish physicians to the health care services].

    PubMed

    Andreassen, U K; Hein, E

    1993-01-25

    In recent years, Danish society has focused on the service and the information available for patients in health care. A test sample out of 1,000 members of the Danish Medical Association selected at random revealed that the majority had positive attitudes to service and information in health care. The study also indicated that doctors do not consider that any particular dress code is particularly appropriate but consider that personal appearance and the way patients are addressed are individual matters. This individualistic attitude which is consistent with Mintzberg's sociological structural theory does not invariably seem appropriate. PMID:8430468

  2. Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

  3. StIKKing it to a death kinase: IKKs prevent TNF-α-induced cell death by phosphorylating RIPK1.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Christopher P; Balachandran, Siddharth

    2016-02-01

    Signaling pathways activated by the cytokine TNF-α are among the most intensively studied and well-understood in all mammalian biology. In a simplistic model, two primary signals emanate from the TNF-α receptor, one that activates cell survival via an NF-κB transcriptional response and a second that triggers cell death when cell survival signals are neutralized. The kinase RIPK1 participates in both these axes, and its poly-ubiquitylation was thought to represent the primary mechanism by which it toggles between survival versus death signaling. When RIPK1 is ubiquitylated, it acts non-enzymatically as an adaptor protein in IKK recruitment and subsequent NF-κB activation; when ubiquitylation of RIPK1 is prevented, it functions as a cell death kinase capable of triggering apoptosis or necroptosis. Bertrand and colleagues (Dondelinger et al., 2015) now demonstrate that phosphorylation of RIPK1 represents an additional mechanism by which this protein switches between its life and death duties. They show that both IKK-α and IKK-β phosphorylate RIPK1, dampening its capacity to assemble the death effectors FADD and caspase 8 into a functional pro-apoptotic signalsome. These IKKs also protect against RIPK1-mediated necroptosis. Importantly, IKK-α/β prevent RIPK1-driven cell death independently of NF-κB transcriptional responses. These findings identify phosphorylation of RIPK1 by IKKs as a new mechanism by which cell fate decisions downstream of TNFR1 are regulated. PMID:26630177

  4. Improving Students' Attitudes to Chance with Games and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven; Williams, Anne

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to implement a series of chance games and activities in a Year 7 classroom, and investigate the students' knowledge about probability concepts, as well as their attitudes to chance. Initially, the project involved selecting a set of appropriate learning activities to develop key probability concepts which are integral to the…

  5. Sudden death due to swimming in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Škavić, Petar; Duraković, Din

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to analyze the rate of sudden death in elderly Croatian women in comparison to elderly Croatian men, who died suddenly due to swimming. In the period from 2002 to 2011 one elderly Croatian woman and five elderly men died suddenly during swimming. In the same time, the same number of elderly foreigners died due to swimming at the Croatian Adriatic coast. One Croatian woman aged 66, who suffered of arterial hypertension with left ventricular hyper- trophy of 15 mm, diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, drowned in the sea during swimming. She was intoxi- cated with alcohol and had alcohol level in urine of 3.03 per thousand. One foreign woman, aged 82, who suffered coronary heart disease with left ventricular scar after myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension with excessive left ventricular hypertrophy of 22 mm and nephroangiosclerosis, suddenly lost conscionsness during swimming. The death rate in elderly Croatian women due to swimming reached 0.25, and the death rate in men is eight times higher: 1.97 (p = 0.0701), but the difference is not significant probably because of a small observational number. PMID:26040091

  6. Sudden cardiac death secondary to antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sicouri, Serge; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A number of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs are known to increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Based largely on a concern over QT prolongation and the development of life-threatening arrhythmias, a number of antipsychotic drugs have been temporarily or permanently withdrawn from the market or their use restricted. Some antidepressants and antipsychotics have been linked to QT prolongation and the development of Torsade de pointes arrhythmias, whereas others have been associated with a Brugada syndrome phenotype and the development of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. This review examines the mechanisms and predisposing factors underlying the development of cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death, associated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs in clinical use. PMID:18324881

  7. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Napier, John D.

    The Opinionnaire on Political Institutions and Participation (OPIP) was designed to measure six dimensions of the overall construct of political attitude. Three studies were undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, and the OPIP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for research and evaluations using…

  8. Attitudes to School Science Held by Primary Children in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes to science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…

  9. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  10. Caregiver Attitudes to Gynaecological Health of Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…

  11. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is filed on account of the death of a person insured under yearly renewable...

  12. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is filed on account of the death of a person insured under yearly renewable...

  13. Evidence That Thinking about Death Relates to Time-Estimation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Andy; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2011-01-01

    Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer to death. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief…

  14. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is filed on account of the death of a person insured under yearly renewable...

  15. Evidence That Thinking about Death Relates to Time-Estimation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Andy; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2011-01-01

    Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer to death. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief

  16. Mother's death means baby is likely to die too.

    PubMed

    Abdulghani, N

    1994-02-01

    A study by Dr. Nagiba Abdulghani, conducted for the University of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, reports that in almost 2/3 of the cases of maternal death during childbirth in North Yemen, the children died within 1 year of their mothers. The maternal mortality ratio in North Yemen is 753 per 100,000 live births. The study included 224 maternal deaths in 10 hospitals between May, 1987, and April, 1989. 9 out of 10 mothers who died were illiterate. Only 1/5 had received prenatal care. The inaccessibility of health services, the poor quality of care and facilities, and a lack of faith in a system that humiliates women were given as reasons for failure to seek medical care. Causes of death in order of frequency were hepatitis, hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. 3/4 of the women died postpartum. 1/5 of the babies were stillbirths. 1/5 of the mothers had a history of maternal complications. 1/5 had chronic disease. 2/3 of the women had begun their pregnancies within 1 year of their last childbirth. 1/2 of the women had symptoms ranging from vomiting and fatigue to jaundice and vaginal bleeding. Recommendations of the study included: 1) programs to prevent and treat hepatitis and; 2) an information, education, and communication (IEC) community campaign on the signs of maternal complications. Personnel should also continue their training and research activities. PMID:12345460

  17. To end itself by death: suicide in Shakespeare's tragedies.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, L R

    1999-07-01

    The tragedies of William Shakespeare make frequent use of suicide, some accomplished, some merely contemplated. Although his intent was their dramatic context, the Bard nonetheless clearly anticipated many features being discussed today, including assisted suicide, imitative ("copycat") suicide, and suicidal ideation by individuals with depression or disabilities. Recent debate over how often these factors influence the incidence of suicide rarely invokes their historical longevity. They are not new, so changes over the years in societal, religious, legal, and medical attitudes toward suicide must be considered when trying to understand their role. This review attempts to show that many such features of and attitudes toward suicide circa 1600 were perceived by Shakespeare and incorporated into his plays. In the 15 plays classified as tragedies, there are 13 definite and 8 possible suicides, ie, a total of 21 incidents for evaluation. Among the 13 overt suicides, at least 7 are depicted as being admirable under the circumstances at the time. Also, in various ways, 4 of these 13 were assisted, and at least 3 others contain an imitative element. Overall, the action of taking one's life is presented in a neutral or even favorable light, and the audience is left with a mingling of pity and admiration for the victim, not reproach. PMID:10414473

  18. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  19. Factors influencing veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animals.

    PubMed

    Serpell, James A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic and experiential factors on first-year veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animal welfare/rights. The study surveyed 329 first-year veterinary students to determine the influence of demographic factors, farm experience, and developmental exposure to different categories of animals on their career preferences and on their attitudes to specific areas of animal welfare and/or rights. A significant male gender bias toward food-animal practice was found, and prior experience with particular types of animals--companion animals, equines, food animals--tended to predict career preferences. Female veterinary students displayed greater concern for possible instances of animal suffering than males, and prior experience with different animals, as well as rural background and farm experience, were also associated with attitude differences. Seventy-two percent of students also reported that their interactions with animals (especially pets) had strongly influenced the development of their values. Animals ranked second in importance after parents in this respect. The present findings illustrate the importance to issues of animal welfare of the cultural context of past experience and influences on attitude development. The results also suggest that previous interactions with animals play a critical role in guiding veterinary students into their chosen career, as well as in helping to determine their specific employment preferences within the veterinary profession. From an animal welfare perspective, the dearth of women choosing careers in food-animal practice is a source of concern. PMID:16421833

  20. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  1. Attitudes to Language Diversity in an Australian City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Poo-Kong

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey in Adelaide (Australia) concerning public attitudes toward language diversity and the need to teach English and/or second languages to children in the schools. The survey analyzed responses on the basis of respondent's occupation, sex, income, and age, and found a high degree of support for language diversity. (MSE)

  2. Variables Related to Pro-Choice Attitudes among Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.; Rogers, Robyn R.

    1987-01-01

    Used self-administered questionnaires to assess pro-choice attitudes of 840 undergraduates just prior to the 1984 presidential election. Students were asked whether they would approve or disapprove of abortion under four different circumstances. Results indicated that the majority of both males and females were in favor of allowing abortion under…

  3. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  4. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  5. Methodology for Instrument Validation: An Application to Attitude Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert K.; Pruzek, Robert M.

    The purposes of this paper are to (1) discuss general issues related to a newly proposed methodology for item content and construct validation and (2) apply the new method in the context of developing a scale for measuring attitudes toward black people. Latent partition analysis was proposed and applied for the study of item content validity using…

  6. Student Attitudes to Traditional and Online Methods of Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lily; Fong, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Rapid developments in education technology have provided educators and students new options in a constantly changing, competitive teaching and learning environment. As the number of online teaching resources continue to increase, research into student attitudes toward traditional and online methods of delivery is important in order to determine…

  7. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  8. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students to the Uses of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also…

  9. Attitudes of Spanish University Teaching Staff to Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a…

  10. Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    "Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a

  11. Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    "Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…

  12. Development of A Questionnaire to Measure Attitude toward Oocyte Donation

    PubMed Central

    Omani Samani, Reza; Mounesan, Leila; Ezabadi, Zahra; Vesali, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no valid and comprehensive questionnaire that considers attitude toward oocyte donation (OD). Therefore this study has aimed to design and develop a tool entitled attitude toward donation-oocyte (ATOD-O) to measure attitude toward OD. Materials and Methods This methodological, qualitative research was undertaken on 15 infertile cases. In addition, we performed a literature review and search of various databases. Validity of this questionnaire was conducted by knowledgeable experts who determined indices such as relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness. Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed based on the opinions of experts and infertile couples referred to Royan Institute. Results ATOD-O was designed in 52 statements that covered various issues such as the OD process, donor and recipient characteristics, as well as family, emotional, psychological, legal, religious, and socio-economic dimensions. Results were scored as five points: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (somewhat), 4 (agree), and 5 (strongly agree). The overall relevancy of the questionnaire was 97% and clarity was 96%. Overall comprehensiveness was 100%. Conclusion The findings from this preliminary validation study have indicated that ATOD-O is a valid measure for measuring and assessing attitude toward donated oocytes. This questionnaire can be used in studies regarding different groups of a society. PMID:26644863

  13. Assessing the Attitudes of Administrators to Include Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Frederick Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the attitudes of administrators in a medium sized school district in the Southeastern region of the United States. The researcher used a quantitative descriptive comparative pre-test and post-test design with a convenience sampling of the district administrators. There were 21 administrators at the…

  14. Development of an Instrument To Measure Attitudes toward Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Beverly; Troyer, Rik

    A group of 261 college juniors, seniors, and graduate students anticipating careers in mental health professions were administered an instrument designed to measure attitudes toward old age (people 65 and older). The instrument consisted of 60 statements regarding old age, and used a six-point Likert-type scale. Items were categorized into 10…

  15. Attitudes of Spanish University Teaching Staff to Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a

  16. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students to the Uses of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also

  17. An Integrative Approach to Language Attitudes and Identity in Brittany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes of young people in Brittany towards Breton and French, including questions of identity and perceptions of the future of the Breton language. Combined several different techniques within the same project to gain different insights into the issues and established techniques for gathering data on language attitudes…

  18. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  19. Spirituality and Religiosity: Relative Relationships to Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Christina H.; Johnson, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Results revealed spirituality has significant negative relationship with death anxiety. No significant relationship was revealed between religiosity and death anxiety. Findings suggest inconsistency in research findings concerning the relationship between religiosity and death anxiety may be accounted for by variable of spirituality. (BF)

  20. Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  1. Understanding the will to live in patients nearing death.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This study examined concurrent influences on the will to live in 189 patients with end-stage cancer The authors found significant correlations between the will to live and existential, psychological, social, and, to a lesser degree, physical sources of distress. Existential variables proved to have the most influence, with hopelessness, burden to others, and dignity entering into the final model. Health care providers must learn to appreciate the importance of existential issues and their ability to influence the will to live among patients nearing death. PMID:15765815

