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Sample records for attitude to death

  1. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  2. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  3. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  4. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  5. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  6. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Death-Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkes, A. Cordell

    1978-01-01

    Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)

  7. Near-Death Experiences and Antisuicidal Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyson, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close to death without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…

  8. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  9. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  10. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death

  11. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  12. Psychological Research on Death Attitudes: An Overview and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Wittkowski, Joachim; Moser, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and…

  13. Family Environment, Depression, Attitudes toward Life and Death, and Suicidality in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brenda J.; Range, Lillian M.

    1996-01-01

    To examine correlates of suicidality, 282 young adults at a medium-size southern university completed measures of depression, family environment, attitudes toward life and death, and suicidality. High suicidality (n=38) was not significantly correlated with attitudes toward life and death, family environment, or depression. Low suicidality (n=132)…

  14. Attitudes toward life and death and suicidality among inpatient female adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Zinman, Dana; Halevy, Liron; Yaroslavsky, Amit; Bachar, Eytan; Kreitler, Shulamit; Orbach, Israel

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether attitudes about life and death are associated with suicidal behavior in eating disorders (EDs). We examined 43 nonsuicidal inpatients with EDs, 32 inpatients with EDs who attempted suicide, and 21 control participants with scales assessing attitudes to life and death, body-related attitudes, core ED symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Both ED groups showed less attraction to life and more repulsion from life than did the control participants. The suicide attempters showed greater attraction to death, less repulsion from death, and more negative attitudes toward their body than did the nonsuicidal ED and control participants. Fear of life was associated with elevated depression, body-related problems, and childhood sexual abuse. Pathological attitudes toward death were associated with greater depression and body-related problems. Suicide attempts were found in the inpatients with EDs showing binge/purge ED pathology and maladaptive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that whereas fear of life is a core feature of an ED, maladaptive attitudes toward death appear only in ED patients who have attempted suicide. PMID:24284642

  15. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. PMID:24769621

  16. Attitudes Regarding Palliative Sedation and Death Hastening Among Swiss Physicians: A Contextually Sensitive Approach.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rose-Anna; Johnston, Wendy S; Bernard, Mathieu; Canevascini, Michela; Currat, Thierry; Borasio, Gian D; Beauverd, Michel

    2015-09-01

    In Switzerland, where assisted suicide but not euthanasia is permitted, the authors sought to understand how physicians integrate palliative sedation in their practice and how they reflect on existential suffering and death hastening. They interviewed 31 physicians from different care settings. Five major attitudes emerged. Among specialized palliative care physicians, convinced, cautious and doubtful attitudes were evident. Within unspecialized settings, palliative sedation was more likely to be considered as death hastening: clinicians either avoid it with an inexperienced attitude or practice it with an ambiguous attitude, raising the issue of unskilled and abusive uses of sedatives at the end of life. PMID:26107119

  17. Death and organ procurement: public beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Siminoff, Laura A; Burant, Christopher; Youngner, Stuart J

    2004-12-01

    While brain death and the dead donor rule (patients must not be killed by organ retrieval) have been clinically and legally accepted in the US as a prerequisite to organ removal, there is little data about public attitudes and beliefs concerning these matters. To examine the public attitudes and beliefs about the determination of death and its relationship to organ transplantation, 1351 Ohio residents >or=18 years were randomly selected and surveyed using random digit dialing (RDD) sample frames. The RDD telephone survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviews. The survey instrument was developed from information provided by 12 focus groups and a pilot study of the questionnaire. Three scenarios based on hypothetical patients were presented: brain dead, in a coma, or in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). Respondents' provided personal assessments of whether the patient in each scenario was dead and their willingness to donate that patient's organs in these circumstances. Over 98% of respondents had heard of the term brain death, but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was brain dead was legally dead. The majority of respondents (86.2%) identified the brain dead patient in the first scenario as dead, 57.2% identified the patient in a coma as dead (Scenario 2), and 34.1% identified the patient in a PVS as dead (Scenario 3). Nearly, a third (33.5%) were willing to donate the organs of patients they classified as alive for at least one scenario, in seeming violation of the dead donor rule. Most respondents were not willing to violate the dead donor rule, although a substantial minority was. However, the majority of respondents were unaware, misinformed or held beliefs that were not congruent with current definitions of brain death. This study highlights the need for more public dialogue and education about brain death and organ donation. PMID:15450707

  18. Death and organ procurement: public beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Siminoff, Laura A; Burant, Christopher; Youngner, Stuart J

    2004-09-01

    Although "brain death" and the dead donor rule--i.e., patients must not be killed by organ retrieval--have been clinically and legally accepted in the U.S. as prerequisites to organ removal, there is little data about public attitudes and beliefs concerning these matters. To examine the public attitudes and beliefs about the determination of death and its relationship to organ transplantation, 1351 Ohio residents >18 years were randomly selected and surveyed using random digit dialing (RDD) sample frames. The RDD telephone survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviews. The survey instrument was developed from information provided by 12 focus groups and a pilot study of the questionnaire. Three scenarios based on hypothetical patients were presented: "brain dead," in a coma, or in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). Respondents provided personal assessments of whether the patient in each scenario was dead and their willingness to donate that patient's organs in these circumstances. More than 98 percent of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. The majority of respondents (86.2%) identified the "brain dead" patient in the first scenario as dead, 57.2 percent identified the patient in a coma as dead (Scenario 2), and 34.1 percent identified the patient in a PVS as dead (Scenario 3). Nearly one-third (33.5%) were willing to donate the organs of patients they classified as alive for at least one scenario, in seeming violation of the dead donor rule. Most respondents were not willing to violate the dead donor rule, although a substantial minority was. However, the majority of respondents were unaware, misinformed, or held beliefs there were not congruent with current definitions of "brain death." This study highlights the need for more public dialogue and education about "brain death" and organ donation. PMID:15495379

  19. Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

  20. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  1. The Effect of Death Education on Specific Attitudes toward Death in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Rita T.

    1981-01-01

    After a course on death and dying students perceived themselves as more comfortable in interacting with the dying and bereaved and held stronger beliefs about rights of the dying. Little change was observed in attitudes towards life after death but a trend away from traditional burial preferences was noted. (JAC)

  2. Suicidality, Hopelessness, and Attitudes toward Life and Death in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, C. Randy; Range, Lillian M.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty elementary school students reported their own suicidal thoughts and behaviors on Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire and completed Hopelessness Scale for Children. Neither attitudes toward life and death nor hopelessness accounted for significant amount of variance in suicidal behaviors. Only significant correlation was between hopelessness and…

  3. Spiritual Development and Death Attitude in Female Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Masoumeh; Khalilian, Alireza; Dousti, Yarali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the differences regarding spiritual development dimensions and death attitude profiles, and also to determinate association between them, in patients suffering from type II diabetes. Methods: In a cross-sectional design study, 100 female outpatients who were suffering from type II diabetes were recruited in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran. Data were collected through two questionnaires including the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR). Analysis of the data involved analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) as post-hoc test plus the Pearson correlation. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in spiritual development dimensions and death attitude profile. The results showed that spiritual development were significantly associated with some items of death attitude profiles. Conclusion: Awareness of God was suitable in diabetic patients, but the quality of relationship with God indicated spiritually immature. It is necessary to provide instruction to improve patient's death attitude and following health behavior. PMID:25780376

  4. Experiences With and Attitudes Toward Death and Dying Among Homeless Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Edward R; Bartels, Dianne M.; Alderton, Lucy; Hudson, Brenda; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless persons face many barriers to health care, have few resources, and experience high death rates. They live lives of disenfranchisement and neglect. Few studies have explored their experiences and attitudes toward death and dying. Unfortunately, studies done in other populations may not apply to homeless persons. Exploring these experiences and attitudes may provide insight into life, health care, and end-of-life (EOL) concerns of this population. Objective To explore the experiences and attitudes toward death and dying among homeless persons. Design Qualitative study utilizing focus groups. Participants Fifty-three homeless persons recruited from homeless service agencies. Measurements In-depth interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Results We present seven themes, some of which are previously unreported. Homeless persons described many significant experiences with death and dying, and many participants suffered losses while very young. These encounters influenced participants’ attitudes toward risks and risky behavior: e.g., for some, these experiences provided justification for high-risk behaviors and influenced their behaviors while living on the streets. For others, they may be associated with their homelessness. Finally, these experiences informed their attitudes toward death and dying as well as EOL care; homeless persons believe that care will be poor at the EOL. Conclusions Findings from this study have implications for addressing social services, health promotion, prevention, and EOL care for homeless persons, as well as for others who are poor and disenfranchised. PMID:17372788

  5. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  6. Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients toward Death and Dying in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olokor, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…

  7. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  8. Death Concern and Attitudes toward the Elderly in Nursing Home Personnel as a Function of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaola, Stephen J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between death fear, attitudes toward the elderly, and personal anxiety about aging in nursing home employees. Nursing professionals (registered nurses or licensed practical nurses) had lower levels of death concern than nursing assistants, and results also indicated that nursing assistants displayed significantly…

  9. Death Education: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perspectives of Irish Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Marguerita; Barry, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of 119 Irish parents and 142 primary school teachers concerning children's grief and the concept of death education. Found high levels of understanding of the nature of children's grief, strong support for discussing death with children before they encounter it, and general support for inclusion…

  10. Listening to Stories May Change Children's Social Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Berg-Cross, Linda

    1978-01-01

    Children who listened to "William's Doll,""Giving Tree,""Bread and Jam for Frances," and "My Grandson Lew," changed their attitudes in the respective areas of sex role stereotyping, friendship, death, and risk taking. (MKM)

  11. Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Corinne; Wilder, David S.

    The expansion of attitude research has been concurrent with the growth of the adult education movement. Most attitude research to date has focused on attitudes toward controversial issues but recent formulations of the nature of attitudes emphasize that they exist in functional interdependence with other attitudinal, motivational, and value…

  12. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  13. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    PubMed

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  14. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  15. The effects of death education on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their families.

    PubMed

    Frommelt, K H

    1991-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of an education program on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members. The program, based on the hospice concept of care, included a didactic section based on Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying, and a role-play model designed by the researcher. Data were collected from 34 licensed nurses, aged 18 to 65, practicing in the midwestern United States. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) was designed by the researcher to assess nurses' attitudes. The FATCOD was found to be a valid and reliable tool. All nurses completed the tool before and after the education program (pre-test, post-test). Compared by a t-test, the scores for the nurses were significantly higher after participation in the educational program. The t-value was found to be 2.97, significant at the less than 0.01 level, 2-tailed probability = 0.006. These findings support the hypothesis that nurses have a more positive attitude toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members after participation in the program, than the same nurses had before participating in the program. Demographic information including age, years of experience in nursing, highest degree held, basic type of nursing preparation and previous education on death and dying were analyzed to determine their relationship to the nurses' attitudes. The only information which demonstrated any significant relationship to the nurses' attitudes was that of previous education on death and dying. These were computed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) F = 3.22, F prob = 0.04, significant at less than 0.05 level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1742142

  16. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  17. Stressing Mitosis to Death

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Andrew; Rasouli, Mina; Rogers, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The final stage of cell division (mitosis), involves the compaction of the duplicated genome into chromatid pairs. Each pair is captured by microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles, aligned at the metaphase plate, and then faithfully segregated to form two identical daughter cells. Chromatids that are not correctly attached to the spindle are detected by the constitutively active spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Any stress that prevents correct bipolar spindle attachment, blocks the satisfaction of the SAC, and induces a prolonged mitotic arrest, providing the cell time to obtain attachment and complete segregation correctly. Unfortunately, during mitosis repairing damage is not generally possible due to the compaction of DNA into chromosomes, and subsequent suppression of gene transcription and translation. Therefore, in the presence of significant damage cell death is instigated to ensure that genomic stability is maintained. While most stresses lead to an arrest in mitosis, some promote premature mitotic exit, allowing cells to bypass mitotic cell death. This mini-review will focus on the effects and outcomes that common stresses have on mitosis, and how this impacts on the efficacy of mitotic chemotherapies. PMID:24926440

  18. Teachers' Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Death Education in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engarhos, Paraskevi; Talwar, Victoria; Schleifer, Michael; Renaud, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today, young children are exposed to death through various forms of media in their communities, schools, and home environments. With this inevitability of exposure, there is a need for death education in order to inform and support today's youth when facing the subject of death. Death is said to be one of the most emotional and complex…

  19. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Lesson Series on Death and Dying in Changing Adolescents' Death Anxiety and Attitudes toward Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Knott, Elizabeth S.

    Whether a unit of study dealing with death and dying caused changes in adolescents' death anxiety and attitudes toward older adults is investigated. Randomly selected students from high schools in North Carolina participated in the study. The experimental group numbered 323; there were 152 students in the control group. The experimental group…

  20. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  1. Attitudes Toward Aging and Behaviors Toward the Elderly Among Young People as a Function of Death Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Charles A.; Salter, Carlota deLerma

    1976-01-01

    This study correlated Templer's Death Anxiety Scale among 65 college students with their attitudes and behaviors toward the elderly. There was no evidence for the anxiety-denial hypothesis that fear of aging and death results in repression of ideas associated with aging and with rejection of the elderly. (Author)

  2. Understanding Death Attitudes: The Integration of Movies, Positive Psychology, and Meaning Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.

    2011-01-01

    The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…

  3. Individualism, authoritarianism, and attitudes toward assisted death: cross-cultural, cross-regional, and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Wieczorkowska, Grazyna; Erb, Hans-Peter; Burnstein, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that in individualistic cultures, individualism predicts positive attitudes toward assisted death, whereas authoritarianism is negatively associated with favorable views of this issue. Study 1 confirmed this hypothesis in a Polish sample (n=100). Study 2, using a German sample (n=102), found the predicted relationships for forms of assisted death that involved the individual self-determination of a terminally ill patient. In Study 3 (n=72), we found experimental evidence that priming individualistic aspects of the self-concept results in more favorable views of physician-assisted suicide. Using a representative sample (n=1158), Study 4 found that across the United States, regional levels of individualism are reflected in corresponding patterns of support for assisted suicide. The discussion focuses on assisted suicide as a cultural phenomenon and explores the implications of growing levels of individualism for public opinion and policy on assisted suicide. PMID:12680373

  4. Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1979-01-01

    Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

  5. History of brain death as death: 1968 to the present.

    PubMed

    De Georgia, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The concept of brain death was formulated in 1968 in the landmark report A Definition of Irreversible Coma. While brain death has been widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world, many of the controversies that surround it have not been settled. Some may be rooted in a misconstruction about the history of brain death. The concept evolved as a result of the convergence of several parallel developments in the second half of the 20th century including advances in resuscitation and critical care, research into the underlying physiology of consciousness, and growing concerns about technology, medical futility, and the ethics of end of life care. Organ transplantation also developed in parallel, and though it clearly benefited from a new definition of death, it was not a principal driving force in its creation. Since 1968, the concept of brain death has been extensively analyzed, debated, and reworked. Still there remains much misunderstanding and confusion, especially in the general public. In this comprehensive review, I will trace the evolution of the definition of brain death as death from 1968 to the present, providing background, history and context. PMID:24930367

  6. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J.; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. Methods A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Conclusion Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates. PMID:25906265

  7. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  8. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  9. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  10. Deaths due to unknown foodborne agents.

    PubMed

    Frenzen, Paul D

    2004-09-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  11. Teaching about Death to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others

    Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…

  12. Reproductive Decision Making and Genetic Predisposition to Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Barlevy, Dorit; Wasserman, David; Stolerman, Marina; Erskine, Kathleen E.; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With current genetic technology, it is possible to detect mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a hereditary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. As a result, prospective parents diagnosed with LQTS will have to decide whether or not to prevent its transmission to future generations, either by not procreating or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies or prenatal testing. This paper explores how a hereditary predisposition to sudden cardiac death can influence reproductive decision making. Methods This study draws from interviews and focus groups with individuals who have personal or family histories of cardiac arrhythmia or sudden death. A keyword search was conducted on interview transcripts to identify quotes for analysis. Results Participants expressed complex, often ambivalent attitudes about the prospect of having a child with a predisposition to sudden cardiac death. Their comments reveal conflicting understandings of genetic responsibility and reflect the variable effects of personal experience on reproductive decision making. This paper compares attitudes towards LQTS and other genetic conditions in analyzing the themes that emerged in interviews and focus groups. Conclusions The “disability critique” of prenatal testing should be applied carefully to a context of genetic predisposition to sudden cardiac death in order to understand reproductive decision making. Firsthand experience with the condition, among other factors, can weigh heavily in those decisions. PMID:22822470

  13. The death system according to Robert Kastenbaum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    This article focuses on Robert Kastenbaum's seminal concept of the societal death system. Beginning with conflicting claims that America is a death-denying society versus a death-accepting society, the article reports Kastenbaum's definition and description of the death system in American society and sets forth the seven functions and five elements or components of that death system. Next, the article notes Kastenbaum's further claim that "All cultures, past and present, have had death systems." Finally, two basic lessons are drawn from the foregoing: (1) Kastenbaum's concept of the death system provides a robust framework to explain the networks societies interpose between their members and death, focusing in particular on a more or less integrated and dynamic network within American society whose functions and components are not difficult to recognize in the ways in which they organize many aspects of the lives of individuals who live within that society; and (2) It is preposterous to assert without qualification that America is a death-denying society when there are so many activities and components within that society that are in whole or in part related to death, i.e., although it may be true that many aspects of the contemporary American death system appear to seek to remove death from the mainstream of life, there is ample evidence to indicate that American society as a whole and individuals within that society both accept and deny death simultaneously. PMID:25351587

  14. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  15. Similarities and Dissimilarities in Attitudes toward Death in a Population of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The responses of 171 elderly persons selected from three different types of residence communities to an abbreviated form of Shneidman death questionnaire were analyzed. In addition to some expected similarities, significant differences were found. These differences appear related to educational level, type of residence community (rural,urban), and…

  16. Attitude to Suicide in Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; And Others

    Attitudes about suicide were examined among older adults in Padua, Italy and were compared to attitudes of younger subjects. Elderly subjects (N=246) consisted of 122 adults living in residential homes, 73 medical inpatients of a geriatric hospital, and 51 depressed inpatients with primary affective disorders. Younger subjects (N=263) consisted of…

  17. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Edwin S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…

  18. Generalization of positive and negative attitudes toward individuals to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Stark, Tobias H; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René

    2013-05-01

    The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the outgroup. The unique contribution of negative (disliking) interpersonal attitudes to intergroup attitudes was examined and its strength was compared with the effect of positive (liking) interpersonal attitudes, using cross-sectional (Study 1; N = 733, age 10-12) and longitudinal data (Study 2; N = 960, age 12-13). Disliking uniquely contributed to respondents' outgroup attitudes. The generalization of interpersonal liking and disliking was about equally strong in both studies. This underpins the importance of examining the effects of both positive and negative intergroup contact experiences on the formation of outgroup attitudes. PMID:23471320

  19. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000

  20. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  1. Unexpected death: anaphylactic intraoperative death due to Thymoglobulin carbohydrate excipient.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Scacchetti, Alda Tiziana; Busani, Stefano; Maiorana, Antonio

    2013-05-10

    Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening allergic response characterized by severe hypotension, inducing tissue hypoperfusion with possible multi-organ failure and death. We describe the first case of fatal intra-operative anaphylactic shock due to prolonged infusion of Thymoglobulin during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT), resulting from recruitment of both mastocytes and basophils, activated and degranulated. Post-mortem serological analysis on a preserved, pre-OLT sample of the patient's blood revealed specific IgE against carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants (CCDs), such as MUXF3 and nAna c2, proving that anaphylactic reaction was triggered by the Thymoglobulin carbohydrate excipient (sugar alcohol mannitol), rather than anti-thymocyte globulin itself. Our findings are consistent with scientific data reported in the literature, where only one case of non-fatal anaphylaxis to Thymoglobulin has been described, despite the existence of proven cases of anaphylactic reaction to mannitol. This case highlights the need to pay particular attention in future not only to active substances but also to drug excipients, above all during intra-operative drug delivery. In view of the important role played by basophils in this kind of anaphylaxis, the basophil activation test (BAT) could prove useful in preventing anaphylactic death from CCDs. PMID:23540837

  2. Examination of psychological variables related to nuclear attitudes and nuclear activism

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    It was hypothesized that knowledge about nuclear arms developments would not be correlated with nuclear attitudes, that sense of efficacy would be positively correlated with magnitude of nuclear activism, and that death anxiety would be correlated with high level of nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes, but not with sense of power. It was also hypothesized that positive correlations would be found between nuclear activism and political activism, knowledge of nuclear facts, and degree of adherence to anti-nuclear attitudes. One hundred and forty three women and 90 men participated in this questionnaire study. Major findings are as follows. In general, the more people knew about nuclear developments, the more anti-nuclear were their attitudes. Also, regardless of nuclear attitudes, a positive correlation was found between knowledge of nuclear facts and nuclear activism. Death anxiety and powerlessness were not correlated. There was a positive correlation between anxiety and both nuclear knowledge and anti-nuclear attitudes. A strong positive correlation was found between nuclear activism and anti-nuclear attitudes, and between political activism and nuclear activism. Internal locus of control did not correlate significantly with high sense of power or with high degree of nuclear activism.

  3. Suicide Ideation Associations with Attitudes toward Suicide, Quality of Life, and Attitudes toward Death and Dying among Chinese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy S.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame; Kanungsukkasem, Vijit; Li, Kaigang; Jones, Megan R.; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Suicide of an individual could leave devastating consequences for family, friends, relatives, and society. Suicide could be considered a serious concern and issue to public health, especially among adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of suicide ideation with attitudes toward suicide (ATS), quality of life (QOL), and…

  4. Medical Students’ Death Anxiety: Severity and Association with Psychological Health and Attitudes Toward Palliative Care

    E-print Network

    Thiemann, Pia; Quince, Thelma; Benson, John; Wood, Diana; Barclay, Stephen

    2015-05-12

    and graduate counselors about death. J Med Educ 1986;61:923-925. 6. Faull C, Woof R. Palliative care. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 7. General Medical Council. Tomorrow's doctor, 2nd ed. London: General Medical Council, 2003. 8. Field D, Wee B... . Preparation for palliative care: teaching about death, dying and bereavement in UK medical schools 2000–2001. Med Educ 2002;36:561-567. 9. Neimeyer RA. Death anxiety handbook: Research, instruments and application. Bristol, UK: Taylor and Francis, 1994. M...

  5. A Different Approach to Attitude Scale Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisooriya, Gunapala

    This paper suggests a new approach to attitude scale construction. Instead of asking respondents to express the extent or the degree of opinion on a particular issue, respondents should be asked about the factors that are relevant for the issue of interest and how much weight respondents are willing to attach to each relevant piece of evidence.…

  6. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior.

