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Men have been talking of death from time immemorial - sometimes sublimely in prose and poetry, in painting and sculpture and in music - till silence seemed to fall in the recent past. Now men are again talking about death - interminably but colloquially. They talk on television, on the radio, in books and in pamphlets. Dr Kenneth Boyd therefore finds it entirely timely to offer this historical sketch of attitudestodeath. The earlier part of his paper covers fairly familiar ground but his final and longest section on the work of a social historian, Philippe Ariès, may be new to many. Ariès is reinterpreting the long history of attitudestodeath in a form which may well interest those who today are concerned with helping modern man to accept his own death - death which still, for most people, is the death of another, not of oneself.
|The study examines the relation of death experience todeathattitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard deathattitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…
Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley
|To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…
It is 50 years since the death of the French Jesuit, Teilhard de Chardin, on Easter Sunday 1955. Besides commemorating the life of an extraordinary theologian, spiritual teacher, geologist and palaeontologist, this article focuses on Teilhard's attitudetodeath, a theme rarely emphasized or researched in the secondary literature. However, as I argue in company with his fellow Jesuit and
I distributed Nina Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire to 750 nurses in three Verona hospitals, and received 476 completed questionnaires. Questionnaire respondents had a modest knowledge of near-death experiences (NDEs). Nevertheless, respondents expressed a positive attitude towards NDEs in general, and towards patients who had had NDEs. Thirty-four percent of the nurses had personally encountered NDErs, and those
The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of police toward capital punishment help to shape public opinion regarding the death penalty. Prior research has not consistently identified the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of officers regarding capital punishment. This article examines that relationship, as well as the role of background factors and other attitudes.Survey questionnaires were given in 1995 to Boston area
PurposeThe practice of retrieving vital organs from brain-dead heart-beating donors is legally and medically accepted in Poland, but public beliefs and opinions regarding these matters have not been sufficiently explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitude of university students to the concepts of brain death and organ retrieval, compared with the attitude of critical care physicians.
A. Kubler; M. Lipinska-Gediga; J. Kedziora; M. Kubler
Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)
Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter
|To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…
Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to
William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw
Defense attorneys commonly suspect that the defendant's race plays a role in prosecutors' decisions to seek the death penalty, especially when the victim of the crime was white. When the defendant is convicted of the crime and sentenced todeath, it is equally common for such attorneys to question the racial attitudes of the jury. These suspicions are not merely
|One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close todeath without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…
The goldrush colony of Victoria, Australia, was a favoured destination for aspirational emigrants from nineteenth-century Britain. Yet the persistence of high rates of infant mortality blighted the happiness of many first and second generation immigrant families alone in a new land. Drawing on birth, death and inquest records this paper interrogates the experience of infant death amongst the poorest families
Two studies are presented investigating the role of attitudes toward death in self-reported health-protective behavior. The Multidimensional DeathAttitudes Scale (MDAS), based on three existing measures of deathattitudes, was administered to a group of health professionals (N 5 348). A principal components analysis revealed five factors, labeled Acceptance, Fear, Death as Passage, Death as Relief and Avoidance. The five-factor
The aim of our research is to examine the sociological, anthropological, and psychological aspects of attitudes towards death; review the different approaches as a complex system; present the altered death image and the changes of tendency; analyze and interpret the most significant anxiety generating factors according to gender, age, and occupation; validate the fear of death and attitudes towards death scales in the Hungarian population; review the possibilities of interventions designed to reduce anxiety generating fear of death. Our hypotheses of our quantitative research were the following: women are characterized by a marked fear of death and anxiety; young people are more afraid of death; health care workers have a higher level death anxiety in comparison to other professionals due to the fact that they are face the suddenness and inevitability of death on daily basis, and this itself is an anxiety generating factor. We validated, adapted and calibrated two psychometric scales measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. According to our findings, both the Neimeyer and Moore Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale proved valid and suitable for measuring fear of death and attitudes towards death. The Hungarian version of the scales proved reliable. In accordance with our hypothesis, young people and women are characterized by higher level of fear of death and anxiety. Our hypothesis, namely that fear of death among health care workers higher as the normal population, was not confirmed. Yet, contrary to a segment of preceding measurements, lower level of fear and anxiety was found. PMID:19497841
|Examined deathattitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…
Considering the relevance of the migratory processes in Western societies, the attitudes toward organ donation after death are analyzed by means of a survey applied to a representative random sample of the resident immigrant population in Spain, comprising 1202 subjects (estimated margin of error of ± 2.88%, p = q, p < 0.05). Considered variables were disposition toward own organ donation, disposition toward deceased relatives' donation in different situations, arguments against donation, socio-demographic indicators, religious beliefs, social integration, and information about organ donation and transplantation. Predisposition to donate varies strongly across geographical origin and religious beliefs and also shows relationships with additional socio-demographic, social integration, and informative variables. In turn, the relationship between religious beliefs and attitude toward donation varies as a function of the degree of social integration. In Spain, the immigrant population is a heterogeneous collective that requires differential strategies to promote donation. Such strategies should be aimed at reinforcing the existing positive attitudes of citizens from West Europe and Latin America, and at familiarizing and informing about donation in citizens from the East, and at making specific efforts to break down the cultural and religious barriers toward donation in African citizens, with special emphasis on people of the Muslim faith. PMID:22283230
López, Jorge S; Valentín, María O; Scandroglio, Barbara; Coll, Elisabeth; Martín, María J; Sagredo, Encarnación; Martínez, José M; Serna, Emilio; Matesanz, Rafael
Two studies are presented investigating the role of attitudes toward death in self- reported health-protective behavior. The Multidimensional DeathAttitudes Scale (MDAS), based on three existing measures of deathattitudes, was administered to a group of health professionals (N = 348). A principal components analysis revealed five factors, labeled Acceptance, Fear, Death as Passage, Death as Relief and Avoidance. The five- factor structure also was replicated in a second, somewhat different sample (N = 100). Twenty-three items loaded highly on the five factors, and the subscales showed good internal consistency. The relationship between the five deathattitudes and self-reported health behaviors was explored. Acceptance of death was associated positively with physical exercise controlling for demographic and psychological variables. Accepting death but not viewing death as relief were associated with self- reported lower levels of drinking and driving. PMID:22012319
|Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…
While brain death and the dead donor rule (patients must not be killed by organ retrieval) have been clinically and legally accepted in the US as a prerequisite to organ removal, there is little data about public attitudes and beliefs concerning these matters.To examine the public attitudes and beliefs about the determination of death and its relationship to organ transplantation,
Laura A. Siminoff; Christopher Burant; Stuart J. Youngner
|Greater death acceptance and anxiety were observed among rural as compared to urban-dwelling participants. Responses by a life-threatened geriatric subsample revealed differences in death fears related to type of medical disorder. Previous findings of no difference in the death fears of heart and cancer patients were replicated. (Author)|
The attitudes toward fear of death and dying among Army officers are of military importance because of their potential influence upon abilities to cope with the responsibiities of leadership. This study sought to determine if there were differences in the...
The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related todeath are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092
The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related todeath are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being.
Nina Thornburg's (1988) Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire was distributed to 326 randomly selected Illinois psychologists. Of 117 usable questionnaires received, the mean score for knowledge questions was 7.5 of a maximum score of 18. Respondents were most knowledgeable about near-death elements of peace, out-of-body transcendence, and tunnel\\/light phenomena. The mean score for the attitude portion of the instrument
Attitudes toward the death penalty are multifaceted and strongly held, but little research outside of the death-qualification literature has focused on the role that such attitudes and beliefs play in jurors' capital sentencing verdicts. A single item is insufficient to properly measure attitudes toward the death penalty; therefore, a new 15-item, 5-factor scale was constructed and validated. Use of this
In an Australian survey of community attitudes toward near-death experiences (NDEs), 173 respondents were asked to read a hypothetical description of an NDE and to select from a range of explanations that might approximate their own. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents believed the NDE was evidence of life after death, while less than 2 percent believed the NDE was a
|Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…
A random digit dial survey examined the public's definitions of death and attitudes toward organ donation. The sample consisted of 1,358 individuals. 66.7% were urban and 33.3% rural dwellers. The sample included 23.0% African-American (AA) and 71.6% whit...
Although it is widely assumed that religiosity plays an important role in individuals' attitudes about death, research to date has failed to reveal consistent associations between religiosity and deathattitudes. Drawing from D. M. Wulff's (1991) multidimensional model of religiosity, the authors examined associations between religious attitudes as measured by the Post-Critical Belief Scale and deathattitudes as assessed by
Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between exposure todeath and attitudes and knowledge about end-of-life care in graduating medical students. Participants and methods Survey of students graduating from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine between 2001 and 2006. Students reported their personal experience with death and their exposure todeath and dying patients during medical school. They rated their agreement, on a 4-point Likert scale, with 8 attitude items that were previously used in a national survey. Knowledge about end-of-life care was assessed with a 15-item test about pain and symptom management, ethics, treatment appropriateness, and hospice. Results Three hundred and eighty students completed the survey; the response rate was 47%. Seventy-six percent of students reported personal experience with death, and 73% reported caring for dying patients or witnessing a patient's death during their third-year clerkships. Students had positive attitudes about physicians' responsibility and ability to help dying patients and their families, but reported negative emotional reactions to end-of-life care. Students who reported personal or professional experience with death had more positive attitudes and higher knowledge scores than those who did not, p?0.05. Conclusions Educational initiatives should maximize the time medical students spend caring for dying patients. Teaching students end-of-life care during the course of their clinical clerkships is an effective way to improve attitudes about end-of-life care. Schools should focus on developing emotionally supportive settings in which to teach students about death and dying.
Williams, Jillian E.; Bost, James E.; Barnard, David
In this thesis, I discuss the notions of the denial and fear of death which are part of the North American attitude. As a contrast, I present Mayan attitudes and feelings towards death, dying, and grieving which tend to be accepting of death as a change, and therefore not as a thing to be afraid of. In this section I
Study one (N?=?309) verified the common assumption that religious beliefs provide a sense of structure. Religion and structure indices contributed both shared and unique variance to the prediction of hope, affect, and life satisfaction. In a second study, 368 participants self-reported deathattitudes, desire for structure, and answered questions concerning their own death (e.g., disposition of body, style of memorial).
|Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)|
The present paper describes two studies assessing the relation of implicit deathattitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to explicit deathattitudes as measured by questionnaires. In Study 1, 45 university students and 51 funeral service students completed the revised Death Anxiety Scale (DAS-R) and completed paper and pencil versions of the IAT measuring how much they
|One of the most substantial legacies of Herman Feifel was his pioneering research on attitudes toward death and dying in a variety of populations. The authors review the large and multifaceted literature on death anxiety, fear, threat and acceptance, focusing on the attitudes toward death and dying of relevant professional and patient groups, and…
Neimeyer, Robert A.; Wittkowski, Joachim; Moser, Richard P.
|A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…
In a survey of Chinese attitudes toward near-death experiences (NDEs), 197 respondents were read a hypothetical description of an NDE and asked to choose from a range of explanations and social reactions that might approximate their own. Fifty-eight percent of respondents believed that NDEs were probably hallucinations or dreams. Less than nine percent believed the NDE was evidence of life
IntroductionThere have been publications on the attitudes of the general Iranian population and health care personnel about brain death and organ donation; however, there is little information about such attitudes of medical students. In 2006, a survey was conducted in Tehran about the attitudes of medical students in a hospital with a transplantation program.
K. Najafizadeh; M. Shiemorteza; M. Jamali; F. Ghorbani; S. Hamidinia; S. Assan; M. Moghani-Lankarani
Aging increases the proximity todeath. It may be that fear of death has a negative impact on attitude toward the elderly. The previous research is inconclusive. A positive attitude toward the elderly in past studies was not found to be related to preference for working with this age group. In the present study of senior baccalaureate nursing students, no
Recent media and political attention has raised public awareness of a number of issues surrounding the death penalty. Questions regarding innocence, fair trials, and equitable access to counsel and the appellate process are ubiquitous in coverage of the death penalty. Adequate information about public attitudes toward the death penalty in light of these issues is currently lacking. In 2002, as
Scott Vollum; Dennis R. Longmire; Jacqueline Buffington-Vollum
This study examines whether perception of family environment, attitudes toward life and death, and depression predict suicidality in elementary-school children. Seventy-eight participants ages 8 to 13 recruited through an elementary school and a university were assessed for attitudes toward life and death, depression, suicidality, and family environment. A regression equation indicated that depression and attraction to life were the only
OBJECTIVES. Reduced options for fertility control over the past decade have increased the rates of unwanted pregnancy. We evaluated whether a woman's negative attitude toward her pregnancy increased the risk of perinatal mortality, in a large, prospective cohort study. METHODS. The association between attitude toward the pregnancy and perinatal mortality was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of 8823 married, pregnant patients enrolled from 1959 to 1966 in the Child Health and Development Studies. RESULTS. Women who reported during the first trimester of prenatal care that the pregnancy was unwanted were more than two times more likely to deliver infants who died within the first 28 days of life than were women reporting accepted pregnancies. A positive attitude toward pregnancy was not associated with fetal death or post-neonatal death. CONCLUSIONS. These data, collected when induced abortions were illegal, may have important implications for the 1990s. If maternal attitude toward the pregnancy is associated with neonatal mortality and abortion laws change such that access is restricted, infant mortality may increase because a greater proportion of births will be unwanted.