  2. Psychiatrists׳ fear of death is associated with negative emotions toward borderline personality disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit; Hermesh, Hagai; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Iancu, Iulian

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatrists׳ fear of death and negative emotions toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A survey (N=120) demonstrated that fear of death is associated with stronger negative attitudes toward BPD patients, after controlling for attitudes toward suicide. Our findings emphasize the importance of psychiatrists׳ awareness to their fear of death as a relevant factor for their emotions toward BPD patients. PMID:26184990

  3. The mystery of underground death: cell death in roots during ontogeny and in response to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, A; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, M

    2016-03-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential part of the ontogeny of roots and their tolerance/resistance mechanisms, allowing adaptation and growth under adverse conditions. It occurs not only at the cellular and subcellular level, but also at the levels of tissues, organs and even whole plants. This process involves a wide spectrum of mechanisms, from signalling and the expression of specific genes to the degradation of cellular structures. The major goals of this review were to broaden current knowledge about PCD processes in roots, and to identify mechanisms associated with both developmental and stress-associated cell death in roots. Vacuolar cell death, when cell contents are removed by a combination of an autophagy-associated process and the release of hydrolases from a collapsed vacuole, is responsible for programming self-destruction. Regardless of the conditions and factors inducing PCD, its subcellular events usually include the accumulation of autophagosome-like structures, and the formation of massive lytic compartments. In some cases these are followed by the nuclear changes of chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Tonoplast disruption and vacuole implosion occur very rapidly, are irreversible and constitute a definitive step toward cell death in roots. Active cell elimination plays an important role in various biological processes in the life history of plants, leading to controlled cellular death during adaptation to changing environmental conditions, and organ remodelling throughout development and senescence. PMID:26332667

  4. Distributions of observed death tolls govern sensitivity to human fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Olivola, Christopher Y.; Sagara, Namika

    2009-01-01

    How we react to humanitarian crises, epidemics, and other tragic events involving the loss of human lives depends largely on the extent to which we are moved by the size of their associated death tolls. Many studies have demonstrated that people generally exhibit a diminishing sensitivity to the number of human fatalities and, equivalently, a preference for risky (vs. sure) alternatives in decisions under risk involving human losses. However, the reason for this tendency remains unknown. Here we show that the distributions of event-related death tolls that people observe govern their evaluations of, and risk preferences concerning, human fatalities. In particular, we show that our diminishing sensitivity to human fatalities follows from the fact that these death tolls are approximately power-law distributed. We further show that, by manipulating the distribution of mortality-related events that people observe, we can alter their risk preferences in decisions involving fatalities. Finally, we show that the tendency to be risk-seeking in mortality-related decisions is lower in countries in which high-mortality events are more frequently observed. Our results support a model of magnitude evaluation based on memory sampling and relative judgment. This model departs from the utility-based approaches typically encountered in psychology and economics in that it does not rely on stable, underlying value representations to explain valuation and choice, or on choice behavior to derive value functions. Instead, preferences concerning human fatalities emerge spontaneously from the distributions of sampled events and the relative nature of the evaluation process. PMID:20018778

  5. Teaching Death Management Skills: Health Professionals Confront Patient Avoidance Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Raymond; And Others

    Health professionals tend to view dying patients with two intertwined attitudes. On one hand the patient possesses an irreversible pathological condition and the doctor is obliged to help that patient embrace death with as much dignity as possible. On the other hand, the patient's imminent death is daily testimony to the limits of the doctor's…

  6. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Bacellar, Isabel O. L.; Tsubone, Tayana M.; Pavani, Christiane; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS), which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research. PMID:26334268

  7. Computer program to generate attitude error equations for a gimballed platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. A., Jr.; Morris, T. D.; Rone, K. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program for solving attitude error equations related to gimballed platform is described. Program generates matrix elements of attitude error equations when initial matrices and trigonometric identities have been defined. Program is written for IBM 360 computer.

  8. Death Education: A Survey of U.S. Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Edward D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In a survey conducted to assess the state of death education available to pharmacy students, 85 percent of the schools of pharmacy provided information concerning attitudes toward teaching death education; present offerings; academic background of instructors and departments responsible for death education programs; and course information.…

  9. The Effects of Perceived Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Substance-Use on Adolescent Attitudes toward and Intent To Use Psychoactive Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester

    2000-01-01

    Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…

  10. Birth-death branching models. Application to African elephant populations.

    PubMed

    Corbacho, Casimiro; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    Branching models have a long history of biological applications, particularly in population dynamics. In this work, our interest is the development of mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of socially structured animal populations, focusing our attention on lineages, usually matrilines, as the basic structure in the population. Significant efforts have been made to develop models based on the assumption that all individuals behave identically with respect to reproduction. However, the reproduction phase has a large random component that involves not only demographic but also environmental factors that change across range distribution of species. In the present work, we introduce new classes of birth-death branching models which take such factors into account. We assume that both, the offspring probability distribution and the death probabilities may be different in each generation, changing either predictably or unpredictably in relation to habitat features. We consider the genealogical tree generated by observation of the process until a pre-set generation. We determine the probability distributions of the random variables representing the number of dead or living individuals having at least one ancestor alive, living individuals whose ancestors are all dead, and dead individuals whose ancestors are all dead, explicitly obtaining their principal moments. Also, we derive the probability distributions corresponding to the partial and total numbers of such biological variables, obtaining in particular the distribution of the total number of matriarchs in the genealogical tree. We apply the proposed models to describe the demographic dynamics of African elephant populations living in different habitats. PMID:23648183

  11. Evidence that thinking about death relates to time-estimation behavior.

    PubMed

    Martens, Andy; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2011-07-01

    Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer to death. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief intervals of time. Studies 7 and 2 found that college students who reported thinking more frequently about death overestimated brief durations. Study 3 found evidence of the predicted causal relationship. Students assigned to think about death provided longer time estimates than those assigned to think about a control topic. PMID:24501827

  12. Drosophila IAP antagonists form multimeric complexes to promote cell death

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, Cristinel; Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis is a specific form of cell death that is important for normal development and tissue homeostasis. Caspases are critical executioners of apoptosis, and living cells prevent their inappropriate activation through inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In Drosophila, caspase activation depends on the IAP antagonists, Reaper (Rpr), Head involution defective (Hid), and Grim. These proteins share a common motif to bind Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1) and have partially redundant functions. We now show that IAP antagonists physically interact with each other. Rpr is able to self-associate and also binds to Hid and Grim. We have defined the domain involved in self-association and demonstrate that it is critical for cell-killing activity in vivo. In addition, we show that Rpr requires Hid for recruitment to the mitochondrial membrane and for efficient induction of cell death in vivo. Both targeting of Rpr to mitochondria and forced dimerization strongly promotes apoptosis. Our results reveal the functional importance of a previously unrecognized multimeric IAP antagonist complex for the induction of apoptosis. PMID:20837774

  13. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the... to and attitude toward the Board. (a) It is the duty of the practitioner to maintain a respectful attitude toward the Board and for the importance of the functions it administers. In many respects...

  14. Development and Validation of the Test of Geography-Related Attitudes (ToGRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Scott L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduced the development and validation of the Test of Geography-Related Attitudes (ToGRA). The ToGRA measures student attitude on four discrete measures student attitude on four discrete scales: 1) leisure interest in geography; 2) enjoyment of geographic education; 3) career interest in geography; and 4) interest in place. The ToGRA…

  15. Adaptive control applied to Space Station attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Quang M.; Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Holmes, Eric B.; Sunkel, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control approach to enhance the performance of current attitude control system used by the Space Station Freedom. The proposed control law was developed based on the direct adaptive control or model reference adaptive control scheme. Performance comparisons, subject to inertia variation, of the adaptive controller and the fixed-gain linear quadratic regulator currently implemented for the Space Station are conducted. Both the fixed-gain and the adaptive gain controllers are able to maintain the Station stability for inertia variations of up to 35 percent. However, when a 50 percent inertia variation is applied to the Station, only the adaptive controller is able to maintain the Station attitude.

  16. How does background affect attitudes to socioscientific issues in Taiwan?

    PubMed

    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang

    2011-11-01

    Based upon the goal of scientific literacy and the importance of socioscientific issues (SSIs), the purpose of this study was to investigate the Taiwanese public's awareness of, inclinations to buy/use, and their attitudes towards three attributes of SSIs including genetically modified food (GM food), organic food, and DDT and malaria (DDT). Data from a total of 865 participants across ten populations (six different educational levels and four different vocations) were validated and analyzed. The results revealed that the awareness regarding GM food and DDT increased with the levels of education. The inclinations to buy/use and the attitudes towards the three SSIs, were not related to levels of education, vocation or gender, but were related to attributes of the SSIs. The implications for education and policy development are discussed. PMID:22397081

  17. Exploring Attitudes of White Dental Students Regarding Willingness to Treat People with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanine M.; Hoffman, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    A study found that white dental students' (n=144) perceptions of clinical ability, attitudes toward gay men, and white racial attitudes account for both their willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIV disease and their perception of the risk of occupational infection with the disease. Results suggest attitudes regarding cultural…

  18. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

  19. [Sudden cardiac death prevention in athletes. Electrocardiogram interpretation: the Seattle criteria].

    PubMed

    Mélon, P

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in athletes. Pre-competition screening including 12-lead electrocardiogram is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. This attitude contributes to significantly decrease the risk of sudden cardiac death. We review the electrocardiographic criteria of Seattle that increase the specificity of screening in athletes. PMID:25796784

  20. Pathogenic Ubqln2 gains toxic properties to induce neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinxue; Liu, Mujun; Huang, Cao; Liu, Xionghao; Huang, Bo; Li, Niansheng

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ubiquilin 2 (Ubqln2) is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A foremost question regarding Ubqln2 pathogenesis is whether pathogenically mutated Ubqln2 causes neuron death via a gain or loss of functions. To better understand Ubqln2 pathobiology, we created Ubqln2 transgenic and knockout rats and compared phenotypic expression in these novel rat models. Overexpression of Ubqln2 with a pathogenic mutation (P497H substitution) caused cognitive deficits and neuronal loss in transgenic rats at the age of 130 days. In the transgenic rats, neuronal loss was preceded by the progressive formation of Ubqln2 aggregates and was accompanied by the progressive accumulation of the autophagy substrates p62 and LC3-II and the impairment of endosome pathways. In contrast, none of these pathologies observed in mutant Ubqln2 transgenic rats was detected in Ubqln2 knockout rats at the age of 300 days. Together, our findings in Ubqln2 transgenic and knockout rats collectively suggest that pathogenic Ubqln2 causes neuron death mainly through a gain of unrevealed functions rather than a loss of physiological functions. PMID:25388785

  1. Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiqing; Wang, Xingang; Guan, Shuguang; Lai, Choy-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks of nonlinear oscillators is investigated both numerically and analytically. It is found that, as the coupling strength increases, the network will undergo three different stages in approaching the state of complete amplitude death (CAD). In the first stage of the transition, the amplitudes of the oscillators present a 'stair-like' arrangement, i.e. the squared amplitude of an oscillator linearly decreases with the number of links that the oscillator receives (node degree). In this stage, as the coupling strength increases, the amplitude stairs are eliminated hierarchically by descending order of the node degree. At the end of the first stage, except for a few synchronized oscillators, all other oscillators in the network have small amplitudes. Then, in the second stage of the transition, the synchronous clusters formed in the first stage gradually disappear and, as a consequence, the number of small-amplitude oscillators is increased. At the end of the second stage, almost all oscillators in the network have small but finite amplitudes. Finally, in the third stage of the transition, without the support of the synchronous clusters, the amplitudes of the oscillators are quickly decreased, eventually leading to the state of CAD.