    PubMed

    van Goethem, Anne A J; Scholte, Ron H J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2010-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a general Implicit Association Test on bullying and a movie-primed specific IAT on bullying), an explicit bullying attitude measure, and self reported, peer reported, and teacher rated bullying behavior. While explicit bullying attitudes predicted bullying behavior, implicit attitudes did not. However, a significant interaction between implicit and explicit bullying attitudes indicated that in children with relatively positive explicit attitudes, implicit bullying attitudes were important predictors of bullying behavior. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20352324

  7. Diagnostics of Pupils' Attitude to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminli, Tovuz

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the pedagogical diagnostics, in particular, the diagnostics of pupils' attitude to education. It is considered reasonable to apply the practice of development of an individual pedagogical and psychological map for productive implementation of the pedagogical diagnostics and…

  8. Changing Attitudes to Work and Life Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.

    The following statements summarize the author's analysis of changing attitudes to work and life styles in Western society: (1) a permissive society has fostered a change in authority roles; (2) general mistrust toward big busines is no longer limited to the public at large; (3) employees, supervisors, and managers all dislike and fear change; (4)…

  9. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  10. Attitudes to Environmental Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobierska, Hanna; Tarabula-Fiertak, Marta; Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses attitudes to the natural environment of Polish secondary school pupils from four selected regions of Poland. These were defined as knowledge regarding the environment and actions for the benefit of the natural environment as these result from the fundamentals of the environmental education curriculum track. Other results of the…

  11. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  12. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  14. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  15. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23... REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  16. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  17. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  18. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  19. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  20. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...

  1. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  2. Death and Society in Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; Owen, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)

  3. The Management of Death in the Middle Class American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Vidal S.

    Starting with the observation that attitudes towards death cannot be divorced from attitudes towards life, the author proceeds with a critical and reflective look at American society's poor management of death, both in terms of the dying person and the bereaved. Denial is the mechanism used to protect ourselves from facing the fact of death, and…

  4. Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

  5. Understanding Aging: A Medical Humanities Approach toDeath in Venice“

    E-print Network

    English, David

    2008-01-01

    name is that of life after death. This does not necessarilyAfter all, he seeks life, creativity, adventure in Venice, not death.life in order to achieve greatness. Immediately after his encounter with death,

  6. Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

  7. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.

  8. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…

  9. The Effects of Death Anxiety and Mode of "Case Study" Presentation on Shifts of Attitude toward Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Edward J.

    1978-01-01

    College students (N = 18) were randomized to one of two experimental treatments: a video tape presentation of a burn victim, and a written narrative of the same "case study." There appeared to be significant differences in attitudes toward euthanasia between experimental groups. (Authors)

  10. Nurses' attitudes to assisted suicide: sociodemographic factors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke

    This literature review seeks to explore the factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide. A poll conducted by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) showed that 49% of nurses supported assisted suicide while 40% were opposed to it. A literature review resulted in 16 articles being identified for data synthesis using a recognised critiquing framework. The articles revealed four key themes: nursing specialty, level of education, geographical location and religion. It was concluded that these four themes are key to understanding a nurse's attitude towards assisted suicide. Nursing staff need to be aware of their own influences on this topic, since they will inevitably be involved in the process in some way or another, in countries where assisted suicide has been legalised. PMID:26110854

  11. Development of a Scale to Measure Death Perspectives: Overcoming and Participating.

    PubMed

    Petty, Eric; Hayslip, Bert; Caballero, Daniela M; Jenkins, Sharon Rae

    2015-01-01

    Kastenbaum and Aisenberg have suggested that persons can cope with the impact of death and dying by altering their understanding of what each means to them as well as by changing their behavioral responses to such experiences. The present study's purpose was to develop a reliable and valid measure to assess an individual's particular death perspective based on Kastenbaum and Aisenberg's distinctions between overcomers and participators. The Death Perspective Scale developed here assessed the extent to which individuals utilize either an overcoming or participating approach to (a) assigning meaning to dying and death and (b) behaviorally responding to death-related experiences. Based upon the data collected from 168 adults varying by age and gender, findings suggested that both overcoming and participating could be reliably assessed, correlated with measures of death anxiety and death attitudes, and varied reliably (p < .05) by age and gender, wherein such differences were for the most part consistent with predictions by Kastenbaum and Aisenberg espoused over 30 years ago. Findings here suggested that overcomers reported more fear of death and dying and were less accepting in this respect, while participators reported fewer death-related fears and were more accepting. Women and older adults were more participating, while men and younger adults were more overcoming, though such effects varied depending upon whether meaning versus response to death was considered. The consistency between the present findings and the predictions Kastenbaum and Aisenberg suggests that while person's orientations to death and dying seem to transcend sociocultural change, empirically based efforts to better understand how our death system impacts persons need to move forward. PMID:26625510

  12. Reenactment of circumstances in deaths related to restraint.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Ronald L

    2004-09-01

    Reenactment of the circumstances in deaths associated with restraint, utilizing participants and witnesses while memories are fresh, may help death investigators more accurately determine the cause of death. Two recent deaths in Ventura County that occurred during restraint are discussed. Within a day of the autopsies the restrainers agreed to participate in reenactments of the restraint process, utilizing live volunteers as subjects. They allowed videotaping. Deaths associated with restraint often have nonspecific autopsy findings. Timely reenactment of the circumstances of deaths associated with restraint can help death investigators more accurately determine the probable cause of death in these difficult cases. PMID:15322458

  13. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  14. Addiction to near Death in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…

  15. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  16. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  17. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  18. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to pneumoconiosis....

  19. 20 CFR 718.205 - Death due to pneumoconiosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205 Section... OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits § 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a) Benefits are provided to eligible survivors of a miner whose death was due to...

  20. Attitudes to ageing : a systematic review of attitudes to ageing and mental health, and a cross-sectional analysis of attitudes to ageing and quality of life in older adults 

    E-print Network

    Long, Sarah Charlotte May

    2014-07-01

    This thesis portfolio examines attitudes to ageing in older adults, and explores the impact that attitudes to ageing have on mental health status and quality of life. Attitudes to ageing are becoming more widely measured ...

  1. | March 2014 SOCIAL ATTITUDES TO

    E-print Network

    association exercise. The 30 most common words used by survey respondents to describe the situation of a homeless person are included in Figure 2 at the bottom of the page. The most common representations with life on the streets (such as `cold', `streets', `begging'). Although a minority of homeless people end

  2. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  3. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  4. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  5. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  6. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....

  7. An Exploratory Survey of the Attitudes of Black Memphians Toward Funeral Homes, the Funeral Ritual and Preparations for Death. Findings and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gordon C., II

    Black Americans face a paradox concerning death: although their involvement with death is intense, their knowledge of death, per se, comprehension of death related behaviors, and exposure to available life extending alternatives are minimal. An interview based questionnaire was distributed to 1,010 adults in a predominantly black section of…

  8. Sudden death due to polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Burge, Meredith; Hunsaker, John C

    2012-09-01

    Classical polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN) refers to a rare, potentially fatal systemic transmural necrotizing vasculitis that usually affects medium-sized, and occasionally small, muscular arteries, primarily involves the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, skin, nervous system, joints, and muscles, and is rarely, if ever, expressed in the lungs. The incidence of mortality has significantly decreased with recently developed treatment modalities, in particular antiviral medications. Sudden death due to previously undiagnosed cPAN is rarely encountered. We report a case of a young man who had been evaluated on three occasions by medical personnel in the 3 weeks prior to his death. He had complained of nonspecific symptoms of abdominal and perineal/suprapubic pain, nausea, vomiting, sensation of chilling, and constipation. The spectrum of diagnoses included "gastroenteritis," enteric infection, and prostatitis. Found agonal at home and dying despite immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), he underwent a medicolegal autopsy, which revealed vasculitis of various organs, including heart (myocardium and epicardium) and extramural coronary arteries, liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, stomach and bowel, omentum, gallbladder, and pancreas. His sudden death was cardiac in nature due to PAN associated clinically with hepatitis B surface antigen positivity (hepatitis B virus-associated PAN [HBV-PAN]). A complete autopsy with thorough histopathological examination is necessary to diagnose this uncommon yet potentially fatal vasculitis. PMID:21983834

  9. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  10. Religious and Nonreligious Spirituality in Relation to Death Acceptance or Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the…

  11. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  12. Death Outlook and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifel, Herman; Schag, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between death attitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)

  13. Number of Alzheimer's Deaths Found to Be Underreported

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Connected You are here Home Number of Alzheimer’s deaths found to be underreported May 22, 2014 Official mortality figures may have substantially underreported deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease in 2010 show two ...

  14. Older Adults' Hearing Loss May Be Tied to Earlier Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults' Hearing Loss May Be Tied to Earlier Death Findings don't prove that impaired hearing is ... loss could have directly contributed to the higher death rates seen in this study. Still, Kim pointed ...

  15. Death Anxiety as Related to Helping Behaviour and Vocational Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Charles A.; Templer, Donald I.

    1979-01-01

    The Death Anxiety Scale and questions about helping the elderly were administered to undergraduates. An inverse relationship exists for females between death anxiety and the tendency to help the elderly. (Author)

  16. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini

    2008-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

  17. How to Estimate Attitude from Vector Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Mortari, Daniele

    1999-01-01

    The most robust estimators minimizing Wahba's loss function are Davenport's q method and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The q method is faster than the SVD method with three or more measurements. The other algorithms are less robust since they solve the characteristic polynomial equation to find the maximum eigenvalue of Davenport's K matrix. They are only preferable when speed or processor power is an important consideration. Of these, Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) is the most robust and faster than the q method. Robustness is only an issue for measurements with widely differing accuracies, so the fastest algorithms, Quaternion ESTimator (QUEST), EStimator of the Optimal Quaternion (ESOQ), and ESOQ2, are well suited to star sensor applications.

  18. Illegal Toad Venom 'Aphrodisiac' Linked to NYC Man's Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Illegal Toad Venom 'Aphrodisiac' Linked to NYC Man's Death Ingredient in products called 'stone' can dangerously alter ... or China Rock. Similar products caused poisonings and deaths in the 1990s, the New York City Department ...

  19. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  20. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  1. Indicating the Attitudes of High School Students to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…

  2. Deaths due to sharp force injuries in Bexar County, Texas, with respect to manner of death.

    PubMed

    Kemal, Cameron J; Patterson, Tyler; Molina, D Kimberley

    2013-09-01

    In the United States, there is a paucity of studies examining sharp force injuries (SFIs), defined as an injury inflicted by cutting or stabbing with a sharp instrument. Few studies exist that discriminate between the injury patterns of suicidal or homicidal deaths incurred by SFI. In this retrospective study, all deaths secondary to SFI were evaluated at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office from January 1988 through May 2010. Exclusion criteria were deaths occurring more than 24 hours after injury and wounds obscured by healing or extensive medical intervention. The following data were analyzed: age of decedent, sex, wound location, number of wounds, type of SFI (stab vs incised), visceral organ or vascular injury, concomitant injuries, and manner of death. Defensive injuries in homicides and hesitation marks in suicides were also recorded. A total of 418 deaths met inclusion criteria: 349 homicides, 54 suicides, 12 accidents, and 2 where the manner of death could not be determined.The average age of homicide victims was 35 years, whereas that of suicide victims was 47 years. Gender was not significantly different between the homicide and suicide groups. Homicide victims incurred a greater number of wounds per case compared with suicides, 5.3 versus 4.1, respectively, and had a greater number of stab wounds, 3.3 per case compared with 0.7 per case, respectively. Incisional wounds were statistically greater in suicides, with an average number of 3.3 per case compared with 2.1 in homicides.Injuries to the head, chest, and back were more common in homicides when compared with suicides, whereas injuries to the abdomen and extremities were more frequent in suicides. Comparison of major visceral and vascular damage between homicides and suicides revealed statistically greater injury to the heart, lungs, and thoracic vessels in homicides, but there was a greater frequency of injury to the vasculature of the extremities in suicides. The presence of additional (non-SFI) injuries was more common in homicides than in suicides. Hesitation marks/tentative wounds occurred in 35% of suicides, whereas defensive injuries occurred in 31% of homicides. This epidemiological study can assist the forensic pathologist in determining the most probable manner of death from SFI but does not substitute for a thorough examination of the circumstances of death and a meticulous autopsy. PMID:23629405

  3. Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

    1994-07-01

    The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

  4. Using "Bad" Undergraduate Research to Foster "Good" Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Mary B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper postulates that having students engage in albeit limited and flawed research is a more effective way of changing attitudes than lecture or discussion. A common goal of the introductory linguistics course is to instill healthy language attitudes, but there is little extant research on the pedagogy of linguistics indicating how this may…

  5. Attributes Related to Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, Joanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to

  6. The Relationship of Counselor Attitudes to Training and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.; Finley, Robert E.

    The Test of Counselor Attitudes (Porter) was administered to five groups representing different levels of counselor training and experience. Significant differences were found between the groups on all five of the counselor attitudes meased: (1) evaluative; (2) interpretive; (3) understanding; (4) supportive; and (5) probing. As students receive…

  7. Un Drame social: la mort (A Social Drama: Death).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohezic, Bernard; Perusat, Jean-Marie

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the French cultural attitude toward death are explored, with reference made to a survey of public opinion and a magazine article about recognition of the anniversary of Charles De Gaulle's death. Attitudes about privacy, ritual, and family behavior are highlighted. (MSE)

  8. The factors contributing to death anxiety in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Gokcen; Kaymak, Semra Ulusoy; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Karslioglu, Ersin Hatice; Ozalp, Elvan; Soygur, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D) Scale, the Distress Thermometer, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning, and Glock and Stark's Dimensions of Religious Commitment scales, and these assessments were compared between cancer patients with and without death anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after correlation analysis between death anxiety and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, pain scores, and negative believes about what will happen after death were found to be higher in patients having death anxiety than patients not having death anxiety. Also life expectancy was perceived as shortened in patients with death anxiety. Death anxiety was associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and beliefs about what will happen after death. In conclusion, death anxiety could not be regarded as a natural consequence of having cancer; it is associated with the unresolved psychological and physical distress. PMID:22571248

  9. Robustness of quantum discord to sudden death

    E-print Network

    T. Werlang; S. Souza; F. F. Fanchini; C. J. Villas-Boas

    2009-09-16

    We calculate the dissipative dynamics of two-qubit quantum discord under Markovian environments. We analyze various dissipative channels such as dephasing, depolarizing, and generalized amplitude damping, assuming independent perturbation, in which each qubit is coupled to its own channel. Choosing initial conditions that manifest the so-called sudden death of entanglement, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. We show that in all cases where entanglement suddenly disappears, quantum discord vanishes only in the asymptotic limit, behaving similarly to individual decoherence of the qubits, even at finite temperatures. Hence, quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement against to decoherence so that quantum algorithms based only on quantum discord correlations may be more robust than those based on entanglement.

  10. Patients' attitudes to induction and labour.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P

    1977-01-01

    An attempt was made to ascertain patients' attitudes towards planned induction and labour. Twenty per cent of patients had not heard of induction before their pregnancy, and those who had had most probably heard about it from relations and friends rather than the media. Most patients had no firm opinions on induction of labour but were usually glad to have their pregnancy ended. Many considered that they had not been given enough information by the medical staff on their induction. The amount of pain experienced by patients at amniotomy was related to the "favourability" of the cervix. Possibly women with a low cervical score should be given more premedication or inhalation analgesia at amniotomy. Most patients found injections of narcotic agents adequate analgesia in labour. Those patients who did not receive adequate analgesia were principally those who had either very short or quite long labours. Patients with long labours may benefit from more liberal use of analgesia, but no satisfactory form of analgesia seems to be available for patients who are likely to deliver within two or three hours of induction. PMID:912283

  11. Associations between religious behavior and attitude to Christianity among Australian Catholic adolescents: scale validation.

    PubMed

    Dorman, J P

    2001-10-01

    In a sample of 1,166 Catholic high school students (age = 13-18 years), the author used confirmatory factor analysis to validate a 30-item instrument that assesses 6 dimensions of attitude to Christianity (viz., attitude to prayer, attitude to God, attitude to Jesus, attitude to the Bible, attitude to Christian practice, attitude to social justice). Goodness-of-fit indices for the proposed measurement model revealed that the model fitted the data very well, thus confirming the instrument's structure. A correlation analysis revealed associations between religious behavior and attitude to Christianity. PMID:11758040

  12. An approach to the sublime of death

    E-print Network

    Preston, Steven (Steven Joseph)

    2010-01-01

    Death is an unknown and it is final. This makes it sublime. The sublime as an aesthetic category is experienced emotionally as the moral certitude of having embraced the absolute. In that sense, the nervous system is capable ...

  13. Predicting counseling psychologists attitudes and clinical judgments with respect to older adults.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Jody K; Munley, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age, gender, training and experience in aging issues, fear of death, and multicultural competence in predicting counseling psychologists' global attitudes toward older adults and specific clinical judgments concerning a case vignette of an older client. A national sample of 364 practicing counseling psychologists participated in the study. Participants completed a demographic measure, Polizzi's refined version of the Aging Semantic Differential (Polizzi, 2003 ), a survey of professional bias based on a clinical vignette of a 70-year-old woman (James & Haley, 1995), the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale 3.0 (Lester, & Abdel-Khalek, 2003), the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002), and a Training and Experience Questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the extent to which the selected variables predicted more favorable attitudes toward older adults and less professional bias toward an older client beyond prediction by age and gender. Results revealed that older age and higher total scores on the MCKAS predicted less professional bias in clinical judgments. Gender was a significant predictor of global attitudes toward older adults. Findings suggest that multicultural knowledge, awareness, and skills are important in working with older adults. PMID:22913506

  14. Staggering Inflation To Stabilize Attitude of a Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; West, John

    2007-01-01

    A document presents computational-simulation studies of a concept for stabilizing the attitude of a spacecraft during deployment of such structures as a solar sail or other structures supported by inflatable booms. Specifically, the solar sail considered in this paper is a square sail with inflatable booms and attitude control vanes at the corners. The sail inflates from its stowed configuration into a square sail with four segments and four vanes at the tips. Basically, the concept is one of controlling the rates of inflation of the booms to utilize in mass-distribution properties to effect changes in the system s angular momentum. More specifically, what was studied were the effects of staggering inflation of each boom by holding it at constant length for specified intervals between intervals of increasing length until full length is reached. The studies included sensitivity analyses of effects of variations in mass properties, boom lengths, rates of increase in boom length, initial rates of rotation of the spacecraft, and several asymmetries that could arise during deployment. The studies led to the conclusion that the final attitude of the spacecraft could be modified by varying the parameters of staggered inflation. Computational studies also showed that by feeding back attitude and attitude-rate measurements so that corrective action is taken during the deployment, the final attitude can be maintained very closely to the initial attitude, thus mitigating the attitude changes incurred during deployment and caused by modeling errors. Moreover, it was found that by optimizing the ratio between the holding and length-increasing intervals in deployment of a boom, one could cause deployment to track a desired deployment profile to place the entire spacecraft in a desired attitude at the end of deployment.

  15. Brain death - too flawed to endure, too ingrained to abandon.

    PubMed

    Truog, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    The concept of brain death has become deeply ingrained in our health care system. It serves as the justification for the removal of vital organs like the heart and liver from patients who still have circulation and respiration while these organs maintain viability. On close examination, however, the concept is seen as incoherent and counterintuitive to our understandings of death. In order to abandon the concept of brain death and yet retain our practices in organ transplantation, we need to either change the definition of death or no longer maintain a commitment to the dead donor rule, which is an implicit prohibition against removing vital organs from individuals before they are declared dead. After exploring these two options, the author argues that while new definitions of death are problematic, alternatives to the dead donor rule are both ethically justifiable and potentially palatable to the public. Even so, the author concludes that neither of these approaches is likely to be adopted and that resolution will most probably come when technological advances in immunology simply make the concept of brain death obsolete. PMID:17518853

  16. Revisioning the death-drive: the compulsion to repeat as a death-in-life.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Gavriel

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a revisionary reading of Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Recognizing the power of Freud's meditation on a universal "death-drive" in living organisms, it argues that Freud makes a greater contribution by strengthening the compulsion to repeat to a form of figurative death. We recall that after shattering the presupposition of a universal pleasure principle, Freud demonstrates an equally strong pain-principle. The pain-principle entails a return to an old image in the mind, just as Freud identifies Eros, the transfigured pleasure-principle, with the movement toward something new, "a different individual." The moving backward toward old love in opposition to the moving forward to new love is an inspired narrative application of the Oedipus complex. The repetitive backward movement is a figurative death when the observing other or self encounters a deathlike affect of despair or persecution. Less persuasive because less experience-near is the concept of the death-drive. Freud writes in different voices, and the death-drive speculation is in the mode that privileges scientific speculation over other forms of thought, even as Freud shows a variety of stylistic modes for reaching the truth. Yet it is the mode that observes human interactions and transforms them to figurative narrative that moves most profoundly to the never-fully-knowable-human-unconscious. We discover the hidden motive for repetition as a return to the original rejection or rage that was a form of previous intimacy. The genre that these figurative narratives take is close to literary romance, and death, or the special suffering that Coleridge evocatively termed "life-in-death," is the hidden object of its dark quest. PMID:24555551

  17. Increases in heroin overdose deaths - 28 States, 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rose A; Paulozzi, Len J; Bauer, Michael J; Burleson, Richard W; Carlson, Rick E; Dao, Dan; Davis, James W; Dudek, Jennifer; Eichler, Beth Ann; Fernandes, Jessie C; Fondario, Anna; Gabella, Barbara; Hume, Beth; Huntamer, Theron; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Largo, Thomas W; Miles, JoAnne; Newmyer, Ashley; Nitcheva, Daniela; Perez, Beatriz E; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Sabel, Jennifer C; Skiba, Jessica; Slavova, Svetla; Stone, Kathy; Tharp, John M; Wendling, Tracy; Wright, Dagan; Zehner, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Nationally, death rates from prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) overdoses quadrupled during 1999-2010, whereas rates from heroin overdoses increased by <50%. Individual states and cities have reported substantial increases in deaths from heroin overdose since 2010. CDC analyzed recent mortality data from 28 states to determine the scope of the heroin overdose death increase and to determine whether increases were associated with changes in OPR overdose death rates since 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2010 to 2012, the death rate from heroin overdose for the 28 states increased from 1.0 to 2.1 per 100,000, whereas the death rate from OPR overdose declined from 6.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2012. Heroin overdose death rates increased significantly for both sexes, all age groups, all census regions, and all racial/ethnic groups other than American Indians/Alaska Natives. OPR overdose mortality declined significantly among males, persons aged <45 years, persons in the South, and non-Hispanic whites. Five states had increases in the OPR death rate, seven states had decreases, and 16 states had no change. Of the 18 states with statistically reliable heroin overdose death rates (i.e., rates based on at least 20 deaths), 15 states reported increases. Decreases in OPR death rates were not associated with increases in heroin death rates. The findings indicate a need for intensified prevention efforts aimed at reducing overdose deaths from all types of opioids while recognizing the demographic differences between the heroin and OPR-using populations. Efforts to prevent expansion of the number of OPR users who might use heroin when it is available should continue. PMID:25275328