The purpose of this research was to determine the interrelationship of attitudes towards older people, deathattitudes, and\\u000a the spiritual well-being of 300 nursing students. Instruments employed were Kogan's Old People Scale, the Death Anxiety Scale,\\u000a the Death Depression Scale, and the Spiritual Well-being Scale. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple-regression\\u000a analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Hypotheses were
This article assesses the affects of several factors; sex, age, occupation, size of residence, anomie, marital status, class, and world view, on attitudes towards death. The author's attitudes model is based upon the four-part basic Durkheimian typology, varying in degree and nature of an individual's integration in societal groups. Included in…
Although it is widely assumed that religiosity plays an important role in individuals' attitudes about death, research to date has failed to reveal consistent associations between religiosity and deathattitudes. Drawing from D. M. Wulff's (1991) multidimensional model of religiosity, the authors examined associations between religious attitudes as measured by the Post-Critical Belief Scale and deathattitudes as assessed by the DeathAttitude Profile--Revised. In total, 471 Dutch-speaking Belgian adults completed both questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to asses the unique contribution of the religious attitudes in the prediction of the deathattitudes. First, results show that religious people are more likely to endorse an approach acceptance attitude toward death, indicating that religiosity as such is related to belief in an afterlife. Second, people holding a literal attitude toward religion report more death anxiety, indicating that the processing of religious contents is related to defensiveness toward death. Finally, the specific combination of the two dimensions seems important in the prediction of a neutral acceptance attitude. The relevance of our findings for future research on religiosity and deathattitudes is discussed. PMID:19140293
This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the DeathAttitude Profile—Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found
|This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…
Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon
This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the DeathAttitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index,…
|This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the DeathAttitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index,…
The purpose of this paper was to construct a scale that measures the multidimensional attitude toward death in adolescence. Based on preliminary open-ended format survey, a scale of attitude toward death consisting of 67 items was constructed. This scale was administered to 1,071 adolescents. Factor analysis with varimax rotation indicated 6 subscales: "fear of death", "intention to live out own life", "meaning of death for life", "underrating of death", "belief in existence of afterlife", "choice of death-of-body/death-of-mind". For these subscales, the coefficients of alpha ranged from .60 to .84, and the coefficients of test-retest reliability with a three-week interval ranged from .68 to .93. The validity of the subscales was investigated through the relations with Templer's Death Anxiety Scale and several developmental indices. PMID:10643040
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a course on death and grief on the attitudes toward death and toward dying patients of nurses who work in high-risk death areas of hospitals. This quasi-experimental design used four groups of subjects. One group experienced the treatment. Another group served as a waiting-list control group and then experienced
The aim of this study was to identify the attitudes of elderly Korean patients toward death and dying using Q-methodology to aid in the development of basic strategies for nursing care of elderly Koreans. Thirty participants at a university hospital sorted 40 selected Q-statements on a nine-point scale. Data analysis identified three types of attitudes toward death and dying in
This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the DeathAttitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found on a number of measures. These results are similar to the effects of didactic death education courses. PMID:15152651
This study examined changes in religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices in the lives of 50 near-death experiencers. I attempted to clarify whether these changes were to greater religiousness or to a deeper spirituality. I found that before the near-death experience (NDE), my respondents were no more religious or spiritually inclined than the general Australian population. Following the NDE there was
Background The attitudes and practise of doctors concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide have been the subject of studies performed\\u000a in many countries. However, these issues have not been studied properly in Portugal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and method This study is a survey of 450 Portuguese oncologists by postal means and personal contact.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The response rate was 33% (143). Only 13% would practise euthanasia with
One-hour interviews on death, dying, and bereavement were conducted with 434 adults in the greater Los Angeles area; respondents were approximately equally divided among four ethnic groups, among men and women, and among three age categories. Social class differences among ethnic groups were reduced but not fully eliminated through sampling techniques.The role of age was particularly important. The elderly not
This literature review summarizes the existing research examining how the attitude a potential juror has toward the death penalty impacts on the probability of favoring conviction. The summary of 14 investigations indicates that a favorable attitude toward the death penalty is associated with an increased willingness to convict (average r = .174). Using the binomial effect size display, this favorable
Registered nurses (RNs) and care workers (CWs) have important roles in providing end-of-life care to older adults, but little is known about the attitudes of RNs and CWs in Japan. In this study, 464 RNs and CWs working in facilities in Japan were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that included the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale, Form B, Japanese version (FATCOD-Form B-J) and the DeathAttitude Profile (DAP), Japanese version. A total of 388 (83.6%) questionnaires were returned, and 367 (79.1%) were fully completed. The final sample included 190 RNs and 177 CWs. Multiple regression analysis showed that better attitudes toward caring for the dying were positively associated with seminar attendance and negatively associated with fear of death. PMID:21240103
A highly significant feature to describe any social culture is attitude of the people towards two «eternal» problems: the meaning of life and the meaning of death. These concepts serve as basic characteristics for the level of spiritual and social development of a society. In modern Russia, as well as in any other society in crisis, most people try not
I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death
To examine the correlates of suicidality, 282 young adults at a medium-sized southern university completed measures of depression, family environment, attitudes toward life and death, and suicidality. Family cohesion accounted for 14.6% of the variance in suicidality, while repulsion by death and attraction to life accounted for an additional 1.3% and 1.4% of the variance in suicidality respectively. Suicidality was
86 young and 62 elderly non-life-threatened and 63 elderly life-threatened persons (mean ages 19.5, 71.0, and 74.8 yrs, respectively) were given a standardized interview that included the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS). Age, but not health, was related todeath anxiety. A significant Proximity toDeath by Experience with Death in Important Others interaction occurred for both death anxiety and attitude
|The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal deathattitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…
This paper examines men's sexual behaviour, knowledge and transmission of HIV\\/AIDS, and resistance to behavioural change in the presence of AIDS in Nigeria. There was a general belief that it was not possible for men to confine themselves to one woman over a lifetime. The frequency of sexual contact with commercial sex workers was high while knowledge of AIDS and
This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South
The authors interviewed adults in five ethnic groups, used fac- tor analysis to quantify attitudes toward planning for death, and used path analysis to test the relative influence of respondent characteristics, including ethnicity, and attitude factors (Advo- cacy to Discuss\\/Document Wishes, Trust in Family and Physi- cian to Make Decisions, Reliance on Religious Guidance, Fears and Anxiety About Life's End,
The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted. PMID:12749378
Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A
The aim of this study was to identify the attitudes of elderly Korean patients toward death and dying using Q-methodology to aid in the development of basic strategies for nursing care of elderly Koreans. Thirty participants at a university hospital sorted 40 selected Q-statements on a nine-point scale. Data analysis identified three types of attitudes toward death and dying in elderly patients in Korea: religion-dependent, science-adherent, and sardonic. Religion-dependent elders are highly dependent upon religion as evidenced by their reply that they would like to rely on God and a minister the most. Science-adherent elders have great affection for life and believe in modern medical advancements. The sardonic elders regard death as the dispensation of nature so there is no need to be afraid of death and dying. This study will contribute to the understanding that nurses and other health professionals have of the perceptions of elderly Koreans about death and dying. Also, the findings may provide the basis for the development of more appropriate strategies to improve death and dying education programs of health professionals. PMID:16210025
The study investigated the relationship between religion, belief in afterlife, and deathattitudes (death anxiety and death acceptance) in an elderly population using instruments with sound psychometric properties. Survey data was collected from 71 elderly participants. Results indicated a strong correlation between belief in afterlife and intrinsic religion, and differential statistically significant relationships between intrinsic religion and both death anxiety
Obstetricians and obstetrical residents (N=70) were polled on their attitudes regarding stillbirth and simultaneously were assessed for their level of death threat as measured by the Threat Index. No effect of death threat level on attitudes toward stillbirth was observed, even when extreme scores were isolated and compared. (Author/NRB)
The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for
STEPHEN J. DEPAOLA; MELODY GRIFFIN; JENNIE R. YOUNG; ROBERT A. NEIMEYER
This study, based on terror management theory, employs an experiment to examine how the thought of death affects people’s attitudes toward a watchdog press. Findings suggest that people who most value national security demonstrate less support for a watchdog press when primed to think of death than security-minded participants in a control group. The results provide one potential explanation for
In the first study of nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward near-death phenomena and patients who have experienced them (NDErs), 20 registered nurses in Intensive or Cardiac Care Units completed a questionaire containing 29 true\\/false\\/undecided statements about near-death phenomena (alpha reliability .83), 29 Likert items concerning attitudes toward such phenomena (alpha .84), and 25 Likert items concerning attitudes toward care
One of the goals of education in end of life care is to make communication more open by exploring critical issues related to fear of dying and death in order to reduce anxiety and improve an individual's attitudeto dying patients. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of courses for health care workers and medical students in care at the end of life. One hundred and twenty-seven health care professionals and 41 undergraduate medical students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) on the first and last day of the course. The most significant factors of fear of death are: Fear for Significant Others, Fear of the Dying Process and Fear of the Unknown. Overall fear of death scores were reduced as an effect of the courses. Changes in the components and level of fear of death are influenced by the participants' gender, age and profession. Improvement was evident in the attitudesto dying patients in both groups, which was related to an increase in knowledge of high-quality care of dying patients. PMID:18477721
Many scholars have studied public attitudes about abortion and the death penalty, but few have studied the coincidence of strong anti-abortion and pro-death penalty attitudes. What factors best explain how someone can find willful taking of life abhorrent in one context but justified in another? We find that the desire to see criminals punished, combined with a literalist orientation toward
|Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…
OBJECTIVES. Reduced options for fertility control over the past decade have increased the rates of unwanted pregnancy. We evaluated whether a woman's negative attitude toward her pregnancy increased the risk of perinatal mortality, in a large, prospective cohort study. METHODS. The association between attitude toward the pregnancy and perinatal mortality was evaluated in a longitudinal cohort study of 8823 married,
Public support for the death penalty is something of an American tradition. Yet the bases of the American tradition of support for the death penalty are not well understood. An understanding of American attitudes toward capital punishment is important, not only because the United States is again executing criminal offenders, but because it provides a rough estimate of the level
Presents a literature review on death-related attitudes and behavior of Mexican Americans. The 1976 Kalish and Reynolds study concludes that Mexican Americans are more accepting of death than other ethnic groups. Some findings suggest the opposite may be true. Offers an alternative interpretation of findings plus future research suggestions.…
Forty-five males and females ages 65 and older completed the Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale, a measure of faith development\\u000a (based on Fowler, 1981), and two multidimensional measures of death anxiety (the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale-Revised\\u000a and the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale). Individuals with intrin-sic religious motivation reported significantly lower\\u000a levels of various types of death anxiety than did
This study's primary aim was to evaluate factors that influence attitudes toward the insanity defense in a sample of 578 college undergraduates. In addition to a comprehensive demographics survey, participants completed the Insanity Defense Attitude Scale-Revised (IDAS-R) and the Attitude Toward the Death Penalty (ATDP) Scale. Favorable attitude toward capital punishment and misperceptions about overuse of the insanity defense were
Angela L. Bloechl; Michael J. Vitacco; Craig S. Neumann; Steven E. Erickson
Forensic pathologists deal not only with criminal, accidental and suicidal deaths, but also with a wide range of deaths from natural causes. Many of these deaths are sudden, unexpected, clinically unexplained or obscure, even though there need be no criminal element in their causation.Unnatural deaths have always to be investigated by the police, but very often natural deaths forms the
Children who listened to "William's Doll,""Giving Tree,""Bread and Jam for Frances," and "My Grandson Lew," changed their attitudes in the respective areas of sex role stereotyping, friendship, death, and risk taking. (MKM)
This study sought to determine the cffectiveness of an education program on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members. The program, based on the hospice concept of care, included a didactic section based on Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying, and a roleplay model designed by the researcher. Data were collected from 34 licensed nurses,
This study investigated the extent and types of altered beliefs, attitudes, and values of 53 subjects who reported having had a neardeath experience (NDE). A control group was composed of 27 individuals who reported having had similar life-threatening incidents but without a corresponding NDE. In addition, 45 significant others in the lives of the participants in these groups rated the
This study sought to determine the effectiveness of an education program on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members. The program, based on the hospice concept of care, included a didactic section based on Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying, and a role-play model designed by the researcher. Data were collected from 34 licensed nurses, aged 18 to 65, practicing in the midwestern United States. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) was designed by the researcher to assess nurses' attitudes. The FATCOD was found to be a valid and reliable tool. All nurses completed the tool before and after the education program (pre-test, post-test). Compared by a t-test, the scores for the nurses were significantly higher after participation in the educational program. The t-value was found to be 2.97, significant at the less than 0.01 level, 2-tailed probability = 0.006. These findings support the hypothesis that nurses have a more positive attitude toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members after participation in the program, than the same nurses had before participating in the program. Demographic information including age, years of experience in nursing, highest degree held, basic type of nursing preparation and previous education on death and dying were analyzed to determine their relationship to the nurses' attitudes. The only information which demonstrated any significant relationship to the nurses' attitudes was that of previous education on death and dying. These were computed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) F = 3.22, F prob = 0.04, significant at less than 0.05 level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1742142
Polls exploring attitudes toward the death penalty typically impose a simple, dichotomous response structure: respondents\\u000a are asked whether or not they support or oppose capital punishment. This polling strategy deprives respondents of expressing\\u000a an indication of the strength of their opinions. When asked whether they support (or oppose) the death penalty “strongly”\\u000a or “not strongly,” significant proportions of respondents select
JAMES D. UNNEVERtt; Francis T. Cullen; Julian V. Roberts
An in-depth survey of 144 English Canadian adults examined the motives behind, and other social psychological correlates of, attitudes toward capital punishment. The results suggested that for a substantial percentage of people the motive of retribution may be more important than deterence as a reason for favoring the death penalty. Other findings indicated that the more strongly people favored the