  2. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  3. Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-07-01

    Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

  4. Clinical practice guidelines. New-to-practice family physicians' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, B. M.; Woodward, C. A.; Cohen, M.; Williams, A. P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the attitudes toward clinical practice guidelines of a group of family physicians who had recently entered practice in Ontario, and to compare them with the attitudes of a group of internists from the United States. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire survey of all members of a defined cohort. SETTING: Ontario family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who received certification in 1989, 1990, and 1991 and who were practising in Ontario. Of 564-cohort members, 395 (70%) responded. Men (184) and women (211) responded at the same rate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of agreement with 10 descriptive statements about practice guidelines and analyses of variance of these responses for several physician characteristics. RESULTS: Of respondents in independent practice, 80% were in group practice. Women were more likely to have chosen group practice, in which they were more likely to use practice guidelines than men. Generally favourable attitudes toward guidelines were observed. Physician characteristics occasionally influenced agreement with the descriptors. The pattern of agreement was similar to that noted in the study of American internists, but, in general, Ontario physicians were more supportive. CONCLUSIONS: This group of relatively new-to-practice Ontario family physicians shows little resistance to guidelines and appears to read less threat of external control in them than does the US group. PMID:8616286

  5. From DNA Radiation Damage to Cell Death: Theoretical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ballarini, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to “historical” approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions) supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA “sublesions” and “lesions” as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal) chromosome aberrations, respectively. PMID:20976308

  6. Dysfunctional Attitudes Lead to Depressive Symptoms by Generating Subjective Stress.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that objective stress-negative events that have actually occurred outside of individuals-is involved in processes of dysfunctional attitudes leading to depression. Subjective stress-individuals' perception of negative events that have not actually occurred outside of them-is also predicted to be involved in these processes. However, few studies have empirically investigated this prediction. The primary purpose of this study was to fill this gap by testing the hypothesis that dysfunctional attitudes lead to depression by generating subjective stress. A longitudinal design was employed and initial depression was controlled. The results supported the hypothesis. It was also found that initial depression fostered subsequent depression by generating subjective stress. This study contributes to the literature on depression mechanisms by elucidating that subjective stress plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of depression. This study also has important clinical implications as it suggests that preventing subjective stress in individuals with dysfunctional attitudes or depression helps to protect the development or exacerbation of their depression. PMID:26168353

  7. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

  8. An Anthropocentric Approach to Saving Biodiversity: Kenyan Pupils' Attitudes towards Parks and Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ibrahim M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…

  9. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applications. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbardo, Philip; Ebbesen, Ebbe B.

    In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…

  10. Comparative Validity of the Likert and Thurstone Approaches to Attitude Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; And Others

    Graded or binary disagree-agree responses to attitude statements are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. The empirical characteristics of these responses will generally be inconsistent with the analytical logic that forms the basis of the Likert attitude measurement technique (R. Likert, 1932). As a consequence, the Likert…

  11. An Anthropocentric Approach to Saving Biodiversity: Kenyan Pupils' Attitudes towards Parks and Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ibrahim M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the

  12. Effect of the Challenger Experience on Elementary Children's Attitudes to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Explores how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudes toward science and space during the five months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. Discusses positive outcomes and negative effects of the Challenger experience on children's attitude toward…

  13. Unexpected death related to restraint for excited delirium: a retrospective study of deaths in police custody and in the community

    PubMed Central

    Pollanen, M S; Chiasson, D A; Cairns, J T; Young, J G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may contribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unexpectedly. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 21 cases of unexpected death in people with excited delirium, which were investigated by the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario between 1988 and 1995. Eyewitness testimony, findings during postmortem examinations, clinical history, toxicological data and other official documents describing the events surrounding the deaths were analyzed. Specific reference was made to documented eyewitness testimony of restraint method, body position and use of capsicum oleoresin (pepper) spray. Because cocaine was detected in the blood of some of these people during the postmortem examination, the role of cocaine in excited delirium was examined by comparing the cocaine levels in these cases with levels in 2 control groups: 19 people who died from acute cocaine intoxication and 21 people who had used cocaine shortly before they died but who had died from other causes. RESULTS: In all 21 cases of unexpected death associated with excited delirium, the deaths were associated with restraint (for violent agitation and hyperactivity), with the person either in a prone position (18 people [86%]) or subjected to pressure on the neck (3 [14%]). All of those who died had suddenly lapsed into tranquillity shortly after being restrained. The excited delirium was caused by a psychiatric disorder in 12 people (57%) and by cocaine-induced psychosis in 8 (38%). Eighteen people (86%) were in police custody when they died. Four (19%) had been sprayed with capsicum oleoresin, and heart disease was found in another 4 at autopsy. The blood level of cocaine in those whose excited delirium was cocaine induced was similar to levels found in recreational cocaine users and lower than levels found in people who died from cocaine intoxication. INTERPRETATION: Restraint may contribute to the death of people in states of excited delirium, and further studies to test this hypothesis are recommended. Meanwhile, law enforcement authorities and others should bear in mind the potential for the unexpected death of people in states of excited delirium who are restrained in the prone position or with a neck hold. PMID:9645173

  14. An attempt to influence attitudes towards textured soya protein as an alternative to meat.

    PubMed

    Greaves, E; Ramsey, M M

    1980-02-01

    The effect of person-to-person discussions, demonstrations and advertising on the attitude of mothers of young families towards textured soya-bean protein products as an alternative to meat has been studied. The results show that person-to-person interviews can influence the attitudes towards textured vegetable protein although some individuals remain resistant to this approach. PMID:7188948

  15. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Student Attitudes to Using Smartphones to Learn English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…

  16. Emergency medical services: teamwork to fight sudden death.

    PubMed

    Garvin, J M; Miller, K P

    1980-01-01

    It is estimated that upwards of 20% of accidental highway and prehospital coronary deaths could be averted by the availability of prompt, effective prehospital care; this implies that approximately 35,000 deaths from myocardial infarctions and 12,000 deaths from vehicular trauma are preventable. So, statistically, are 13,000 deaths from cerebrovascular accidents, poisonings, drowning, and other accidents. There are nearly 12 million nonfatal injuries each year, the suffering, cost and disabilities of which are incalculable. It is clear that these statistics demand some type of unified multi-professional response. Although not perfect, Emergency Medical Services is clearly the most effective available means of reversing the present rates of sudden death and disability. PMID:7352382

  17. How to ascertain drug related deaths during clinical trials ?

    PubMed

    Lele, R D

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines by the Drug Controller General of India require extra care by Investigators & Sponsors of Clinical Trials in India. The author, an eminent member & Chairman of various Independent Ethics Committees in Mumbai, proposes various concrete solutions for adherence to these guidelines. Insurance cover to the subjects, use of Internet databanks for drug interactions, active involvement by the pharmacologists in Ethics Committee, review of data from animal studies, being amongst them. In case of death due to trial, autopsies, or at least verbal autopsies, are essential in the interest of Science and Law. More importantly Anticipation and prevention of ADEs can be done by exclusion of subjects from trials by using newer technologies like cDNA in microarrays to determine several polygenic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and tests for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Drug manufacturers must provide prototypes of Affymetrix chips to clinicians and bear the cost in their own enlightened self-interest. PMID:24772730

  18. What does cell death have to do with aging?

    PubMed

    Warner, H R; Hodes, R J; Pocinki, K

    1997-09-01

    When Lockshin and Zakeri discussed the relevance of apoptosis to aging 7 years ago, the common view was that apoptosis would have primarily a negative impact on aging by destroying essential and often irreplaceable cells. That view has now changed to one that acknowledges that there are two general ways in which apoptosis can play a role in aging: (1) elimination of damaged and presumably dysfunctional cells (e.g., fibroblasts, hepatocytes), which can then be replaced by cell proliferation, thereby maintaining homeostasis, and (2) elimination of essential post-mitotic cells (e.g., neurons, cardiac myocytes), which cannot be replaced, thereby leading to pathology. Evidence exists in two systems (fibroblasts and thymocytes/lymphocytes) that there are age-related decreases in the potential for apoptosis, although the molecular bases for the decreases in these two systems appear to differ. Upon becoming senescent, fibroblasts lose the ability to down-regulate expression of the bcl-2 gene in response to an apoptotic signal; thus, apoptosis is blocked even though an initiating signal has been received. In contrast, thymocytes/lymphocytes lack the ability to initiate the signal because of down-regulation of the cell surface receptor Fas. There is limited information available for other tissue types, and nothing is known about why and how age-related changes occur. An interesting observation is that the frequency of up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene as a result of chromosome translocation in otherwise normal B cells increases with age; the functional consequences of this phenomenon during aging are not known. The role of apoptosis in regulating cell number is also a promising area of research. The studies on liver damage and neoplastic lesions suggest an extremely important role for apoptosis in controlling cancer. This may be particularly important in the prostate where hypertrophy and/or cancer are a virtual certainty with ever-increasing age. It is not known whether the ability to undergo apoptosis declines in the prostate with increasing age, but it appears possible that it may, thus explaining the loss of control over cell number in this tissue. A particularly important area of research is whether apoptosis plays a role in the changing balance between bone formation and resorption observed during osteoporosis. Monica Driscoll has already pointed out that, "regulation and execution of cell death is an absolutely critical process that interfaces with nearly every aspect of life. Future investigation of the links of cell death to cellular aging and the aging of organisms should be an exciting enterprise." The results currently available do suggest that apoptosis is a process that may be important in aging, at least in some tissues, and the mechanism of its regulation, in particular, needs to be understood. Several tumor suppressor gene and oncogene products are involved in signal transduction associated with apoptosis, but it remains to be shown which of these, if any, are actually involved in "on-off" switches for apoptosis. Where great progress has been made is in understanding the events occurring after binding of either Fas ligand or tumor necrosis factor to their respective receptors. However, one area about which little is known is the identity of the signals that initiate this process in response to intracellular damage. Through continuing research on cell death mechanisms, funded by the NIA, we hope to provide answers to such fundamental questions as: 1. Are there age-related changes in apoptosis, and what role, if any, do these have in the aging process? 2. If age-related changes in apoptosis do occur, what molecular mechanisms are altered to produce these changes? 3. Can approaches be developed to improve the detection and elimination of damaged cells in vivo in tissues where cell replacement is possible? 4. Can death of damaged cells be attenuated or delayed in nonrenewable tissues, and, if so, is it advantageous to the org PMID:9288026

  19. [Responsible parenthood and attitude to procreation].

    PubMed

    Díaz Guerero, R; Luisa Morales, M

    1976-01-01

    A study of what responsible parenthood means for 137 university female students and 142 working class women was made. Using a modification of the semantic differential measuring scale, 10 questions were made to explore if responsible parenthood means personal development of children or family planning. Through factor analysis it was seen that for both groups the concept basically means to understand children better and to give them a better education. A minor percentage of university women answered about family planning. This work was due to help the Mexican Government Education Campaign to decrease birth rate in the country. Ways to improve this campaign are suggested taking as a base the results of this study. PMID:1052715

  20. Adolescents' reactions to the death of a peer.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J M; Goodenow, C; Espin, O

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the fact that grieving is a process, especially in the work of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. The literature has focused on many aspects of bereavement, including how the process may be different at different ages. Much of the research on adolescents has focused on reactions to the suicide of a peer. The purpose of this study was to explore adolescent reactions to the death of a peer by means other than suicide. Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten college students about their experience of losing a friend in high school. Results indicated that even after a few years, the adolescents were still struggling through the grieving process. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners faced with similar crises are offered. PMID:1927673

  1. The attitude of fertile Nigerian women to sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, O K; Giwa-osagie, O F; Usifoh, C A

    1990-09-01

    250 women selected at random from outpatients of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were interviewed about their attitudes toward female sterilization by nurses with a standard questionnaire. Factors affecting attitudes toward sterilization were multiple and results are reported as percentages. The study population excluded women with infertility, a common problem, and further differed from the general population because the women were older and more highly educated. The number of living children was 3 or more in 59%; the ideal family size was at least 5 in 48%. 48% had used some type of contraception. 87.6% had heard of female sterilization, most often from medical personnel. Factors reported as affecting attitudes included: number of living children (59.6%); age of patient (52%); experience with complications of pregnancy and labor (45.2%); other medical disorders (36%); effect on reincarnation (17.6%); sex of living children (17.2%); fear of impotence (7.2%); and religion or culture (3.2%). The average age for female sterilization is 40 in Nigeria. A more extensive study of resistance to sterilization is indicated. PMID:12283795

  2. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  3. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  4. Counter-Conditioning as an Intervention to Modify Anti-Fat Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Stuart W.; Hudson, Joanne; Lavallee, David

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some cases, indices of these attitudes worsened. Results suggest that attitudes towards obesity and fatness may be somewhat robust and resistant to change, possibly suggesting a central and not peripheral processing route for their formation. PMID:26973909

  5. A death due to ecstasy - a case report.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Yp Girish; Shetty, Akshith R; Jayanth, S H; Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, S; Harish, S

    2016-03-01

    Drug addicts face the dangers of accidental overdose, fatal intoxication, reduced tolerance and carelessness in consuming drugs. There is an increasing use of designer drugs in many cities. The body of a 29 year-old male, an event manager by profession with an alleged history of consumption of ecstasy tablets, was subjected to autopsy. The cause of death was found to be disseminated intravascular coagulation consequent upon consumption of methylenedioxymethamphetamine. This was based on the brief history, autopsy features and a chemical analysis report. This case is discussed with the background of the existing literature about the interplay of the actions of methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the hyperthermia that would result from physical exertion as in dancing in rave parties leading to hyponatremia and the causes of disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:26733334

  6. [Cough leading to the death of an infant].