  18. Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

    Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

  19. The inflammatory response to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    When cells die in vivo they trigger an inflammatory response. The ensuing hyperemia, leak of plasma proteins, and recruitment of leukocytes subserve a number of useful functions in host defense and tissue repair. However, this response can also cause tissue damage and in so doing contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Given the key role of inflammation in these processes it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive this response. The broad outline of this pathway is understood. Injured cells release “danger signals” that alert the host to cell death. Some of these molecules are recognized by cellular receptors that stimulate the generation of proinflammatory mediators. Other molecules released by dead cells stimulate the generation of mediators from extracellular sources. The resulting mediators then orchestrate the inflammatory response, eliciting its various vascular and cellular components. In addition to stimulating inflammation, dead cells also release danger signals that activate dendritic cells and promote the generation of immune responses to antigens in and around the dying cells. Many of the specific molecules and mechanisms involved in these various processes are still poorly understood. Here we review what is presently known about the sterile inflammatory response and its underlying mechanisms. PMID:18039143

  20. Death: a foe to be conquered? Questioning the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gellie, Anthea; Mills, Amber; Levinson, Michele; Stephenson, Gemma; Flynn, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    There are few certainties in life-death is one of them. Yet death is often thought of today as the 'loss of the battle' against illness, where in traditional societies it was the natural, meaningful, end to life. Medical knowledge and technologies have extended the possibilities of medical care and increased our life span. People living in most developed countries today can expect to survive to an advanced age and die in hospital rather than at home as in the past. Owing to these and other historical, cultural and social factors, our views on death have been skewed. Medical technology provides an arsenal of weapons to launch against death and the 'war against disease' has entrenched itself in medical philosophy. We now primarily experience death through the lens of a camera. Representations of 'death as spectacle' distort our perceptions and leave us ill-prepared for the reality. Additionally, death as a natural consequence of life has become much less visible than it was in the past due to our longer life expectancies and lack of infectious disease. The continued thrust for treatment, wedded with a failure to recognise the dying process, can rob individuals of a peaceful, dignified death. Progress being made in Advance Care Planning and palliative care is limited by the existing paradigm of death as a 'foe to be conquered'. It is time for a shift in this paradigm. PMID:25225350

  1. Attitude to the Study of Chemistry and Its Relationship with Achievement in an Introductory Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen J.; White, Sue; Sharma, Bibhya; Wakeling, Lara; Naiker, Mani; Chandra, Shaneel; Gopalan, Romila; Bilimoria, Veena

    2015-01-01

    A positive attitude to a subject may be congruent with higher achievement; however, limited evidence supports this for students in undergraduate chemistry--this may result from difficulties in quantifying attitude. Therefore, in this study, the Attitude to the Study of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI)--a validated instrument to quantify attitude, was…

  2. Values, Inter-Attitudinal Structure, and Attitude Change: Value Accessibility Can Increase a Related Attitude's Resistance to Change.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2015-12-01

    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. PMID:26542639

  3. Death, Don't Want to Talk about It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joo Ok

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate approaches about "death education in early childhood" are addressed in this paper. It is recommended for early childhood teachers to take an advantage of children's daily lives to talk about death and dying of living things such as finding dead insects, corpses of small animals found outside, or plants that turn brown. By seizing…

  4. Retromer Contributes to Immunity-Associated Cell Death in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Dangl, Jeff

    Retromer Contributes to Immunity-Associated Cell Death in Arabidopsis David Munch,a,1,2 Ooi.H.) Membrane trafficking is required during plant immune responses, but its contribution to the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death (PCD) associated with effector-triggered immunity

  5. How Schoolchildren's Acceptance of Self and Others Relate to Their Attitudes to Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Ken; Bortolozzo, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that harm to the mental health of children who are repeatedly victimised by their peers at school can be ameliorated through social or emotional support provided by other students. In this study we examined whether student provictim attitudes are related to more basic attitudes to self and attitudes to others.…

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Physiology declines prior to death in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Laurence D.

    , the fecundity and virility of Drosophila melanogaster fall significantly below those of same-aged fliesRESEARCH ARTICLE Physiology declines prior to death in Drosophila melanogaster Parvin Shahrestani that are not near death. It is likely that other aspects of physiology may decline during this period. This study

  7. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  8. A Practical and Theoretical Approach to Assessing Computer Attitudes: The Computer Attitudes Measure (CAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes study conducted at the University of Toronto that assessed the attitudes of student teachers toward computers by using a multicomponent model, the Computer Attitude Measure (CAM). Cognitive, affective, and behavioral attitudes are examined, and correlations of computer literacy, experience, and internal locus of control are discussed.…

  9. Deaths and major biographical events: a study of all cancer deaths in Germany from 1995 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Medenwald, Daniel; Kuss, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if people dying from cancer are able to prolong their own life in order to experience a certain biographical event, or whether the appearance of such an occasion leads to increased deaths before the event. Methods We compared numbers of cancer deaths during a period of 1?week before and after biographically important occasions, which were birthday, Christmas and Easter. As a psychogenic postponement or hastening of death is most likely in chronic diseases (as opposed to accidents or cardiovascular events), we included cancer deaths only. We estimated relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding Bonferroni corrected CIs to assess effects of biographical events. All registered cancer deaths in Germany from 1995 to 2009 were included (3?257?520 individual deaths). Numbers of deaths were corrected for seasonality. Results Considering all cases, there were noticeably more deaths than expected in the week preceding Christmas, leading to an RR of dying after the event of 0.987 (CI 0.978 to 0.997). Estimates indicating a hastening of death were consistent over several subgroups. Other occasions showed inconsistent results, especially there was no convincing postponement effect in our data. Conclusions While there is no evidence of different death numbers before and after Easter and birthdays, the appearance of Christmas seems to increase deaths. PMID:24694623

  10. Quality insights of university teachers on dying, death, and death education.

    PubMed

    Mak, Mui-Hing June

    One of the main responsibilities of teachers is to help individual students cope with life difficulties such as grief following a death. However, very little research explores teachers' views on death, dying, and how they handle grief and loss in schools. This study aims to explore university teachers' knowledge and attitudes on dying, death, and death education. Fifteen university teachers were recruited using a qualitative method. This study reveals that most teachers' views on death and related issues are largely affected by their death experiences, religious beliefs, professional background, and the mass media. Although they have a general negative response toward death and dying, some teachers begin to affirm their meanings of life and death. Most teachers agree that they do not feel adequate about managing and teaching on life and death issues, so they strongly support including death education in the formal programs in Hong Kong. PMID:23472324

  11. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  12. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  13. Paternal exposure to agricultural pesticides and cause specific fetal death

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, E; Ronda, E; Garcia, A; Dominguez, V

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the association between fetal death and paternal agricultural occupation in areas and time periods with different levels of use of agricultural pesticides. Methods: A total of 1 473 146 stillbirths and births occurring in Spain between 1995 and 1999 were analysed. Results: The offspring of agricultural workers had the highest risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies in the southern and eastern area (where pesticide use is greatest) and the lowest risk in the rest of Spain. In both areas the offspring of agricultural workers had a similar excess risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death. The relative risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies in infants conceived between April and September (the months of greater use of pesticides) in the southern and eastern area was 0.90 in manual workers and 1.62 in agricultural workers, compared to non-manual workers; in individuals who were conceived during the rest of the year, the relative risk was 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. In both periods the offspring of agricultural workers had an excess risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death. Conclusions: Paternal agricultural work in the areas where pesticides are massively used increases the risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies. The risk is also increased for fetuses conceived during the time periods of maximum use of pesticides The higher risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death in the offspring of agricultural workers seems unrelated to pesticide exposure. PMID:15031391

  14. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  15. Attitudes toward a game-based approach to mental health.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Christine P; Bowers, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Based on preliminary research, game-based treatments appear to be a promising approach to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, attitudes toward this novel approach must be better understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if video game self-efficacy mediates the relationship between expectations and reactions to a game-based treatment for PTSD. Participants played the serious game "Walk in My Shoes" (Novonics Corp., Orlando, FL) and completed a series of scales to measure attitudes toward the intervention. Video game self-efficacy was found to be a partial mediator of expectancies and reactions. These results suggest that enhancing attitudes via self-efficacy in a clinical setting may maximize treatment effectiveness. PMID:25584727

  16. Changing Medical Students’ Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajita

    2015-01-01

    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors’ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to others. Some feel that psychiatry is unscientific, imprecise and treatment is not effective. Traditional teaching methods are directed more towards imparting knowledge than changing the attitudes of students. Newer teaching and assessment techniques should be used to bring about attitudinal changes and develop interest among medical students. Case based and problem based learning, small group teaching, simulated patients, using movies, multidisciplinary seminars, integrated teaching, attitude questionnaires, objective structured clinical examinations etc., could be introduced in the curriculum to achieve this objective. PMID:25838738

  17. Attitudes to smoking on submarines: results of a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H

    2002-07-01

    An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854

  18. The Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale: Psychometric Characteristics in an American Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Augustine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST) to 408 American college students. Like Israeli youth from other studies, suicide tendency in American sample was characterized by four attitudes: attraction to life, attraction to death, repulsion by life, and repulsion by death. All four factor scales showed good reliability estimates.…

  19. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g?=?-0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95?=?-0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of the effectiveness of doping prevention interventions. PMID:25209168

  20. The Dance to Death: the Aesthetic Experience of Dying 

    E-print Network

    Adamson, Veronica Margaret Farquhar

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the shared experience of one woman’s ovarian cancer, from diagnosis to death. The disease, known as the silent killer, is difficult to diagnose with the majority of women presenting with vague symptoms ...

  1. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally. PMID:20533796

  2. How Death Anxiety Impacts Nurses’ Caring for Patients at the End of Life: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Peters, L; Cant, R; Payne, S; O’Connor, M; McDermott, F; Hood, K; Morphet, J; Shimoinaba, K

    2013-01-01

    Nurses are frequently exposed to dying patients and death in the course of their work. This experience makes individuals conscious of their own mortality, often giving rise to anxiety and unease. Nurses who have a strong anxiety about death may be less comfortable providing nursing care for patients at the end of their life. This paper explores the literature on death anxiety and nurses’ attitudes to determine whether fear of death impacts on nurses’ caring for dying patients. Fifteen quantitative studies published between 1990 and 2012 exploring nurses’ own attitudes towards death were critically reviewed. Three key themes identified were: i). nurses’ level of death anxiety; ii). death anxiety and attitudes towards caring for the dying, and iii). death education was necessary for such emotional work. Based on quantitative surveys using valid instruments, results suggested that the level of death anxiety of nurses working in hospitals in general, oncology, renal, hospice care or in community services was not high. Some studies showed an inverse association between nurses’ attitude towards death and their attitude towards caring for dying patients. Younger nurses consistently reported stronger fear of death and more negative attitudes towards end-of-life patient care. Nurses need to be aware of their own beliefs. Studies from several countries showed that a worksite death education program could reduce death anxiety. This offers potential for improving nurses’ caring for patients at the end of their life. PMID:23400515

  3. Dowry Deaths: Response to Weather Variability in India?

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Sheetal; Storeygard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of rainfall shocks on dowry deaths using data from 583 Indian districts for 2002–2007. We find that a one standard deviation decline in annual rainfall from the local mean increases reported dowry deaths by 7.8 percent. Wet shocks have no apparent effect. We examine patterns of other crimes to investigate whether an increase in general unrest during economic downturns explains the results but do not find supportive evidence. Women’s political representation in the national parliament has no apparent mitigating effect on dowry deaths. PMID:25386044

  4. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses. PMID:22435844

  5. Improving Students' Attitudes to Chance with Games and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven; Williams, Anne

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to implement a series of chance games and activities in a Year 7 classroom, and investigate the students' knowledge about probability concepts, as well as their attitudes to chance. Initially, the project involved selecting a set of appropriate learning activities to develop key probability concepts which are integral to the…

  6. Teacher Attitudes on Coping with Grief in the Public School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jon K.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Study replicates a previous study with early childhood teachers while also including the Death Attitude Profile-Revised. This study establishes teacher attitudes toward death and dying and their self-perceived ability to assist grieving students. Both quantitative and qualitative findings indicate need for further teacher preparation in dealing…

  7. 'Mud Bogging' Motor Sport Tied to Carbon Monoxide Poisonings, Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Poisonings, Deaths Experts recommend getting out of stuck vehicles, and having portable CO detectors To use the ... its name implies, mud bogging involves navigating a vehicle through muddy pits or tracks. The problem is, ...

  8. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Napier, John D.

    The Opinionnaire on Political Institutions and Participation (OPIP) was designed to measure six dimensions of the overall construct of political attitude. Three studies were undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, and the OPIP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for research and evaluations using…

  9. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  10. Caregiver Attitudes to Gynaecological Health of Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…

  11. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption... at the time of his death, or whose death is determined to have been due to pneumoconiosis....

  12. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including... Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption... at the time of his death, or whose death is determined to have been due to pneumoconiosis....

  13. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  14. Student Attitudes to Traditional and Online Methods of Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lily; Fong, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Rapid developments in education technology have provided educators and students new options in a constantly changing, competitive teaching and learning environment. As the number of online teaching resources continue to increase, research into student attitudes toward traditional and online methods of delivery is important in order to determine…

  15. Measuring Attitude Change Response to Films. Observational Report No. 7315.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Jack H.; Rosing, Allen

    This paper describes an experiment to measure attitudinal change in educable mentally retarded and normal children as a result of seeing a film entitled "The Hunter." The investigators, after previewing the film, outlined the attitudes and concepts contained in the film; question items were written to test these concepts. Essentially, the…

  16. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  17. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her... the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or... due to the order of precedence for survivors in § 10.907 dies after the death of the covered...

  18. The Appreciation Gap: Examining Student Attitudes to Classroom Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, David H.

    A teacher's search for a coherent explanation for the resistance of students to high school literature programs, vitally important since student attitudes influence learning, resulted in a discovery of both external and internal causal factors. Externally, an increasing emphasis on competency testing hinders the fostering of lifelong literacy.…

  19. Attitudes of Spanish University Teaching Staff to Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a…

  20. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  1. Development of A Questionnaire to Measure Attitude toward Oocyte Donation

    PubMed Central

    Omani Samani, Reza; Mounesan, Leila; Ezabadi, Zahra; Vesali, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no valid and comprehensive questionnaire that considers attitude toward oocyte donation (OD). Therefore this study has aimed to design and develop a tool entitled attitude toward donation-oocyte (ATOD-O) to measure attitude toward OD. Materials and Methods This methodological, qualitative research was undertaken on 15 infertile cases. In addition, we performed a literature review and search of various databases. Validity of this questionnaire was conducted by knowledgeable experts who determined indices such as relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness. Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed based on the opinions of experts and infertile couples referred to Royan Institute. Results ATOD-O was designed in 52 statements that covered various issues such as the OD process, donor and recipient characteristics, as well as family, emotional, psychological, legal, religious, and socio-economic dimensions. Results were scored as five points: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (somewhat), 4 (agree), and 5 (strongly agree). The overall relevancy of the questionnaire was 97% and clarity was 96%. Overall comprehensiveness was 100%. Conclusion The findings from this preliminary validation study have indicated that ATOD-O is a valid measure for measuring and assessing attitude toward donated oocytes. This questionnaire can be used in studies regarding different groups of a society. PMID:26644863

  2. Attitudes Toward Women's Right To Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhouse, Phyllis; Rosenthal, Esther

    1974-01-01

    Two hypotheses, that young subjects would express more positive attitudes toward women's right to self determination than older subjects and that more women than men would do so, were supported by the author's research reported in this article. (Author/HMV)

  3. Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    "Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…

  4. Middle East Meets West: Comparing Children's Attitudes to School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Colette; Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Beggs, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the attitudes of primary children to school science between children from the Northern Ireland (UK) and Oman. Previous research has indicated that pupils in the more senior primary classes showed a marked decline in their enjoyment of school science, although most of this research was carried out in Europe, North America, and…

  5. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students to the Uses of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also…

  6. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  7. Death Protocol Effective 6/15/2011 Page 1 Protocol for Responding to a Deceased Student

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Death Protocol Effective 6/15/2011 Page 1 Protocol for Responding to a Deceased Student The Dean. Initiates and implements death notification protocol 2. Verifies student death- vital statistics, death of Students Office #12;Death Protocol Effective 6/15/2011 Page 2 Campus Vice Presidents 1. If student

  8. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption...LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory...

  9. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency. PMID:21188869

  10. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

  11. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  12. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  13. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  14. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  15. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  16. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  17. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  18. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...

  19. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  20. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Evidence to establish death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is...

  1. The Effects of Perceived Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Substance-Use on Adolescent Attitudes toward and Intent To Use Psychoactive Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; Kefir, Ester

    2000-01-01

    Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…

  2. [Is it possible to die a good death?].

    PubMed

    Doré, J

    1999-01-01

    Is there any sense in wondering if one can "die a good death" Indeed, the word "euthanasia" as such offers food for thought. Obviously, human beings must die. The only real question is: Can help and assistance be given (through others) to a person when facing this ineluctable issue; and, if so, in which way and how far? To make things clearer, two points may be taken into consideration. On the one hand, it is a fact that the roman-catholic tradition has been able to set up a practice of a "good death piety", or even a "good death pastoral". But, on the other hand, we must not forget that when we consider what "euthanasia" means for the end of life and bear in mind what "eugenism" means for the beginning of life as well as the way it has been used, then it can only put us on the alert for possible serious abuse.... Considering all this, the question may be put as follows: not: is it possible, under certain circumstances, to give someone his or her death; but: how must I help and assist a person to live his or her life to the very end, if possible up to death? PMID:10464996

  3. Talking about Death: Implementing Peer Discussion as a Coping Mechanism to Overcome Fears about Dissection, Death, and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported on the perceptions of medical students toward dissection. It is important to understand the feelings and symptoms experienced during dissection so that they can be adequately handled. Prior to dissection, first year students are given lectures on aspects of dissection, death and dying, and death rituals in various…

  4. [Notification of unexpected patients' death to the police].

    PubMed

    Furuse, A

    2001-07-01

    Controversies continue to exist in what situation the surgeons are obliged to report the perioperative patients' death to the police. With regard to this issue, Japan Surgical Society and twelve other Japanese Surgical Societies have declared that 1) patients' death due to evident malpractice must be reported to the police, 2) patients' death resulting from anticipated surgical complications need not be reported to the police, 3) an independent organization be founded for collection and investigation of medical accident/incident reports. Japan Surgical Society will take a responsibility of making a practical guideline as to the notification of accidents to the police and take a leadership in establishing the independent medical accident/incident center. PMID:11505509

  5. 49 CFR 1103.12 - The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The practitioner's duty to and attitude toward the... to and attitude toward the Board. (a) It is the duty of the practitioner to maintain a respectful attitude toward the Board and for the importance of the functions it administers. In many respects...