Beginning counselors' levels of discomfort and ability to respond empathically to clients presenting with death-related issues was investigated. Fifty-eight masters-level counseling students completed the Threat Index and the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and viewed a series of 8 videotape vignettes depicting clients with death-related (e.g., grief, AIDS) and non-death-related problems (e.g., marital discord, physical handicap). As hypothesized, significantly higher levels of counselor discomfort were found in responding to client situations involving death and dying, especially when these involved serious illness in the client. In addition, personal fear of death predicted counselors' distress in death counseling. Contrary to expectations, counselors were actually slightly more empathic in responding to grief and loss than other conditions, although the overall level of empathy displayed was low in absolute terms. The least empathic responses were provided by counselors who construed death in fatalistic terms on the Threat Index, and who were "saturated" with death themes by the completion of deathattitude questionnaires prior to viewing the videos. The authors concluded that death and loss counseling presents unique challenges to beginning mental health providers, especially for those whose personal death anxieties leave them vulnerable to such work. PMID:10182421
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes and beliefs of nurses in Australia and the United States regarding aspects of passive euthanasia, or the "good death." Two foci guided the study: (a) the possible discrepancies that these nurses might perceive between what they thought would be done in a given clinical situation and what they thought ought to be done, and (b) the possible differences and similarities between the American and the Australian nurses. Responding to the 8 vignettes, 30 American and 32 Australian nurses took part in the study. The lack of agreement between the Australian and American nurses on issues of euthanasia reflects differences in the health care system; the general social position of nursing as a profession; the relationship among health professionals, patients and families, which serves as the context for definition of ethical duties and patient rights; and the role of the law in health care decisions. PMID:2925215
Recently many approaches have been used to educate the public about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The impact of various campaigns and interventions is difficult to measure, but some indication of the cumulative effect can be monitored over time. This is a report of the results of such a study carried out in Scotland in which the general public's awareness of and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS were measured in July 1986 and again 1 year later. 3 trends emerge from the surveys. 1) There is evidence of increasing awareness about the broader risk from AIDS to the general public as well as to high risk groups of drug misusers and homosexuals. 2) It is clear that there is still great concern about AIDS, with increasing proportions of the population seeing it as a serious social problem. 3) There is a demand for more information about AIDS, especially from young people. Knowledge of the broader risk to heterosexuals from AIDS therefore seems to be getting across, although it is clear that there is now considerable anxiety about AIDS, particularly among young people. The findings also suggest that any campaign whose objective is making the public aware of the connection between drug injection and AIDS is unnecessary, as almost everyone knows this already. The results also show that there is little to be gained by trying to induce fear or anxiety to reinforce existing knowledge of the connection between drugs and AIDS to deter potential intravenous drug users. Finally, there is a need to address the fact that some people inject drugs despite their knowledge of and fear about the risk of AIDS. PMID:3129121
EnglishThis article examines trends in American public opinion on capital punishment between 1953 and 2002. It seems that Americans believe that the government spends too little on crime deterrence, that courts are not harsh enough with criminals, and that the death penalty is appropriate for murderers. Implications for social workers are suggested.FrenchCet article examine les tendances de l'opinion publique américaine
Bianca Betancourt; Katie Dolmage; Charmonair Johnson; Tricia Leach; Jonathan Menchaca; Darrel Montero; Tarina Wood
The debate regarding the death qualification of juries usually concerns (a) whether death-qualified jurors have different attitudes and values to excludable jurors, or (b) whether death-qualified juries are more prone to convict. A pivotal question is whether excludable subjects in fact willever impose the death penalty. Subjects were presented with five grisly murder vignettes. Only 40% of excludable subjects refused
Nursing professionals are integral members of the healthcare team and they maintain the most direct and prolonged contact with patients experiencing a terminal illness. This integrative review of the literature sought to investigate the attitude towards death among nursing professionals and students. Data were collected through searches in Lilacs, Medline, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using the key words "nurses" and "attitudetodeath" in the period from 2000 to 2011. Of the 1376 articles identified, 262 were selected for data extraction and 35 were downloaded in full, constituting the corpus of research. The results showed a predominance of articles published in Brazilian journals. Studies indicate that the subject of death and dying has been neglected in training institutions, which causes hardship among professionals and nursing students when faced with the issue in practice, in addition to inappropriate conduct when dealing with patients who are experiencing the end of life process. In conclusion, the need for future research that may provide more detailed clarifications on the subject and seek strategies to address the lack of preparation and support of the nursing staff when they cope with death and dying was emphasized. PMID:23989583
Fear, denial, and the avoidance of death and dying appear to be products of life in modern society. While society insulates most people from contact with the death and dying of others, there are professions that come into repeated contact with dying individuals. The present study uses the Collett?Lester Fear of Death Scale to analyze the Fear of Death and
Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were
background: There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudesto surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). methods: Questionnaires on
Two doctors on opposite sides of the globe eliminated crib death among their patient populations for 40 years using ascorbate supplementation. Unknown to each other they arrived at the same regimen. (2) Crib deaths nearly disappeared in Japan in 1975 when first inoculations were postponed until the 24th month of life. These findings and their explanation are explored. SID is
AbstractObjectives: To explore NHS doctors' attitudesto competent patients' requests for euthanasia and to estimate the proportion of doctors who have taken active steps to hasten a patient's death. Design - Anonymous postal questionnaire, with no possibility of follow up. The survey was conducted from December 1992 to March 1993.Subjects: All (221) general practitioners and 203 hospital consultants in one
Only recently have mental health professionals realized the importance and impact of death and death anxiety in the lives of individuals, particularly clients. Indeed few empirical studies have examined the levels of death anxiety among clients, much less among counselors or counselors-in-training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether…
|The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest,…
|Only recently have mental health professionals realized the importance and impact of death and death anxiety in the lives of individuals, particularly clients. Indeed few empirical studies have examined the levels of death anxiety among clients, much less among counselors or counselors-in-training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether…
Psychiatrists should refrain from treating mentally ill prisoners on death row in order to restore their "competency to be executed." Such "treatment" renders them double agents, in the service of the state as well as the prisoner. Participation in an act that will bring about a prisoner's death is expressly forbidden by the AMA Code of Ethics. It recalls the behavior of Nazi physicians, who used their professional skills not to heal but to kill. PMID:3804727
Summary A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudesto leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work
R. Flin; G. Fletcher; P. McGeorge; A. Sutherland; R. Patey
A large retrospective autopsy study of patients was analyzed to evaluate the major etiologic and pathologic factors contributing to fatal acute pancreatitis (AP). From an autopsy population of 50,227 patients, 405 cases were identified where AP was defined as the official primary cause of death. AP was classified according to morphological and histological, but not biochemical, criteria. Patients with AP
Ian G. Renner; William T. Savage; Jose L. Pantoja; V. Jayne Renner
Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents all over the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the general properties of suicide in childhood and adolescents, and to evaluate the results in the light of literature. Reports of autopsies performed between 2001 and 2005 in the Morgue
Isil Pakis; Nesime Yayci; Mustafa Karapirli; Nicel Yildiz; Elif Gunce; Riza Yilmaz; Oguz Polat
This study, based on terror management theory from social psychology, examines how the thought of death affects journalism students' views toward relativism, idealism, and unethical journalistic behavior. College journalism students (N = 101) participated in an experiment where half were primed to think about death and the other half, the control group, thought about dental pain. Then, all of them
This study examines the relationships between religious affiliation, religious salience, religious literalness, attribution styles and attitudes toward the death penalty. We also examine the moderating effects that religion has on the relationship between attribution and attitudes toward the death penalty. Control variables examined are previous victimization, political affiliation, race, gender, and education. Data for the study were collected from a
This study's primary aim was to evaluate factors that influence attitudes toward the insanity defense in a sample of 578 college undergraduates. In addition to a comprehensive demographics survey, participants completed the Insanity Defense Attitude Scale-Revised (IDAS-R) and the Attitude Toward the Death Penalty (ATDP) Scale. Favorable attitude toward capital punishment and misperceptions about overuse of the insanity defense were related to negative attitudes toward the insanity defense. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that possessing a favorable attitude toward capital punishment was the most robust predictor of a negative attitude toward the insanity defense. These findings provide valuable information about factors that create and maintain biases against the insanity defense and suggest areas of inquiry that could aid attorneys in selecting unbiased jurors. PMID:17166589
Bloechl, Angela L; Vitacco, Michael J; Neumann, Craig S; Erickson, Steven E
This article investigates the structure of attitudes toward abortion, using several demographic, political, and religious variables. The analysis is based on a 1978 survey of New Jersey's voting age population. Responses to questions on three aspects of the abortion issue—a constitutional ban on abortion, abortion on demand, and government funding of abortions—are combined to form a scale of support and
Ross K. Baker; Laurily K. Epstein; Rodney D. Forth
Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related todeath was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) todeath-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased todeath-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses todeath-related information.
|The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and deathattitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…
This report is a summary of a survey of Tennessee chief prosecutors (district attorneys general), chief public defenders, and state legislators concerning their attitudes toward capital punishment. Global approval was compared with (1) approval when offered the options of life without parole and (2) life without parole and restitution to the victim's family. Additional items probed approval of capital punishment
Social Workers in end-of-life and palliative care have a particular opportunity to ease the dying process by providing culturally appropriate services to the dying and their families. In today's multicultural social environment, with an ever-increasing immigrant population, social workers are challenged to be knowledgeable about diverse cultures. Recently, a forum of health care professionals and social workers in Hong Kong conducted a survey of the general population to assess death and dying attitudes, beliefs, and preferences for end-of-life care. Four-hundred-thirty Hong Kong Chinese participated in a telephone interview. Responses were compared by gender. The survey results not only contribute to an understanding of Hong Kong Chinese, but can inform social workers who practice with Chinese immigrants to the United States. PMID:17804347
This article describes how Repertory Grid technique was used to investigate the attitudes of two groups of Access students, one of which was studying Science and the other Law. The attitudes of both groups to ‘Science’, and of the Science group to ‘Education’ and ‘themselves’ were explored. The study also suggests a tentative typology of students, in terms of their
This longitudinal study examined what a one-time intervention about aging does to the attitudes of high-school students toward aging. Early findings from the study support previous research that indicates ageist attitudes formed in early childhood become difficult to change as children reach adolescence. This research further supports the need for aging education to begin in early childhood.
Diane Austrin Klein; Kathy J. Council; Sandra L. McGuire
We report on the results of a comprehensive statewide survey of death penalty attitudes in which respondents were categorized in terms of their death-qualified or excludable status under several different Supreme Court doctrines governing the death-qualification process. We found that although changes in public opinion with respect to the death penalty in general have altered the relative sizes of the
|This longitudinal study examined what a one-time intervention about aging does to the attitudes of high-school students toward aging. Early findings from the study support previous research that indicates ageist attitudes formed in early childhood become difficult to change as children reach adolescence. This research further supports the need…
Sydney's water supply is under great pressure as the demand continues to rise. Demand mitigation strategies have had some success, but domestic consumption remains high. This paper discusses the attitudes of households to their water consumption in a search for ways in which domestic demand for water may be reduced. Evidence on attitudes of households in different kinds of housing
There has been an increase in the consumption of pork in recent years. Reports on a survey of the attitudes of Dublin consumers to pork. Identifies the quality factors which consumers consider when purchasing and eating pork, in particular pork chops. Determines the relative importance of these factors and ascertains consumer attitudesto the quality of pork available. Examines the
Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudesto 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudesto convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitudeto human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudesto human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudesto animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudesto human life and contribute to the high suicide rate. PMID:22791520
|Attitudes about suicide were examined among older adults in Padua, Italy and were compared toattitudes of younger subjects. Elderly subjects (N=246) consisted of 122 adults living in residential homes, 73 medical inpatients of a geriatric hospital, and 51 depressed inpatients with primary affective disorders. Younger subjects (N=263) consisted…
This study of 182 English school children examined three issues: possible changes in self-concept resulting from transfer from primary to secondary schools; possible relationship between self-concept and attitude toward school; and possible differences in school attitudes between high and low self-concept students. (Author/SJL)
|Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…
This paper discusses theoretical issues that are relevant to Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) attitude direction indicator (ADI) design. An ADI shows the relationship between the aircraft wings and the horizon and pilots use it to determine aircraft attitude (pitch and roll). The ADI is used for maintaining an aircraft attitude, capturing a precise attitude and recovering from an unusual attitude. An
Two studies explored the relationship between attitudes toward the death penalty and support for or rejection of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in a capital trial. Jurors serving on jury duty voluntarily completed questionnaires in the jury lounge. In Study 1, jurors strongly opposed to the death penalty were significantly more receptive to mitigating circumstances than were the remaining jurors. In
BACKGROUND: With current genetic technology, it is possible to detect mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a hereditary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. As a result, prospective parents diagnosed with LQTS will have to decide whether or not to prevent its transmission to future generations, either by not procreating or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies or prenatal testing. This paper explores how a hereditary predisposition to sudden cardiac death can influence reproductive decision making. METHODS: This study draws from interviews and focus groups with individuals who have personal or family histories of cardiac arrhythmia or sudden death. A keyword search was conducted on interview transcripts to identify quotes for analysis. RESULTS: Participants expressed complex, often ambivalent attitudes about the prospect of having a child with a predisposition to sudden cardiac death. Their comments reveal conflicting understandings of genetic responsibility and reflect the variable effects of personal experience on reproductive decision making. This paper compares attitudes towards LQTS and other genetic conditions in analyzing the themes that emerged in interviews and focus groups. CONCLUSIONS: The "disability critique" of prenatal testing should be applied carefully to a context of genetic predisposition to sudden cardiac death in order to understand reproductive decision making. Firsthand experience with the condition, among other factors, can weigh heavily in those decisions. PMID:22822470
Background With current genetic technology, it is possible to detect mutations associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a hereditary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. As a result, prospective parents diagnosed with LQTS will have to decide whether or not to prevent its transmission to future generations, either by not procreating or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies or prenatal testing. This paper explores how a hereditary predisposition to sudden cardiac death can influence reproductive decision making. Methods This study draws from interviews and focus groups with individuals who have personal or family histories of cardiac arrhythmia or sudden death. A keyword search was conducted on interview transcripts to identify quotes for analysis. Results Participants expressed complex, often ambivalent attitudes about the prospect of having a child with a predisposition to sudden cardiac death. Their comments reveal conflicting understandings of genetic responsibility and reflect the variable effects of personal experience on reproductive decision making. This paper compares attitudes towards LQTS and other genetic conditions in analyzing the themes that emerged in interviews and focus groups. Conclusions The “disability critique” of prenatal testing should be applied carefully to a context of genetic predisposition to sudden cardiac death in order to understand reproductive decision making. Firsthand experience with the condition, among other factors, can weigh heavily in those decisions.
BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudesto asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid toattitudesto regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudesto regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily life. METHODS--Three hundred and ninety one patients were surveyed with a questionnaire which assessed their dislike of the interference of asthma with their physical, social, and emotional functioning, together with dislike of regular asthma medication. A response was received from 320 patients (82%). RESULTS--Four attitude clusters were identified. Recorded in descending factor order, these were (1) dislike of asthma medication, (2) dislike of disability, (3) dislike of public life interference, and (4) dislike of social and emotional interference. The attitude clusters were not related: in particular, dislike of asthma medication could not be predicted from other dislikes, or from asthma best function ratio (ratio of best recorded peak expiratory flow rate in the previous year to predicted value), age, or sex. The most significant predictors of the patients' dislike of taking their own inhaled steroid were (1) dislike of using bronchodilator, (2) dislike of steroids generally, and (3) dislike of taking medicine every day. CONCLUSIONS--Patient attitudesto regular asthma medication are not related to general anxieties and dislikes about asthma, nor to the potential for asthma control as judged by the best function ratio. Patients were not always consistent in their attitudeto inhaled steroids in general, nor to their own named inhaled steroid in particular. A general cluster of antimedication attitudes existed, independent of whether the medication was for prophylaxis or relief. Attitudesto asthma medication may be helpful in predicting patient behaviour.
Osman, L M; Russell, I T; Friend, J A; Legge, J S; Douglas, J G
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and
A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudesto leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work values, human error and organisational climate. The respondents generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards the interpersonal aspects of their work, such as team behaviours and they recognised the importance of communication skills, such as assertiveness. However, the results suggest that some anaesthetists do not fully appreciate the debilitating effects of stress and fatigue on performance. Their responses were comparable with (and slightly more favourable than) those reported in previous ORMAQ surveys of anaesthetists and surgeons in other countries. PMID:12603453
Flin, R; Fletcher, G; McGeorge, P; Sutherland, A; Patey, R
Previous research found that the perception of a limited remaining lifetime is related to goal setting, social network composition,\\u000a attitudes, and behavior. However, to better understand those findings, it is important to know if this subjective perception\\u000a of being close todeath corresponds with the time a person actually survives. The aim of the present study was to examine\\u000a the
Since the passage of the Oregon Death With Dignity Act (ODDA), psychologists have been grappling with how to fulfill their legally specified role in the process of physician-assisted suicide. We surveyed Oregon psychologists to elicit their views on assisted suicide and the process of assessing patients who request such assistance. There was a high degree of support for assisted suicide
... see death at least once a day on television or on video games. They hear about it ... reversible, temporary, and impersonal. Watching cartoon characters on television miraculously recover after being crushed or blown apart ...
Although numerous reports exist in the literature regarding health care professionals' opinions towards euthanasia and the general public's views, few studies have conducted a systematic review of literature on physicians' views on this topic. As medical doctors are the individuals involved with active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) and physician-assisted death (PAD), their opinions need to be known. The purpose of our
George E Dickinson; David Clark; Michelle Winslow; Rachael Marples
Attitudes influence behavior towards urban green spaces. But determining attitudes toward urban green spaces is not well operationalized in urban planning research. A study was conducted in the West Island, Montreal, Canada to elaborate the design and development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure the dimensions of citizen attitudes toward urban green spaces. The use of qualitative and
Objective: To survey attitudes about abortion in a sample of physicians practicing in the Bronx, New York, identify factors associated with those attitudes, and investigate how attitudes about abortion influence willingness to do it.Methods: A questionnaire mailed to obstetricians and gynecologists affiliated with a medical school in the Bronx elicited information on attitudes about abortion and the willingness to do
Aryan N Aiyer; George Ruiz; Allegra Steinman; Gloria Y. F Ho
In two studies we examined the role of two regulatory foci (i.e., prevention and promotion) in predicting Australian's attitudesto different types of migrants. According to regulatory focus theory, promotion-focused self-regulation is concerned with nurturance and accomplishment needs and involves the pursuit of wishes and aspirations. As such, it results in sensitivity to positive outcomes and to relative pleasure from gains. On the other hand, prevention-focused self-regulation is concerned with security needs and is directed at meeting duties and obligations. As such, it results in sensitivity to negative outcome and relative pain from losses. In Study 1, as predicted, the extent of promotion focus (i.e., a concern with accomplishment and the pursuit of ideals) predicted more positive attitudesto culturally similar and economically beneficial migrants, whereas the extent of prevention focus (i.e., concern with security and meeting obligations) predicted more negative attitudesto migrants who are culturally dissimilar. In Study 2 we replicated and extended these findings, showing that the extent of promotion focus and a lack of concern with threats predicted positive attitudesto both culturally similar and economically beneficial migrants, which, in the case of the latter group, was mediated by a focus on the benefits these migrants provide. In the case of culturally dissimilar migrants, the extent of promotion focus and a concern with gains predicted more positive attitudes. However, for economically less beneficial migrants, neither the extent of promotion nor prevention focus was a predictor. Only lower concerns with threat predicted more positive attitudesto this migrant group. The results are discussed with respect to other determinants of attitudesto migrants and the implications for migration and asylum-seeker policy. PMID:22043932
Whelan, Jennifer; Laham, Simon M; Peters, Kim; Boldero, Jennifer; Kashima, Yoshihisa
This study investigated the influence of various contextual effects on the decisions of subjects evaluating a case of nonphysician-assisted suicide. Subjects viewed a videotaped deposition of an individual emotionally or nonemotionally describing how he assisted in the death of his terminally ill wife by disconnecting her respirator or shooting her in the head. The deposition was followed by jury instructions that outlined the duties of the subject and, in some cases, was followed by a nullification instruction that informed the subjects of their right to ignore the law in this case if they felt it would culminate in an unfair verdict. After viewing the videotape, subjects were asked to rate the guilt of the individual as well as their confidence in this rating. Results indicate that the means of death and the type of instruction significantly affect guilt ratings. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15156866
"There's nothing more to do, so let's come to an end, Doc!" A request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is a dramatic expression of patients' suffering and causes difficulties for staff members to react to these questions. Great efforts have been made in the last two centuries to gain a deeper understanding of the wish for hastened death of terminally ill patients and to develop conclusions for the management of these situations. This article presents differences in international legislation on euthanasia and summarises the ethical background. The current results from the literature according to motivations for the wish for hastened death, communicative functions of the request, attitudes and practices of physicians and their willingness to accompany the patient in euthanasia as well as practical implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20376609
A series of 502 deaths due to burn, which comprised 5.7% of all medicolegal deaths were reviewed in order to determine general features of burn related death. Victims’ ages were ranged between 2 months and 91 years, and male to female ratio was 1.7. The majority of the victims (175 cases, 35.9%) were in the 0–5 age group, followed by
Ahmet Hilal; Necmi Çekin; Mustafa Arslan; Mete k. Gulmen
Introduction. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths in children is used to monitor the severity of influenza at the population level and to inform influenza prevention and control policies. The goal of this study was to better estimate pediatric influenza mortality in New York state (NYS). Methods. Death certificate data were requested for all passively reported deaths and any pneumonia and influenza (P&I) coded pediatric deaths occurring between October 2004 and April 2010, excluding New York City (NYC) residents. A matching algorithm and capture-recapture analysis were used to estimate the total number of influenza-associated deaths among NYS children. Results. Thirty-four laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and 67 death certificates had a P&I coded death; 16 deaths matched. No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death had a pneumonia code and no pneumonia coded deaths had laboratory evidence of influenza infection in their medical record. The capture-recapture analysis estimated between 38 and 126 influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurred in NYS during the study period. Conclusion. Passive surveillance for influenza-associated deaths continues to be the gold standard methodology for characterizing influenza mortality in children. Review of death certificates can complement but not replace passive reporting, by providing better estimates and detecting any missed laboratory-confirmed deaths.
Objective To study the relationship of Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) neonatologists' personal fear of deathto their forgoing life?sustaining treatment and hastening death in newborns destined for severe disability and newborns for whom further treatment is considered non?beneficial or overly burdensome. Design A self?report questionnaire survey of ANZ neonatologists. Setting Neonatologists registered in the 2004 ANZ Directory of Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Participants 78 of 138 (56%) neonatologists who responded to the study questionnaire. Main outcome measures Between?group differences in the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale. Results In newborns for whom further treatment was deemed futile, 73 neonatologists reported their attitudeto hastening death as follows: 23 preferred to hasten death by withdrawing minimal treatment, 35 preferred to hasten death with analgesia?sedation, and 15 reported that hastening death was unacceptable. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference between the three groups regarding fear of the dying process (F?=?3.78, p?=?0.028), fear of premature death (F?=?3.28, p?=?0.044) and fear of being destroyed (F?=?3.20, p?=?0.047). Post hoc comparisons showed that neonatologists who reported that hastening death was unacceptable compared with neonatologists who preferred to hasten death with analgesia?sedation had significantly less fear of the dying process and fear of premature death, and significantly more fear of being destroyed. Conclusions ANZ neonatologists' personal fear of death and their attitudeto hastening death when further treatment is considered futile are significantly related. Neonatologists' fear of death may influence their end?of?life decisions.
The development of a questionnaire designed to measure teachers’ attitudesto new educational media is described. Responses to the questionnaire were largely positive, and indicated pressures of social desirability: accordingly, therefore, the reliability and particularly the validity of the questionnaire were found to be weak. Other approaches to measurement in this area are discussed.
Exploration of the symbolic content of creative family images produced by college students who had experienced death in the family shows that the experience of death in the family can vary from welcomed release to painful paralysis of total family functioning. Seven paradigmatic imaginal patterns are presented and related to larger patterns of individual and family growth. Normative developmental patterns
A total of 36,274 forensic autopsies was performed in Berlin, between 1980 and 1987, including 152 cases (0.42%) in which death had been caused by blunt violence due to kicking. Data were collected on both victims and offenders, postmortem findings, causes of death and the way violence had been perpetrated. The greater part of victims and offenders had been males
A 31-item questionnaire examining doctors' attitudesto male homosexuality was circulated to 510 psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists and 510 general practitioners (GPs) in the Midlands region of the United Kingdom. In spite of the low response rates, the psychiatrists showed consistently more liberal responses. However, 3% of the psychiatrists and 9% of the general practitioners still see homosexuality as an
The following statements summarize the author's analysis of changing attitudesto work and life styles in Western society: (1) a permissive society has fostered a change in authority roles; (2) general mistrust toward big busines is no longer limited to the public at large; (3) employees, supervisors, and managers all dislike and fear change; (4)…
We investigated the initial attitude of 10 chronic, defected schizophrenic patients to a computer videogame session. Six of them enjoyed the experience and wanted to repeat it. Cooperation and performance were compared by means of videogames and a standard psychometric test (WAIS). Videogame performance correlated with the execution test IQ more than with the verbal test IQ. Computer games could
Sergio Samoilovich; Carlos Riccitelli; Adriana Schiel; Agustín Siedi
Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent proposal of a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disorder and may be useful in predicting risk in psychiatrically impaired subjects. Methods Consecutively hospitalized adolescents in a psychiatric unit (N = 52; 71% females; age 12-19 years), reporting at least one recent episode of self-harm according to the Deliberate Self-harm Inventory, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Mental Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID I and II), the Children's Depression Inventory and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST). Results Mean age onset of NSSI in the sample was 12.3 years. All patients showed "repetitive" NSSI (high frequency of self-harm), covering different modalities. Results revealed that 63.5% of adolescents met criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and that the rest of the sample also met criteria for personality disorders with dysregulated traits. History of suicide attempts was present in 46.1% of cases. Elevated depressive traits were found in 53.8%. Results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the score on the "Attraction to Life" subscale of the MAST and the frequency and diversification of self-harming behaviors. Conclusions Most adolescent inpatients with NSSI met criteria for emotionally dysregulated personality disorders, and showed a reduced "attraction to life" disposition and significant depressive symptoms. This peculiar psychopathological configuration must be addressed in the treatment of adolescent inpatients engaging in NSSI and taken into account for the prevention of suicidal behavior in self-injuring adolescents who do not exhibit an explicit intent to die.