    PubMed

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen

    2016-01-01

    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough. PMID:27132293

  7. Scuba diver deaths due to air embolism: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Nursel; Akan, Okan; Cetin, Selçuk; Eren, Bülent; Gürses, Murat Serdar; Gündoğmuş, Umit Naci

    2013-04-01

    Barotraumas and decompression sickness are the two most well-known complications of diving. First presented case was 32 year-old male with recreational diver, who was found floating prone position on the bottom of sea in a depth of 33 m. He had been carried to the surface in a controlled ascent. Second case was a 39 year-old male experienced dive instructor in a diving school, after following an uneventful duration of dive was found unconscious with a floating supine position in a depth of 30 m and there were no signs of life when they were transported to the hospital. Extensive subcutaneous emphysema of the extremities was detected by palpation of the skin. In the autopsy diffuse gas bubbles like beads were seen in the coronary arteries and in ventricles, basilar artery and all of the cerebral arteries. The cause of death was attributed due to gas embolism and drowning. PMID:23641724

  8. Behavior Clinics: A Method to Change Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, B. Geraldine

    Behavior Clinics are now being used in an urban-rural area of five secondary schools as substitutes for suspension. Various infractions of school rules which can lead to placement in the behavior clinic are: truancy, fighting, use of obscene language, smoking, disrespectfulness, and/or suspension. During the 1975-76 school year, a random sample of…

  9. Using Aviation to Change Math Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jerra

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates

  10. Civic Engagement Assessment: Linking Activities to Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; O'Leary, Lisa S.; Wilson, Nancy E.; Diaz, Ande

    2007-01-01

    Recently, higher education has witnessed a renewed commitment to the mission of preparing students for lives of active citizenship. Under the leadership of President Lawrence S. Bacow, Tufts University (Medford, Massachusetts) has articulated an institutional mission that embraces three areas of focus: active citizenship, internationalism, and

  11. Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2014-01-01

    The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

  12. Using Aviation to Change Math Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jerra

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…

  13. A comparison of 19th century and current attitudes to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2007-12-01

    The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone. PMID:18075842

  14. Providers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to colorectal cancer control in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perin, Douglas M Puricelli; Saraiya, Mona; Thompson, Trevor D; de Moura, Lenildo; Simoes, Eduardo J; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-12-01

    In Brazil, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death among men, and the third most common among women. We aimed to examine CRC screening-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among physicians and nurses working in Brazil's network of health units, and to describe the capacity of these units for CRC screening. In 2011, 1600 health units were randomly selected from all 26 states and the Federal District. One coordinator and one health care provider were selected for the interview. Response rates were 78% for coordinators, 34% for physicians, and 65% for nurses. The Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) recommendations for CRC screening were not often used in the health units, but screening outreach and use of CRC exams were more common in units that were using them. Physicians and nurses differed in most characteristics, and in their knowledge, attitudes, and practices of CRC screening. Forty-seven percent of physicians reported not conducting CRC screening compared to 65% of nurses. Fecal occult blood test was most often used by physicians and nurses, but fewer physicians than nurses perceived this exam as very effective in reducing CRC mortality. Physicians' gender, years since graduation, and geographical region of practice in Brazil were associated to CRC screening practice. The findings may reflect the low influence of INCA CRC screening recommendations, physicians receiving their medical education when CRC burden in Brazil was of low concern, and the lack of CRC screening capacity in some regions of Brazil. PMID:26441300

  15. Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saurabh; Traystman, Richard J.; Herson, Paco S.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome. PMID:24378980

  16. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper form that a potential...

  17. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper form that a potential...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1334 - Termination due to death of recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination due to death of recipient. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1334 Termination due to death of... effective with the month after the month of death....

  19. 20 CFR 416.1334 - Termination due to death of recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination due to death of recipient. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1334 Termination due to death of... effective with the month after the month of death....

  20. 20 CFR 416.1334 - Termination due to death of recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination due to death of recipient. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1334 Termination due to death of... effective with the month after the month of death....

  1. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper form that a potential...

  2. Autophagy inhibition cooperates with erlotinib to induce glioblastoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Eimer, Sandrine; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Airiau, Kelly; Jeanneteau, Marie; Laharanne, Elodie; Véron, Nadège; Vital, Anne; Loiseau, Hugues; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Belloc, Francis

    2011-06-15

    Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults. The median survival never exceeds 12 months, owing to inherent resistance to both radio and chemotherapies. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is amplified, overexpressed, and/or mutated in glioblastomas (GBM), making it a rational for therapy. Erlotinib, an EGFR kinase inhibitor is strongly associated with clinical response in several cancers. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by erlotinib were investigated in U87-MG and DBTRG-05MG, two human glioblastoma cell lines. The expression of several apoptosis-related proteins was investigated in these cell lines and in tumoral tissue from glioblastomas. Both cell lines expressed wild-type EGFR but were deficient for PTEN. Erlotinib induced a marked accumulation of the BIM protein, but the activation of caspase-3 machinery was missing, regardless of the decrease in XIAP. Moreover, in U87-MG, erlotinib promoted accumulation of αB-crystallin a small heat shock protein capable to impair caspase activation. DBTRG-05MG was found deficient for procaspase 3 and constitutively overexpressed αB-crystallin. Similarly, deficiencies in PTEN and procaspase 3 were constantly found in samples from glioblastoma samples, while αB-crystallin expression was inconsistent. In cell lines, high concentrations of erlotinib induced cell death through a caspase independent process and an autophagic process was evidenced in U87-MG. Inhibition of autophagy induced a marked increase in the death-inducing activity of erlotinib. These results confirm that glioblastoma cell lines exhibit several anti-apoptotic mechanisms, and underline that EGFR targeted therapy must be associated to other inhibitors to achieve an antitumoral effect. PMID:21508666

  3. A new instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers' attitudes to teaching mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, Steven

    1991-06-01

    This article outlines the development of an instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers' attitudes to teaching mathematics. A trial questionnaire was devised using the set of Fennema-Sherman scales on students' attitudes to the subject mathematics as a model. Analysis of the responses to the questionnaire by 155 student teachers was carried out to develop meaningful attitude scales and to refine the instrument. The end-product is a new instrument which can be used to monitor the attitudes of student teachers. The attitude scales identified in the analysis and built into the final form of the questionnaire are (i) anxiety, (ii) confidence and enjoyment, (iii) desire for recognition and (iv) pressure to conform.

  4. Euthanasia Acceptance as Related to Afterlife and Other Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)

  5. RESPONSES OF SHEEP TO ZYGADENUS GRAMINEUS, "DEATH CAMAS".

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A R

    1931-01-30

    An extract of Zygadenus gramineus, "death camas," from which most of the resins had been removed was given intravenously to sheep prepared for recording blood-pressure and respiratory movements. Following the intravenous injection of this extract there occurred a respiratory inhibition which in the case of the injection of larger amounts of the extract was followed by asphyxia-like rises of blood-pressure. The graphic record of this asphyxial condition was practically duplicated by closing the tracheal cannula for a short time following the recovery of the animal from the effects of the plant extract. Although, from a field standpoint, no satisfactory antidote has been found, it has been demonstrated that caffein sodio-benzoate possesses marked powers of stimulation for the respiratory center affected by the depressive substances found in Zygadenus gramineus. PMID:17802372

  6. Teaching Child Care Providers to Reduce the Risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted

  7. Teaching Child Care Providers to Reduce the Risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted…

  8. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  9. First Grade Teacher's Feelings about Discussing Death in the Classroom and Suggestions To Support Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Cordero, Minerva

    Drawing on the literature and a survey of first-grade teachers, this paper provides a summary of the ways children grieve, children's ideas on death, ways to help children contend with the difficulties surrounding death, and teachers' feelings about discussing death in the classroom. Twelve teachers completed a questionnaire about how to…

  10. Dignified death: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Mundt, C

    1995-05-01

    After discussing some defining questions concerning dignified death, active and passive euthanasia, assisted suicide and the criteria for free will and informed consent, the juridical situation in Germany is reported. Passive euthanasia according to the patients' free will is accepted, assisted suicide, active euthanasia, and passive euthanasia without informed consent are not accepted. The ethical discussion on these topics in Germany reveals a spectrum of opinions. There is somewhat more emphasis on the cons than on the pros. Humanistic and economic arguments merge in the debate. The philosophy of consequentialistic utilitarianism is heavily criticized by many authors who warn that respect even for the unproductive life must not fade. After some remarks on empirical studies on attitudes towards death and the history of attitudes towards euthanasia the conclusion lists the arguments, pros and cons, and gives a personal view. PMID:9179960

  11. Job attitudes.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

  12. Study of recent and future trends in place of death in Belgium using death certificate data: a shift from hospitals to care homes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since most patients prefer out-of-hospital death, place of death can be considered an indicator of end-of-life care quality. The study of trends in place of death is necessary to examine causes of shifts, to evaluate efforts to alter place of death and develop future policies. This study aims to examine past trends and future projections of place of death. Methods Analysis of death certificates (decedents aged ≥ 1 year) in Belgium (Flanders and Brussels Capital region) 1998-2007. Trends in place of death were adjusted for cause of death, sociodemographic characteristics, environmental factors, numbers of hospital beds, and residential and skilled nursing beds in care homes. Future trends were based on age- and sex-specific mortality prognoses. Results Hospital deaths decreased from 55.1% to 51.7% and care home deaths rose from 18.3% to 22.6%. The percentage of home deaths remained stable. The odds of dying in a care home versus hospital increased steadily and was 1.65 (95%CI:1.53-1.78) in 2007 compared to 1998. This increase could be attributed to the replacement of residential beds by skilled nursing beds. Continuation of these trends would result in the more than doubling of deaths in care homes and a decrease in deaths at home and in hospital by 2040. Conclusions Additional end-of-life care resources in care homes largely explain the decrease in hospital deaths. Care homes will become the main locus of end-of-life care in the future. Governments should provide sufficient skilled nursing resources in care homes to fulfil the end-of-life care preferences and needs of patients. PMID:21489273

  13. When and How Do Seizures Kill Neurons, and Is Cell Death Relevant to Epileptogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Dingledine, Ray; Varvel, Nicholas H.; Dudek, F. Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effect of seizures on neuronal death and the role of seizure-induced neuronal death in acquired epileptogenesis have been debated for decades. Isolated brief seizures probably do not kill neurons; however, severe and repetitive seizures (i.e., status epilepticus) certainly do. Because status epilepticus both kills neurons and also leads to chronic epilepsy, neuronal death has been proposed to be an integral part of acquired epileptogenesis. Several studies, particularly in the immature brain, have suggested that neuronal death is not necessary for acquired epileptogenesis; however, the lack of neuronal death is difficult if not impossible to prove, and more recent studies have challenged this concept. Novel mechanisms of cell death, beyond the traditional concepts of necrosis and apoptosis, include autophagy, phagoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. The traditional proposal for why neuronal death may be necessary for epileptogenesis is based on the recapitulation of development hypothesis, where a loss of synaptic input from the dying neurons is considered a critical signal to induce axonal sprouting and synaptic-circuit reorganization. We propose a second hypothesis – the neuronal death pathway hypothesis, which states that the biochemical pathways causing programmed neurodegeneration, rather than neuronal death per se, are responsible for or contribute to epileptogenesis. The reprogramming of neuronal death pathways – if true – is proposed to derive from necroptosis or pyroptosis. The proposed new hypothesis may inform on why neuronal death seems closely linked to epileptogenesis, but may not always be. PMID:25012371

  14. Attitudes of physicians in northern Ontario to medical malpractice litigation.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, W. R.; Neff, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To survey medical practitioners' experience with and attitudes toward litigation alleging medical malpractice. DESIGN: A survey using a questionnaire. SETTING: The Sudbury and Manitoulin Health District of Northern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Medical practitioners in the area. RESULTS: Physicians are sometimes negligent; malpractice is not simply created by entrepreneurial lawyers and patients with unrealistic expectations. At present malpractice is restrained by both the threat of civil litigation and the disciplinary committee of the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons. CONCLUSION: We must address the fear of malpractice suits if the North is to attract and retain the physicians it needs to provide modern standards of medical care. PMID:8199521

  15. Greed, death, and values: from terror management to transcendence management theory.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Philip J; Staples, Angela D; Meyers, Lawrence S; Samboceti, Jamie

    2004-03-01

    Research supporting terror management theory has shown that participants facing their death (via mortality salience) exhibit more greed than do control participants. The present research attempts to distinguish mortality salience from other forms of mortality awareness. Specifically, the authors look to reports of near-death experiences and posttraumatic growth which reveal that many people who nearly die come to view seeking wealth and possession as empty and meaningless. Guided by these reports, a manipulation called death reflection was generated. In Study 1, highly extrinsic participants who experienced death reflection exhibited intrinsic behavior. In Study 2, the manipulation was validated, and in Study 3, death reflection and mortality salience manipulations were compared. Results showed that mortality salience led highly extrinsic participants to manifest greed, whereas death reflection again generated intrinsic, unselfish behavior. The construct of value orientation is discussed along with the contrast between death reflection manipulation and mortality salience. PMID:15030620