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes

  7. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  8. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  9. Psychiatrists? fear of death is associated with negative emotions toward borderline personality disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit; Hermesh, Hagai; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Iancu, Iulian

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatrists? fear of death and negative emotions toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A survey (N=120) demonstrated that fear of death is associated with stronger negative attitudes toward BPD patients, after controlling for attitudes toward suicide. Our findings emphasize the importance of psychiatrists? awareness to their fear of death as a relevant factor for their emotions toward BPD patients. PMID:26184990

  10. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  11. Sudden unexpected death due to Graves' disease during physical altercation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dengming; Yuan, Xiaogang; Yang, Tiantong; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Xiang; Burke, Allen; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed after having a physical altercation with her husband. Despite immediate resuscitation, she died on arrival at the hospital. The victim's parents requested an autopsy because they believed that their daughter was killed by her husband. Postmortem examination revealed that the victim had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland and cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no evidence of significant trauma on the body. Further postmortem thyroid function tests and review of her medical history indicated that her death was due to Graves' disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia from Graves' disease induced by physical and emotional stress associated with the criminal activity of another person. The autopsy findings are described. In addition, the literature is reviewed and the significance of postmortem evaluation of thyroid hormones in the cases of sudden death is discussed. PMID:23919315

  12. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

  13. Effect of the Challenger Experience on Elementary Children's Attitudes to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Explores how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudes toward science and space during the five months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. Discusses positive outcomes and negative effects of the Challenger experience on children's attitude toward…

  14. An Anthropocentric Approach to Saving Biodiversity: Kenyan Pupils' Attitudes towards Parks and Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ibrahim M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…

  15. The Right to Choose Life or Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Evan R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The right of terminally ill patients to decide whether they want to be kept alive by extraordinary means is discussed. Efforts of the Society for the Right to Die, including the living will, are described. (RM)

  16. Attitudes of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children to physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrakaki, Vithleem; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Bebetsos, Evangelos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Tsiouda, Theodora; Tsioulis, Hlias; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity of children with and without asthma in Greece, the factors affecting their intention to exercise, and the influence of gender. Method The study involved 50 children with asthma and 50 children without asthma, aged 9–14-years old. We used the leisure time exercise questionnaire to assess the frequency and intensity of exercise. The planned behavior scale examined seven factors affecting physical activity: attitude, intention, self-identity, attitude strength, social role model, information, and knowledge. Results Asthmatic children did not differ significantly in mild, moderate, and overall level of physical activity from children without asthma but they participated less in intense and systematic exercise. The two asthmatic groups did not differ in any of the planned behavior factors. Significant differences between genders occurred with respect to self-identity and social role model. Boys appeared to exercise more regularly and intensely compared to girls. Conclusion Asthmatic children did not systematically participate in physical activity, preferring mostly mild and moderate intensity activities. Children with and without asthma had comparable positive attitudes and intentions toward exercise. PMID:23378744

  17. Did Bartonella henselae contribute to the deaths of two veterinarians?

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a flea-transmitted bacterium, causes chronic, zoonotic, blood stream infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients throughout the world. As an intra-erythrocytic and endotheliotropic bacterium, B. henselae causes a spectrum of symptomatology ranging from asymptomatic bacteremia to fever, endocarditis and death. Veterinary workers are at occupational risk for acquiring bartonellosis. As an emerging, and incompletely understood, stealth bacterial pathogen, B. henselae may or may not have been responsible for the deaths of two veterinarians; however, recent evidence indicates that this genus is of much greater medical importance than is currently appreciated by the majority of the biomedical community. PMID:26062543

  18. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  19. DAMPs from Cell Death to New Life

    PubMed Central

    Vénéreau, Emilie; Ceriotti, Chiara; Bianchi, Marco Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Our body handles tissue damage by activating the immune system in response to intracellular molecules released by injured tissues [damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)], in a similar way as it detects molecular motifs conserved in pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns). DAMPs are molecules that have a physiological role inside the cell, but acquire additional functions when they are exposed to the extracellular environment: they alert the body about danger, stimulate an inflammatory response, and finally promote the regeneration process. Beside their passive release by dead cells, some DAMPs can be secreted or exposed by living cells undergoing a life-threatening stress. DAMPs have been linked to inflammation and related disorders: hence, inhibition of DAMP-mediated inflammatory responses is a promising strategy to improve the clinical management of infection- and injury-elicited inflammatory diseases. However, it is important to consider that DAMPs are not only danger signals but also central players in tissue repair. Indeed, some DAMPs have been studied for their role in tissue healing after sterile or infection-associated inflammation. This review is focused on two exemplary DAMPs, HMGB1 and adenosine triphosphate, and their contribution to both inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:26347745

  20. Microteaching: From Infant Death to Immortality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brian K.

    A general introduction to the concept of microteaching and its development is presented, and the generally accepted format and the skills practiced for microteaching are described. Aspects of microteaching commonly perceived as favorable and unfavorable are addressed, and a review of current research is provided and followed by a discussion of the…

  1. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

  2. Report to the Nation shows cancer death rates dropping

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2009, shows that overall cancer death rates continued to decline in the United States among both men and women, among all major racial and ethnic groups, and for all of the most common cancer s

  3. Sudden death of a young woman attributed to diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2013-11-01

    A young woman's death at home was attributed to new onset diabetic ketoacidosis with subsequent litigation supported by several expert consultants, despite a history and postmortem findings inconsistent with this diagnosis. More thorough tissue study of the heart and analysis of the circumstances led to a credible explanation of the entire scenario. PMID:24237820

  4. An approach to death as an adverse event following immunization.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael S; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Amarasinghe, Ananda; MacDonald, Noni E

    2016-01-01

    Co-incidental death occurring proximate to vaccination may be reported as an adverse event following immunization. Such events are particularly concerning because they may raise community and health provider concerns about the safety of the specific vaccine and often the immunization programme in general. Coincidental events need to be differentiated from vaccine reactions, such as anaphylaxis, which may very rarely result in death. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated manual for the Causality Assessment of an AEFI. The purpose of this review is to apply the WHO causality methodology to death when this is reported as an AEFI. The causality assessment scheme recommends a four step process to enable classification of the AEFI and to differentiate events which are causally consistent from those that are inconsistent with immunization. However, for some events causality maybe indeterminate. Consistent causal reactions that may result in death are very rare and maybe related to the vaccine product (e.g. anaphylaxis, viscerotrophic disease), vaccine quality defect (e.g. an incompletely attenuated live vaccine agent) or an immunization error (e.g. vaccine vial contamination). Events that are inconsistent with immunizations are due to co-incidental conditions that may account for infant and childhood mortality. In countries with a high infant mortality rate the coincidental occurrence of death and immunization may occur not infrequently and a robust mechanism to obtain information from autopsy and perform an AEFI investigation and causality assessment is essential. Communication with the community and all stakeholders to maintain confidence in the immunization programme is critical. PMID:26608326

  5. A new instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers' attitudes to teaching mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, Steven

    1991-06-01

    This article outlines the development of an instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers' attitudes to teaching mathematics. A trial questionnaire was devised using the set of Fennema-Sherman scales on students' attitudes to the subject mathematics as a model. Analysis of the responses to the questionnaire by 155 student teachers was carried out to develop meaningful attitude scales and to refine the instrument. The end-product is a new instrument which can be used to monitor the attitudes of student teachers. The attitude scales identified in the analysis and built into the final form of the questionnaire are (i) anxiety, (ii) confidence and enjoyment, (iii) desire for recognition and (iv) pressure to conform.

  6. Euthanasia Acceptance as Related to Afterlife and Other Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)

  7. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) - a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    E-print Network

    Froen, J. Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W.; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C.; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J.; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C.; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-06-10

    Abstract A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical...

  8. Using Aviation to Change Math Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jerra

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics teachers are constantly looking for real-world applications of mathematics. Aerospace education provides an incredible context for teaching and learning important STEM concepts, inspiring young people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Teaching mathematics within the context of aerospace generates…

  9. Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2014-01-01

    The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

  10. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. PMID:25326475

  11. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is filed on account of the death of a person insured under yearly renewable...

  12. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is filed on account of the death of a person insured under yearly renewable...

  13. Evidence That Thinking about Death Relates to Time-Estimation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Andy; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2011-01-01

    Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer to death. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief…

  14. 38 CFR 6.19 - Evidence to establish death of the insured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... death of the insured. 6.19 Section 6.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Death Benefits § 6.19 Evidence to establish death of the insured. Whenever a claim is filed on account of the death of a person insured under yearly renewable...

  15. Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riagain, Padraig O.

    2007-01-01

    Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

  16. StIKKing it to a death kinase: IKKs prevent TNF-?-induced cell death by phosphorylating RIPK1.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Christopher P; Balachandran, Siddharth

    2016-02-01

    Signaling pathways activated by the cytokine TNF-? are among the most intensively studied and well-understood in all mammalian biology. In a simplistic model, two primary signals emanate from the TNF-? receptor, one that activates cell survival via an NF-?B transcriptional response and a second that triggers cell death when cell survival signals are neutralized. The kinase RIPK1 participates in both these axes, and its poly-ubiquitylation was thought to represent the primary mechanism by which it toggles between survival versus death signaling. When RIPK1 is ubiquitylated, it acts non-enzymatically as an adaptor protein in IKK recruitment and subsequent NF-?B activation; when ubiquitylation of RIPK1 is prevented, it functions as a cell death kinase capable of triggering apoptosis or necroptosis. Bertrand and colleagues (Dondelinger et al., 2015) now demonstrate that phosphorylation of RIPK1 represents an additional mechanism by which this protein switches between its life and death duties. They show that both IKK-? and IKK-? phosphorylate RIPK1, dampening its capacity to assemble the death effectors FADD and caspase 8 into a functional pro-apoptotic signalsome. These IKKs also protect against RIPK1-mediated necroptosis. Importantly, IKK-?/? prevent RIPK1-driven cell death independently of NF-?B transcriptional responses. These findings identify phosphorylation of RIPK1 by IKKs as a new mechanism by which cell fate decisions downstream of TNFR1 are regulated. PMID:26630177

  17. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  18. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on "Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science" (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science…

  19. Pathways to lifespan health following childhood parental death

    PubMed Central

    Luecken, Linda J.; Roubinov, Danielle S.

    2013-01-01

    The death of a parent is a profoundly stressful form of childhood adversity, increasing the short- and long-term risk of mental health problems. Emerging research suggests it may also disrupt biological regulatory systems and increase the risk of long-term physical health problems. This article presents a theoretical framework of the process by which the experience of parental death during childhood may influence mental and physical health outcomes over time. Drawing from a broad literature on adaptation following childhood parental loss, we focus on risk and protective factors in the childhood environment that are theoretically and empirically linked to emotional and biological regulatory responses to stress later in life, the effects of which may accumulate to impact long-term health. PMID:23555319

  20. Death Investigation Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Death Investigation Certificate What is Death Investigation? Medico-legal death investigation in death investigation in different ways. The study of death investigation trains students to identify and assemble a set of investigative tasks that are performed at every death scene. Modern medico- legal death

  1. Sudden death due to swimming in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Škavi?, Petar; Durakovi?, Din

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to analyze the rate of sudden death in elderly Croatian women in comparison to elderly Croatian men, who died suddenly due to swimming. In the period from 2002 to 2011 one elderly Croatian woman and five elderly men died suddenly during swimming. In the same time, the same number of elderly foreigners died due to swimming at the Croatian Adriatic coast. One Croatian woman aged 66, who suffered of arterial hypertension with left ventricular hyper- trophy of 15 mm, diabetes mellitus and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, drowned in the sea during swimming. She was intoxi- cated with alcohol and had alcohol level in urine of 3.03 per thousand. One foreign woman, aged 82, who suffered coronary heart disease with left ventricular scar after myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension with excessive left ventricular hypertrophy of 22 mm and nephroangiosclerosis, suddenly lost conscionsness during swimming. The death rate in elderly Croatian women due to swimming reached 0.25, and the death rate in men is eight times higher: 1.97 (p = 0.0701), but the difference is not significant probably because of a small observational number. PMID:26040091

  2. System for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.

  3. Biological explanations and stigmatizing attitudes: using essentialism and perceived dangerousness to predict antistigma intervention effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy A

    2011-01-01

    The theory of essentialism suggests that biological explanations of stigmatized behavior may not be effective at decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. The effects of biological explanations on stigmatizing attitudes were the topic of two experiments. In the first experiment, participants (N = 243) perceived a biological explanation as a less effective in relation to dangerousness and social distancing attitudes about mental illness than about homosexuality. The second experiment (N = 113) compared the effect of biological and free choice explanations on stigmatizing attitudes about abnormal sexual and eating behaviors. The results indicated that a biological explanation increased belief in essentialism and was most effective for attitudes related to anger and blame. These results suggest that the effectiveness of biological explanations as an antistigma tool varies according to the attitude and stigmatized group. PMID:21675182

  4. Attitudes toward and approaches to learning first-year university mathematics.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Hammoudi, Lakhdar

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the relationship for 180 undergraduate students enrolled in a first-year university calculus course between attitudes toward mathematics and approaches to learning mathematics using the Mathematics Attitude Scale and the Approaches to Learning Mathematics Questionnaire, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were negatively related to scores for the Surface Approach and accounted for 10.4% of the variance and scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were positively related to scores for the Deep Approach to learning mathematics and accounted for 31.7% of the variance. PMID:17037652

  5. Pupils' Attitudes to Science. A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; Duckworth, D.

    This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…

  6. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  7. Dual Agonist Surrobody Simultaneously Activates Death Receptors DR4 and DR5 to Induce Cancer Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Milutinovic, Snezana; Kashyap, Arun K; Yanagi, Teruki; Wimer, Carina; Zhou, Sihong; O'Neil, Ryann; Kurtzman, Aaron L; Faynboym, Alexsandr; Xu, Li; Hannum, Charles H; Diaz, Paul W; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Horowitz, Michael; Horowitz, Lawrence; Bhatt, Ramesh R; Reed, John C

    2016-01-01

    Death receptors of the TNF family are found on the surface of most cancer cells and their activation typically kills cancer cells through the stimulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. The endogenous ligand for death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) is TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, TRAIL (Apo2L). As most untransformed cells are not susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, death receptor activators have emerged as promising cancer therapeutic agents. One strategy to stimulate death receptors in cancer patients is to use soluble human recombinant TRAIL protein, but this agent has limitations of a short half-life and decoy receptor sequestration. Another strategy that attempted to evade decoy receptor sequestration and to provide improved pharmacokinetic properties was to generate DR4 or DR5 agonist antibodies. The resulting monoclonal agonist antibodies overcame the limitations of short half-life and avoided decoy receptor sequestration, but are limited by activating only one of the two death receptors. Here, we describe a DR4 and DR5 dual agonist produced using Surrobody technology that activates both DR4 and DR5 to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and also avoids decoy receptor sequestration. This fully human anti-DR4/DR5 Surrobody displays superior potency to DR4- and DR5-specific antibodies, even when combined with TRAIL-sensitizing proapoptotic agents. Moreover, cancer cells were less likely to acquire resistance to Surrobody than either anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 monospecific antibodies. Taken together, Surrobody shows promising preclinical proapoptotic activity against cancer cells, meriting further exploration of its potential as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(1); 114-24. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26516157

  8. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

  9. Attitudes to sex and sexual behaviour in rural Matabeleland, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Vos, T

    1994-01-01

    Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudes to sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast. PMID:8061079

  10. Tough Alcohol Policies Linked to Lower Death Rates from Liver Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155176.html Tough Alcohol Policies Linked to Lower Death Rates From Liver Damage Findings dovetail with prior ... States with strong alcohol control policies have lower death rates connected to alcohol-related liver damage, a ...

  11. 20 CFR 410.450 - Death due to pneumoconiosis, including statutory presumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.450 Death due to pneumoconiosis,...

  12. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  13. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Bacellar, Isabel O. L.; Tsubone, Tayana M.; Pavani, Christiane; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS), which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research. PMID:26334268

  14. Robustness of quantum discord to sudden death in NMR

    E-print Network

    Jianwei Xu; Qihui Chen

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord of two qubits in liquid state homonuclear NMR. Applying a phenomenological description for NMR under relaxation process, and taking a group of typical parameters of NMR, we show that when a zero initial state $|00> $ experiences a relaxation process, its entanglement disappears completely after a sequence of so-called sudden deaths and revivals, while the quantum discord retains remarkable values after a sequence of oscillations. That is to say, the quantum discord is more robust than entanglement.

  15. Modified Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale Created Using Principal-Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…

  16. Development of an Instrument to Measure Medical Students' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Andrew B.; Fish, Reva; McGuigan, Denise; Fox, Jeffery; Akl, Elie A.

    2012-01-01

    As curricula to improve medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities are developed, instruments are needed to guide the process and evaluate effectiveness. The authors developed an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities. A pilot instrument with 30 items in four sections was administered to

  17. The Attitudes of People with a Disability to Undertaking VET Training. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nechvoglod, Lisa; Griffin, Tabatha

    2011-01-01

    This research used a survey to investigate the attitudes of people with a disability towards undertaking training. The findings show very positive attitudes towards training by participants and, although the ability to generalise to the wider population is limited, one thing is clear: generally, people with a disability are willing to undertake…

  18. Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenaler, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

  19. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...death? 408.816 Section 408.816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination § 408.816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death?...

  20. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...death? 408.816 Section 408.816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination § 408.816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death?...

  1. High 'Resting' Heart Rate Tied to Higher Odds of Early Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Rate Tied to Higher Odds of Early Death But more research is needed before this can ... an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular death," said lead researcher Dr. Dongfeng Zhang, of the ...

  2. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease Anna Kaplan c

    E-print Network

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease Anna Kaplan c , Brent R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 2. Huntington disease Keywords: Huntington disease Cell death Fragment-based drug discovery Neurodegenerative diseases A B S T R

  3. Heating, Cooking Are Top Contributors to Air-Pollution Deaths Worldwide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154662.html Heating, Cooking Are Top Contributors to Air-Pollution Deaths Worldwide Agriculture also accounts for significant proportion, ... power plant emissions are the leading causes of air pollution deaths in the United States, that's not the ...

  4. Birth-death branching models. Application to African elephant populations.

    PubMed

    Corbacho, Casimiro; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    Branching models have a long history of biological applications, particularly in population dynamics. In this work, our interest is the development of mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of socially structured animal populations, focusing our attention on lineages, usually matrilines, as the basic structure in the population. Significant efforts have been made to develop models based on the assumption that all individuals behave identically with respect to reproduction. However, the reproduction phase has a large random component that involves not only demographic but also environmental factors that change across range distribution of species. In the present work, we introduce new classes of birth-death branching models which take such factors into account. We assume that both, the offspring probability distribution and the death probabilities may be different in each generation, changing either predictably or unpredictably in relation to habitat features. We consider the genealogical tree generated by observation of the process until a pre-set generation. We determine the probability distributions of the random variables representing the number of dead or living individuals having at least one ancestor alive, living individuals whose ancestors are all dead, and dead individuals whose ancestors are all dead, explicitly obtaining their principal moments. Also, we derive the probability distributions corresponding to the partial and total numbers of such biological variables, obtaining in particular the distribution of the total number of matriarchs in the genealogical tree. We apply the proposed models to describe the demographic dynamics of African elephant populations living in different habitats. PMID:23648183

  5. Social-physhological analysis of the public attitude to radiation and other factors of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Gushcin, V.A.; Pakhomova, N.V.; Sappa, N.N.

    1993-12-31

    The aim of the present study has been to clarify the attitudes of different groups of respondents to the choice between risk and use brought out by radiation medicine, nuclear power plants, and also against this background, the attitude to other most prominant factors caused by civilazations.The object of our studies was Kharkov.The opinions of 152 people were studied.

  6. Comparison of Rural and Urban Residents' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Related to Seeking Medical Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harju, Beverly L.; Wuensch, Karl L.; Kuhl, Emily A.; Cross, Natalie J.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The decision whether or not to consult a physician draws from a variety of attitudes within an individual's health schema. While rural Americans are in greater need of health care, many of them have fewer external resources than urbanites available to them. Purpose: The objective of this study was to elicit implicit and explicit attitudes

  7. An Analysis of Attitudes and Coping Strategies of High School Youth: Response to Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James Albert

    The purpose of this research study was to develop and test new instruments for assessing attitudes and coping responses to air pollution, and to gain insight into the factors influencing these attitudes and coping responses. Concern for air pollution was measured by two instruments a forced choice questionnaire which paired air pollution control…

  8. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    PubMed

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described. PMID:9519580

  9. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: contribution to dysphagic infant death.

    PubMed

    Talbert, D G

    2009-10-01

    Vomiting involves the simultaneous violent contraction of abdominal and diaphragm muscles to produce a high pressure on the stomach. The heart right atrium forms a through path from IVC to SVC, so the high intra-abdominal pressure will drive blood from abdominal contents into the head. Normally internal viscous drags in organs will limit the volume leaving them during a single vomiting event. However, repetitive vomiting such as occurs in cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) may drive sufficient blood into head veins to produce extreme venous hypertension. Dysphagic infant death is essentially a head vein hypertension malady, some features of which match those that are postulated for Shaken Baby Syndrome. CVS was described by Gee in 1882 but is still poorly understood. Recently a consensus statement has been released by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition setting out key issues to be addressed. Understanding CVS may therefore have important implications beyond its gastroenterological aspects. A case demonstrating a sequence of features suggesting CVS and the effects of increasing abdominal muscle strength with age is presented. It showed (1) swallowing dysfunction, (2) grunting and apnoea (surfactant poisoning), (3) reflux, (4) diarrhoea, (5) apparently unprovoked prolonged screaming fits (migraine?), (6) petechiae (local capillary rupture), (7) skull growth abnormalities (hydrocephalus) and (8) unconscious "blank staring spells " (from which the infant would auto-resuscitate). Repetitive vomiting may also sensitise the epiglottis thus increasing the risk of laryngospasm, and making attempts at intubation hazardous, possibly leading to hypoxic brain death. PMID:19632059

  10. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  11. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  12. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  13. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  14. 20 CFR 10.910 - What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false What if a person entitled to a portion of the death gratuity payment dies after the death of the covered employee but before receiving his or her portion of the death gratuity? 10.910 Section 10.910 Employees'...

  15. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  16. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  17. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  18. 20 CFR 718.306 - Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. 718.306 Section 718.306...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Presumption of entitlement applicable to certain death claims. (a) In the case of...

  19. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  20. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  1. Pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 family members to control cell death

    PubMed Central

    Letai, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The commitment to programmed cell death involves complex interactions among pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The physiological result of a decision by these proteins to undergo cell death is permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Pharmacologic manipulation of proteins in this family appears both feasible and efficacious, whether the goal is decreased cell death, as in ischemia of the myocardium or brain, or increased cell death, as in cancer. PMID:16200198

  2. A Personalized Approach to Web Privacy--Awareness, Attitudes and Actions

    E-print Network

    Wills, Craig E.

    - Our research seeks to understand user attitudes and actions regarding Web privacy in the con- text, Privacy, Behavioral Advertising, Tracking Paper type Research #12;1 Introduction As the Web has evolvedA Personalized Approach to Web Privacy--Awareness, Attitudes and Actions Craig E. Wills and Mihajlo

  3. Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak

    2012-01-01

    The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

  4. Maslow's Need Hierarchy Related to Educational Attitudes and Self-Concepts of Elementary Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noad, Brian

    1979-01-01

    The Work Motivation Inventory, Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory, and Adjective Self Description Instrument were administered to 128 University of Houston student teachers. Results indicated that educational attitudes and self-concept, operating jointly, significantly contributed to the variance in Maslow's scales of basic, safety, and…

  5. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  6. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  7. Survey of School Psychologists' Attitudes, Feelings, and Exposure to Gay and Lesbian Parents and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee-sook; Thul, Candrice A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Norris, James L.

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified…

  8. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

  9. "This Is a Public Service Announcement": Evaluating and Redesigning Campaigns to Teach Attitudes and Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Erika J.; Lomore, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…

  10. Using a MEMS gyroscope to stabilize the attitude of a fly-sized hovering robot

    E-print Network

    Wood, Robert

    by the sensor's ac- celerometer, significantly distort readings from the accelerometer but not the gyroscope. 1Using a MEMS gyroscope to stabilize the attitude of a fly-sized hovering robot Sawyer B. Fuller , E by integrating a MEMS gyroscope onto an 80 mg flapping-wing micro air vehicle to provide attitude feedback

  11. The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Denessen, Eddie; Hornstra, Lisette; Voeten, Marinus; Holland, Rob W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers…

  12. Coaches' Attitudes toward Smokeless Tobacco and Intentions to Intervene with Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Kimberly A.; Maniar, Sameep D.; Dino, Geri A.; Gao, Xin; Meckstroth, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed West Virginia middle- and high-school coaches' attitudes toward smokeless tobacco, actions toward athletes who used smokeless tobacco, intentions to provide interventions for users, and tobacco-use history. Results indicated that coaches had unfavorable attitudes toward smokeless tobacco, perceived it as a problem, and were willing to

  13. First Grade Teacher's Feelings about Discussing Death in the Classroom and Suggestions To Support Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Cordero, Minerva

    Drawing on the literature and a survey of first-grade teachers, this paper provides a summary of the ways children grieve, children's ideas on death, ways to help children contend with the difficulties surrounding death, and teachers' feelings about discussing death in the classroom. Twelve teachers completed a questionnaire about how to

  14. 20 CFR 416.1334 - Termination due to death of recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination due to death of recipient. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1334 Termination due to death of... effective with the month after the month of death....