A questionnaire looking at attitudes towards male homosexuality was circulated to 94 members of the Gay Medical Association (GMA) and 510 members of various homophile organisations. The response rates were 56% and 34.7% respectively. Some clear differences emerged between the two groups in looking at stereotypes of male homosexuals. Nearly hlf the respondents in both the groups agreed that male
|Attitudesto science scales developed in England have been used in a rural region of South Africa with children aged 10 and 11 years in a two-stage data collection investigation. Cultural constraints on the use of "foreign" scales are explored. Factor analyses reveal differences between the South African and English children. A South African…
Popularly considered a great equalizer, death and the rituals around it nevertheless accentuate social distinctions. The present study focuses on a sample (N = 2554) of death announcements in a major Turkish daily newspaper (Hürriyet) from 1970 to 2006. Out of the liminal position of Turkish death announcements between obituaries and death notices emerges a large decentralized collection of private decisions responding todeath, reflecting attitudes toward gender, ethnic/religious minority status and cultural capital, and echoing the aggregate efforts of privileged groups to maintain a particular self-image. Class closures lead to openings for traditionally under-represented minorities, such as Jewish Turkish citizens and citizens of Greek or Armenian origin. Results reveal that signs of status and power in announcements are largely monopolized by men of Turkish-Muslim origins. Although the changes in the genre-characteristics of death announcements are slow, they correspond to major turning points in Turkish social history. PMID:20222236
The current research was aimed at examining how attachment styles are connected to attraction todeath among eating disorder (ED) patients. A sample of 34 anorexic and 34 bulimic patients was matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic status to 37 normal controls. They were administered the Adult Attachment Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Multi-Attitude Suicidal Tendency Scale. Results
Zipora Hochdorf; Yael Latzer; Laura Canetti; Eytan Bachar
This article describes a study to understand the effect of medical student age on the attitude towards whole body donation. Outcomes discussed include the shift in attitude toward the nature of body donation (family member, self, unrelated stranger).
|Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
Conditions of fiscal stress in local governments prompt researchers and public officials to seek to assess citizens’ attitudes about public services and their inclination to fund enhanced service levels and quality. This study explores the questions of how citizens’ attitudes about services influence their willingness to pay for them and how direct and mediated experience with services influence attitudes about
Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.
|A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Changes in attitude question form, wording, and context have repeatedly been shown to produce change in responses. It is often assumed that such response effects are less pronounced among individuals whose attitudes are intense, personally important, or held with great certainty. We report the results of 27 experiments conducted in national surveys designed to evaluate this hypothesis. Measures of attitude
Sudden death due to the inhalation of halogenated hydrocarbons is a well-documented phenomenon in the scientific and medical literature. Recently, there has been sporadic information suggesting that nonhalogenated hydrocarbons may cause potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. This report documents five sudden deaths due to inhalation of nonhalogenated hydrocarbons: n-butane, isobutane and propane. The hydrocarbons were identified by headspace gas chromatography in blood, brain, and lung tissue. Case histories, toxicological findings and analytical procedures are discussed. PMID:9290881
This study was conducted to scale the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) with Rasch analysis. The ATIES records positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with various disabilities into regular classes. Rasch analysis resolved the nonlinear relationship between the finite range of recorded ATIES scores and the conceptually infinite range of attitudes. Results showed that the 16-item scale defined
Male and female participants were surveyed on abortion attitudes, commitment, and abortion experience. Results revealed a normal distribution of abortion attitudes rejecting the notion that the vast majority of the sample would have significantly pro-choice views. No significant difference was found in overall abortion attitudes of males vs. females, however, individuals with direct abortion experience were found to have significantly
Casey L Carlton; Eileen S Nelson; Priscilla K Coleman
Attitudes held with strong moral conviction (moral mandates) were predicted to have different interpersonal consequences than strong but nonmoral attitudes. After controlling for indices of attitude strength, the authors explored the unique effect of moral conviction on the degree that people preferred greater social (Studies 1 and 2) and physical (Study 3) distance from attitudinally dissimilar others and the effects
Linda J. Skitka; Christopher W. Bauman; Edward G. Sargis
|This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with…
Anxiety caused by conscious and unconscious fears of death and dying is the focus of 26 essays by 37 authors. The attitudes among the aged, the attitudes among the general population toward aging, and the attitudes among the chronically or terminally ill ...
Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence). PMID:22746672
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
The present research examined the relationship between homeowners' attitudes and their winter gas consumption. During the winter, 207 couples filled out questionnaires about their energy-related attitudes. The results confirmed prior results: thermal comfort was the most important determinant of household energy use. In addition, an analysis of the results of a 55-couple subsample who had filled out attitude questionnaires in
Lawrence J. Becker; Clive Seligman; Russell H. Fazio; John Mcconnon Darley
An increase in interest in death education among helping professionals and a concern for a lack of reliability and validity data on some instruments measuring attitudes about death is reviewed. The Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale and the Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale were administered twice to 20 graduate level male and female counselor trainees over a six-week interval. Test-retest
Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58
In all societies, when a person dies, family, friends, and neighbors respond in structured, patterned ways to the death. Cultural guidelines determine the treatment and disposal of the body and prescribe a period of mourning for close relatives. Death ritual, like much of human behavior, is an expression of a cultural blueprint, of attitudes, values and ideals passed down by
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits Â§ 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits Â§ 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.205...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Determining Entitlement to Benefits Â§ 718.205 Death due to pneumoconiosis. (a)...
OBJECTIVE. The objectives of our study were to determine the number, rate, and types of deaths attributed to specific X-ray contrast media on the basis of U.S. death certificates and to attempt to assess the comparative safety of commonly used diagnostic X-ray contrast agents using death certificate information. CONCLUSION. From 1999 through 2001, deaths attributed to the International Classi- fication
|Discusses how American experiences with death have changed since 1900 and shows how changes have served to transform attitudes and responses toward death. Compares individuals born prior to advent of atomic bomb to those born in nuclear age, and considers pervasive influence of television and other media in changing attitudes. (Author/NB)|
We sought to identify variables that contribute to euthanasia attitude and behavior, including demographics, death fears, experience with death, attitudes toward patient autonomy, and level of moral development.Subjects were 137 registered nurses from the southeastern United States representing 13 clinical nursing areas. Principal components analysis identified four factors that together explained 62.9% of total variance. These factors were belief in
Carolyn R. Shuman; Glenn P. Fournet; Paul F. Zelhart; Billy C. Roland; Robert E. Estes
Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess the death metaphors of Hong Kong Chinese for
The hearing today was called for the committee to have a chance to listen to experts in the area of constitutional law, and individuals who have been dealing with the question of the death penalty in California, to discuss the issues that were raised by t...
The aim of this clinicopathological study was to determine the frequency of infant deaths due to unnatural causes among cases of sudden and unexpected infant death. Nine institutes of legal medicine in Germany that took part in the German study on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (GeSID), representing 35% of the German territory, investigated in a 3-year period (from 1998 to
T. Bajanowski; M. Vennemann; M. Bohnert; E. Rauch; B. Brinkmann; E. A. Mitchell
This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…
Urges parents and teachers to face the topic of death realistically and naturally, discussing how and when the subject should be raised with children. Considers forms of grief, age differences in children's understanding, theological explanations, and the importance of helping children name/describe their feelings and allowing them to grieve. (DMM)
This thesis examines the authority of the President to promulgate the death penalty standards contained in Rule for Courts-Martial 1004 of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984. The Presidential promulgation of this rule involves serious sepa...
This study was designed to examine the relationship between gambling behaviour (gambling frequency and problem gambling severity)\\u000a and financial management practices (cash management, risk management, and general management), financial management attitudes,\\u000a and money attitudes (materialism, achievement, budget, obsession, and anxiety) in a sample of 118 participants (45 males,\\u000a 73 females) recruited from a university. The findings revealed that gambling frequency
The central purpose of the current study is to correlate level of support for the death penalty, death-qualification status, attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP), legal authoritarianism (RLAQ (Revised Legal Attitudes Questionnaire)), and demographic indices with attitudes toward the execution of the elderly and the physically disabled. Two hundred and fifty residents of the 12th Judicial Circuit in Florida completed
Research derived from terror management theory demonstrates that subtle reminders of mortality increase strivings for meaning. It is argued that such strivings reflect efforts to prevent the anxiety that death reminders may otherwise cause. However, no research has directly tested the assertions that subtle mortality primes increase death anxiety and perceptions of meaning in life moderate this effect. The current
The most generally used satellite attitude sensors are reviewed, and functional schemes of detection and estimation techniques applied to specific attitude sensors are presented. Two sensor classes are considered: sensors which provide continuous informat...
R. Baldassinifontana G. Simoncini D. Sciacovelli A. Santinelli
This study examined attitudes of Russian immigrants to the United States on women's equality, abortion, homosexuality, and Blacks. Interviews with first-generation immigrants were conducted, and their attitudes were compared with those reported in the 1991 General Social Survey of U.S. residents. The immigrants held more pro-abortion, anti-homosexual, and anti-Black attitudes than the Americans did; they were also less supportive of
An instrument, the Environmental Issues Attitude Defensibility Inventory (EIADI), has been developed to measure the amounts of previous information a person has that is utilized in the formation of that person's attitude concerning any environmental issue. The EIADI components, reliability, and future applications in environmental education are examined. The instrument is highly reliable in determining how environmental attitudes are formed. (1 diagram, 5 graphs, 18 references, 1 table)
A survey of 5000 American middle and high school level biology teachers was completed to assess attitudes and classroom practice relating to dissection and alternative teaching methods. A preliminary sample of 494 respondents revealed that 79% of teachers used dissection to teach biology. While 72% believed that dissection was an important part of the curriculum, 17% disagreed; 69% considered dissection to be an essential hands-on activity. While 31% believed that alternatives were as good as dissection for teaching anatomy and physiology, 55% disagreed. The primary reason given for continuing dissection, rather than exclusively using alternatives, was the hands-on aspect of dissection (69%). While the majority (66%) of biology teachers favoured student choice between dissection and other learning methods, 20% disagreed. Although the effectiveness of alternative methods has been documented, and ethical arguments against dissection have been advanced, the mainstream introduction of humane alternatives to dissection requires a transformation of the beliefs, experience and practice of biology teachers. PMID:23581121
King, Lesley A; Ross, Cheryl L; Stephens, Martin L; Rowan, Andrew N
A fatal suicidal intoxication with unusual drugs is reported. A 56-year-old man was found dead in his house; near by the corpse several empty drugs boxes were found. An autopsy was performed and the biological fluids were submitted to a full toxicological work-up.The analytical results supported the hypothesis of a death due to the acute baclofen (4-amino-3-(p-chlorophenyl)butyric acid) and dipyrone
The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues relating to research in the area of high school pupils’ attitudesto science. Teachers appear to consider that pupils’ attitudesto science, and to what is being studied in science lessons, exert a profound influence on levels of engagement with the subject. Yet, perhaps because of the difficulties
...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219.23 Employees...EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death Â§ 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death....
Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudesto academic dishonesty and their attitudesto ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…
Infections elicit diverse responses in the host that include activation of the innate immune system, inflammation and cell death. Pathogen-triggered cell death is manifested by various morphologies indicative of apoptosis, pyroptosis, oncosis or autophagic cell death. The question of whether cell death performs a physiologic function during infection is key to understanding host–pathogen interactions and pathogenesis, and devising targeted therapeutic
Background Systematic and reliable epidemiological information at population level, preferably cross-national, is needed for an adequate planning of (end-of-life) health care policies, e.g. concerning place of death, but is currently lacking. This study illustrates opportunities and weaknesses of death certificate data to provide such information on place of death and associated factors in nine European countries (seven entire countries and five regions). Methods We investigated the possibility and modality of all partners in this international comparative study (BE, DK, IT, NL, NO, SE, UK) to negotiate a dataset containing all deaths of one year with their national/regional administration of mortality statistics, and analysed the availability of information about place of death as well as a number of clinical, socio-demographic, residential and healthcare system factors. Results All countries negotiated a dataset, but rules, procedures, and cost price to get the data varied strongly between countries. In total, about 1.1 million deaths were included. For four of the nine countries not all desired categories for place of death were available. Most desired clinical and socio-demographic information was available, be it sometimes via linkages with other population databases. Healthcare system factors could be made available by linking existing healthcare statistics to the residence of the deceased. Conclusion Death certificate data provide information on place of death and on possibly associated factors and confounders in all studied countries. Hence, death certificate data provide a unique opportunity for cross-national studying and monitoring of place of death. However, modifications of certain aspects of death certificate registration and rules of data-protection are perhaps required to make international monitoring of place of death more feasible and accurate.
Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Miccinesi, Guido; Lofmark, Rurik; Addington-Hall, Julia; Kaasa, Stein; Norup, Michael; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc
|A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…
Three studies investigated the impact of temporal perspective on people's dominant social goals and explored the implications of these goals for openness toattitude change. Participants who perceived time as limited expressed social preferences in accor- dance with emotion-regulation goals (Study 1), were more prone to modify their attitudeto bring it into line with the atti- tude of an
This paper concerns organizational safety culture and the structure or architecture of employee attitudesto safety as part of that culture. It begins by reviewing the somewhat scant literature relevant to this area, and then reports a study, conducted in a European company, which collected and factor analysed data on employee attitudesto safety. The framework provided for the study
|Reports on a study designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Identifies three main factors: (1) personal attributes of the tutor; (2)…
|The paper explores attitudesto chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudesto chronic…
Smoking is the most preventable cause of death worldwide. The regularity of visits of patients to dental offices offers a valuable contact for health professionals and the healthcare system to initiate anti-smoking activity. However, these contacts remain unutilized and there is little interaction between doctor and patient with regard to prevention of smoking and its consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation and attitudes towards smoking and giving up smoking among dental professionals. A survey was carried out in the sample consisting in total of 342 participants, 212 students of dentistry and 130 dentists. Students were asked to complete a questionaire during the enrolment period; dentists were asked to complete the questionnaire while attending an annual compulsory in-service training course at the University of Szeged. The data were analysed statistically using SPSS 10.0 software, significance was tested using the Mann-Whitney U test and results were compared with data from a similar study conducted by the same research group in 2004 in which general knowledge and attitude towards smoking and giving up smoking was measured and evaluated. Results demonstrated that there is a lower number of smokers among dental professionals (dentists: 22.3%; students: 20.3%) than in the Hungarian general population and high interest in encouraging and assisting patients in giving up smoking (dentists: 45%; students: 54%). Comparing the results of this study to earlier data collated in 2004, we find a decreasing ratio of smokers among students (34% in 2004 and 20.3% in 2011). An increasing need for information about smoking cessation, tobacco related health hazards and the lack of detailed knowledge about methods and patient education were identified. PMID:22571016
Antal, Márk; Forster, András; Zalai, Zsolt; Barabás, Katalin; Ramseier, Christoph; Nagy, Katalin
Purpose – Instead of using general food choice motives, this study adopts more specific attitudes – i.e. health consciousness and environmental attitudes – to predict the consumer's attitude toward organic foods. The main objective of the paper is to test the hypothesis whether health consciousness and environmental attitudes influence the consumer's attitude toward organic foods through an individual's healthy lifestyle.
This paper describes a research study designed to look critically at the framework underpinning current attitude survey research on countryside leisure. The argument proposes that people do not have set and stable needs and attitudes. Using a framework informed by recent debates on discourse and rhetoric in social psychology, the research examines whether people appear to have, on the surface,
Data from the Northern Ireland Fertility Survey are utilised to examine attitudesto abortion in Northern Ireland from a broad regional perspective. A variety of techniques are used, including cross-tabular and binary correlation\\/regression analyses. Overall, the majority of respondents were against any change in abortion legislation for Northern Ireland. However, there were marked differences in attitude by region (with the
Changes in attitude question form, wording, and context have repeatedly been shown to produce change in responses. It is often assumed that such response effects are less pronounced among indi- viduals whose attitudes are intense, personally important, or held with great certainty. We report the results of 27 experiments conducted in national surveys designed to evaluate this hypothesis. Mea- sures
This paper presents the findings of surveys that have tracked mothers’ attitudes towards MMR over the period 1996–2006. The main aim was to demonstrate how attitudes in relation to MMR have evolved over the last 10 years incorporating the periods of time before, during and after the height of the MMR controversy within the UK.MMR vaccine remains the number one
|Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation…
The paper reports on an investigation into pupils' attitudesto loud sounds before and after teaching. This is part of the research project 'Design and validation of a teaching learning sequence about sound, hearing and health' for pupils aged 10 - 11 years. Pupils (41) have answered a multiple-choice questionnaire about their experiences of tinnitus, practices of headphones, attitudesto
|Examines adult attitudes toward wetlands in order to assess perceptions and thus educational failings as a barrier to wetland restoration. Finds relatively positive attitudes with significant differences between social groups and near-significant differences between genders. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)|
The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudesto teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudesto mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.
Every cell in a multicellular organism has the potential to die by apoptosis, but tumour cells often have faulty apoptotic pathways. These defects not only increase tumour mass, but also render the tumour resistant to therapy. So, what are the molecular mechanisms of tumour resistance to apoptosis and how can we use this knowledge to resensitize tumour cells to cancer
During the last three decades there has been a growing interest among social scientists in studying the attitudes of young people toward the elderly and the aging process. This study explored children's attitudes toward the elderly and aging using interviews and drawings. Third, fifth, and seventh grade students (N=162) were asked to "draw a young…
|Psychological research on race and ethnic stereotypes and attitudes has been carried out from two points of view -- a social learning view and a psychodynamic view. Neither of these grasp essential components of young children's ethnic attitudes or prejudices, nor do they detail the major developmental factors leading to the growth of tolerance…
This paper examines residents’ attitudesto a major non-sport-related mega event, the 2010 Shanghai Expo. Resident attitudes research can ascertain how best to accommodate host community views, a key issue in developing sustainable tourism strategies. The paper breaks new ground by examining attitudes both before and during the event, revealing considerable fluidity in attitudes, and it examines residents’ attitudes in
Abstract Despite the recent spate of deadly extreme weather events such as the 2003 European heat wave and the hurricanes of 2004 and 2005, aggregate mortality and mortality rates due to extreme weather events are generally lower today than they used to be. Globally, mortality and mortality rates have declined by 95 percent or more since the 1920s. The largest
|Meanings of religious and nonreligious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on deathattitudes. In the…
|Many Chinese words are pictographic in nature and Chinese people often tend to use metaphorical expressions to communicate emotional feelings. The assessment of death images and metaphors provides a meaningful way of understanding personal perceptions of death among the Chinese. The purpose of this study was to establish an instrument to assess…
As the single most important experience in the lives of all people, the process and event of death must be handled carefully by the medical community. Twentieth-century advances in life-sustaining technology impose new areas of concern on those who are responsible for dying persons. Physicians and surrogates alike must be ready and willing to decide not to intervene in the dying process, indeed to hasten it, when they see the autonomy and dignity of patients threatened. In addition, the very ways we talk about death and dying need to come under scrutiny, and it is likely that our technical advances should be parallelled by equally arduous advances in the semantic and rhetorical approaches we take todeath.
Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess patient attitudes towards anti-glaucoma medication and their association with adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits. Materials and Methods One hundred and forty-seven glaucoma patients were enrolled this study. The participants were divided into 'pharmacophobic' and 'pharmacophilic' groups according to their scores on the Modified Glaucoma Drug Attitude Inventory (MG-DAI). To establish a correlation with patient drug attitude, each group had their subjective drug adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits examined. For personality traits, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to sub-classify each group. Results Among the patients analyzed, 91 (72.80%) patients showed a 'pharmacophobic' attitude and 34 (27.20%) patients showed a 'pharmacophilic' attitude. The pharmacophobic group tended to have worse adherence than the pharmacophilic group. Personality dichotomies from the MBTI also showed different patterns for each group. Conclusion In glaucoma patients, pharmacological adherence was influenced by their attitude towards drugs; an association might exist between drug attitude and underlying personality traits.
Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Yoon, Jong Uk; Kang, Uicheon; Seong, Gong Je
|Uses 2 instruments to compare 20 people who experienced the death of a parent between ages 12 and 18 with 22 people whose parents had not divorced, separated, or died. Higher correlations between threat as measured by these two instruments were found for the control group than the death-loss group alone. Theoretical and methodological issues are…
... Intensifed' Global Effort Needed to Further Cut Child Deaths: Report While mortality rates are dropping among children ... are projected to meet targets to reduce child deaths by 2035, a new study says. The targets ...
Livestock herding peoples are known for their close involvement with their animals, valuing them in multiple ways. This paper addresses the issue of the nature of emotional or moral commitment to livestock animals, particularly cattle, among a group of southwest Ethiopian livestock herders, the Suri people. From certain cases of cattle and sheep sacrifice it could be concluded that the
Environmental attitudes (EA), a crucial construct in environmental psychology, are a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating the natural environment with some degree of favour or disfavour. There are hundreds of EA measures available based on different conceptual and theoretical frameworks, and most researchers prefer to generate new measures rather than organize those already available. The present research provides a cumulative
Research studying the public's attitudes toward capital punishment has typically assessed whether individuals favor or oppose the use of the death penalty, without examining the underlying structure of these attitudes. The present study used a general model of attitudeto examine the relative importance of affective information (i.e., feelings) and cognitive information (i.e., beliefs) in predicting attitudes toward capital punishment.
In the United States, there is a paucity of studies examining sharp force injuries (SFIs), defined as an injury inflicted by cutting or stabbing with a sharp instrument. Few studies exist that discriminate between the injury patterns of suicidal or homicidal deaths incurred by SFI. In this retrospective study, all deaths secondary to SFI were evaluated at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office from January 1988 through May 2010. Exclusion criteria were deaths occurring more than 24 hours after injury and wounds obscured by healing or extensive medical intervention. The following data were analyzed: age of decedent, sex, wound location, number of wounds, type of SFI (stab vs incised), visceral organ or vascular injury, concomitant injuries, and manner of death. Defensive injuries in homicides and hesitation marks in suicides were also recorded. A total of 418 deaths met inclusion criteria: 349 homicides, 54 suicides, 12 accidents, and 2 where the manner of death could not be determined.The average age of homicide victims was 35 years, whereas that of suicide victims was 47 years. Gender was not significantly different between the homicide and suicide groups. Homicide victims incurred a greater number of wounds per case compared with suicides, 5.3 versus 4.1, respectively, and had a greater number of stab wounds, 3.3 per case compared with 0.7 per case, respectively. Incisional wounds were statistically greater in suicides, with an average number of 3.3 per case compared with 2.1 in homicides.Injuries to the head, chest, and back were more common in homicides when compared with suicides, whereas injuries to the abdomen and extremities were more frequent in suicides. Comparison of major visceral and vascular damage between homicides and suicides revealed statistically greater injury to the heart, lungs, and thoracic vessels in homicides, but there was a greater frequency of injury to the vasculature of the extremities in suicides. The presence of additional (non-SFI) injuries was more common in homicides than in suicides. Hesitation marks/tentative wounds occurred in 35% of suicides, whereas defensive injuries occurred in 31% of homicides. This epidemiological study can assist the forensic pathologist in determining the most probable manner of death from SFI but does not substitute for a thorough examination of the circumstances of death and a meticulous autopsy. PMID:23629405
Kemal, Cameron J; Patterson, Tyler; Molina, D Kimberley
\\u000a Archaeologists have long been intrigued by the remains of the dead. Because skeletons, grave goods and cemeteries represent\\u000a deliberate disposal, unlike the incidental discard of everyday items, mortuary material can bring us a step closer to the lives and\\u000a intentions of people and places in the past. Along the way, archaeologists have developed many different approaches to studying\\u000a the dead.
Introduction: More military personnel die of injuries each year than any other cause. This paper provides a basic epidemiologic description of injury deaths in the military.Methods: Using fatality data from the Department of Defense Directorate of Information and Operations Reports and population data from the Defense Manpower Data Center, death rates of men and women in the military services for
Kenneth E Powell; Lois A Fingerhut; Christine M Branche; Dennis M Perrotta
|Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between deathattitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)|
This study was designed to identify differences in nurses' attitudes toward the nursing history interview and written care plan related to specific characteristics such as: education, length of nursing experience, interviewing skills and public health exp...
This article reviews the evolution of the medical-legal definition of brain death, as well as the normative debate surrounding this reconceptualization. It offers a clinical approach to address religious objections to brain death, which prefers negotiation over confrontation when families and practicitioners must discern the boundaries between life and death.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to HIV\\/AIDS and whether attitudes correlate with knowledge and clinical experience. To determine if students felt adequately prepared to deal with medical and psychological aspects of HIV\\/AIDS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--The subjects consisted of 190 London and 99 Cambridge medical students at the end of their genitourinary medicine attachment, plus 230 Cambridge
Introduction. Injury mortality was classically described with a tri-modal distribution, with immediate deaths at the scene, early deaths due to hemorrhage, and late deaths from organ failure. We hypothesized that trauma systems development have improved pre-hospital care, early resuscitation, and critical care, and altered this pattern. ^ Methods. This is a population-based study of all trauma deaths in an urban
As much as brain stem death is currently the clinical definition of death in many countries and is a phenomenon of paramount medical importance, there is a dearth of information on its mechanistic underpinnings. A majority of the clinical studies are concerned only with methods to determine brain stem death. Whereas a vast amount of information is available on the
Julie Y. H. Chan; Alice Y. W. Chang; Samuel H. H. Chan
Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, has in the past few years undoubtedly become one of the most intensively investigated biological processes. However, fundamental questions concerning the molecular and biochemical mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The central question concerns the biochemical steps shared by the numerous death induction pathways elicited by different stimuli. Heterogeneous death signals precede a common effector phase
Background Temporal variation in deaths related to alcohol intoxication is examined using two approaches. First, we examine the risk of these deaths during festivals, on the day preceding them, and on the three days that immediately follow them. Second, we assess the weekday variation in deaths, and compare this with survey-based data on weekday variations in drinking. Previously no data
This article reports on 11 narrative-based case histories which sought to: (1) uncover the attitudes of players and athletes to drugs in sport, and (2) explore contextual factors influencing the formation of those attitudes as informed by social ecology theory. Overall, participants viewed the use of banned performance-enhancing substances as cheating, ‘hard’ non-performance-enhancing recreational or illicit substances as unwise, legal
Aaron C. T. Smith; Bob Stewart; Sunny Oliver-Bennetts; Sharyn McDonald; Lynley Ingerson; Alastair Anderson; Geoff Dickson; Paul Emery; Fiona Graetz
Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudesto positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).