  16. Unexpected Death in Palliative Care: What to Expect When You are Not Expecting

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Death is a certainty in life. Yet, the timing of death is often uncertain. When death occurs suddenly and earlier than anticipated, it is considered an unexpected death. In this article, we shall discuss when is a death expected and unexpected, and review the frequency, impact, causes and approach to unexpected death in the palliative care setting. Recent findings Even in the palliative care setting in which death is relatively common, up to 5% of deaths in hospice and 10% of deaths in palliative care units were considered to be unexpected. Unexpected death has significant impact on care, including unrealized dreams and unfinished business among patients, a sense of uneasiness and complicated bereavement among caregivers, and uncertainty in decision making among healthcare providers. Clinicians may minimize the impact of unexpected events by improving their accuracy of prognostication, communicating the uncertainty with patients and families, and helping them to expect the unexpected by actively planning ahead. Furthermore, because of the emotional impact of unexpected death on bereaved caregivers, clinicians should provide close monitoring and offer prompt treatment for complicated grief. Summary Further research is needed to understand how we can better predict and address unexpected events. PMID:26509862

  17. An application of the Sentinel Health Event (Occupational) concept to death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    Lalich, N R; Schuster, L L

    1987-01-01

    This article describes a computer-based application of the Sentinel Health Event (Occupational) [SHE(O)] concept, developed in conjunction with five states, to monitor deaths which are occupationally related. The states have coded their state death certificate files for industry and occupation, using the decedent's usual occupation and industry as reported on the death certificate. From these files, the SHE(O) computer program selects deaths which are likely to be work-related, based on a previously published SHE(O) list of 50 disease rubrics and associated industries and occupations. The computer program matches the SHE(O) list with the recorded industry, occupation, and underlying cause of death. The program has been tested using 1984 death certificate data from Maine, upstate New York (excluding New York City), North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. Approximately 1 to 2 per cent of all deaths were selected by the program, with lung cancer and coal workers' pneumoconiosis being the most frequent cause of death. The SHE(O) program may be useful for identifying deaths which are potentially occupationally related, but its utility and its application to death certificates needs further evaluation before recommending widespread use. Limitations are discussed, as well as plans for improving the application of the SHE(O) concept to death certificates. PMID:3631365

  18. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  19. Perspective Taking to Improve Attitudes towards International Teaching Assistants: The Role of National Identification and Prior Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohar, Uttara; Appiah, Osei

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students negatively evaluate international TAs in universities across the U.S. Using the social identity framework a perspective-taking intervention is proposed to improve undergraduate students' attitudes towards International TAs. Students (n?=?143) were randomly assigned to receive target-focused or self-focused perspective-taking…

  20. Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riagain, Padraig O.

    2007-01-01

    Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

  1. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies. PMID:23038861

  2. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-02-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:12615182

  3. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  4. A study of home deaths in Japan from 1951 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Limin; Sakamoto, Naoko; Marui, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    Background Several surveys in Japan have indicated that most terminally ill Japanese patients would prefer to die at home or in a homelike setting. However, there is a great disparity between this stated preference and the reality, since most Japanese die in hospital. We report here national changes in home deaths in Japan over the last 5 decades. Using prefecture data, we also examined the factors in the medical service associated with home death in Japan. Methods Published data on place of death was obtained from the vital statistics compiled by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. We analyzed trends of home deaths from 1951 to 2002, and describe the changes in the proportion of home deaths by region, sex, age, and cause of death. Joinpoint regression analysis was used for trend analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify secular trends in home deaths, and the impact of age, sex, year of deaths and cause of deaths on home death. We also examined the association between home death and medical service factors by multiple regression analysis, using home death rate by prefectures in 2002 as a dependent variable. Results A significant decrease in the percentage of patients dying at home was observed in the results of joinpoint regression analysis. Older patients and males were more likely to die at home. Patients who died from cancer were less likely to die at home. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that home death was related to the number of beds in hospital, ratio of daily occupied beds in general hospital, the number of families in which the elderly were living alone, and dwelling rooms. Conclusion The pattern of the place of death has not only been determined by social and demographic characteristics of the decedent, but also associated with the medical service in the community. PMID:16524485

  5. Unexpected death following single blow to the orbit.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry J

    2010-12-01

    Severe brain injury is rare after assault to the head with a fist. Our patient was a 39-year-old white male who was punched in a parking lot. The subject fell on his right head. He did not lose consciousness. The subject was taken to the hospital. On admission, his blood alcohol concentration was 229 mg/dL. A CT scan of the head showed no injury. He was admitted to the detoxification unit. He became sober, and was seen ambulating at 3:30 am. By 5:20 am, he was unresponsive. A CT scan of the head showed that an epidural hematoma had developed over the right temporal lobe. The hematoma was drained. The patient did not recover. EEG confirmed no cerebral activity. At autopsy, the brain was removed, showing that the central brain was liquefied. The skull demonstrated a hairline fracture of the right temporal bone, corresponding to the impact with the sidewalk. Our patient differs from the typical victim of head trauma from assault in that severe brain injury or death is typically rare in assault. Alcohol is reported sometimes to have a neuroprotective effect in head injury. The present case illustrates an extreme conclusion of an otherwise-routine head trauma. PMID:20216306

  6. The caveolin-1 connection to cell death and survival.

    PubMed

    Quest, A F G; Lobos-González, L; Nuñez, S; Sanhueza, C; Fernández, J-G; Aguirre, A; Rodríguez, D; Leyton, L; Torres, V

    2013-02-01

    Caveolins are a family of membrane proteins required for the formation of small plasma membrane invaginations called caveolae that are implicated in cellular trafficking processes. In addition to this structural role, these scaffolding proteins modulate numerous intracellular signaling pathways; often via direct interaction with specific binding partners. Caveolin-1 is particularly well-studied in this respect and has been attributed a large variety of functions. Thus, Caveolin-1 also represents the best-characterized isoform of this family with respect to its participation in cancer. Rather strikingly, available evidence indicates that Caveolin-1 belongs to a select group of proteins that function, depending on the cellular settings, both as tumor suppressor and promoter of cellular traits commonly associated with enhanced malignant behavior, such as metastasis and multi-drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying such ambiguity in Caveolin-1 function constitute an area of great interest. Here, we will focus on discussing how Caveolin-1 modulates cell death and survival pathways and how this may contribute to a better understanding of the ambiguous role this protein plays in cancer. PMID:23228128

  7. Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life. PMID:24316972

  8. Sudden cardiac death: ethical considerations in the return to play.

    PubMed

    Piantanida, Nicholas A; Oriscello, Ralph G; Pettrone, Frank A; O'Connor, Francis G

    2004-04-01

    The team physician-athlete relationship prompts many basic questions in medical ethics. Return-to-play decisions form many of the core responsibilities facing team physicians, and occasionally these decisions can have overriding ethical dilemmas. Therefore, a structured ethical decision-making process is a valuable skill for every successful sports medicine physician. An ethical question is confronted here in a case presentation that weighs the risk of repeat sudden cardiac death and the potential for failed cardiac resuscitation against the athlete's interest to play competitive basketball. The article applies a four-step framework for ethical decision making in sports medicine. The important first step includes gathering medical information and understanding the preferences of the athlete. Step 2 brings together the decision-making stakeholders, the team physician as a member, to define ethical issues and apply ethical principles: beneficence, non-maleficence, and patient autonomy. Step 3 selects a course of action with unbiased analysis and arrives at a good choice that merits an action plan in step 4. This decision need not be perfect, but should reinforce the team physician's responsibilities to the athlete and center on the athlete's welfare. PMID:14980137

  9. Safe using messages may not be enough to promote behaviour change amongst injecting drug users who are ambivalent or indifferent towards death

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Background Health promotion strategies ultimately rely on people perceiving the consequences of their behaviour as negative. If someone is indifferent towards death, it would logically follow that health promotion messages such as safe using messages would have little resonance. This study aimed to investigate attitudes towards death in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and how such attitudes may impact upon the efficacy/relevance of 'safe using' (health promotion) messages. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews in Geelong, Australia with 60 regular heroin users recruited primarily from needle and syringe programs. Results Over half of the interviewees reported having previously overdosed and 35% reported not engaging in any overdose prevention practices. 13% had never been tested for either HIV or hepatitis C. Just under half reported needle sharing of some description and almost all (97%) reported previously sharing other injecting equipment. Many interviewees reported being indifferent towards death. Common themes included; indifference towards life, death as an occupational hazard of drug use and death as a welcome relief. Conclusion Most of the interviewees in this study were indifferent towards heroin-related death. Whilst interviewees were well aware of the possible consequences of their actions, these consequences were not seen as important as achieving their desired state of mind. Safe using messages are an important part of reducing drug-related harm, but people working with IDUs must consider the context in which risk behaviours occur and efforts to reduce said behaviours must include attempts to reduce environmental risk factors at the same time. PMID:19630988

  10. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  11. System for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.

  12. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on "Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science" (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science…

  13. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on "Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science" (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science

  14. Prostate cancer: leading and misleading routes to TRAIL of death.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; Rehman, Abdur; Nogueira, Daniele Rubert; Awan, Imrana Iftikhar; Shahid, Adeela

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a multifaceted disease that arises because of misrepresentation of linear and integrated signaling cascades that regulate gene network in normal and cancer cells. Programmed cell death is modulated by intracellular regulators within each cell and various lines of evidence suggest that there is under- expression and over-expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene subsets respectively. Apoptosis is a response to the cellular microenvironment, and the cell microenvironment can be regulated by multiple signaling cascades at a higher organizational level by suppressing survival signals notably at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Unquestionably, drug-discovery approaches over the last decade aiming at neutralizing anti-apoptotic proteins, over-expressing pro-apoptotic proteins and enhancing the cell surface appearance of TRAIL receptors have revolutionized our current information about inducing and maximizing TRAIL mediated signaling in resistant prostate cancer phenotype. In this mini-review we outline outstanding developments in the field of prostate cancer that have played a role in understanding the underlying mechanisms that control TRAIL mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which may be helpful in the development of cancer therapies based on the apoptotic pathway. PMID:25176369

  15. Pyrvinium targets autophagy addiction to promote cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Deng, Longfei; Lei, Yunlong; Liu, Rui; Li, Jingyi; Yuan, Kefei; Li, Yi; Chen, Yi; Liu, Yi; Lu, You; Edwards, Carl K; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23640456

  16. Pyrvinium targets autophagy addiction to promote cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Longfei; Lei, Yunlong; Liu, Rui; Li, Jingyi; Yuan, Kefei; Li, Yi; Chen, Yi; Liu, Yi; Lu, You; Edwards III, Carl K; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-𝒟-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23640456

  17. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  18. Using multiple cause-of-death data to improve surveillance of drug-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, David L.; Yokoi-Shelton, Mieko L.; Zosel, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Context Many state and local areas are affected by the national epidemic of drug-related mortality, which recently has shown signs of a rising licit-to-illicit drug death ratio. Appropriate local public health surveillance can help to monitor and control this epidemic. Objective Using our state as an example, we sought to illustrate how to describe the changes in drug death rates, causes, and circumstances. In contrast to most other surveillance reports, our approach includes both drug-induced and drug-related deaths and both demographic and socioeconomic decedent characteristics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All residents of the State of Wisconsin. Participants Decedents from 1999–2008. Main outcome measure Annual numbers and population-based rates of deaths due to drugs, including both identified and unidentified drugs. Information was obtained from death certificates with any of approximately 270 underlying, immediate, or contributing cause of death codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. Results Drug-related death rates increased during much of the 10-year study period, and the ratio of male to female deaths rose. The median age at death from drug-related causes was 43 years. Opioid analgesic poisoning surpassed cocaine and heroin poisoning as the most frequent type of fatal drug poisoning. Of all 4828 deaths from drug-related causes--virtually all of which were certified by a county medical examiner or coroner--3,410 (71%) were unintentional, and 1,053 (22%) were suicide. The unintentional-to-suicide death rate ratio grew from 1.6 to 3.5 during the study period. Methadone-related deaths increased from 10 in 1999 to 118 in 2008 (1080%), while benzodiazepine-related deaths rose from 23 to 106 (361%). Conclusions Although premature deaths from drug use and abuse continue to rise, in some states even surpassing motor vehicle crash deaths, multiple cause of death information from death certificates is available to monitor their occurrence and nature and to inform selection of prevention strategies. PMID:23266754