  15. 20 CFR 416.1334 - Termination due to death of recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination due to death of recipient. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1334 Termination due to death of... effective with the month after the month of death....

  16. Ref. no. LiU Action Plan to handle a student death.

    E-print Network

    Schön, Thomas

    Ref. no. LiU Action Plan to handle a student death. The Student Health Care Centre is charged. For information regarding deaths, contact the Student Health Care Centre immediately. Gunilla Johansson, Director, student union and teacher: - Information regarding the death to the class and teacher concerned

  17. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper form that a potential...

  18. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper form that a potential...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1334 - Termination due to death of recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination due to death of recipient. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1334 Termination due to death of... effective with the month after the month of death....

  20. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper form that a potential...

  1. Death-specific protein in a marine diatom regulates photosynthetic responses to iron and light availability

    E-print Network

    Death-specific protein in a marine diatom regulates photosynthetic responses to iron and light, using reverse genetics, that a death-specific protein (DSP; previously named for its apparent association with cell death) in the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (TpDSP1) localizes to the plastid

  2. TICAL BIOSCIENCES A birth-and-death procms population model is formulated to include positive and

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    of the mean and variance are derived for constant birth and death parameters, and the values of the control. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the control of a birth-and-death process by introducing two parametersTICAL BIOSCIENCES ABSTRACT A birth-and-death procms population model is formulated to include

  3. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  4. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  5. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  6. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  7. 5 CFR 1651.13 - How to apply for a death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false How to apply for a death benefit. 1651.13 Section 1651.13...FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.13 How to apply for a death benefit. The TSP has created a paper...

  8. Applying the motorcyclist's perspective to improve car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Amit; Clarke, David; Crundall, David

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502

  9. Great Expectations: Students' Educational Attitudes upon the Transition to Post-Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elffers, Louise; Oort, Frans J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine students' educational attitudes upon the transition to Dutch senior vocational education (SVE), a transition associated with high dropout rates in the first year. Prior studies have identified differences in educational attitudes between sociodemographic groups. However, the mechanisms underlying those differences remain…

  10. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  11. Design and Study of the Instrument to Assess Students' Attitude toward Graphing Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznichenko, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…

  12. Using Children's Self-Reports to Measure Attitudes: Factors Influencing a Recency Response Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Julaine C.; Koopman, Cheryl

    Children's tendency to answer attitude questions in a biased manner, favoring latter response alternatives when two alternatives are presented in a forced-choice format, was investigated. Using a forced-choice interview format, children were asked questions concerning their attitudes toward mathematics. Each question contained two evaluative…

  13. Evaluation of the Patriotic Attitudes of the Prospective Teachers According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz; Aksoy, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the investigation of the patriotic attitudes of the prospective teachers seeking the answer of the question "what are the levels of the patriotic attitudes of the prospective teachers?" For this purpose a descriptive survey model of patriotism scale developed by Schatz, Staub and Lavine and adapted to Turkish by…

  14. Making Light of James Watt: A Burkean Approach to the Form and Attitude of Political Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the rhetorical nature of political cartoons by applying Kenneth Burke's concepts and terminology to this graphic art form. Examines (1) formal strategy of "perspective by incongruity," (2) burlesque attitude in political cartoons, and (3) fusion of form and attitude in the tropal principles of this graphic art. Draws from political…

  15. On the Distance to Optimality of the Geometric Approximate Minimum-Energy Attitude Filter

    E-print Network

    Trumpf, Jochen

    On the Distance to Optimality of the Geometric Approximate Minimum-Energy Attitude Filter Mohammad-optimality of the recent geometric approximate minimum-energy (GAME) filter, an attitude filter for estimation on the rotation group SO(3). The GAME filter approximates the minimum-energy (optimal) filtering solution

  16. Nursing Aides' Attitudes to Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes: The Effect of Work Stressors and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the…

  17. Evaluation of Environmental Attitudes: Analysis and Results of a Scale Applied to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Rodriguez-Barreiro, Luis; Carrasquer, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few decades, environmental work has increased significantly. An important part of this has to do with attitudes. This research presents the design and validation of an environmental attitudes scale aimed at university students. Detailed information on development and validation of the scale is provided. Similarly, it presents the…

  18. Attitude toward Christianity and paranormal belief among 13- to 16-yr.-old students.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J; Robbins, Mandy

    2006-08-01

    A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal. PMID:17037478

  19. Internationalization at Home: Using Learning Motivation to Predict Students' Attitudes toward Teaching in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Fostering foreign language proficiency is an important goal of university teaching. We identified German university students' (N = 1265) goal orientations developed during secondary school as predictors of attitudes toward receiving instruction in English at university. Mastery goal orientation was proposed to "directly" promote positive attitudes

  20. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  1. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  2. I Have to Go on: The Effect of a Mother's Death on Her Daughter's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratti, Theresa Helen McLuskey

    2011-01-01

    Parents die during the lives of their children. If the child is an adolescent, that death will impact the student's education immediately or in subsequent years. Findings show the death of a mother does impact the daughter's education. It is imperative educators are willing to work with the student at the time the death occurs as well as in the…

  3. Teaching Child Care Providers to Reduce the Risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Teresa; Martin, Sally; Reilly, Jackie; Weigel, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Keeping children safe and healthy is one of the main concerns of parents and child care providers. SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 12 months of age. Over 2,000 infants die from SIDS every year in the United States, and almost 15% of these deaths occur in child care settings. A targeted…

  4. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  5. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing Erik A. van polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems: birth-death process with killing, orthogonal polynomials, quasi- stationary distribution 2000

  6. The Effect of Implicitly Incentivized Faking on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Doping Attitude: When Athletes Want to Pretend an Even More Negative Attitude to Doping

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants’ automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies. PMID:25902142

  7. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; U?ak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.

  8. Strategies African-American Cancer Survivors Use to Overcome Fears and Fatalistic Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill B; Best, Nakia C; Galbraith, Kayoll V; Worthy, Valarie C; Moore, Ltc Angelo D

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative study explored strategies African-American cancer survivors use to overcome their fears and fatalistic attitudes toward cancer at the point of diagnosis through completion of treatment. Thirty-one African-American cancer survivors who had completed or nearly completed treatment were recruited through criterion purposeful sampling. In-depth, open-ended interviews were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Of the 31 survivors interviewed, 26 reported being fearful of cancer and believed that cancer would result in death. These cancer survivors were particularly fearful of having a cancer had spread, of being isolated, and performing less effectively at work. Strategies used to overcome these fears included increasing their own awareness about cancer, using positive self-talk, and avoiding negative people. The findings suggest that past experiences continue to influence fears and fatalistic perspectives about cancer and that educational resources to inform the public about cancer may be ignored until there is a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. Televised news broadcasts of high-profile personalities who had died from cancer were also anxiety provoking, particularly if the cancer survivor died of a recurrence from cancer. Prevalent sources of information and support for these survivors were family members or close friends they trusted with personal information, perceived as strong, or experienced in the care of other cancer survivors. PMID:25266472

  9. Alpha-synuclein: from secretion to dysfunction and death

    PubMed Central

    Marques, O; Outeiro, T F

    2012-01-01

    The aggregation, deposition, and dysfunction of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) are common events in neurodegenerative disorders known as synucleinopathies. These include Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. A growing body of knowledge on the biology of aSyn is emerging and enabling novel hypotheses to be tested. In particular, the hypothesis that aSyn is secreted from neurons, thus contributing to the spreading of pathology not only in the brain but also in other organs, is gaining momentum. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism(s) of secretion, as well as the consequences of extracellular aSyn species for neighboring cells are still unclear. Here, we review the current literature and integrate existing data in order to propose possible mechanisms of secretion, cell dysfunction, and death. Ultimately, the complete understanding of these processes might open novel avenues for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:22825468

  10. Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saurabh; Traystman, Richard J.; Herson, Paco S.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome. PMID:24378980

  11. From the emergency department to vital statistics: cause of death uncertain.

    PubMed

    Keirns, Carla C; Carr, Brendan G

    2008-08-01

    Vital statistics are widely used to evaluate trends in health and illness, inform policy, and allocate resources among health priorities. Literature comparing autopsies to clinical death certification has shown that the clinical "cause of death" certification is inaccurate or incomplete in many cases. Short of increasing autopsies, however, these studies have proposed few improvements. Using the case of death certification in the emergency department (ED), the authors analyzed the current approach to death certification. The authors propose the following to improve the quality of data: 1) acceptance of the declaration "manner of death, natural; cause of death, uncertain"; 2) training for physicians in the selection of appropriate underlying causes of death and "chains of causation"; and 3) participation of physicians with ongoing relationships to the patient in the certification process. PMID:18783489

  12. Licensed to Kill: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Olivier; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is crucial in plant organogenesis and survival. In this review the involvement of mitochondria and chloroplasts in PCD execution is critically assessed. Recent findings support a central role for mitochondria in PCD, with newly identified components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC), FOF1 ATP synthase, cardiolipins, and ATPase AtOM66. While chloroplasts received less attention, their contribution to PCD is well supported, suggesting that they possibly contribute by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of light or even contribute through cytochrome f release. Finally we discuss two working models where mitochondria and chloroplasts could cooperatively execute PCD: mitochondria initiate the commitment steps and recruit chloroplasts for swift execution or, alternatively, mitochondria and chloroplasts could operate in parallel. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26442680

  13. An application of the Sentinel Health Event (Occupational) concept to death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    Lalich, N R; Schuster, L L

    1987-01-01

    This article describes a computer-based application of the Sentinel Health Event (Occupational) [SHE(O)] concept, developed in conjunction with five states, to monitor deaths which are occupationally related. The states have coded their state death certificate files for industry and occupation, using the decedent's usual occupation and industry as reported on the death certificate. From these files, the SHE(O) computer program selects deaths which are likely to be work-related, based on a previously published SHE(O) list of 50 disease rubrics and associated industries and occupations. The computer program matches the SHE(O) list with the recorded industry, occupation, and underlying cause of death. The program has been tested using 1984 death certificate data from Maine, upstate New York (excluding New York City), North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. Approximately 1 to 2 per cent of all deaths were selected by the program, with lung cancer and coal workers' pneumoconiosis being the most frequent cause of death. The SHE(O) program may be useful for identifying deaths which are potentially occupationally related, but its utility and its application to death certificates needs further evaluation before recommending widespread use. Limitations are discussed, as well as plans for improving the application of the SHE(O) concept to death certificates. PMID:3631365

  14. Individualism, acceptance and differentiation as attitude traits in the public’s response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Velan, Baruch; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Ziv, Arnona; Yagar, Yaakov; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-01-01

    The attitude of the general public to vaccination was evaluated through a survey conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli population (n = 2,018), in which interviewees were requested to express their standpoints regarding five different vaccination programs. These included: pandemic influenza vaccination, seasonal influenza vaccination, travel vaccines, Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and childhood vaccinations. Analysis of the responses reveal three major attitude traits: a) acceptance, characterized by the opinion that targets should be vaccinated; b) individualism, characterized by the opinion that vaccination should be left to personal choice; and c) differentiation, characterized by the tendency to express different attitudes when addressing different vaccination programs. Interestingly, direct opposition to vaccination was found to be a minor attitude trait in this survey. Groups within the population could be defined according to their tendency to assume these different attitudes as Acceptors, Judicious-acceptors, Differentiators, Soft-individualists, and Hard-individualists. These groups expressed different standpoints on all five vaccination programs as well as on other health recommendations, such as screening for early detection of cancer. Attitude traits could be also correlated, to a certain extent, with actual compliance with vaccination programs. Interestingly, attitudes to vaccination were not correlated with social profiles related to income or education, although younger individuals exhibited higher degrees of individualism and differentiation. Taken together, all this is in accordance with the current social settings, underlining the individual's tendency for critical evaluation and self-stirring. This should be taken into consideration by health authorities involved in vaccination programs. PMID:22894959

  15. Which Variables Relate to the Attitudes of Teachers, Parents and Peers towards Students with Special Educational Needs in Regular Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to examine which variables relate to the attitudes of…

  16. Culturally Diverse Beliefs Concerning Dying, Death, and Bereavement: A School Psychologist's Intervention Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    School psychologists need to employ a multicultural perspective in the areas of death, dying, and bereavement. To develop multicultural sensitivity and competency requires setting aside one's personal beliefs in an attempt to adopt another's perspective. Consequently, school psychologists first need to explore their own attitudes about death and…

  17. A Narrative Inquiry to Determine the Impact of Learning Communities on Attitude Change of Developmental College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyett, La Tonya R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry research study was to explore how learning communities impact attitude changes of developmental college students. The qualitative research design enabled the researcher to determine attitudes, and changes in attitudes, via narratives shared by the participants about their personal experiences. The participants…

  18. Factors Influencing Elementary School Children's Attitudes toward Science before, during, and after a Visit to the UK National Space Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on attitude changes of 300 children, aged 10 or 11 years, from four schools, who visited the UK National Space Centre. Attitudes toward science and space were explored by examining responses to five different attitude scales. These were administered before, immediately after, and 2 months and 4-5 months after a visit to the…

  19. Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in this developing field of medical education. Methods We searched major electronic databases and citation indexes within the disciplines of medicine, education, social science and management. We undertook hand searching of major journals, and reference and citation tracking. We accessed websites of UK medical institutions and contacted individuals working within the field. Results 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in the USA, using mainly quantitative methods. We used inductive analysis of the topics addressed by each study to identity five main content areas: Quality Improvement; Managed Care, Use of Resources and Costs; General Leadership and Management; Role of the Doctor, and Patient Safety. Students have positive attitudes to clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement techniques and multidisciplinary teamwork, but mixed attitudes to managed care, cost containment and medical error. Education interventions had variable effects on students' attitudes. Medical students perceive a need for leadership and management education but identified lack of curriculum time and disinterest in some activities as potential barriers to implementation. Conclusions The findings from our review may reflect the relatively little emphasis given to leadership and management in medical curricula. However, students recognise a need to develop leadership and management competences. Although further work needs to be undertaken, using rigorous methods, to identify the most effective and cost-effective curriculum innovations, this review offers the only currently available summary of work examining the attitudes of students to this important area of development for future doctors. PMID:22082174

  20. Cultural Implications of Death and Loss from AIDS among Women in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2012-01-01

    Over 1.8 million people have died of AIDS in South Africa, and it continues to be a death sentence for many women. The purpose of this study was to examine the broader context of death and loss from HIV/AIDS and to identify the cultural factors that influenced existing beliefs and attitudes. The participants included 110 women recruited from 3…

  1. Care-­Staff Coping, Personality and Attitudes to Aggression: Analysis of the Interplay 

    E-print Network

    Bradley-Scott, Cerys

    2012-06-27

    This study examined residential care-staff’s personality, attitudes to aggression and coping responses of exposure to extreme behaviour. It aimed to replicate relationships between personality and coping at a factor level and to examine...

  2. Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

    2007-01-01

    A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

  3. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. PMID:26189150

  4. Impact of Family Structure on Parental Attitudes Toward the Economic Support of Adult Children Over the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilino, William S.

    2005-01-01

    This research explored the influence of family structure on midlife parents' attitudes toward the economic support of adult children and measured change in those attitudes as their oldest child moved from adolescence to young adulthood. Results suggest that family structure has long-term effects on parents' attitudes toward financial obligations…

  5. The Impact of Birth Order on Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes from Parents to Adolescent Sons: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…

  6. Unexplained Death due to Possible Infectious Diseases in Infants—United States, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christopher A.; Holman, Robert C.; Callinan, Laura S.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Blau, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and examine factors related to unexplained death due to possible infectious causes (UDPIC) in infants and to analyze the associations between these factors in unexplained deaths and infants with fatal and nonfatal outcomes. Study design Infant deaths meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code inclusion and exclusion criteria for UDPIC were selected from the 2006 US Linked Birth and Infant Death data set. Two control groups of surviving and nonsurviving infants were selected and compared with the infants with UDPIC using a case-control study design with multivariate logistic regression models stratified by birth weight category. Comparisons with infants with identified infectious causes of death were also made. Results During 2006, 3570 infant deaths (12.5% of all US infant deaths) were categorized as a UDPIC. The highest rates for these unexplained infants deaths were found in blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Infants of black mothers were more likely to experience UDPIC. Birth weight was a significant effect modifier in these models. Conclusions Many factors may contribute to an infant’s death being classified as a UDPIC, including race and marital status. Other factors, such as Hispanic ethnicity and maternal age, also may play a role. Infant characteristics, such as birth weight, may be related to factors that influence the decision not to conduct a postmortem examination in infant death cases. Additional research is needed to determine the true extent of infectious disease and its relationship to UDPIC in infants. PMID:22835880

  7. Death Runthrough

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-11-16

    Broadcast Transcript: At a certain age, we all begin to feel our mortality. Here in South Korea, they're doing something about it. Test runs for death. Well, they're not really practicing dying. They're practicing with death's accessories. That is...

  8. The control of space manipulators subject to spacecraft attitude control saturation limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.; Vance, E. E.; Torres, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The motions of robotic manipulators mounted on spacecraft can disturb the spacecraft's positions and attitude. These disturbances can surpass the ability of the system's attitude control reaction jets to control them, for the disturbances increase as manipulator speeds increase. If the manipulator moves too quickly the resulting disturbances can exceed the saturation levels of the reaction jets, causing excessive spacecraft motions. A method for planning space manipulator's motions is presented, so that tasks can be performed as quickly as possible without saturating the system's attitude control jets.

  9. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  10. Some Changes in Primary School Teachers' Attitudes to Religious and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, William

    1973-01-01

    Three surveys were conducted in twenty-three Midland primary schools during the spring terms of 1965, 1968 and 1971 in order to examine teacher attitudes to both religious and moral education. (Author/RK)

  11. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    E-print Network

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi R.; Landsbaugh, Jill R.; Schiff, Annie; Hardeman, Wendy; Ong, Ken K.; Griffin, Simon J.

    2011-04-21

    describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four...

  12. Studies in robust control systems with application to various spacecraft attitude control schemes 

    E-print Network

    Samaan, Malak Anees

    2000-01-01

    of this thesis is to study the application of different robustness tests on various attitude control systems for spacecraft subject to parameter perturbations. The robust control theories for time domain and frequency domain with linear and non-linear parameters...

  13. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  14. Piperlongumine and immune cytokine TRAIL synergize to promote tumor death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C.; King, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation results in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Adaption to this toxic stress allows cancer cells to proliferate. Recently, piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid, was identified to exhibit novel anticancer effects by targeting ROS signaling. PL induces apoptosis specifically in cancer cells by downregulating several anti-apoptotic proteins. Notably, the same anti-apoptotic proteins were previously found to reduce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that PL would synergize with TRAIL to stimulate potent apoptosis in cancer cells. We demonstrate for the first time that PL and TRAIL exhibit a synergistic anti-cancer effect in cancer cell lines of various origins. PL resulted in the upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, which potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, such upregulation was found to be dependent on ROS and the activation of JNK and p38 kinases. Treatment with combined PL and TRAIL demonstrated significant anti-proliferative effects in a triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. This work provides a novel therapeutic approach for inducing cancer cell death. Combination of PL and TRAIL may suggest a novel paradigm for treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25984950

  15. Using multiple cause-of-death data to improve surveillance of drug-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, David L.; Yokoi-Shelton, Mieko L.; Zosel, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Context Many state and local areas are affected by the national epidemic of drug-related mortality, which recently has shown signs of a rising licit-to-illicit drug death ratio. Appropriate local public health surveillance can help to monitor and control this epidemic. Objective Using our state as an example, we sought to illustrate how to describe the changes in drug death rates, causes, and circumstances. In contrast to most other surveillance reports, our approach includes both drug-induced and drug-related deaths and both demographic and socioeconomic decedent characteristics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All residents of the State of Wisconsin. Participants Decedents from 1999–2008. Main outcome measure Annual numbers and population-based rates of deaths due to drugs, including both identified and unidentified drugs. Information was obtained from death certificates with any of approximately 270 underlying, immediate, or contributing cause of death codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. Results Drug-related death rates increased during much of the 10-year study period, and the ratio of male to female deaths rose. The median age at death from drug-related causes was 43 years. Opioid analgesic poisoning surpassed cocaine and heroin poisoning as the most frequent type of fatal drug poisoning. Of all 4828 deaths from drug-related causes--virtually all of which were certified by a county medical examiner or coroner--3,410 (71%) were unintentional, and 1,053 (22%) were suicide. The unintentional-to-suicide death rate ratio grew from 1.6 to 3.5 during the study period. Methadone-related deaths increased from 10 in 1999 to 118 in 2008 (1080%), while benzodiazepine-related deaths rose from 23 to 106 (361%). Conclusions Although premature deaths from drug use and abuse continue to rise, in some states even surpassing motor vehicle crash deaths, multiple cause of death information from death certificates is available to monitor their occurrence and nature and to inform selection of prevention strategies. PMID:23266754

  16. Use of genetic testing to identify sudden cardiac death syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vatta, Matteo; Spoonamore, Katherine G

    2015-11-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although coronary artery disease remains the most common substrate for SCD, primary cardiac genetic diseases, presenting with or without structural heart abnormalities, play a significant role. In the last 30 years, the study of large family pedigrees allowed the discovery of causative genes unveiling the genetic basis of diseases such as primary cardiomyopathies and arrhythmia syndromes, which are known to increase the risk of SCD. However, recent technological advancement with the ability to perform massive parallel sequencing and analyze the entire genome has uncovered a higher level of complexity in the genetic predisposition for cardiac diseases, which are usually characterized by Mendelian inheritance patterns. Clinical genetic testing, historically shaped around a monogenic Mendelian disorder paradigm, is now facing the challenge to adopt and adapt to a more complex model in which a significant portion of subjects may present with multi-allelic inheritance involving additional genes that could modulate the severity and type of disease-related phenotypes. Here, we will try to provide a viewpoint that will hopefully foster further debate in the field. PMID:25864170

  17. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes about Writing: Learning to Write and Teaching to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butaud, Gayle L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological perspective aimed at description analysis to gain a deeper understanding of the writing attitudes and experiences preservice teacher bring to the student teaching semester. A questionnaire was used to gather information about student teachers at a regional university. Based on the responses…

  18. Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Lory Elen

    This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive attitude toward science vs. gender was undertaken. An initial significant difference in positive attitude toward science between females and males in the experimental group was established (p =.05). There was no significant difference in positive attitude toward science between those same females and males after the experimental period. Consistent with other results, attitudes toward science for both males and females in the control group became less positive after the study, while males and females in the experimental group had a more positive attitude toward science after four months of using constructivist strategies. Looking at females only, the control group started out with a significantly more positive attitude toward science (mean = 43.40) compared to the experimental group (mean = 39.26, p =.0261). Although a significant difference in positive attitude between females in both groups was not found after the treatment period, the mean attitude score for females in the experimental group increased 2.044, while the mean attitude score for females in the control group decreased by 1.750. Constructivist strategies and their relationship with fostering positive attitudes toward science, might prove a viable solution for addressing the major concern of gender equity and enrollment in higher level science and mathematics courses.

  19. Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life. PMID:24316972

  20. The caveolin-1 connection to cell death and survival.

    PubMed

    Quest, A F G; Lobos-González, L; Nuñez, S; Sanhueza, C; Fernández, J-G; Aguirre, A; Rodríguez, D; Leyton, L; Torres, V

    2013-02-01

    Caveolins are a family of membrane proteins required for the formation of small plasma membrane invaginations called caveolae that are implicated in cellular trafficking processes. In addition to this structural role, these scaffolding proteins modulate numerous intracellular signaling pathways; often via direct interaction with specific binding partners. Caveolin-1 is particularly well-studied in this respect and has been attributed a large variety of functions. Thus, Caveolin-1 also represents the best-characterized isoform of this family with respect to its participation in cancer. Rather strikingly, available evidence indicates that Caveolin-1 belongs to a select group of proteins that function, depending on the cellular settings, both as tumor suppressor and promoter of cellular traits commonly associated with enhanced malignant behavior, such as metastasis and multi-drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying such ambiguity in Caveolin-1 function constitute an area of great interest. Here, we will focus on discussing how Caveolin-1 modulates cell death and survival pathways and how this may contribute to a better understanding of the ambiguous role this protein plays in cancer. PMID:23228128

  1. Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death.

    PubMed

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O

    2014-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life. PMID:24316972

  2. Advertising to Italian English Bilinguals in Australia: Attitudes and Response to Language Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This article explores attitudes and response to language selection in advertising targeting Italian bilinguals who belong to a defined speech community. The research builds upon (i) research on multilingual advertising by investigating its attitudinal correlates, and (ii) studies on advertising to bilinguals through the verification of the…

  3. Public attitudes to GM foods. The balancing of risks and gains.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we study the variables influencing attitudes to the use of two biotechnologies related to gene transfer within apples. Using Eurobarometer 73.1 survey data on biotechnology, science and technology, with 15,650 respondents, we study the extent these attitudes are determined by socio-economic and other variables. We found that attitudes to the risks and gains are determined by socio-economic variables and also by the individual's knowledge, scientific background, their parent's education in science and their religion. Perceptions of naturalness and of environmental impact combined with perceived risks and gains in determining overall approval, proxied by views on whether the technologies should be encouraged, for GMTs. However there are substantial differences in attitudes to transgenesis and cisgenesis. PMID:26026248

  4. Attitude of the church and state in Scotland to sex and marriage: 1560-1707 

    E-print Network

    Hardy, John R.

    1978-01-01

    The thesis examines the attitudes which lay behind the different laws relating to marriage and sexual offences enacted between 1560 and 1707 by the Scottish Parliament, the Privy Council and the General Assemblies of the ...

  5. Self-attitude awareness training: An aid to effective performance in microgravity and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.

  6. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  7. Are Death Anxiety and Death Depression Distinct Entities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of others,""brevity of…

  8. Science laboratory behavior strategies of students relative to performance in and attitude to laboratory work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitude to laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitude to laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitude to laboratory work are made.

  9. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com). PMID:23857924

  10. Autophagy prevents autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Wei; Feng, Jiang-Nan; Cao, Yi; Meng, Li-Ping; Wang, Shu-Lin

    2015-05-18

    Autophagy is a major cellular pathway used to degrade long-lived proteins or organelles that may be damaged due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cellular stress. Autophagy typically enhances cell survival, but it may also act to promote cell death under certain conditions. The mechanism underlying this paradox, however, remains unclear. We showed that Tetrahymena cells exerted increased membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagy followed by autophagic cell death (referred to as cell death with autophagy) after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or 3-methyladenine significantly augmented autophagic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Blockage of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or starvation triggered activation of autophagy followed by cell death by inducing the production of ROS due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This indicated a regulatory role of mitochondrial ROS in programming autophagy and autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena. Importantly, suppression of autophagy enhanced autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to elevated ROS production from starvation, and this was reversed by antioxidants. Therefore, our results suggest that autophagy was activated upon oxidative stress to prevent the initiation of autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena until the accumulation of ROS passed the point of no return, leading to delayed cell death in Tetrahymena. PMID:26018860

  11. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death.

    PubMed

    Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H

    2014-05-20

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  12. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Samuel R.; O’Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  13. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community. Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma). Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma. Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%), or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%). The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29%) or reported on research findings (22%). Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65%) or neutral (27%). A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%). Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7%) or personal experience of stigma (0.1%). More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%). The attitude that individuals with depression should “snap out of it” was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42%) or neutral (43%). Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes, most reflected inaccurate beliefs about schizophrenia being multiple personality disorder (52%) or mocked or trivialised individuals with schizophrenia (33%). Conclusions. The study supports the use of analysis of Twitter content to unobtrusively measure attitudes towards mental illness, both supportive and stigmatising. The results of the study may be useful in assisting mental health promotion and advocacy organisations to provide information about resources and support, raise awareness and counter common stigmatising attitudes. PMID:25374786

  14. Use of Twitter to monitor attitudes toward depression and schizophrenia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Reavley, Nicola J; Pilkington, Pamela D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The paper reports on an exploratory study of the usefulness of Twitter for unobtrusive assessment of stigmatizing attitudes in the community. Materials and Methods. Tweets with the hashtags #depression or #schizophrenia posted on Twitter during a 7-day period were collected. Tweets were categorised based on their content and user information and also on the extent to which they indicated a stigmatising attitude towards depression or schizophrenia (stigmatising, personal experience of stigma, supportive, neutral, or anti-stigma). Tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes or personal experiences of stigma were further grouped into the following subthemes: social distance, dangerousness, snap out of it, personal weakness, inaccurate beliefs, mocking or trivializing, and self-stigma. Results and Discussion. Tweets on depression mostly related to resources for consumers (34%), or advertised services or products for individuals with depression (20%). The majority of schizophrenia tweets aimed to increase awareness of schizophrenia (29%) or reported on research findings (22%). Tweets on depression were largely supportive (65%) or neutral (27%). A number of tweets were specifically anti-stigma (7%). Less than 1% of tweets reflected stigmatising attitudes (0.7%) or personal experience of stigma (0.1%). More than one third of the tweets which reflected stigmatising attitudes were mocking or trivialising towards individuals with depression (37%). The attitude that individuals with depression should "snap out of it" was evident in 30% of the stigmatising tweets. The majority of tweets relating to schizophrenia were categorised as supportive (42%) or neutral (43%). Almost 10% of tweets were explicitly anti-stigma. The percentage of tweets showing stigmatising attitudes was 5%, while less than 1% of tweets described personal experiences of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia. Of the tweets that indicated stigmatising attitudes, most reflected inaccurate beliefs about schizophrenia being multiple personality disorder (52%) or mocked or trivialised individuals with schizophrenia (33%). Conclusions. The study supports the use of analysis of Twitter content to unobtrusively measure attitudes towards mental illness, both supportive and stigmatising. The results of the study may be useful in assisting mental health promotion and advocacy organisations to provide information about resources and support, raise awareness and counter common stigmatising attitudes. PMID:25374786

  15. Correlations between attitude toward Christianity, prayer, and church attendance among 9- to 11-yr.-olds.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mandy; Babington, Peter; Francis, Leslie J

    2004-02-01

    Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer. PMID:15077782

  16. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

  17. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths. PMID:26297511

  18. Attitudes of Middle School Students: Learning Online Compared to Face to Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes

  19. The Relationship between University Students' Attitude to Listening to Music and Their Level of Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between university students' attitude to listening to music and their level of optimism. The study group for the research consists of 508 students who studied at Aksaray University in the 2012-13 academic year. Simple random sampling is used. In this study, the "Attitude Scale for…

  20. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: from the lab to the clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Terra, Vera C; Cysneiros, Roberta; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A

    2013-03-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is defined as sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, non-traumatic, and non-drowning death in a patient with epilepsy. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is probably the most common cause of epilepsy-related deaths. Many predisposing and initiating factors may coexist and contribute to SUDEP, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Cardiac and respiratory deregulation seems to have a major role in SUDEP. Here, we review several advances in understanding the mechanisms involved in SUDEP. PMID:23402930

  1. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.; Militano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups’ interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one’s culture mediated polyculturalism’s association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved. PMID:25530662

  2. Deaths and tumours among rotogravure printers exposed to toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, B G; Nise, G; Englander, V; Attewell, R; Skerfving, S; Möller, T

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of 1020 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene and employed for a minimum period of three months in eight plants during 1925-85 was studied. Air levels of toluene were available since 1943 in one plant and since 1969 in most. Based on these measurements and on present concentrations of toluene in blood and subcutaneous fat, the yearly average air levels in each plant were estimated. They reached a maximum of about 450 ppm in the 1940s and 1950s but were only about 30 ppm by the mid-1980s. Exposure to benzene had occurred up to the beginning of the 1960s. Compared with regional rates, total mortality did not increase during the observation period 1952-86 (129 observed deaths v 125 expected; SMR = 1.03). There was no increase in mortality from non-malignant diseases of the lungs, nervous system, or gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. There was no overall excess of tumours 1958-85 (68 v 54, SMR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.95-1.7). Among the specific cancers, only those of the respiratory tract were significantly increased (16 v 9; SMR = 1.76, CI = 1.03-2.9). Statistical significance was not attained, however, when only subjects with an exposure period of at least five years and a latency period of at least 10 years were considered. Further, there were no dose response relations with cumulated toluene dose (ppm years). There were no significant increases of tumours at other sites, including leukaemias/lymphomas/myelomas. PMID:2378814

  3. [Attitude to be taken with the adolescent requesting contraception].

    PubMed

    Wermelinger, R

    1983-05-01

    A combination of biological factors such as earlier age at puberty and fecundity, and social factors such as the disappearance of the extended family and of rites of passage and the development of a youth culture have encouraged adolescent sexuality at the same time that length of schooling is increasing and adolescents have not yet become socially autonomous. Adolescents employ contraception relatively infrequently and tend to choose less reliable methods. Reasons for this include ignorance of the biology of reproduction and of contraception methods; the fear of secondary effects, encouraged by the mass media; lack of access to family planning facilities or fear that parents will be informed; and the cost of contraceptives. An adolescent requesting contraception should be treated as a adult, taking into account the degree of maturity; the attitude of the medial practitioner will influence motivation and success in using the method. The medical history will indicate cases in which a hormonal contraceptive is contraindicated. The gynecological examination reveals the gynecological age of the patient, which is more important than chronological age. The frequency of sexual realtions should also be considered in the choice. Because motivation of adolescents is less reliable than that of adults, such methods as rhythm and withdrawal are not appropriate. Condoms or diaphragms are disliked because of the necessity of repeated manipulation before each act of intercourse, but may be acceptable to highly motivated individuals. Condoms are indicated when relations are unexpected and infrequent. IUDs are indicated only when hormonal contraceptives cannot be used and when forgetting of pills is likely to occur. Nevertheless, IUD use in adolescents can entail serious problems of expulsion or of infection that may lead to later infertility. Little is known of the effects of oral contraceptive use on sexual maturation and growth of very young adolescents, but because of the growth inhibiting effects of estrogens, they should not be prescribed earlier than 2 years postmenarche. Low dose pills should be chosen. Sequential pills are preferable for patients with irregular cycles. High doses of steroids administered within 48 hours should be available in cases of unprotected intercourse. Alternatively, an IUD may be inserted within 5 days. PMID:6878969

  4. Clinical islet isolation and transplantation outcomes with deceased cardiac death donors are similar to neurological determination of death donors.

    PubMed

    Andres, Axel; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Livingstone, Scott; Bigam, David; Kneteman, Norman; Senior, Peter; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-01-01

    In islet transplantation, deceased cardiac death (DCD) donation has been identified as a potential extended source. There are currently no studies comparing outcomes between these categories, and our goal was to compare islet isolation success rates and transplantation outcomes between DCD and neurological determination of death (NDD) donors. Islet isolations from 15 DCD and 418 NDD were performed in our centre between September 2008 and September 2014. Donor variables, islet yields, metabolic function of isolated isled and insulin requirements at 1-month post-transplant were compared. Compared to NDD, pancreata from DCD were more often procured locally and donors required less vasopressive support (P < 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively), but the other variables were similar between groups. Pre- and postpurification islet yields were similar between NDD and DCD (576 vs. 608 × 10(3) islet equivalent, P = 0.628 and 386 vs. 379, P = 0.881, respectively). The metabolic function was similar between NDD and DCD, as well as the mean decrease in insulin requirement at 1-month post-transplantation (NDD: 64.82%; DCD: 60.17% reduction, P = 0.517). These results support the broader use of DCD pancreata for islet isolation. A much larger DCD islet experience will be required to truly determine noninferiority of both short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:26264982

  5. How to Live? What We Can Learn from Ivan Ilych's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felps, Maryann

    2012-01-01

    Near the first of every school year, the author has the opportunity to talk to her students about death, usually in the midst of their study of "Beowulf" or "Gilgamesh." Occasionally, the discussion results from the recent news of the death of a public figure or, closer to home, a family member. Regardless of the circumstance, her students learn…

  6. Death Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Death Rates Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  7. Course of Near-hanging Victims Succumbed to Death: A Seven Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Mugadlimath, Anand B.; Zine, K.U.; Farooqui, Jamebaseer M.; Phalke, Balaji J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Near hanging refers to victims who survive a hanging injury following attempted hanging, long enough to reach hospital. Delayed deaths in near hanging patients are mostly due to complication of hanging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the demographics, mortality patterns and cause of delayed deaths in near hanging victims. Materials and Methods: In this study autopsy files over a seven year period from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed, and data of near hanging deaths (attempted hanging cases who succumbed to death and subjected for medicolegal autopsy) was extracted. Records of 14,000 autopsies was reviewed, and 10 deceased having died delayed deaths after near hanging episode were identified. In each case, the patients’ details, including gender, age, type of suspension, type of ligature material used for hanging and subsequent hanging mark produced were reviewed using autopsy reports and photographs taken during autopsy. Results: Demographic and pathological aspects of the each case discussed to throw light on autopsy findings in victims who died following near hanging. Complete suspension was present in 3 cases, while partial suspension was present in 7 cases. Survivals in delayed death after near hanging episode have ranged from 9 h to 72 d. Hypoxic encephalopathy was the most common cause of death, followed by pneumonia. Conclusion: Most of the near hanging patients did succumb to hypoxic encephalopathy; however, consolidation of lungs (pneumonia) was the next common cause of death reflecting need for aggressive oxygen therapy and selective resuscitation should be performed in all such cases. PMID:25954634

  8. Stigmatized Attitude of Healthcare Providers: A Barrier for Delivering Health Services to HIV Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Nooshin; Joulaei, Hassan; Darabi, Elahe; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the success of developed countries in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, the disease is expanding in developing countries where an unfavorable attitude exists among people, health professionals and employees. This study aimed to assess the stigmatized attitude among health care providers toward people living with HIV (PLWHA). Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire. The study sample included 575 health care providers of public and private hospitals in Shiraz. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire in spring 2014. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 21. Results: The most dominant attitude of the health care providers toward HIV/AIDS patients was related to fear (42.42%). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between stigmatized attitude of the health care providers and their religious beliefs, society stigmatized attitude, and knowledge of transmission routes. The relationship between social stigmatized attitude of health care providers and their knowledge of transmission routes, with their willingness to provide services to patients is significant, as well (P<0.05). 39.6% and 46.2% of the respondents preferred not to provide services to the prostitutes and homosexual patients. Conclusion: Fear of contamination and social stigmatized attitude are the main impediments to dealing with patients and providing services to them. Hence, it seems that creating an effective knowledge about transmission and correcting the socio-cultural beliefs of health providers are two key strategies to tackle this problem. PMID:26448956

  9. 38 CFR 3.800 - Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits under 38 U.S.C. chapter 39 (38 CFR 3.808), and if VA awards chapter 39 benefits after the date on... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disability or death due... Benefits § 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This section applies to claims...

  10. Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Austad, Kirsten E.; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%–100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%–69%) were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%–71%) were more likely than preclinical students (29%–62%) to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs. Conclusions Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism about negative implications of these interactions. These results support future research into the association between exposure and attitudes, as well as any modifiable factors that contribute to attitudinal changes during medical education. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21629685

  11. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  12. Sudden cardiac death in the young: the molecular autopsy and a practical approach to surviving relatives.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2015-06-01

    The sudden death of a young, apparently fit and healthy person is amongst the most challenging scenarios in clinical medicine. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a devastating and tragic outcome of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, genetic (inherited) cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged 40 years and less. This includes the primary arrhythmogenic disorders such as long QT syndromes and inherited cardiomyopathies, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In up to 30% of young SCD, no cause of death is identified at postmortem, so-called autopsy-negative or sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). Management of families following SCD begins with a concerted effort to identify the cause of death in the decedent, based on either premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at postmortem. Where no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from postmortem blood (the molecular autopsy) may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Irrespective of the genetic testing considerations, all families in which a sudden unexplained death has occurred require targeted and standardized clinical testing in an attempt to identify relatives who may be at-risk of having the same inherited heart disease and therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD. Optimal care of SCD families therefore requires dedicated and appropriately trained staff in the setting of a specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinic. PMID:25765769

  13. Trends in deaths related to drug misuse in England and Wales, 1993-2004.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver; Griffiths, Clare; Toson, Barbara; Rooney, Cleo; Majeed, Azeem; Hickman, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article we report trends in deaths related to drug misuse in England and Wales from 1993 to 2004, looking particularly at the period between 1999 and 2004, for which there was a Government target to reduce these deaths by 20 per cent. Although there was an overall decline in deaths related to drug misuse between 1999 and 2004, the percentage reduction, at 9 per cent, was less than the Government target. There was an increase in deaths between 2003 and 2004, largely accounted for by deaths involving heroin/methadone and morphine. Mortality rates were highest in young adults and an increase in mortality rates within this group appears to have been the driver behind rising mortality trends during the 1990s. PMID:16972692

  14. Development of an Attitude Scale to Assess K-12 Teachers' Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in…

  15. School District Policies for Response to Death-Related Crises: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenberry, Nola J.; Burns, John L.

    Findings of a literature review of school policies and procedures for school-based responses to death-related crises are presented in this paper. A rationale and guidelines for policy development and examples of practices for dealing with death-related incidents--such as suicide, homicide, drug overdose, and accidents--are described. Following an…

  16. From Embryo to Adult: Persistent Neurogenesis and Apoptotic Cell Death Shape the Lobster Deutocerebrum

    E-print Network

    Beltz, Barbara S.

    From Embryo to Adult: Persistent Neurogenesis and Apoptotic Cell Death Shape the Lobster of the American lobster Homarus americanus from early embryonic through larval and juvenile stages into adult life indicate that, in juvenile and adult lobsters, birth and death of olfactory interneurons occur in parallel

  17. What Residence Hall Staff Need to Know about Dealing with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bonita; Towns, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Emphasizes the responsibility for residence hall staff to understand the grief process. An adaptation of Kubler-Ross's stages of death has produced helpful techniques for successfully accepting the death. Through understanding these principles, staff can become aware of the grief process and can assist residents. (JAC)

  18. Franklin County, Ohio Deceased Child Review System. Working To Eliminate Preventable Child Deaths. 1992 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirner, Pamela; Griggs, Harry

    In 1988, Franklin County (Ohio) Children Services (FCCS) initiated the development of a bi-level, community-based, multi-disciplinary process to review all deaths of children in its open caseload, as well as child deaths in families with which FCCS had contact in the previous 12 months. This report examines the work of the Deceased Child Review…

  19. Programmed cell death: From novel gene discovery to studies on network connectivity and emerging biomedical implications

    E-print Network

    Kimchi, Adi

    Programmed cell death: From novel gene discovery to studies on network connectivity and emerging process in mammals, we hypothesized many years ago that the molecular basis of programmed cell death may, topology and performance of molecular networks moving from the initial gene discovery stage towards global

  20. Death and Dying: Staying in Control to the End of Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Tish; And Others

    This "gray paper" addresses the concerns of older women regarding their control over death and dying. It is based on the observation that older women are devalued by society on account of both their age and gender, and hence are likely to be impoverished and vulnerable as they approach death. The paper begins by examining the legal, ethical, and…

  1. Use of hair testing to determine methadone exposure in pediatric deaths.

    PubMed

    Tournel, Gilles; Pollard, Jocelyn; Humbert, Luc; Wiart, Jean-François; Hédouin, Valéry; Allorge, Delphine

    2014-09-01

    A case of death attributed to methadone acute poisoning in an infant aged 11 months is reported. A sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was suspected, whereas a traumatic cause of death was excluded regarding autopsy findings. Specimens were submitted to a large toxicological analysis, which included ethanol measurement by HS-GC-FID, a targeted screening for drugs of abuse and various prescription drug classes followed by quantification using UPLC-MS/MS methods. Methadone and its metabolite (EDDP) were detected in all the tested fluids, as well as in hair, with a blood concentration of methadone considered as lethal for children (73 ng/mL). The cause of death was determined to be acute "methadone poisoning", and the manner of death was "accidental". A discussion of the case circumstances, the difficulties with the interpretation of toxicological findings in children (blood concentration and hair testing), and the origin of exposure are discussed. PMID:24588273

  2. Sudden Infant Death With Area Postrema Lesion Likely Due to Wrong Use of Insecticide.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Cappiello, Achille; Termopoli, Veronica; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    We report a noteworthy case of a 7-month-old infant who suddenly and unexpectedly died during her sleep. After a complete postmortem examination, review of the clinical history, and detailed death scene investigation, the death remained unexplained, leading to a diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome. However, an extensive review of the brainstem neuropathology revealed a severe alteration in the area postrema (a highly vascular structure lying at the base of the fourth ventricle outside of the blood-brain barrier). The alteration was likely due to massive and repeated to a common household insecticide in the last few weeks of life. These results provide an explanation for this sudden infant death, allowing a differential diagnosis from sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:26371202

  3. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  4. NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice

    PubMed Central

    Kymre, Ingjerd G.