  19. Validation of a pediatric bedside tool to predict time to death after withdrawal of life support

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashima; Anderson, Ingrid M; Speicher, David G; Speicher, Richard H; Shein, Steven L; Rotta, Alexandre T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of a tool developed to predict timing of death following withdrawal of life support in children. METHODS: Pertinent variables for all pediatric deaths (age ≤ 21 years) from 1/2009 to 6/2014 in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) were extracted through a detailed review of the medical records. As originally described, a recently developed tool that predicts timing of death in children following withdrawal of life support (dallas predictor tool [DPT]) was used to calculate individual scores for each patient. Individual scores were calculated for prediction of death within 30 min (DPT30) and within 60 min (DPT60). For various resulting DPT30 and DPT60 scores, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated. RESULTS: There were 8829 PICU admissions resulting in 132 (1.5%) deaths. Death followed withdrawal of life support in 70 patients (53%). After excluding subjects with insufficient data to calculate DPT scores, 62 subjects were analyzed. Average age of patients was 5.3 years (SD: 6.9), median time to death after withdrawal of life support was 25 min (range; 7 min to 16 h 54 min). Respiratory failure, shock and sepsis were the most common diagnoses. Thirty-seven patients (59.6%) died within 30 min of withdrawal of life support and 52 (83.8%) died within 60 min. DPT30 scores ranged from -17 to 16. A DPT30 score ≥ -3 was most predictive of death within that time period, with sensitivity = 0.76, specificity = 0.52, AUC = 0.69 and an overall classification accuracy = 66.1%. DPT60 scores ranged from -21 to 28. A DPT60 score ≥ -9 was most predictive of death within that time period, with sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.80, AUC = 0.85 and an overall classification accuracy = 75.8%. CONCLUSION: In this external cohort, the DPT is clinically relevant in predicting time from withdrawal of life support to death. In our patients, the DPT is more useful in predicting death within 60 min of withdrawal of life support than within 30 min. Furthermore, our analysis suggests optimal cut-off scores. Additional calibration and modifications of this important tool could help guide the intensive care team and families considering DCD. PMID:26862507

  20. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  1. Segmentation studies provide insights to better understanding attitudes towards science and technology.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig; Romanach, Lygia Malzoni

    2014-03-01

    Values-based studies of people's attitudes towards science and technology not only provide great insights into what drives different attitudes to issues like climate change and genetically modified foods, but allow for segmenting the general public by homogeneous values. Such segmentations both provide better predictions of people's attitudes to new technologies or contentious science issues than age, sex, or other standard demographics, and allow a better matching of different messages with different community values. PMID:24560351

  2. Beyond the grave: When is cell death critical for immunity to infection?

    PubMed

    Stephenson, H N; Herzig, A; Zychlinsky, A

    2016-02-01

    Immune cell death is often observed in response to infection. There are three potential beneficial outcomes after host cell death: (1) the removal of an intracellular niche for microbes, (2) direct microbicidal activity of released components and (3) the propagation of an inflammatory response. Recent findings suggest that three forms of non-apoptotic regulated cell death, pyroptosis, necroptosis and NETosis, can impact on immunity to bacterial infection. However, it is challenging to design experiments that unequivocally prove the advantageous effects of regulated cell death on immunity. Recent advances in the genetic manipulation of regulated cell death and danger-associated molecular patterns and 'alarmins', such as HMGB1 and the IL-1 family, may hold the key to delineating the consequences of cell death in immunity to infection. PMID:26682763

  3. Attributes Related to Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, Joanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to…

  4. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  5. Pupils' Attitudes to Science. A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; Duckworth, D.

    This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…

  6. Brief and Nontraditional Approaches to Mental Health Counseling: Practitioners' Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Marcheta P.; Valadez, Albert A.; Burns, Shaun; Rodriguez, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Examines differences between professional work setting, gender, and ethnicity, and attitudes toward brief and nontraditional therapeutic approaches. Results indicated that practitioners of minority classification, males, and individuals employed in private practice held more favorable attitudes toward brief therapeutic approaches, and ethnic

  7. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  8. Using cognitive dissonance to enhance faculty members' attitudes toward teaching online courses.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-10-01

    Adopting a reward strategy for inducing college faculty to teach online courses is expected to cause a positive shift of their attitudes. Based upon dissonance theory, a smaller reward will lead to greater attitude change, and this effect will be more pronounced in individualists. The results of an experimental study showed that individualist teachers exhibited greater attitude change under low reward than under high reward, but the reward effect was not prominent in collectivist teachers. Implications for enhancing college teachers' attitudes toward teaching online courses are discussed. PMID:17153815

  9. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

  10. Transplanting hearts after death measured by cardiac criteria: the challenge to the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Robert M

    2010-06-01

    The current definition of death used for donation after cardiac death relies on a determination of the irreversible cessation of the cardiac function. Although this criterion can be compatible with transplantation of most organs, it is not compatible with heart transplantation since heart transplants by definition involve the resuscitation of the supposedly "irreversibly" stopped heart. Subsequently, the definition of "irreversible" has been altered so as to permit heart transplantation in some circumstances, but this is unsatisfactory. There are three available strategies for solving this "irreversibility problem": altering the definition of death so as to rely on circulatory irreversibility, rather than cardiac; defining death strictly on the basis of brain death (either whole-brain or more pragmatically some higher brain criteria); or redefining death in traditional terms and simultaneously legalizing some limited instances of medical killing to procure viable hearts. The first two strategies are the most ethically justifiable and practical. PMID:20439354

  11. To hold or not to hold: medicolegal death investigation practices during unexpected child death investigations and the experiences of next of kin.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rebecca A; Marain, Lisa Capizzi; Crandall, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practices within the medicolegal death investigation system, as well as the experience of bereaved parents due to sudden unexpected child death with regard to viewing, memorial keepsakes, and communication during the death investigation. Convenience samples of 197 professionals and 156 bereaved parents participated. Respondents were asked to participate in an online survey. Results show that the majority of professional respondents (96.5%) allow the next of kin (NOK) to view his/her child before transport to the morgue while holding the infant/child was somewhat less commonplace (68.9%). The majority of professional respondents (70.4%) would also permit memorial keepsakes to be made. Additional factors are explored that both hinder and promote these common family requests. Furthermore, professional practices and NOK experiences in regard to communicating preliminary and final cause of death information to the NOK were highly variable. This article provides a snapshot at the current death investigative practices in the United States, as well as how these practices are received by NOK along with their recommendations for change. These results may be used to further inform future guidelines to improve comprehensive and efficient death investigations that support the emotional needs of the newly bereaved. PMID:24781400

  12. Attitudes of professional mental health workers to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Vicente, B; Vielma, M; Jenner, F A; Mezzina, R; Lliapas, I

    1993-01-01

    An attempt is presented to measure and compare attitudes to and ideas about psychiatry and mental health services in Concepcion, Sheffield and Trieste. These cities have in some respects comparable populations but very different mental health services. Questionnaires in English, Italian and Spanish were used to assess the views of professional workers in the field. The information collected showed that the Italian professionals had the highest level of satisfaction with their work, showed most tolerance of deviant behaviour in the community, the least acceptance of diminished responsibility in law and a non-traditional view of psychiatry. Clearly Chilean professionals held a very traditional view and medicalised approach to mental illness but an encouraging theoretical approval towards eventual changes in the services, along with the lowest level of satisfaction with their work. Professionals from Sheffield held an intermediate position coming closer to the theoretical view of the Chileans but nearer to the Italian praxis and therapeutic approach. PMID:8340213

  13. Autophagy prevents autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Wei; Feng, Jiang-Nan; Cao, Yi; Meng, Li-Ping; Wang, Shu-Lin

    2015-05-18

    Autophagy is a major cellular pathway used to degrade long-lived proteins or organelles that may be damaged due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cellular stress. Autophagy typically enhances cell survival, but it may also act to promote cell death under certain conditions. The mechanism underlying this paradox, however, remains unclear. We showed that Tetrahymena cells exerted increased membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagy followed by autophagic cell death (referred to as cell death with autophagy) after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or 3-methyladenine significantly augmented autophagic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Blockage of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or starvation triggered activation of autophagy followed by cell death by inducing the production of ROS due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This indicated a regulatory role of mitochondrial ROS in programming autophagy and autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena. Importantly, suppression of autophagy enhanced autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to elevated ROS production from starvation, and this was reversed by antioxidants. Therefore, our results suggest that autophagy was activated upon oxidative stress to prevent the initiation of autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena until the accumulation of ROS passed the point of no return, leading to delayed cell death in Tetrahymena. PMID:26018860

  14. Autophagy prevents autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Si-Wei; FENG, Jiang-Nan; CAO, Yi; MENG, Li-Ping; WANG, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a major cellular pathway used to degrade long-lived proteins or organelles that may be damaged due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cellular stress. Autophagy typically enhances cell survival, but it may also act to promote cell death under certain conditions. The mechanism underlying this paradox, however, remains unclear. We showed that Tetrahymena cells exerted increased membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagy followed by autophagic cell death (referred to as cell death with autophagy) after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or 3-methyladenine significantly augmented autophagic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Blockage of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or starvation triggered activation of autophagy followed by cell death by inducing the production of ROS due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This indicated a regulatory role of mitochondrial ROS in programming autophagy and autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena. Importantly, suppression of autophagy enhanced autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to elevated ROS production from starvation, and this was reversed by antioxidants. Therefore, our results suggest that autophagy was activated upon oxidative stress to prevent the initiation of autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena until the accumulation of ROS passed the point of no return, leading to delayed cell death in Tetrahymena. PMID:26018860

  15. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Samuel R.; O’Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  16. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death.

    PubMed

    Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H

    2014-05-20

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  17. Science journalists' perceptions and attitudes to pseudoscience in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cortiñas-Rovira, Sergi; Alonso-Marcos, Felipe; Pont-Sorribes, Carles; Escribà-Sales, Eudald

    2015-05-01

    Using interviews and questionnaires, we explored the perceptions and attitudes of 49 Spanish science journalists regarding pseudoscience. Pseudoscience, understood as false knowledge that endeavours to pass as science, is a controversial and complex matter that potentially poses a risk to society. Given that concern over this issue has grown in recent years in Spain, our aim was to evaluate how pseudoscience operates in journalistic practice in Spanish media. Our data reveal not only a lack of editorial policies in regard to pseudoscience, but also the existence of a significant number of science journalists who make light of the potential threat implied by the pseudosciences in the media. Some journalists point to the lack of scientific training of editors and media managers as one of the reasons for the proliferation of the pseudosciences. PMID:25471350

  18. Preparedness for Death and Adjustment to Bereavement among Caregivers of Recently Placed Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Kathrin; Klinger, Julie; Rosen, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment has not been studied prospectively. Little is known about pre-death factors associated with feeling prepared prior to the death of a loved one. Objective: Our aim was to prospectively assess the role of preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment in informal caregivers (CGs) who experienced the death of their loved one and to identify predictors and correlates of complicated grief, depression, and preparedness for death among informal CGs. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study using data collected for a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an intervention for CGs of recently placed care recipients (CRs). Subjects were 217 informal CGs of care recipients recently placed in nursing homes, and they were followed for 18 months. CGs were assessed in person by certified interviewers at 6-month intervals. Eighty-nine CGs experienced the death of their loved one in the course of the study. Measurements used included preparedness for death, advance care planning (ACP), complicated grief, depression, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: CGs who reported feeling more prepared for the death experienced lower levels of complicated grief post-bereavement. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model showed that spouses as opposed to adult child CGs were less prepared for the death, depressed CGs were less prepared, and patients who engaged in ACP had CGs who felt more prepared. CR overt expressions about wanting to die was also related to higher levels of preparedness in the CG. Conclusions: We show prospectively that preparedness for death facilitates post-bereavement adjustment and identify factors associated with preparedness. ACP can be an effective means for preparing informal CGs for the death of their CRs. PMID:25469737

  19. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire: Mokken Scaling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing. PMID:24892302

  20. Attitudes of New Zealand obstetricians and gynaecologists to continuing education.

    PubMed

    Hutton, J D

    1985-12-25

    The attitudes of 118 New Zealand obstetricians and gynaecologists (81.7% response rate) to various methods of continuing education were objectively assessed by questionnaire. Most gynaecologists stated that they were likely to attend congresses despite the educative value of such meetings being much less than scientific training courses, refresher courses or scientific meetings: informal discussion with colleagues may thus be the real value of congresses. Hospital medical officer attachments and mail order self-education kits were not regarded as useful educative methods. Doctors in major cities had the greatest difficulty in attending courses, largely due to time rather than money or locum arrangement difficulties. The preferred season for formal meetings was autumn and the duration of meetings was two to three days. PMID:3865092

  1. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths. PMID:26297511

  2. Attitudes to cancer may create a barrier to communication between the patient and caregiver.

    PubMed

    Purandare, L

    1997-06-01

    The word 'cancer' is feared more than any other disease group, possibly because its course is unpredictable and anyone of any age may be affected. An effective tertiary health promotion programme for the newly diagnosed patient may have an enormous impact on the quality of life of that patient. The key to any health promotion programme is information and communication. Negative attitudes must be identified and dealt with, both patient and health promoter attitudes, before effective communication can take place. PMID:9233159

  3. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  4. Space Debris Birth to Death Analysis from Concern to Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkleman, D.; Alfano, S.; Johnson, T.; Kelso, T.; Vallado, D.; Oltrogge, D.