    2014-01-01

    This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

  5. Teachers' Silences about Racist Attitudes and Students' Desires to Address These Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke; Öhrn, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we use ethnographic data to explore school-based perceptions of racism. We draw on the findings of a one-year study conducted in two upper secondary classes in a Swedish school. The starting point of the analysis was student discussions of racism in the school and the surrounding neighbourhood, which prompted an examination of…

  6. Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families. PMID:25615441

  7. Individualism and the Emerging "Modern" Ideology of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearl, Michael C.; Harris, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Begins with a theoretical elaboration of individualism. Argues its development is associated with an emergent death ideology emphasizing personal control. In two national samples attitudes toward suicide, abortion and the right to die scaled unidimensionally. Results indicated indices of individualism were the best predictors of position on this…

  8. Developing attitude to science education scales for use with primary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Anthony; Jarvis, Tina

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the development of attitudes to science and science teaching scales for primary teachers. The investigation is part of a project intended to improve pupil achievement in science in 16 English city schools. The baseline performance of the attitude scales is reported with 76 teachers, half of whom formed a control group. The 49-item attitudes to science teaching scale of Cronbach-alpha reliability 0.96 has sub-scales of practical science teaching and professionalism. The project teachers were less confident of teaching science than teaching the English language. They particularly lacked confidence in teaching physical processes, 'guided discovery' investigations and planning lessons within the National Curriculum as required in English schools. Attitude findings suggest appropriately focused in-service might be successful. Being a promoted teacher with some subject or administrative responsibility tends to lower certain attitudes to effective science teaching. This 'regression upon promotion effect' is speculated to be a consequence of the demands of the English school National Curriculum.

  9. Are healthcare workers’ intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers’ knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage. The aim of the study was to compile and analyze the areas of disagreement in the existing evidence about the relationship between healthcare workers’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate the populations they serve. Methods We conducted a systematic search in four electronic databases for studies published in any of seven different languages between February 1998 and June 2009. We included studies conducted in developed countries that used statistical methods to relate or associate the variables included in our research question. Two independent reviewers verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality of the studies and extracted their relevant characteristics. The data were descriptively analyzed. Results Of the 2354 references identified in the initial search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The diversity in the study designs and in the methods used to measure the variables made it impossible to integrate the results, and each study had to be assessed individually. All the studies found an association in the direction postulated by the SIEVE experts: among healthcare workers, higher awareness, beliefs that are more aligned with scientific evidence and more favorable attitudes toward vaccination were associated with greater intentions to vaccinate. All the studies included were cross-sectional; thus, no causal relationship between the variables was established. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions aimed at improving healthcare workers’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines should be encouraged, and their impact on vaccination coverage should be assessed. PMID:23421987

  10. Students' Attitudes Toward Cancer: Changes in Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Harold B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Considered were attitudes toward (1) the patient's inner resources to cope with a serious illness such as cancer, (2) the value of early diagnosis, and (3) the value of aggressive treatment, as well as the belief in immortality and preparation for and acceptance of death. Changes occurred throughout medical school, especially during the clinical…

  11. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  12. Hospice Attitudes of Physicians and Nurses: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bakanic, Von; Singleton, Margaret; Dickinson, George E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge the attitudes of internal medicine (IM) physicians and hospice nurses on the hospice programs in a Southeastern US county. A postal survey sought views on the following issues: (1) the level of control that hospice affords dying patients; (2) health care professionals' education and communication involving the dying process; (3) the hospice referral process; (4) characteristics of a "good death"; and (5) gender versus professional role regarding hospice attitudes. The data revealed that occupational role in hospice care has a more significant function in the development of cognitive attitudes than of gender regarding hospice programs and that professional education needs more emphasis on the study of end-of-life issues, as well as open communication between health care professionals and patients during the dying process. Physicians were less likely than nurses to agree that patient control was important. Additionally, what constitutes a good death was similar to previous studies. PMID:25253769

  13. Four aspects of self-image close to death at home

    PubMed Central

    Carlander, Ida; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Sahlberg-Blom, Eva; Hellström, Ingrid; Sandberg, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Living close to death means an inevitable confrontation with one's own existential limitation. In this article, we argue that everyday life close to death embodies an identity work in progress. We used a narrative approach and a holistic-content reading to analyze 12 interviews conducted with three persons close to death. By illuminating the unique stories and identifying patterns among the participants’ narratives, we found four themes exemplifying important aspects of the identity work related to everyday life close to death. Two of the themes, named “Inside and outside of me” and “Searching for togetherness,” represented the core of the self-image and were framed by the other themes, “My place in space” and “My death and my time.” Our findings elucidate the way the individual stories moved between the past, the present, and the future. This study challenges the idea that everyday life close to impending death primarily means limitations. The findings show that the search for meaning, new knowledge, and community can form a part of a conscious and ongoing identity work close to death. PMID:21526139

  14. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit: Application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  15. "I shall love you up to the death" (Marie-Antoinette to Axel von Fersen)

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    "I shall love you up to the death" (Marie-Antoinette to Axel von Fersen) Jacques Patarin1 , Val the encryption algorithm used by the Queen of France, Marie- Antoinette, to send letters to Axel von Fersen for Fersen. Finally, we mention some open questions about Marie-Antoinette's correspondence with Axel von

  16. Children and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.

    Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child…

  17. Complexities in reproductive choice: medical professionals' attitudes to and experiences of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2007-09-01

    Studies have been made on attitudes to and experiences of women and men who have undergone pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), or who are regarded as potential users of this diagnostic method. Few studies have been conducted regarding the attitudes to and experiences of medical professionals as regards PGD. This paper reports on findings from such a qualitative study in which 18 semi-structured interviews were performed with geneticists and gynaecologists in Italy, Sweden and the UK. Interviewees emphasized, among other things, the importance of choice provision. Interviewees also told stories that indicated the many ways through which choice was feared to be hampered - or was hampered. A similar emphasis on the importance of PGD as one more alternative to choose between, for 'high-risk' couples, is not found in studies on the experiences, attitudes and views of potential, or actual, users of PGD. PMID:17786649

  18. Parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, as well as for future research. PMID:23182779

  19. Conception of Death and Immortality in the English Monodies From 1485 to 1784

    E-print Network

    Garvey, Annabel Alexander

    1914-06-01

    stream_size 106987 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Garvey_Conception_of_Death_and_Immortality_In_The_English_Monodies_From_1485_to_1784.pdf.txt stream_source_info Garvey_Conception_of_Death_and_Immortality..._In_The_English_Monodies_From_1485_to_1784.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 CONCEPTION OF DEATH At® IMMORTALITY IN THE ENGLISH MONODIES FROM 1465 TO 1784. A thesis submitted to the Department of English of the University...

  20. Validation of a survey tool to assess the patient safety attitudes of pharmacy students

    PubMed Central

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; Carter, Stephen R; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient safety education is a key strategy to minimise harm, and is increasingly being introduced into junior pharmacy curricula. However, currently there is no valid and reliable survey tool to measure the patient safety attitudes of pharmacy students. This study aimed to validate a modified survey tool, originally developed by Madigosky et al, to evaluate patient safety attitudes of junior pharmacy students. Design A 23-item cross-sectional patient safety survey tool was utilised to evaluate first and second year pharmacy students’ attitudes during May 2013 with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses performed to understand the psychometric properties of the survey tool and to establish construct validity. Setting Undergraduate university students in Sydney, Australia Participants 245 first year and 201 second year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy Programme at The University of Sydney, Australia in May 2013. Results After exploratory factor analysis on first year student responses (55.76% variance explained) and confirmatory factor analysis on second year responses, a 5-factor model consisting of 14 items was obtained with satisfactory model fit (?2 (66)=112.83, p<0.001, RMSEA=0.06, CFI=0.91) and nesting between year groups (??2(7)=3.079, p=0.878). The five factors measured students’ attitudes towards: (1) being quality improvement focused, (2) internalising errors regardless of harm, (3) value of contextual learning, (4) acceptability of questioning more senior healthcare professionals’ behaviour and (5) attitude towards open disclosure. Conclusions This study has established the reliability and validity of a modified survey tool to evaluate patient safety attitudes of pharmacy students, with the potential for use in course development and evaluation. PMID:26359285

  1. Spatial ability, motivation, and attitude of students as related to science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Judy Ann

    Understanding student achievement in science is important as there is an increasing reliance of the U.S. economy on math-, science-, and technology-related fields despite the declining number of youth seeking college degrees and careers in math and science. A series of structural equation models were tested using the scores from a statewide science exam for 276 students from a suburban north Texas public school district at the end of their 5th grade year and the latent variables of spatial ability, motivation to learn science and science-related attitude. Spatial ability was tested as a mediating variable on motivation and attitude; however, while spatial ability had statistically significant regression coefficients with motivation and attitude, spatial ability was found to be the sole statistically significant predictor of science achievement for these students explaining 23.1% of the variance in science scores.

  2. Time to Death and Associated Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in Dangila Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birlie, Abayneh; Tesfaw, Getnet; Dejene, Tariku; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 70% of the deaths of TB patients occur during the first two months of TB treatment. The major risk factors that increase early death of TB patients are being positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), being of old age, being underweight or undergoing re-treatment. Objective To assess the time of reported deaths and associated factors in a cohort of patients with TB during TB treatment. Methods An institution-based retrospective cohort study was analyzed in Dangila Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia from March 1st through March 30, 2014. All TB patients registered in the direct observed treatment (DOTs) clinic from 2008–2012 were included in the study. Data were entered into EpiData and exported to SPSS for analysis. The survival probability was analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox regression analysis was applied to investigate factors associated with death during TB treatment. Results From a total of 872 cases registered in TB registry log book, 810 were used for the analysis of which 60 (7.4%) died during the treatment. The overall mortality rate was 12.8/1000 person months of observation. A majority of TB deaths 34 (56.7%) occurred during the intensive phase of the treatment, and the median time of death was at two months of the treatment. Age, HIV status and baseline body weight were independent predictors of death during TB treatment. Conclusions Most deaths occurred in the first two months of TB treatment. Old age, TB/HIV co-infection and a baseline body weight of <35 kg increased the mortality during TB treatment. Therefore, a special follow up of TB patients during the intensive phase, of older patients and of TB/HIV co-infected cases, as well as nutritionally supplementing for underweight patients may be important to consider as interventions to reduce deaths during TB treatment. PMID:26669737

  3. Cerebellar Purkinje cell vulnerability to prenatal nicotine exposure in sudden unexplained perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Corna, Melissa F; Repetti, Maria L; Matturri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at supplementing our previous investigations on the morphological features of the Purkinje cells during the autonomic nervous system development, particularly in victims of sudden perinatal death (Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome), given their crucial role in determining connectivity patterns in the brain as well as in the control of autonomic functions. We highlighted in these pathologies, and precisely in 21 cases of sudden foetal death and 26 cases of sudden infant death, a high percentage of developmental defects of the Purkinje cells such as heterotopia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, mitotic and/or shrunken features and abnormal neuronal nuclear antigen expression. These alterations can be interpreted as a result of a defective maturation and/or migration of Purkinje cells in foetal cerebellum, likely consequence of exposure to injuries, particularly to maternal cigarette smoke. Interestingly, we observed in sudden perinatal deaths an association with similar developmental defects of both the dentate and the inferior olivary nuclei. This suggests the existence of a Purkinje-Olivo-Dentate network playing a fundamental role in triggering a sudden death mechanism in perinatal life in the presence of specific risk factors. PMID:24374957

  4. FROM BIAS TO BISEXUAL HEALTH DISPARITIES: ATTITUDES TOWARD BISEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M. Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PUROPSE A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed “biphobia.” However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. METHODS Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values <.05); bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their straight counterparts (all p-values <.001); and bisexual respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their lesbian/gay counterparts (all p-values <.05). Within racial/ethnic minority respondents, biracial/multiracial status was associated with lower bi-negativity scores (all p-values <.05). CONCLUSION This study provides important quantitative support for theories related to biphobia and double discrimination. Our findings provide strong evidence for understanding how stereotypes and stigma may lead to dramatic disparities in depression, anxiety, stress, and other health outcomes among bisexual individuals in comparison to their heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women. PMID:25568885

  5. Verbal Autopsy: Evaluation of Methods to Certify Causes of Death in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Filler, Scott; Katureebe, Agaba; Quick, Linda; Chandramohan, Daniel; Staedke, Sarah G

    2015-01-01

    To assess different methods for determining cause of death from verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire data, the intra-rater reliability of Physician-Certified Verbal Autopsy (PCVA) and the accuracy of PCVA, expert-derived (non-hierarchical) and data-driven (hierarchal) algorithms were assessed for determining common causes of death in Ugandan children. A verbal autopsy validation study was conducted from 2008-2009 in three different sites in Uganda. The dataset included 104 neonatal deaths (0-27 days) and 615 childhood deaths (1-59 months) with the cause(s) of death classified by PCVA and physician review of hospital medical records (the 'reference standard'). Of the original 719 questionnaires, 141 (20%) were selected for a second review by the same physicians; the repeat cause(s) of death were compared to the original,and agreement assessed using the Kappa statistic.Physician reviewers' refined non-hierarchical algorithms for common causes of death from existing expert algorithms, from which, hierarchal algorithms were developed. The accuracy of PCVA, non-hierarchical, and hierarchical algorithms for determining cause(s) of death from all 719 VA questionnaires was determined using the reference standard. Overall, intra-rater repeatability was high (83% agreement, Kappa 0.79 [95% CI 0.76-0.82]). PCVA performed well, with high specificity for determining cause of neonatal (>67%), and childhood (>83%) deaths, resulting in fairly accurate cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) estimates. For most causes of death in children, non-hierarchical algorithms had higher sensitivity, but correspondingly lower specificity, than PCVA and hierarchical algorithms, resulting in inaccurate CSMF estimates. Hierarchical algorithms were specific for most causes of death, and CSMF estimates were comparable to the reference standard and PCVA. Inter-rater reliability of PCVA was high, and overall PCVA performed well. Hierarchical algorithms performed better than non-hierarchical algorithms due to higher specificity and more accurate CSMF estimates. Use of PCVA to determine cause of death from VA questionnaire data is reasonable while automated data-driven algorithms are improved. PMID:26086600

  6. Verbal Autopsy: Evaluation of Methods to Certify Causes of Death in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Filler, Scott; Katureebe, Agaba; Quick, Linda; Chandramohan, Daniel; Staedke, Sarah G.

    2015-01-01

    To assess different methods for determining cause of death from verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire data, the intra-rater reliability of Physician-Certified Verbal Autopsy (PCVA) and the accuracy of PCVA, expert-derived (non-hierarchical) and data-driven (hierarchal) algorithms were assessed for determining common causes of death in Ugandan children. A verbal autopsy validation study was conducted from 2008-2009 in three different sites in Uganda. The dataset included 104 neonatal deaths (0-27 days) and 615 childhood deaths (1-59 months) with the cause(s) of death classified by PCVA and physician review of hospital medical records (the ‘reference standard’). Of the original 719 questionnaires, 141 (20%) were selected for a second review by the same physicians; the repeat cause(s) of death were compared to the original,and agreement assessed using the Kappa statistic.Physician reviewers’ refined non-hierarchical algorithms for common causes of death from existing expert algorithms, from which, hierarchal algorithms were developed. The accuracy of PCVA, non-hierarchical, and hierarchical algorithms for determining cause(s) of death from all 719 VA questionnaires was determined using the reference standard. Overall, intra-rater repeatability was high (83% agreement, Kappa 0.79 [95% CI 0.76-0.82]). PCVA performed well, with high specificity for determining cause of neonatal (>67%), and childhood (>83%) deaths, resulting in fairly accurate cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) estimates. For most causes of death in children, non-hierarchical algorithms had higher sensitivity, but correspondingly lower specificity, than PCVA and hierarchical algorithms, resulting in inaccurate CSMF estimates. Hierarchical algorithms were specific for most causes of death, and CSMF estimates were comparable to the reference standard and PCVA. Inter-rater reliability of PCVA was high, and overall PCVA performed well. Hierarchical algorithms performed better than non-hierarchical algorithms due to higher specificity and more accurate CSMF estimates. Use of PCVA to determine cause of death from VA questionnaire data is reasonable while automated data-driven algorithms are improved. PMID:26086600

  7. The effect of exposure to a condom script on attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Kyes, K B; Brown, I S; Pollack, R H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of reading an erotic script that described condom placement on attitudes toward condom use was investigated in 102 male and 108 female US university students. It was hypothesized that, when integrated into an erotic script, condom use would become viewed as a pleasurable activity rather than just a means of avoiding pregnancy or disease. Controls received identical scripts except that the use of condoms was omitted or received no stories. Subjects who read the erotic accounts exhibited a positive change from pretest to posttest in attitudes toward condom use, but there was no difference in this outcome between condom story and no-condom erotic story conditions. In women, but not men, a high level of arousal induced by the script was associated with negative attitudes toward condoms, suggesting that males and females may require different reading materials. Given the finding, at least in women, of an inverse relationship between explicit eroticism/sexual arousal and condom attitude scores, a 2nd experiment involving less explicit stories written by college students was conducted. Here, 100 men and 100 women students received erotic stories that either featured or did not include condom use. Again, males who read stories incorporating condom placement held more positive attitudes toward condom use than same-sex controls, but women were not affected by the manipulation. For women, a positive attitude toward condom use was associated only with history of sexual activity. Helpful would be the preparation of erotic scripts that appeal to both sexes given the demonstrated effectiveness of this social learning technique with the male subjects in both experiments. PMID:12317687

  8. A Cross-National Investigation of University Students' Complaining Behaviour and Attitudes to Complaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Graham; Phau, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how students from Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia differ in their propensity to complain and attitudes to complaining. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire was designed using established scales to assess respondent reactions to a service failure by a university. The…

  9. Fitting Birth-Death Processes to Panel Data with Applications to Bacterial DNA Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Charles R.; Suchard, Marc A.; Holmes, Ian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-time linear birth–death-immigration (BDI) processes are frequently used in ecology and epidemiology to model stochastic dynamics of the population of interest. In clinical settings, multiple birth–death processes can describe disease trajectories of individual patients, allowing for estimation of the effects of individual covariates on the birth and death rates of the process. Such estimation is usually accomplished by analyzing patient data collected at unevenly spaced time points, referred to as panel data in the biostatistics literature. Fitting linear BDI processes to panel data is a nontrivial optimization problem because birth and death rates can be functions of many parameters related to the covariates of interest. We propose a novel expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm for fitting linear BDI models with covariates to panel data. We derive a closed-form expression for the joint generating function of some of the BDI process statistics and use this generating function to reduce the E-step of the EM algorithm, as well as calculation of the Fisher information, to one-dimensional integration. This analytical technique yields a computationally efficient and robust optimization algorithm that we implemented in an open-source R package. We apply our method to DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, to study intrapatient time evolution of IS6110 copy number, a genetic marker frequently used during estimation of epidemiological clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Our analysis reveals previously undocumented differences in IS6110 birth–death rates among three major lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has important implications for epidemiologists that use IS6110 for DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. Deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia from 2001 to 2005: what can we learn from additional information?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Deaths from childhood injury are a public health problem worldwide. A relatively high proportion of child deaths of undetermined manner in Estonia raises concerns about potential underestimation of intentional deaths, especially in infants. This suggests that more information on the circumstances surrounding death is needed to establish the manner of death correctly and, more importantly, to prevent these deaths. The objective of this study was to detect, describe, and analyze the circumstances around deaths of infants subject to forensic autopsy in Estonia to reveal hidden cases of child abuse and more accurately determine causes of death. Methods Study cases included all infant deaths in Estonia from 2001 to 2005 subject to forensic autopsy at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Additional information was obtained from a series of visits to general practitioners, including characteristics of infant health, family composition, parents' education and employment, living conditions, and circumstances around death as perceived by medical staff in charge of outpatient services for these families. Results The total number of infant deaths in Estonia between 2001 and 2005 subject to forensic autopsy was 98, with 40 (40.8%) deaths attributed to a disease and 58 deaths (59.2%) resulting from injury. Elements of child abuse were involved in as many as 57.7% (95% CI 46.9-68.1) of the deaths for which medical records were available (n = 90). At death, the majority of these cases were registered as diseases or deaths from unintentional injury. Average annual mortality from external causes in Estonian infants, 2001-2005, previously reported by us as 88.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 68.1-113.6) would decrease to 41.0 (95% CI 26.9-57.8). Many infants in the studied group had faced multiple threats and were living in poor hygienic conditions. In a number of cases, they were left alone or looked after by older siblings. Parents' alcohol abuse played an important role in a considerable number of cases. Conclusions Using additional sources of information revealed new information about child abuse not reflected in the cause of death diagnosis. Effective interventions aimed at parent education and improved follow-up of children by medical staff may reduce mortality from external causes among Estonian infants by more than half. PMID:20923565

  11. Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yuko; Hagihara, Akihito; Kobori, Eiko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    Background Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. Methods Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily participated in in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed by grounded theory. Results Of the 87 uninformed participants at the time of hospitalization, 67% (N = 59) died without being informed of their diagnosis. All were male, 51–66 years of age, and all experienced five psychological stages: anxiety and puzzlement, suspicion and denial, certainty, preparation, and acceptance. At the end of each stage, obvious and severe feelings were observed, which were called "gates." During the final acceptance stage, patients spent a peaceful time with family, even talking about their dreams with family members. Conclusion Unlike in other studies, the uninformed patients in this study accepted death peacefully, with no exceptional cases. Despite several limitations, this study showed that almost 70% of the uninformed terminal cancer patients at hospitalization died without being informed, suggesting an urgent need for culturally specific and effective terminal care services for cancer patients in Japan. PMID:16948863

  12. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCHS Data Brief Number 125, July 2013 How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in ... citation Kochanek KD, Arias E, Anderson RN. How did cause of death contribute to racial differences in ...

  13. 75 FR 11899 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License...the following individual Customs broker licenses and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the...

  14. 76 FR 44033 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License...the following individual Customs broker licenses and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the...

  15. 76 FR 22912 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License...the following individual Customs broker licenses and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the...

  16. 76 FR 2918 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License...the following individual Customs broker license and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the...

  17. 77 FR 16249 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License...the following individual Customs broker licenses and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the...

  18. 78 FR 48456 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder...Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Customs broker license cancellation due to death of the...

  19. 77 FR 45648 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License...the following individual Customs broker licenses and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the...