    We present the space debris operational process in the context of real circumstances that would have required early assessment, prompt warning, and responsive mitigations. We have applied several widely used collision and explosion models to the prompt debris environment, short term moderation of the debris cloud through reentry, mid-term assessment of conjunctions with operational satellites, and identification of the long term persistent aftermath. We provide distributions of fragment sizes, masses, and radar cross sections which we use to identify the trackable population and the remaining population which is either imperceptible to space surveillance radars. We examine predicted conjunctions between FY1C Debris (Catalog 31473)/Meteor 2-2, FY1C Debris (31379)/Meteor 2-12, and ISIS-2/Cosmos 2271. These illustrate early assessment of collision probability and consequences, triage among high probability conjunctions to conduct additional analysis judiciously, and the consequences of collisions between objects of disparate masses. We highlight deficiencies in essential analytical tools and databases. We offer guidance for further investigation and seek better capabilities to serve this important need.

  5. Parents' attitudes related to melanocytic nevus count in children.

    PubMed

    de Maleissye, Marie-Florence; Beauchet, Alain; Aegerter, Philippe; Saiag, Philippe; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    Sun exposure, fair phototype, and a high common melanocytic nevus (MN) count have been identified as the most important risk factors for melanoma. MN are mainly acquired during childhood, and their relationship to sun exposure, sunburn, and light skin complexion is well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the sun protection attitudes of parents and their offspring affect MN development in children. We designed a cross-sectional study in 828 9-year-old school children. Trained nurses counted the MN on each child's back and arms, depending on their size. Questionnaires filled by children and parents provided information about sun exposure, attitude towards the sun, and sun-protection behaviors. Multivariate analysis showed that the childhood MN count was linked to fair phenotype--fair skin: rate ratio (RR)=3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.25-6.41; blue/green eyes: RR=1.2, 95% CI=1.11-1.34; blond hair: RR=1.25, 95% CI=1.10-1.41; history of sunburn: RR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03-1.23, seaside sun exposure--RR=1.14, 95% CI=1.01-1.28, and to their parents' behaviors during exposure to the sun--increase in the number of MN when parents used sunscreen: RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.08-1.40; decrease in MN count when parents wore a tee-shirt: RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79-0.93. In conclusion, fair phenotype and sun exposure are known major risk factors for MN. Parents' behaviors influence their children and appeared in our analysis as another determinant predictor of MN count, being protective against (wearing a tee-shirt when exposed to sun) or increasing the risk (sunscreen use, reflecting higher sun exposure) for childhood MN development. PMID:20736840

  6. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,

  7. Pupils' Attitudes to School and Music at the Start of Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokotsaki, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore pupils' affective engagement with school and music during their transition to secondary school. A gender comparison is also being made to ascertain any differences that may exist between boys and girls during this time. A sample of 182 pupils completed two questionnaires (attitudes to school and attitudes to music) three…

  8. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  9. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    PubMed

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described. PMID:9519580

  10. Modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale Created Using Principal-Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…

  11. Modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale Created Using Principal-Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28

  12. Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenaler, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

  13. The Attitudes of People with a Disability to Undertaking VET Training. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nechvoglod, Lisa; Griffin, Tabatha

    2011-01-01

    This research used a survey to investigate the attitudes of people with a disability towards undertaking training. The findings show very positive attitudes towards training by participants and, although the ability to generalise to the wider population is limited, one thing is clear: generally, people with a disability are willing to undertake…

  14. [Drug deaths].

    PubMed

    Gerber, A

    1976-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there exist no statistical datas concerning death related to drug dependence until now. We propose to define death in connexion with drug dependence as the death of a drug dependent person caused by direct or indirect effect of the drug used. We first report on several international investigations; then the results of our own investigation in 40 cases of death in connexion with drug dependence in the district of Nordbaden are presented in detail. As a result it seems necessary to register drug dependent persons and to isolate those who are resistent to any therapy and thus represent a focus for further expansion of drug consuming. PMID:962461

  15. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Presumption of entitlement applicable to... COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable to Eligibility Determinations 718.306 Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  16. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presumption of entitlement applicable to... COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable to Eligibility Determinations 718.306 Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  17. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

  18. Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-06-01

    A new publication of the World Health Organization, "Abortion in the Developing World," reports that 40% of the 50 million abortions performed each year are unsafe, and 90% of these medically perilous procedures occur in developing countries. Although the 30 million abortions performed annually in developing countries represent 60% of the global total, they account for 95% of abortion-related deaths. Abortion was illegal in 94% of the developing countries included in the WHO study. Unexpectedly, the proportion of women who were using contraception when they experienced an unintended pregnancy was similar in countries with strong family planning programs and those with weak or nonexistent programs. PMID:10355997

  19. Validity of Three School Climate Scales to Assess Bullying, Aggressive Attitudes, and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Sharmila; Cornell, Dewey G.; Konold, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The School Climate Bullying Survey (Cornell & Sheras, 2003) is a self-report survey used to measure attitudes and behaviors associated with school bullying. Two studies were conducted to examine the valid use of its three school climate scales: (a) Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying, (b) Aggressive Attitudes, and (c) Willingness to Seek Help. In…

  20. An Analysis of Attitudes and Coping Strategies of High School Youth: Response to Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James Albert

    The purpose of this research study was to develop and test new instruments for assessing attitudes and coping responses to air pollution, and to gain insight into the factors influencing these attitudes and coping responses. Concern for air pollution was measured by two instruments a forced choice questionnaire which paired air pollution control…

  1. An Examination of Perceptions of Parental Influence on Attitudes to Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The assumption that parents have some effect on their children's attitudes to learning is one that few educationalists would challenge. The ways in which this influence is brought to bear are a slightly more complex and contentious matter, however. Purpose: The paper uses data from a tri-national PhD study on pupil attitudes to examine…

  2. Perceptions, Attitudes, Motivations, and Behaviors of Drivers 18 to 22 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    Young people are open to traffic accidents because of their age, their attitude, their lack of experience, and their tendency for risk-taking. This study sought an answer to the question of what are the perceptions, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors of young people that lead to traffic safety problems and/or interfere with their…

  3. Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

  4. Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

  5. Developing a Questionnaire to Measure Students' Attitudes toward the Course Blog?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahsavar, Zahra; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth of using Web 2.0 tools such as blogs has increased online courses in education. Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments to assess students' attitudes toward the online courses. This study provides a set of specific guidelines that the researchers used to develop a questionnaire to measure students' attitudes toward…

  6. Development of an Instrument to Measure Medical Students' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Andrew B.; Fish, Reva; McGuigan, Denise; Fox, Jeffery; Akl, Elie A.

    2012-01-01

    As curricula to improve medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities are developed, instruments are needed to guide the process and evaluate effectiveness. The authors developed an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities. A pilot instrument with 30 items in four sections was administered to…

  7. How to Live? What We Can Learn from Ivan Ilych's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felps, Maryann

    2012-01-01

    Near the first of every school year, the author has the opportunity to talk to her students about death, usually in the midst of their study of "Beowulf" or "Gilgamesh." Occasionally, the discussion results from the recent news of the death of a public figure or, closer to home, a family member. Regardless of the circumstance, her students learn…

  8. The Factor Structure of Teacher Attitudes to Sixth Form Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, W. A.; Holley, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A 40 item, Likert type attitude inventory was completed by a sample fo 448 teachers in schools with sixth forms. Implications for policy making in the area of sixth form education are briefly discussed. (Editor)

  9. Meeting the community halfway to reduce maternal deaths? Evidence from a community-based maternal death review in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Maine, Deborah; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Manthri, Suneedh; Chauhan, Kavita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the most populous state in India with the second highest reported maternal mortality ratio in the country. In an effort to analyze the reasons for maternal deaths and implement appropriate interventions, the Government of India introduced Maternal Death Review guidelines in 2010. Methods: We assessed causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao District, UP, through 2 methods. First, we conducted a facility gap assessment in 15 of the 16 block-level and district health facilities to collect information on the performance of the facilities in terms of treating obstetric complications. Second, teams of trained physicians conducted community-based maternal death reviews (verbal autopsies) in a sample of maternal deaths occurring between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. Results: Of the 248 maternal deaths that would be expected in this district in a year, we identified 153 (62%) through community workers and conducted verbal autopsies with families of 57 of them. Verbal autopsies indicated that 23% and 30% of these maternal deaths occurred at home and on the way to a health facility, respectively. Most of the women who died had been taken to at least 2 health facilities. The facility assessment revealed that only the district hospital met the recommended criteria for either basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Conclusions: Life-saving treatment of obstetric complications was not offered at the appropriate level of government facilities in a representative district in UP, and an inadequate referral system provided fatal delays. Expensive transportation costs to get pregnant women to a functioning medical facility also contributed to maternal death. The maternal death review, coupled with the facility gap assessment, is a useful tool to address the adequacy of emergency obstetric and neonatal care services to prevent further maternal deaths. PMID:25276519

  10. Course of Near-hanging Victims Succumbed to Death: A Seven Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Mugadlimath, Anand B.; Zine, K.U.; Farooqui, Jamebaseer M.; Phalke, Balaji J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Near hanging refers to victims who survive a hanging injury following attempted hanging, long enough to reach hospital. Delayed deaths in near hanging patients are mostly due to complication of hanging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the demographics, mortality patterns and cause of delayed deaths in near hanging victims. Materials and Methods: In this study autopsy files over a seven year period from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed, and data of near hanging deaths (attempted hanging cases who succumbed to death and subjected for medicolegal autopsy) was extracted. Records of 14,000 autopsies was reviewed, and 10 deceased having died delayed deaths after near hanging episode were identified. In each case, the patients’ details, including gender, age, type of suspension, type of ligature material used for hanging and subsequent hanging mark produced were reviewed using autopsy reports and photographs taken during autopsy. Results: Demographic and pathological aspects of the each case discussed to throw light on autopsy findings in victims who died following near hanging. Complete suspension was present in 3 cases, while partial suspension was present in 7 cases. Survivals in delayed death after near hanging episode have ranged from 9 h to 72 d. Hypoxic encephalopathy was the most common cause of death, followed by pneumonia. Conclusion: Most of the near hanging patients did succumb to hypoxic encephalopathy; however, consolidation of lungs (pneumonia) was the next common cause of death reflecting need for aggressive oxygen therapy and selective resuscitation should be performed in all such cases. PMID:25954634

  11. Attitude to Medication of Parents/Primary Carers of People With Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasaratnam, R.; Crouch, K.; Regan, A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of attitudes of carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) towards giving medication. Ninety-three carers of service users who are currently attending outpatients clinic (Harrow Learning Disability service) were interviewed, using the RAMS (Rating of Attitude to Medication Scale) interview schedule. A

  12. Discipline in the Schools: The Relationship of Educators' Attitudes About Corporal Punishment to Selected Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkay, Forrest W.; Conoley, Colleen

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine educators' attitudes toward corporal punishment and its alternatives in a variety of school settings throughout the Southwest; and (2) to explore the relationships between respondents' attitudes and such independent variables as dogmatism, sex, experience, level of education, job description,

  13. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

  14. "This Is a Public Service Announcement": Evaluating and Redesigning Campaigns to Teach Attitudes and Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Erika J.; Lomore, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…

  15. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  16. The Role of Outcome Expectations and Attitudes on Decisions to Seek Professional Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voge, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Wei, Meifen; Boysen, Guy A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined the predictors of seeking psychological services. Study 1 examined the role of attitudes in mediating the relationship between 11 psychological factors and intent to seek help for 3 psychological problems. The results demonstrated that (a) the psychological factors and attitudes predicted 62% of the variance in intent to seek…

  17. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2007-01-01

    To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians

  18. Learners' Perceptions and Attitudes: Implications for Willingness to Communicate in an L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Saint Leger, Diane; Storch, Neomy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…

  19. The Differential Relationship of Feminist Attitudes and Feminist Identity to Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Heather; Stake, Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Feminist theorists have suggested that feminism provides a number of benefits for women, particularly regarding self-evaluations. However, most studies have conflated feminist attitudes and feminist identity. The main goal of this study was to assess the differential relationships of feminist attitudes and feminist identity to self-efficacy. Four

  20. Attitudes of Primary Initial Teacher Training Students to Special Educational Needs and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In this article Joseph Mintz explores the importance of developing positive attitudes to SEN and Inclusion among primary teacher trainees. The research reported indicates that student attitudes towards SEN/Inclusion were generally positive, but that such views are fluid and subject to change during a course of training. The article reinforces the…