  20. Autoerotic asphyxial deaths: analysis of nineteen fatalities in Alberta, 1978 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Tough, S C; Butt, J C; Sanders, G L

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents an unusual form of sexual (masturbatory) activity and brings this unusual cause of death to wider medical attention and understanding. All 19 cases of autoerotic asphyxial death that occurred between 1978 and 1989 in the province of Alberta, Canada were reviewed. The fatal victim of autoerotic asphyxia is typically a single male aged 15 to 29 years. Autoerotic sexual activity is typically performed in isolation; often there is evidence of repetitive practice. The accidental death usually results when the "safety" mechanism designed to alleviate neck compression fails. Often the first sign of the activity (usually a surprise to family and friends) is death itself. Physicians who are alert to the practice may suggest counselling when patients present with sexual concerns, unusual marks around the neck or evidence of abrasions to limbs suggesting bondage or other masochistic practices. PMID:8033021

  1. Fear, ambivalence, and liminality: key concepts in refusal to donate an organ after brain death.

    PubMed

    Rassin, Michal; Lowenthal, Miri; Silner, Dina

    2005-01-01

    The refusal to donate an organ is a phenomenon in need of exploration and explanation. This article refers to the major fear of becoming an organ donor in relation to a global culture perspective and to the Halacha (Jewish law). A theoretical critique about the ambivalence demonstrated by health care providers and families will discuss these concepts in relation to brain death, from the stages of hospitalization, through the period prior to the assertion of brain death, ending with brain death, and its perspective as a liminal situation.Finally, we conclude that nursing practices during the care of the "brain dead" patient, and toward the patient's family, should convey an unequivocal message. That is, brain death describes irreversible cessation of all brain function, and therefore, the patient becomes a dead body and can be treated as a potential organ donor. PMID:16148573

  2. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  3. Effect of Principals' Leadership Style on Teachers' Attitude to Work in Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbesan, Sunday O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate why some principals prefer to embrace certain leadership styles and the effect of such styles on the teachers' attitude to work. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of teachers and principals from the secondary schools in Abeokuta…

  4. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  5. Attitudes toward Older People and Coworkers' Intention to Work with Older Employees: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N = 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived…

  6. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  7. Measuring Attitudes Toward Animal Life: A Technical Report to American Humane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vockell, Edward

    This paper evaluates two measurement instruments with regard to their ability to measure children's and young people's attitudes toward animals. The instruments are the Fireman Test (in which children are asked to identify those few animals and/or material possessions which a fireman should try to save during a fire) and the Good Ideas and Bad…

  8. Development of an Instrument to Assess Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sharon R.; Silverman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to develop an instrument to assess fourth and fifth grade students' attitudes toward physical education. The methods for validation included (a) an elicitation study and instrument question development, (b) a pilot study, and (c) a series of analyses to assess, construct, and content validity and to

  9. Teacher Adherence and Its Relation to Teacher Attitudes and Student Outcomes in an Elementary School-Based Violence Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Fonagy, Peter; Dill, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined variability in teachers' reported adherence to a school-based violence prevention program, Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, and investigated the relations of teacher adherence to teachers' attitudes related to the intervention and students' attitudes about and responses to bullying. The results provide evidence…

  10. An Analogous Study of Children's Attitudes Toward School in an Open Classroom Environment as Opposed to a Conventional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeli, Doris Conti

    A study sought to determine whether intermediate age children exposed to open classroom teaching strategy have a more positive attitude toward school than intermediate age children exposed to conventional teaching strategy. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The study was limited to

  11. Gene Patents robert cook-deegan, "Gene Patents," in From Birth to Death and Bench

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Dan

    cHAPtEr 15 Gene Patents robert cook-deegan, "Gene Patents," in From Birth to Death and Bench from Birth to death and Bench to clinic #12;Gene pATenTS 69 gene patents n There are 3,000­5,000 U.S. patents on human genes and 47,000 on inventions involving genetic material. n Gene patenting is unethical

  12. Patients' Choices for Return of Exome Sequencing Results to Relatives in the Event of Their Death.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Laura M; Horike-Pyne, Martha; Trinidad, Susan B; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Evans, Barbara J; Burke, Wylie; Jarvik, Gail P

    2015-09-01

    The informed consent process for genetic testing does not commonly address preferences regarding disclosure of results in the event of the patient's death. Adults being tested for familial colorectal cancer were asked whether they want their exome sequencing results disclosed to another person in the event of their death prior to receiving the results. Of 78 participants, 92% designated an individual and 8% declined to. Further research will help refine practices for informed consent. PMID:26479557

  13. Affirming Life in the Face of Death: Ricoeur's Living Up to Death as a modern ars moriendi and a lesson for palliative care.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Ds Frits

    2014-11-01

    In his posthumously published Living Up to Death Paul Ricoeur left an impressive testimony on what it means to live at a high old age with death approaching. In this article I present him as a teacher who reminds us of valuable lessons taught by patients in palliative care and their caretakers who accompany them on their way to death, and also as a guide in our search for a modern ars moriendi, after--what many at least experience as--the breakdown of traditional religious belief in a personal afterlife. These lessons can be summarized in the following theses. 'Living up to death, one cannot experience one's own death. Therefore, never consider someone dying as moribund'. 'Though everybody is alone in dying, nobody should die alone.' 'The preparation for death is an affirmation of life'. 'Life experienced as a gift can be given up'. The plausibility of the last thesis, however, may go beyond the confines of austere philosophical thinking. PMID:25273333

  14. A household study to determine attitudes and beliefs related to organ transplantation and donation: a pilot study in Yapracik Village, Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Colak, M; Ersoy, K; Haberal, M; Gürdamar, D; Gerçek, O

    2008-01-01

    Rural areas display adverse attitudes toward organ donation. Through a population-based cross-sectional study of people 18 years of age or older in the rural area of Ankara, Yapracik Village, Turkey, we identified the attitudes and beliefs of people related to organ transplantation and organ donation. The research universe included 87 people in 75 households. The research instrument was a questionnaire. None of the respondents had been involved in organ donation. The percentage of willingness to donate an organ was 47% which was significantly associated with younger age, including 34.4% who expressed willingness while alive. Twenty-five percent believed that their religion is adverse to transplantation, 28% thought it would create pain in death, 20% were afraid, and 83% believed in life afterwards, 15% said that their custom and usage were adverse to organ donation, 50% stated that they can accept organ donation from other races, and 65% stated that they can request organs from their friends. Eighty percent thought that organ donation is a gift given to a human; 34% of them stated that they can be a donor while they are alive. Fifty-four percent of respondents stated that they wanted to get information about organ donation and transplantation. Therefore basic educational campaigns targeting the increase of knowledge about organ donation are warranted in the rural population. There is a need to increase awareness about organ donation and transplantation. Findings like those in this study will help campaigns conducted for organ donation. PMID:18261539

  15. Advantages of estimating rate corrections during dynamic propagation of spacecraft rates: Applications to real-time attitude determination of SAMPEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challa, M. S.; Natanson, G. A.; Baker, D. F.; Deutschmann, J. K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes real-time attitude determination results for the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), a gyroless spacecraft, using a Kalman filter/Euler equation approach denoted the real-time sequential filter (RTSF). The RTSF is an extended Kalman filter whose state vector includes the attitude quaternion and corrections to the rates, which are modeled as Markov processes with small time constants. The rate corrections impart a significant robustness to the RTSF against errors in modeling the environmental and control torques, as well as errors in the initial attitude and rates, while maintaining a small state vector. SAMPLEX flight data from various mission phases are used to demonstrate the robustness of the RTSF against a priori attitude and rate errors of up to 90 deg and 0.5 deg/sec, respectively, as well as a sensitivity of 0.0003 deg/sec in estimating rate corrections in torque computations. In contrast, it is shown that the RTSF attitude estimates without the rate corrections can degrade rapidly. RTSF advantages over single-frame attitude determination algorithms are also demonstrated through (1) substantial improvements in attitude solutions during sun-magnetic field coalignment and (2) magnetic-field-only attitude and rate estimation during the spacecraft's sun-acquisition mode. A robust magnetometer-only attitude-and-rate determination method is also developed to provide for the contingency when both sun data as well as a priori knowledge of the spacecraft state are unavailable. This method includes a deterministic algorithm used to initialize the RTSF with coarse estimates of the spacecraft attitude and rates. The combined algorithm has been found effective, yielding accuracies of 1.5 deg in attitude and 0.01 deg/sec in the rates and convergence times as little as 400 sec.

  16. CELL DEATH IN RAT AND MOUSE EMBRYOS EXPOSED TO METHANOL IN WHOLEEMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanol induces developmental toxicity in rats and mice producing exencephaly, cleft palate, cervical ribs, sternebral defects, reduced body weight, and increased embryo/fetal death. xposure to methanol in whole embryo culture also induces developmental retardation, dysmorphogen...

  17. Increased Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes from Alzheimer Patients Correlates with Dementia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Daniela P.; Salech, Felipe; SanMartin, Carol D.; Silva, Monica; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Henriquez, Mauricio; Quest, Andrew F.; Behrens, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on enhanced susceptibility to death of lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and an increased resistance to death in those of patients with a history of skin cancer. This is consistent with our hypothesis proposing that the cellular machinery controlling cell death is deregulated in opposite directions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer, to explain the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies. Here we investigated whether the observed increased susceptibility correlates with the degree of dementia severity. Peripheral lymphocytes from 23 AD patients, classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) into severe dementia (CDR 3, n=10) and mild-to-moderate dementia (CDR 1–2, n=13), and 15 healthy controls (HC) (CDR 0), were exposed to H2O2 for 20 hours. Lymphocyte death was determined by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. The greatest susceptibility to H2O2-induced death was observed for lymphocytes from severe dementia patients, whereas those with mild-to-moderate dementia exhibited intermediate values, compared to healthy controls. A significant increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio was found in AD patients. Poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition significantly protected from H2O2-induced death of lymphocytes, whereby a lower degree of protection was observed in severe AD patients. Moreover, inhibition of PARP-1 abolished the differences in apoptosis/necrosis ratios observed between the three groups of patients. These results support the notion that AD is a systemic disorder, whereby enhanced susceptibility to H2O2-induced death in peripheral lymphocytes correlates with dementia severity and enhanced death in AD patients is attributable to a PARP-dependent increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio. PMID:25274115

  18. Factors Related to Play Therapists' Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in…

  19. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  20. The Application of an Unfolding Model of the PIRT Type to the Measurement of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    1988-01-01

    A simple probabilistic model for unfolding data collected by a direct response design in which responses were scored dichotomously was applied to the measurement of attitudes toward capital punishment. Responses conformed to the unfolding mechanism. Scale values of the statements were statistically equivalent to those of Thurstone's methods. (SLD)

  1. Reactions of First-Year Men to a Rape Prevention Program: Attitude and Predicted Behavior Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Donahue, Greg A.

    2006-01-01

    First-year men (261) saw a rape prevention program and were asked to give their reactions to what they saw by answering four open-ended questions, requesting information about whether participants experience either attitude or behavior change resulting from the program, particularly in relation to situations involving alcohol and sexually intimate…

  2. Sex Stereotypes and Attitudes to Science among Eleven-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Alison; Smail, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Attitude, achievement, and sex stereotyping tests administered to 11-year-olds reveal boys are more sex stereotyped; able and middle-class girls are less sex stereotyped; feminine self-image is linked to low achievement and masculine self-image to high achievement; and children endorsing sex stereotypes show less interest in science associated…

  3. Investigating Students' Attitude and Intention to Use Social Software in Higher Institution of Learning in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Basha, Kamal Madarsha; AbdulRahman, Nik Suryani Nik; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social software usage is growing at an exponential rate among the present generation of students. Yet, there is paucity of empirical study to understand the determinant of its use in the present setting of this study. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate factors that predict students' attitudes and intentions to use this…

  4. Investigation and Procedure According To Some Variables and Attitudes Toward Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülaçti, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the attitudes of students to the teaching profession in terms of self-esteem, altruism, social comparison, life satisfaction, humor style, a five-factor personality types of the students of the Pedagogical Formation Education Certificate Program (PFECP), and to determine the relationships if there is between…

  5. Attitudes and Training of Public School Clinicians Providing Services to Speakers of Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bountress, Nicholas G.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate speech-language clinicians' attitudes regarding treatment goal setting for children who were speakers of Black English, questionnaires based on W. Wolfram and R. Fasold's conceivable goals in teaching standard English to speakers of nonstandard dialects were distributed to 103 clinicians. (Author/CL)

  6. Institutional Culture and Learning I: Perceptions of the Learning Environment and Musicians' Attitudes to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Haddon, Elizabeth; Creech, Andrea; Morton, Frances; de Bezenac, Christophe; Himonides, Evangelos; Potter, John; Duffy, Celia; Whyton, Tony; Welch, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Research in higher education has established a relationship between student approaches to learning and their perceptions of the learning environment. This study aims to make a contribution to music education literature by investigating undergraduate music students' perceptions of the learning context and their attitudes towards learning and…

  7. Knowledge, Education, and Attitudes of International Students to IELTS: A Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Abe W.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, education and attitudes of Chinese, Indian and Arab speaking students in Australia towards the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test. A questionnaire was administered to 200 students at six university language centers to investigate their overall response towards…

  8. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Environmental Responsibility, Character Development, and Attitudes toward School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Robert Baxter; Stern, Marc J.; Krohn, Brian D.; Ardoin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures to develop and validate scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development and leadership, and attitudes toward school for environmental education programs servicing middle school children. The scales represent outcomes commonly of interest to

  9. Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…

  10. Attitudes to Childhood Overweight and Obesity: The Limits of Cultural Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Suparna; Abbott, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore attitudes to and beliefs about childhood overweight and obesity among Bangladeshi mothers and to check maternal perceptions of their children's weight status. Design: Mixed methods cross-sectional study. Setting: A general practice in East London, UK. Methods: Qualitative interviews with 14 mothers; weighing and measuring 22…

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Uterotonic Drugs during Childbirth in Karnataka, India: A Qualitative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities–for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers’ and community members’ current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India’s Karnataka state. Methods 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Results Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. Conclusions These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and other interventions to address identified gaps in knowledge and ensure that providers and pharmacists have up-to-date information regarding proper usage of uterotonic drugs. PMID:23638148

  12. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx targets cardiolipin to disintegrate respiratory chain complex II for cell death induction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, M-S; Schwall, C T; Pazarentzos, E; Datler, C; Alder, N N; Grimm, S

    2014-01-01

    Massive Ca2+ influx into mitochondria is critically involved in cell death induction but it is unknown how this activates the organelle for cell destruction. Using multiple approaches including subcellular fractionation, FRET in intact cells, and in vitro reconstitutions, we show that mitochondrial Ca2+ influx prompts complex II of the respiratory chain to disintegrate, thereby releasing an enzymatically competent sub-complex that generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cell death induction. This Ca2+-dependent dissociation of complex II is also observed in model membrane systems, but not when cardiolipin is replaced with a lipid devoid of Ca2+ binding. Cardiolipin is known to associate with complex II and upon Ca2+ binding coalesces into separate homotypic clusters. When complex II is deprived of this lipid, it disintegrates for ROS formation and cell death. Our results reveal Ca2+ binding to cardiolipin for complex II disintegration as a pivotal step for oxidative stress and cell death induction. PMID:24948011

  13. The Influence of Previous Exposure to Science Education on Attitudes of Preservice Science Teachers toward Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Diran

    1980-01-01

    Determines that attitudes toward science teaching is related to both gender and previous exposure to science education as a discipline. Gender favoring males was found to be a variable associated with a higher degree of positiveness of attitudes of preservice Nigerian undergraduate science teachers (N=120). (CS)

  14. Attitudes of Young People in China to Family Formation. A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Beijing and Sichuan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhi Yi

    The attitudes of young Chinese people toward family formation are examined giving insights to the varying attitudes of young men and women according to rural or urban setting, educational levels, types of employment, economic status, and proximity to centers of economic and social development. Information is also provided on population policies…

  15. A new way to detect the danger: Lysosomal cell death induced by a bacterial ribosomal protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhan; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The death of immune cells in response to pathogens often dictates the outcome of an infection. In some contexts, pathogens specifically kill immune cells by producing highly potent toxins or by triggering host cell death pathways, thus ensuring successful infections. But for intracellular pathogens and viruses, the death of host cells normally is disastrous for their intracellular life cycle. Our recent experiments with the pathogen Legionella pneumophila revealed that the bacterial ribosomal protein RpsL is able to trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and the subsequent macrophage cell death. Interestingly, a lysine to arginine mutation at the 88th residue, which also confers resistance to the antibiotic streptomycin, substantially impaired the cell death inducing activity of RpsL and allowed L. pneumophila to succeed in intracellular replication, suggesting the convergence of resistance mechanisms to innate immunity and antibiotics. The discovery of lysosomal cell death as an immune response to a bacterial ligand has expanded the spectrum of reactions that host cells can mount against bacterial infection; these observations provide a model to study the pathways that lead to the induction of LMP, a currently poorly understood cellular process involved in the development of many diseases. PMID:26052550

  16. Nurses' Involvement in Patients' Dying and Death: Scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Makiko; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measurement scale, The Nurses' Involvement in Patients' Dying and Death Scale (NIPDYDS), which fully captures the experiences of nurses caring for patients' dying and death. Potential items were extracted from narrative data gathered systematically and comprehensively from in-depth interviews with nurses engaged in caring for patients' dying and death. Factor analyses revealed four factors, consisting of 40 total items, with two factors related to the positive aspects of the experience (Deep involvement in facing dying and death and Increased competence in facing dying and death) and two factors related to the negative aspects of the experience (Uncertainty and difficulty dealing with dying and death and Accustomed to dying and death). Validity and reliability of the scale were found to be acceptable. The factorial structure of the NIPDYDS was contrasted to Frommelt's (1991) FATCOD (The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale), and the usefulness and limitations of the NIPDYDS were discussed. PMID:26036056

  17. Gunshot wounds: a review of firearm type, range, and location as pertaining to manner of death.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent; Cave, Rowena

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have examined the characteristics of gunshot wounds by manner of death; however, no published study has directly compared these characteristics for the different types of firearms. This study was designed to address that deficiency. Existing data sets of nonaccidental deaths by handguns, shotguns, and rifles were reviewed. The victim data were analyzed by age and sex of the victims, wound location, range of fire, manner of death, and type of firearm. Handguns were the most common firearm used in both suicides and homicides, followed by rifles and then shotguns. For both homicides and suicides, there were significant differences between the firearm types for age of victims, range of fire, and wound locations. Possible reasons for those differences are discussed. It is concluded that information about the type of firearm is crucial to have when examining the nature of a firearm injury and determining the manner of death. PMID:24196728

  18. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  19. The Relationship of Gender, Sex Role, and Law-and-Order Attitudes to Nuclear Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effect of gender, sex role orientation, and political orientation on attitudes among 46 male and 62 female first-year university students in Perth, Australia, concerning nuclear weapons. Females were found to be more opposed to their development and use. Discusses practical implications for political behavior. (DM)

  20. Students' Attitudes to the Secondary French Immersion Curriculum in a Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining student attitudes towards the secondary French immersion curriculum. Some of the students had made the decision to stay engaged with the programme while others had become disengaged from it. Drawing on the results of interviews with 23 students in a high school…

  1. Exploring Reactions to Pilot Reliability Certification and Changing Attitudes on the Reduction of Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boedigheimer, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 70% of aviation accidents are attributable to human error. The greatest opportunity for further improving aviation safety is found in reducing human errors in the cockpit. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, mixed-method research was to evaluate whether there was a difference in pilot attitudes toward reducing human error in the…

  2. The Attitudes of Men and Women Primary School Teachers to Promotion and Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary-Lyn

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire and indepth interviews were designed to test the gender differences in attitudes regarding the promotion of men and women primary school teachers. Responses from a sample drawn from a Welsh local education authority show clear gender differentiation; that women teachers need assistance and guidance to achieve their potential in the…

  3. Exploration of Critical Consciousness and Its Relationship to Teaching Perspectives and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lisa Kaye Hamling

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of educators' levels of critical consciousness, attitudes about poverty and poor people, and teaching perspectives. Critical consciousness was defined by Freire (2000) as the ability of individuals to assess their own identities related to the sociopolitical realities that surround them and critically…

  4. An Investigation of Attitudes and Perceptions of Preservice Teachers Compared to First Year Teachers toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade the mandated "push" for full inclusion has changed the dynamics of our general education classrooms to the extent that our general education teachers do not feel adequately prepared to teach. The lack of preparation may affect the pre-service teachers' attitude and perception of students with disabilities in a…

  5. Changing Teacher Attitudes and Actions To Promote Better Parent-Teacher Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweiker-Marra, Karyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Using qualitative information (faculty meeting transcripts) and a survey, researchers showed that seven statements pertaining to parent-teacher communication at a large rural middle school were poorly rated. A subsequent survey showed improved teacher attitudes, thanks to a monthly newspaper, parent hotline, web page, and other changes. (Contains…

  6. The Influence of Differing the Paths to an Incentive on Third Graders' Reading Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawson, Parker C.; Reutzel, D. Ray; Read, Sylvia; Smith, John A.; Moore, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of four incentive paths on third graders' reading vocabulary and comprehension achievement and recreational and academic reading attitude. One hundred and twenty third-grade students were assigned to one of four incentive path treatment conditions. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance…

  7. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-09-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  8. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

  9. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu

    2015-01-01

    Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455

  10. Using Multimedia to Enhance Knowledge of Service Attitude in the Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chun Min

    2012-01-01

    Having used a quasi-experimental research model and the ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) calibration method to gather and implement data, the researcher developed an interactive multimedia assisted learning (MAL) program promoting proper service attitudes in the hospitality industry. In order to gauge MAL program's…

  11. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu

    2015-01-01

    Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455

  12. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  13. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade…

  14. Undergraduate Paramedic Students' Attitudes to E-Learning: Findings from Five University Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Molloy, Andrew; Brightwell, Richard; Munro, Graham; Service, Melinda; Brown, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Computers and computer-assisted instruction are being used with increasing frequency in the area of undergraduate paramedic education. Paramedic students' attitudes towards the use of e-learning technology and computer-assisted instruction have received limited attention in the empirical literature to date. The objective of this study was to

  15. Attitudes toward Police Response to Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ivan Y.; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating…

  16. The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include…

  17. Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

  18. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  19. East Tennessee State University Faculty Attitudes and Student Perceptions in Providing Accommodations to Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terre Davenia Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ETSU faculty attitudes and student perceptions in providing academic accommodations to students with disabilities. Participants of the study were ETSU students with disabilities who are registered with the Disabilities Services office and faculty members of ETSU. Students with disabilities were…

  20. Evaluation of Reading Attitudes of 8th Grade Students in Primary Education According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahbaz, Namik Kemal

    2012-01-01

    Reading skill is a cognitive process in which the words are perceived, given a meaning, comprehended and then interpreted. The last year in primary education is a critical period when this skill is changed into a habit. As reading attitudes are important for an individual throughout the life, it is necessary to determine according to which…