  1. Relationship between Familiarity, Attitudes and Preferences: Assisted Living Facilities as Compared to Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imamoglu, Cagri; Imamoglu, E. Olcay

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors aim to (a) explore attitudes toward and preferences for living in the newly emerging place type of assisted living facilities in comparison to nursing homes, and (b) assess the possible impact of familiarity on those attitudes and preferences. Ninety-eight respondents (with a mean age of 62) were surveyed. Respondents

  2. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  3. Attitude to Medication of Parents/Primary Carers of People With Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasaratnam, R.; Crouch, K.; Regan, A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of attitudes of carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) towards giving medication. Ninety-three carers of service users who are currently attending outpatients clinic (Harrow Learning Disability service) were interviewed, using the RAMS (Rating of Attitude to Medication Scale) interview schedule. A…

  4. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  5. The Association between Adolescents' Beliefs in a Just World and Their Attitudes to Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Elder, Tracey; Gater, Josephine; Johnson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research which has investigated children's attitudes to bullying has found that the majority of children display anti-bullying attitudes. However, a small minority of children do appear to admire the bully and lack sympathy for victims of bullying. The just world belief theory has received a great deal of attention in recent years with…

  6. The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers

  7. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2007-01-01

    To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

  8. Grade 4 to 8 Primary School Students' Attitudes towards Science: Science Enthusiasm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the grades 4 to 8 students' attitudes towards science under the "liking school", "independent investigator" and "what I really think of science" titles. The affect of gender, grade level and science achievement on students' attitudes was analysed in "liking school", "independent investigator", "science…

  9. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using

  10. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23

  11. Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak

    2012-01-01

    The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

  12. Implicit Attitudes toward Children May Be Unrelated to Child Abuse Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Crouch, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore whether adults possess implicit attitudes toward children and whether those attitudes are especially negative among respondents who are high in child physical abuse (CPA) risk. Methods: The present study used an implicit evaluative priming procedure. In this procedure, participants were instructed to make decisions about the…

  13. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits under 38 U.S.C. chapter 39 (38 CFR 3.808), and if VA awards chapter 39 benefits after the date on... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disability or death due... Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This section applies to claims...

  14. SUMOylation and Potassium Channels: Links to Epilepsy and Sudden Death.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongmei; Chen, Xu; Cheng, Jinke; Qi, Yitao

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal potassium ion channels play an essential role in the generation of the action potential and excitability of neurons. The dysfunction of ion channel subunits can cause channelopathies, which are associated in some cases with sudden unexplained death in epilepsy SUDEP. The physiological roles of neuronal ion channels have been largely determined, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying neurological channelopathies, especially the determinants of the channels' regulation. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) proteins covalently conjugate lysine residues in a large number of target proteins and modify their functions. SUMO modification (SUMOylation) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for protein stability, function, subcellular localization, and protein-protein interactions. Since SUMO was discovered almost 20 years ago, the biological contribution of SUMOylation has not fully understood. It is until recently that the physiological impacts of SUMOylation on the regulation of neuronal potassium ion channels have been investigated. It is well established that SUMOylation controls many aspects of nuclear function, but it is now clear that it is also a key determinant in the function of potassium channels, and SUMOylation has also been implicated in a wide range of channelopathies, including epilepsy and sudden death. PMID:26920693

  15. Culturally Diverse Beliefs Concerning Dying, Death, and Bereavement: A School Psychologist's Intervention Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    School psychologists need to employ a multicultural perspective in the areas of death, dying, and bereavement. To develop multicultural sensitivity and competency requires setting aside one's personal beliefs in an attempt to adopt another's perspective. Consequently, school psychologists first need to explore their own attitudes about death and…

  16. Applying the motorcyclist's perspective to improve car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Amit; Clarke, David; Crundall, David

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502

  17. Sudden cardiac death in the young: the molecular autopsy and a practical approach to surviving relatives.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2015-06-01

    The sudden death of a young, apparently fit and healthy person is amongst the most challenging scenarios in clinical medicine. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a devastating and tragic outcome of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, genetic (inherited) cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged 40 years and less. This includes the primary arrhythmogenic disorders such as long QT syndromes and inherited cardiomyopathies, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In up to 30% of young SCD, no cause of death is identified at postmortem, so-called autopsy-negative or sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). Management of families following SCD begins with a concerted effort to identify the cause of death in the decedent, based on either premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at postmortem. Where no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from postmortem blood (the molecular autopsy) may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Irrespective of the genetic testing considerations, all families in which a sudden unexplained death has occurred require targeted and standardized clinical testing in an attempt to identify relatives who may be at-risk of having the same inherited heart disease and therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD. Optimal care of SCD families therefore requires dedicated and appropriately trained staff in the setting of a specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinic. PMID:25765769

  18. The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L Syd M

    2016-03-01

    Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted "conscience clauses" that require "reasonable accommodation" of religious and moral objections to the determination of death by neurological criteria. This paper argues for the universal adoption of "reasonable accommodation" policies using the New Jersey statute as a model, in light of both the ongoing controversy and the recent case of Jahi McMath, a child whose family raised religious objections to a declaration of brain death. Public policies that accommodate reasonable, divergent viewpoints concerning death provide a practical and compassionate way to resolve those conflicts that are the most urgent, painful, and difficult to reconcile. PMID:26732398

  19. Trends in deaths related to drug misuse in England and Wales, 1993-2004.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver; Griffiths, Clare; Toson, Barbara; Rooney, Cleo; Majeed, Azeem; Hickman, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article we report trends in deaths related to drug misuse in England and Wales from 1993 to 2004, looking particularly at the period between 1999 and 2004, for which there was a Government target to reduce these deaths by 20 per cent. Although there was an overall decline in deaths related to drug misuse between 1999 and 2004, the percentage reduction, at 9 per cent, was less than the Government target. There was an increase in deaths between 2003 and 2004, largely accounted for by deaths involving heroin/methadone and morphine. Mortality rates were highest in young adults and an increase in mortality rates within this group appears to have been the driver behind rising mortality trends during the 1990s. PMID:16972692

  20. Nursing Aides' Attitudes to Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes: The Effect of Work Stressors and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the

  1. Evaluation of the Patriotic Attitudes of the Prospective Teachers According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz; Aksoy, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the investigation of the patriotic attitudes of the prospective teachers seeking the answer of the question "what are the levels of the patriotic attitudes of the prospective teachers?" For this purpose a descriptive survey model of patriotism scale developed by Schatz, Staub and Lavine and adapted to Turkish by…

  2. Coaches' Attitudes toward Smokeless Tobacco and Intentions to Intervene with Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Kimberly A.; Maniar, Sameep D.; Dino, Geri A.; Gao, Xin; Meckstroth, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed West Virginia middle- and high-school coaches' attitudes toward smokeless tobacco, actions toward athletes who used smokeless tobacco, intentions to provide interventions for users, and tobacco-use history. Results indicated that coaches had unfavorable attitudes toward smokeless tobacco, perceived it as a problem, and were willing to…

  3. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  4. Design and Study of the Instrument to Assess Students' Attitude toward Graphing Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznichenko, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…

  5. The Relationship between Young Children's Enjoyment of Learning to Read, Reading Attitudes, Confidence and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Walker, Jo; Howatson, Kathryn; Stockburn, Ann; Dufton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is a considerable body of research exploring the relationship between older primary school children's reading attitudes, confidence and attainment, there is a noticeable lack of research with younger children. Furthermore, there is relatively little research exploring the extent to which children's reading attitudes,…

  6. Relation of Native-Language Reading and Spelling Abilities to Attitudes toward Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Katrinda Wills; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid Assessment…

  7. Female Role Perception and Attitudes Toward Competence as Related to Activism in Housewives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Rhoda K.; Krooth, Diane M.

    This study explored the extent of negative attitudes toward success among housewives by means of objective and projective tests. Since married women with families constitute the majority of women over 25, the authors found it important to determine how prevalent negative attitudes toward personal achievement in women were among them. Fifty-three…

  8. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  9. Using a Geriatric Mentoring Narrative Program to Improve Medical Student Attitudes towards the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Pamela; Cohen, Diane; Novack, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This study examined first-year medical student attitudes concerning the elderly before and after instituting a geriatric mentoring program. The program began and ended with a survey designed to assess students' attitudes toward the elderly. During the mentoring program, students visited the same senior for four visits throughout the academic year.…

  10. Relationship of Computer Users' Performance to Their Attitudes toward Interactive Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushinek, Avi; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Suggests a method of integrating user performance and attitudes toward the computer system into quality control procedures (QCP) and describes an application of user attitudes to the QPC in a class of novice computer users receiving instruction in BASIC programing language via formal classroom lecture with computer assisted instruction tutorials.…

  11. Influence of Attitudes, Significant Others, and Aspirations on How Adolescents Intend to Resolve a Premarital Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzell, Jan F.; Acock, Alan C.

    1988-01-01

    Examined how sexually active adolescent women intended to deal with premarital pregnancy and what influenced intentions. Subjects holding positive general attitudes toward abortion showed stronger intentions toward terminating unwanted pregnancy. Abortion attitudes of significant others influenced intentions. More career-oriented subjects…

  12. Evaluation of Environmental Attitudes: Analysis and Results of a Scale Applied to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Rodriguez-Barreiro, Luis; Carrasquer, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few decades, environmental work has increased significantly. An important part of this has to do with attitudes. This research presents the design and validation of an environmental attitudes scale aimed at university students. Detailed information on development and validation of the scale is provided. Similarly, it presents the…

  13. Great Expectations: Students' Educational Attitudes upon the Transition to Post-Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elffers, Louise; Oort, Frans J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine students' educational attitudes upon the transition to Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a transition associated with high dropout rates in the first year. Prior studies have identified differences in educational attitudes between sociodemographic groups. However, the mechanisms underlying those differences remain

  14. What are the people's attitudes toward spinal cord injury victims (from common to elite)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinigolafshani, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the acutely fatal and prevalent crises in all societies is acute spinal cord injury. Individuals with a spinal cord injury are prone to numerous challenges, perturbation, and acute mental distresses. One of their concerns, often expressed generally and in the form of a complaint, is how people deal with them. The present study aims to analyze the experiences and interactions of the disabled with the society and to achieve a deep clarification of their internal attitudes and realistic approaches in various social classes (from common people to elite). Materials and Methods: The present study is a part of a greater research with a classical grounded theory approach conducted on 12 successful and nationally and internationally popular disabled people. Sampling was firstly purposive and then continued with snowball sampling. The data were collected by open deep interviews which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed by Graneheim content analysis method. Results: The findings obtained through analysis of the interviews yielded the theme of a socially suppressing attitude which contained four subthemes of compassionate attitude, disability attitude, inhuman attitude, and atonement attitude. Conclusions: The results showed that both groups of common, and educated and elite classes of Iranian society have identically suppressing attitudes and interactions toward spinal cord injury victims. It seems that traditional attitudes yet preponderate academic and scientific knowledge in Iranian society. This gap needs notable attention of all the Iranians, especially policy makers and social personalities. PMID:24949065

  15. How Attitudes and Beliefs about Physics Change from High School to Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Loptson, Claire; Slaughter, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637), using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little…

  16. The Relationship between Young Children's Enjoyment of Learning to Read, Reading Attitudes, Confidence and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Walker, Jo; Howatson, Kathryn; Stockburn, Ann; Dufton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is a considerable body of research exploring the relationship between older primary school children's reading attitudes, confidence and attainment, there is a noticeable lack of research with younger children. Furthermore, there is relatively little research exploring the extent to which children's reading attitudes,

  17. Attitude of Nigerian Secondary School Teachers to Peer Evaluation of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…

  18. Making Light of James Watt: A Burkean Approach to the Form and Attitude of Political Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the rhetorical nature of political cartoons by applying Kenneth Burke's concepts and terminology to this graphic art form. Examines (1) formal strategy of "perspective by incongruity," (2) burlesque attitude in political cartoons, and (3) fusion of form and attitude in the tropal principles of this graphic art. Draws from political…

  19. The Development of a Psychometrically-Sound Instrument to Measure Teachers' Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Marian

    2008-01-01

    The "Multidimensional Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale" (MATIES) was developed to effectively measure affective, cognitive and behavioural aspects of attitudes, within the realm of inclusive education that includes physical, social and curricular inclusion. Models within Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used for…

  20. Evaluation of Environmental Attitudes: Analysis and Results of a Scale Applied to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Rodriguez-Barreiro, Luis; Carrasquer, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few decades, environmental work has increased significantly. An important part of this has to do with attitudes. This research presents the design and validation of an environmental attitudes scale aimed at university students. Detailed information on development and validation of the scale is provided. Similarly, it presents the