Contents: Introduction; Process for Capital Murder Prosecutions (Chart); The Trial; Death Penalty: The Capital Appeals Process; TIER 1: The Direct Appeal; TIER 2: The Collateral/ 'Rule 32' Appeal; TIER 3: Federal Habeas Corpus Proceedings; Clemency; Execu...
Research for this article was stimulated by the death of my husband in February 1998. It focuses on the immediate and long-term\\u000a responses of the grievers by examinging various formal relation-ships (spouses, parents-children, friends, etc.) between grievers\\u000a and deceased, the sex of the grievers, the quality and length of the relationships and the causes of death.
Three hundred British parents completed a long questionnaire on their attitudesto, and behaviour concerning, pocket-money allowances for their children. This study focused, through multiple regressions, on the demographic and psychographic predictors of specific attitudes. As has been established in previous studies, results indicated that most parents (88.4%) were in favour of pocket-money schemes; they should begin around 6 years-old
To maximize the contributions of nanotechnology to this society, at least 60 countries have put efforts into this field. In Taiwan, a government-funded K-12 Nanotechnology Programme was established to train K-12 teachers with adequate nanotechnology literacy to foster the next generation of Taiwanese people with sufficient knowledge in nanotechnology. In the present study, the Nanotechnology Attitude Scale for K-12 teachers
A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac) classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies), two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy), a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal). For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions associated with them, and the most common clinical scenarios for future study and comparisons.
During 2004 and 2005, Florida was struck by 8 hurricanes, resulting in 213 deaths. The Department of Health and Florida medical examiners monitor hurricane mortality surveillance. This study analyzed hurricane-related deaths reported by the Florida Medical Examiners Commission for 2004 to 2005. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the Florida hurricane-related mortality for 2004 and 2005, (2) accurately characterize the hurricane-related deaths, and (3) identify strategies to prevent or reduce future hurricane deaths. For 2004, there were 144 total hurricane-related deaths. The majority (59%) occurred in the postimpact phase, with accidents accounting for 76% of deaths. Among these, over half were caused by trauma, followed by drowning, other injury, electrocution, and carbon monoxide poisoning. For 2005, there were 69 hurricane-related deaths. Sixty-one percent of deaths occurred in the postimpact phase, with accidents accounting for 86% of all deaths. Among these, over half were due to trauma, with drowning and carbon monoxide poisoning being the other major contributors. Most hurricane-related deaths are due to unintentional injury and therefore, preventable. Seventy-nine percent of deaths are in those aged 40 and older. Prevention messages should target high-risk, postimpact activities, especially in older adults. PMID:18520483
Ragan, Patricia; Schulte, Joann; Nelson, Stephen J; Jones, Ken T
Despite the recent increase in interest in terminally ill children and their families and the post death adjustment of parents, there has been little research examining the adjustment and self concept of surviving siblings in such families. This paper discusses the results of a preliminary descriptive study of 28 children (from 14 families) whose brother or sister had died of cancer between 18 and 30 months previously. Behaviour checklists were completed by parents and teachers and self concept scales administered to the children. A lengthy semistructured interview was carried out, and measures of parental adjustment were gathered. A high percentage of children were found to be exhibiting emotional or behavioural difficulties, or both, and the results indicated that low self esteem was common. Parental and child adjustment were not found to be related inter se, nor did they seem to relate to the child's self esteem. Thus for many children the loss of a sibling might cause long term distress. Further, many children who did not manifest overt difficulties perceived themselves unfavourably in comparison with either their ideal or their dead sibling.
This article highlights the theoretical differences between the Likert and Thurstone approaches toattitude measurement and demonstrates how such differences can lead to discrepant attitude estimates for individuals with the most extreme opinions. Both simulated data and real data on attitude toward abortion are used to demonstrate this discrepancy. The results suggest that attitude researchers should, at the very least,
James S. Roberts; James E. Laughlin; Douglas H. Wedell
Concepts, such as death, life and spirit cannot be known in their quintessential nature, but can be defined in accordance with their effects. In fact, those who think within the mode of pragmatism and Cartesian logic have ignored the metaphysical aspects of these terms. According to Islam, the entity that moves the body is named the soul. And the aliment of the soul is air. Cessation of breathing means leaving of the soul from the body. Those who agree on the diagnosis of brain death may not able to agree unanimously on the rules that lay down such diagnosis. That is to say, there are a heap of suspicions regarding the diagnosis of brain death, and these suspicions are on the increase. In fact, Islamic jurisprudence does not put provisions, decisions on suspicious grounds. By virtue of these facts, it can be asserted that brain death is not absolute death according to Islamic sources; for in the patients diagnosed with brain death the soul still has not abandoned the body. Therefore, these patients suffer in every operation performed on them. PMID:21292699
There is much interest in science courses in high school and student attitudes toward those courses. A valid and reliable instrument that measures such attitudes is not available. This study first developed and validated the Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (ATSSA). The instrument was used to evaluate the relationship between such attitude and achievement in science. A low correlation
This paper investigates how ads for extensions can trigger different reactions with respect to consumers' attitudes towards new line and brand extensions of familiar brands. Using a structural equation model, the authors research the influence of attitude towards the ad (Aad), parent brand quality, and perceived fit on attitude toward the extension (Aext), and resulting feedback effects on attitude toward
Changes in the death qualification process suggest an increasing probability that jurors in capital cases will reject an insanity defense. The present study of 312 college undergraduates compares demographics and attitudes of death-qualified participants with those of their excludable counterparts, by varying standards for exclusion. When demographics were considered together, only religion predicted bias against the insanity defense, which was
Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined deathto be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)
This paper reports on two complementary studies which together looked at factors affecting pupils’ attitudesto science between the ages of 10+ and 13 +.The first study, using primary school children, used several measures of attitude, the first of these found two factors, ‘space’ and ‘nature study’, which correlated with attitudesto science and a second measure found an additional
Milton B. Ormerod; Margaret Rutherford; Charles Wood
Two hundred venirepersons (prospective Jurors) from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Sarasota, Florida completed the following booklet of stimulus materials: (1) one question that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) a summary of the guilt phase and penalty phases of a capital case in which victim impact statements were either
|Reported are two studies considering factors affecting students' attitudesto science by using television programs. Describes the results on students' attitudes by sex and grades. Hypothesized that the use of space programs and other fantastic aspects of science could improve the attitudes of children towards science. (Author/YP)|
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member's organs in a minority of students. Irish students' attitudesto postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members. PMID:21656917
We consider looking at the death and dying as a social, historical and cultural construction. Thus, in we approach them to the Cultural Studies to know nurses speeches on the subject. The research is periodic articles of two national ones of nursing. In the analyses we use tools proposals for Michel Foucault that they make possible to constitute four categories: the silenced and occulted death; stopping one it fights against the death; the death in scene: multiplicity of faces and the palliative death and cares: paradigm change. The study detaches the way as the publications operate in the production of knowing on the death and dying to them and subjectiving the nurses. PMID:19597671
Silva, Karen Schein da; Ribeiro, Rubia Guimarães; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce
Among persons who reported having had near-death experiences, 80% also reported subsequent auditory hallucinations. Experiencers’ attitudes toward these hallucinations were over-whelmingly positive, as contrasted with the overwhelmingly negative attitudes of patients with schizophrenia toward their auditory hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations not related to disease processes are common and may be highly valued by those who hear them.
Where To Start Your Inquiries into Death Anxiety A review of Death Anxiety Handbook: Research, Instrumentation, and Application edited by Robert A. Neimeyer. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1994. 284 pp. ISBN 1-56032-282-9. $54.50. Reviewed by David C. Hill.A Complex, Difficult Topic for a Pluralistic, Secular Society A review of Death and Spirituality edited by Kenneth J. Doka (with John
Cause of death data is an invaluable resource for shaping our understanding of population health. Mortality statistics is one of the principal sources of health information and in many countries the most reliable source of health data. 1 A quick classification process for this data can significantly improve public health efforts. Currently, cause of death data is captured in unstructured form requiring months to process. We think this process can be automated, at least partially, using simple statistical Natural Language Processing, NLP, techniques and the Unified Medical Language System, UMLS, as a vocabulary resource. A system, Medical Match Master, MMM, was built to exercise this theory. We evaluate this simple NLP approach in the classification of causes of death. This technique performed well if we engaged the use of a large biomedical vocabulary and applied certain syntactic maneuvers made possible by textual relationships within the vocabulary.
The VSOP-2 project is a new space VLBI (very long baseline interferometer) radio astronomy mission, proposed to inherit the fruitful success of the VSOP mission with the HALCA satellite. One of the most important advances of VSOP-2 is the use of higher observation frequency, which requires fast alternating observation of a target and calibrator in order to remove the phase changes caused by the atmosphere. Typically, both sources must be observed within 60 sec, and this switching must be carried out over many hours. ``ASTRO-G" is a satellite planned for this VSOP-2 project, and one of technical challenges is to achieve such fast rest-to-rest maneuvers, and the proper hardware must be selected to account for this fast attitude maneuver. The controlled momentum gyro (CMG) is an actuator that provides high torque with small power consumption, and the fiber optical gyro is a sensor able to measure the high angular velocity with excellent accuracy. This paper first describes these components for attitude control. Another challenge of the ASTRO-G's attitude control system is to design the switching for the flexible mode of the satellite structure, containing a large deployable reflector and a large solar panel. These produce resonances with fast switching and these must be attenuated. To achieve high agility in a flexible satellite, the controller design is crucial. One design feature is a novel robust input shaper named ``nil mode exciting profiler". Another feature is the feedback controller design. The paper describes these features and other potential problems with fast switching..
We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally. PMID:20533796
Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris
The objective of constructing this scale was to produce a short, balanced scale, to measure favourability of attitudeto coloured people, containing items relevant to the British situation, likely to be meaningful even to 11-year-olds. (Author/JM)
Mysterious disorder puts S.D. bees at riskhttp://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/NEWS/705150301/1001Queen Bees-In Hive or Castle, Duty Without Powerhttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/science/15angi.htmlAre mobile phones wiping out our bees?http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.eceYou've saved whales and dolphins-now save the beeshttp://www.nashuatelegraph.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070515/COLUMNISTS26/70515009/-1/opinionNature: Bee Anatomy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/alienempire/multimedia/bee.htmlThe Beekeeping Portalhttp://www.beekeeping.org/Apiarists throughout the United States and the rest of the world have been asking one pressing question over the past several months: What is killing millions of honeybees? A number of theories have been proposed as of late, and the mysterious ailment known as colony collapse disorder is something that is puzzling both entomologists and those who derive their livelihood from honeybee-related activities. Bees have been leaving the hive and never returning, so researchers can't perform necropsies in many cases. While some people may just associate honeybees with their most popular product, namely honey, these tiny creatures are also responsible for pollinating over ninety different crops, including almonds, apples, cranberries, watermelon, and cucumbers. One potential explanation that has been advanced is that extensive radiation from mobile phones could be interfering with bees' navigation systems. An apiarist in South Dakota, Brad Folsand, remarked that "You always lose a few, maybe 10 percent or something like that. But there are guys who have lost 90 percent in some places." Apiculturists from the University of Illinois to the University of California, Davis are continuing to research this vexing situation, and it is hoped that they will be able to get the bottom of the situation in the near future. The first link will take users to a piece from this Tuesday's News-Herald about the difficult situation faced by beekeepers in northeast Ohio. Moving along, the second link leads to a similar story from the Sioux Falls Argus Leader. The third link will take users to a nice piece of science reporting from this Tuesday's New York Times about the world of the queen bee. The forth link leads to an article from the Independent which talks about the potential link between these recent honeybee deaths and mobile phones. The fifth link leads to a passionate editorial from the Nashua Telegraph's own Mike Morin about the importance of saving the honeybee population. The sixth link leads to a great interactive feature from the Nature program that provides details about the bee's anatomy, from the stinger all the way up to the antennae. Finally, the last link leads to the very exhaustive and interesting Virtual Beekeeping Gallery, which contains information on bee-keeping equipment, related associations, laboratories, and so on.
Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. PMID:18046739
Background: Multidisciplinary teamwork is recommended for various disorders and it has been suggested that it is a way to meet the new challenges and demands facing general practitioners (GPs) in modern society. Attempts to introduce the method in primary care have failed partly due to GPs' unwillingness to participate. The aim of this study was to measure attitudes towards collaboration
ANDERS HANSSON; TOBIAS ARVEMO; BERTIL MARKLUND; BIRGITTA GEDDA; BENGT MATTSSON
The spokesperson refers to the person who spreads information for firm's profit or nonprofit goals. Firm uses spokesperson to present its product or brand in order to enhance the reputation or consumer's purchase intention. It is very important to know how consumer's attitudeto brand spokesperson. But most of the existing literatures study brand spokesperson in perspective of firms, not
Little is currently known about the attitudes of psychiatric nurses toward patient aggression, particularly from an international perspective. Attitudes toward patient aggression of psychiatric nurses from five European countries were investigated using a recently developed and tested attitude scale. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 1,769 student nurses and psychiatric nurses. Regression analysis was performed to identify personal and occupational characteristics of the respondents able to predict their attitude toward aggression. Analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences in attitudes between and among countries. Attitude was predicted by sex, contractual status (full vs. part time), and the type of ward on which subjects worked. With one exception (communicative attitude), attitudes differed across countries. More research on attitude formation is needed to determine which factors account for these differences. PMID:16549245
Jansen, Gerard J; Middel, Berry; Dassen, Theo W N; Reijneveld, Menno S A
The paper briefly reviews the history of vital registration in Europe and in some other countries before the 20th century. It analyses in particular the use of death registration for monitoring epidemics and to inform public health practitioners. Vital statistics have also been the key to documenting and understanding the demographic transition during the 20th century, both for fertility and
This study explores the feasibility of the model of the ‘cultural performance’ to explain the cultural significance of the gladiatorial munus in Roman society. It then turns to consider the impact of such a potent spectacle in the Greek regions of the Roman Empire. In an effort to gauge the attitude of the general Greek spectator to this ostentatiously Roman
This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416
|This study explores contemporary attitudesto Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…
|Attitudesto science scales developed earlier in England have been used in and around a Pakistan city with children in Primary/Elementary Grades 4-8. The limitations of a "transferred scale" in a culturally different context are apparent in a failure to reproduce the English factor patterns, but items are identified to serve as a base for future…
Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Nageen, Tabassum; Pell, Anthony William
Traditionally, internships have provided a unique way for criminal justice students to gain work experience while earning academic credit. Questions remain, however, as to whether a student's educational experiences adequately reflect the realities of internship (and other work-related) experiences. As part of a larger study, we sought to explore student views and attitudes regarding their undergraduate curriculum and its relevance
Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related todeath penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury. PMID:17546480
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a non-invasive alternative to full autopsy in neonatal death if parents refuse classical full autopsy. MRI offers high resolution images of the entire neonate without disrupting the integrity of the child. Neonatal malformations or pathologies that are responsible for the death of the neonate can be identified. A major disadvantage of MR-autopsy is the lack
Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death with well-defined morphological traits that are often associated with activation of caspases. More recently evidence has become available demonstrating that upon caspase inhibition alternative programs of cell death are executed, including ones with features characteristic of necrosis. These findings have changed our view of necrosis as a passive and essentially accidental form of cell deathto that of an active, regulated and controllable process. Also necrosis has now been observed in parallel with, rather than as an alternative pathway to, apoptosis. Thus, cell death responses are extremely flexible despite being programmed. In this review, some of the hallmarks of different programmed cell death modes have been highlighted before focusing the discussion on necrosis. Obligatory events associated with this form of cell death include uncompensated cell swelling and related changes at the plasma membrane. In this context, representatives of the transient receptor channel family and their regulation are discussed. Also mechanisms that lead to execution of the necrotic cell death program are highlighted. Emphasis is laid on summarizing our understanding of events that permit switching between cell death modes and how they connect to necrosis. Finally, potential implications for the treatment of some disease states are mentioned. PMID:18473819
Henriquez, Mauricio; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andrés; Quest, Andrew F G
New York State's death penalty statute is constitutionally flawed in many respects. It violates the state and federal prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment and provides unrestricted prosecutorial discretion to pursue the death penalty. This standardless and unfettered discretion creates the risk of arbitrary or discriminatory application of capital punishment.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in beliefs and attitudes regarding workplace attire including: the value placed on clothing, the impact of attire on workplace outcomes (e.g., promotions, raises), the effort and planning involved in dressing appropriately for work, how their clothing made them feel, and whether they used their attire to manage the impression of
The value of assessing affect and attitudes in addition to daily behavior in the prediction of marital satisfaction was examined. Thirty distressed couples, self-referred to marital therapy, and 25 community couples were studied. Measures of positive feelings toward spouse, commitment, and exchange orientation were obtained along with seven days of behavioral records. All of these variables were significantly associated with
Both Italy and Sweden have legislated abortion without grounds since the 1970s but background conditions in the two countries are bipolar. The overall purpose of the present study was to investigate a sample of adolescents from Italy and Sweden regarding their attitudes towards abortion and their knowledge of family planning and to compare the results from the two countries. A
Used self-administered questionnaires to assess pro-choice attitudes of 840 undergraduates just prior to the 1984 presidential election. Students were asked whether they would approve or disapprove of abortion under four different circumstances. Results indicated that the majority of both males and females were in favor of allowing abortion under…
|This report discusses the outcomes of a study designed to assess teacher attitudes about an interdisciplinary approach to the inclusion of students with behavior disorders. The interdisciplinary approach involved four components: responsible inclusion, language intervention strategies, self-management programs, and pragmatic skills for classroom…
Spann-Hite, Tracy; Picklesimer, Billie K.; Hamilton, Gloria J.
As part of a larger study of parental roles in sex education, a stratified probability sample of 1482 parents of three- to eleven-year-old children were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with reference to “masturbation” on the part of their children. A large majority of parents accepted the fact that children did masturbate, a smaller majority agreed that masturbation
Older workers tend to face negative stereotypes that impact on their employability and their training and promotional opportunities. In this paper, the determinants of attitudes of management to older workers in the retail sector are examined. The study finds that top management support, effective utilisation or deployment of older workers and monitoring of the percentage of older workers determines positive
This paper describes an experiment to measure attitudinal change in educable mentally retarded and normal children as a result of seeing a film entitled "The Hunter." The investigators, after previewing the film, outlined the attitudes and concepts contained in the film; question items were written to test these concepts. Essentially, the…
Age and gender differences in personal meanings of death have been noted from late childhood to middle adulthood but have been little studied in older adults, for whom death is less remote. Also, such meanings have not been related to their fears of death. Groups of 78 young adults (aged 19–29) and 68 older adults (aged 70–97) were compared on
There is much interest in science courses in high school and student attitudes toward those courses. A valid and reliable instrument that measures such attitudes is not available. This study first developed and validated the Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (ATSSA). The instrument was used to evaluate the relationship between such attitude and achievement in science. A low correlation was found between attitude and various achievement tests. A moderate correlation was found between attitude and achievement that included an evaluation of the quality of work, as in a course grade.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between perceived employee training effectiveness and job satisfaction, motivation and commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study examined the responses of 134 employees and lower managers, of five large Greek organizations, after they had completed a training program. The questions asked contained information about the employee attitudes towards tvhe training
Two hypotheses, that young subjects would express more positive attitudes toward women's right to self determination than older subjects and that more women than men would do so, were supported by the author's research reported in this article. (Author/HMV)
Most research on faculty collective bargaining has focused on its extent and demographic variables such as age, salary, academic discipline, and rank. Little has been done to investigate individual differences which correlate with attitudes toward collective bargaining. The external validity of an earlier study done by Bigoness on correlates of…
|Recent research suggests that the majority of primary school teachers in the UK believe that the purpose of teaching art and design is to develop skills associated with creativity, communication and expression. This article is based on research into the attitudes held by primary school pupils towards making art. The reflective nature of many of…
This article describes a pre-post survey given to medical students in a gross anatomy course addressing the attitudes toward becoming cadaver donators. Outcomes discuss the influence of actively dissecting a cadaver and how that shifts students away from donating one's body.
This is a study of the relationship between trust in institutions and attitudesto gene technology in general, and GM food and stem cell research in particular. The role of so-called active trust is emphasised, meaning that trust is neither conceived as a trait nor a one-dimensional concept. The study uses data from a Eurobarometer survey of gene technology in
PREVIOUS SURVEYS of the Australian community's knowl- edge of depression have shown that most people have little specific knowledge about depression or the effective phar- macological or psychological interventions available. 1,2 However, the community has reported a preference for self- help strategies and expressed negative attitudes towards pharmacological interventions. 3 Consistent with these views, people report that they prefer to
Interviews on coffee drinking habits and attitudesto coffee were carried out with 166 adult American coffee drinkers, representing Italian, Jewish, Black and White North?Central European ethnic groups. These groups were compared on measures of liking for hot or iced coffee, coffee flavor in other vehicles, reasons for drinking coffee, developmental history, physiological and psychological effects of coffee and extent
A sample of 197 and a sample of 141 undergraduates from a larger population of 200 at a large southeastern American university revealed their attitudes toward Buddhism and Islam respectively. In regard to Buddhism, while over 90% of the respondents reported NOT being knowledgeable about Buddhism, they reported generally positive beliefs about Buddhism which is associated with spiritual enlightenment, positive
A new dual spacecraft configuration comprising of two spacecraft halves judiciously connected through extremely short tethers is proposed. The simple tethered configuration induces stabilizing torques when subjected toattitude disturbances, thus ensuring 3-d pointing stability of both the satellite platforms. The enhanced system performance obtained using tethers enables a much greater flexibility in the choice of satellite mass distribution. Three
|"Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…
|This study compares the attitudes of primary children to school science between children from the Northern Ireland (UK) and Oman. Previous research has indicated that pupils in the more senior primary classes showed a marked decline in their enjoyment of school science, although most of this research was carried out in Europe, North America, and…
This paper reports on a global study of the attitudes of students studying in senior year and first-year postgraduate tourism and hospitality subjects to tourism and its relationship with the environment and climate change. The study determined that students are generally concerned about environmental degradation, feel knowledgeable about climate change, are concerned that it will become an even larger issue
|This article sets out to investigate the notions Spanish university teaching staff have of quality in education, on the assumption that those notions give a reliable picture of the attitudes of teaching staff towards education policy design and university management. The paper takes an empirical approach, collecting opinions telematically via a…
Barandiaran-Galdos, Marta; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodriguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del-Campo, Juan Jose; Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon
|In line with a recent study by Kemp, this study examined the possibility that closed-mindedness as measured by the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale may interfere with attitude-change findings in counselor education. Although the results were not statistically significant, the trends in the data conformed closely to those of Kemp. (Author)|
The death certificate must be established within 24 hours following the death and handed to the mayor. The obligation to place in the coffin immediately is planned by a defined list of contagious diseases. Medicolegal obstacle must be ticked if there is a doubt on the cause of death. In order to look into the causes of the death, swabs can be asked by the physician. It is a medical or scientific autopsy to look into the causes of the death apart from a juridical procedure. The presence of a battery prosthesis (pacemaker) must be specified, so that it can be removed by a physician or a thanatopractionner before the placing in the coffin. Death certificate is passed on by the city hall to Insee, which updates the identification national register of physical people. Inserm receives anonymous data of the causes of death allowing to establish the mortality national statistics. In the absence of medicolegal obstacle or obligation to place in the coffin immediately, funeral operations can begin: preservation care, body transport, placing in the coffin and finally burial or cremation. PMID:17336488
Manaouil, C; Decourcelle, M; Gignon, M; Chatelain, D; Jardé, O
Child abuse can be overlooked as a cause of death, particularly in cases in which there is initially no known cause of death and the death remains unexplained. To rectify this serious situation, both the government and member of parliament Arib have developed proposals to amend the procedures found in the Burial and Cremation Act regarding the deaths of minors. The government hopes to promote closer post-mortem examination for those paediatric cases, including sudden infant death syndrome, in which the cause of death remains unexplained by requiring further investigation into the cause of death (the so-called NODO procedure). Arib proposed a bill in May 2006 that would require all deceased minors to be examined by a forensic expert. Arguments against the latter proposal include the unnecessary burden it would place on surviving relatives of children who die of clearly natural causes. At this time, the NODO procedure proposed by the government appears to be the more rational choice. At the same time, training for medical professionals, particularly general practitioners and paediatricians, should give ample attention to identifying injuries caused by child abuse and how best to deal with the parents. PMID:17326470
This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.
The article explores the relevance of modern sociological theories on death and dying as they might apply to Islamic communities. These include several relevant important European sociological commentaries: Walter's typology of deathattitudes, Seale's pseudo-psychoanalytical approach and Kellehear's important study of the social history of dying. The article is based on a variety of sources including religious texts, tales from
|Examines how adolescents perceive the role of parents influencing their decision to use psychoactive substances. Perceived parental rejection, acceptance, and attitudes significantly differentiated between adolescents who reported favorable attitudes toward and high intent to use substances, and those who expressed less favorable attitudes. The…
Objective A positive attitude is assumed to be important in nursing staff’s help and support of elderly people during meals. As there\\u000a is no specific tool for measuring staff’s attitudes regarding important issues within eating and nutrition, the SANN (Staff\\u000a Attitudesto Nutritional Nursing Care) scale was developed. The scale was developed and tested in nursing staff working at\\u000a resident homes,
Poignant tweets by a well-known journalist led to a national conversation about publicly sharing the death experience. The purpose of this column is to set the stage for a broader discussion among health care providers to understand the perceived benefits and related challenges of using social media to share the death experience. J Contin Educ Nurs 2013;44(10):435-436. PMID:24098987
Abstract Relationship of Body Attitude and Personality Characteristics to Dietary Intake in Female Collegiate Athletes Tiffany Michelle Reiss The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of body attitudeto both dietary intake and selected personality characteristics.The study focused on the relationship between dietary intake and both body attitude and personality characteristics as well as differences in body
Tiffany M. Reiss; Charles R. Baffi; Chair Jimmie; C. Fortune; Billie Lepczyk; Mary Landon-Moore; Kerry J. Redican
According to attribution theory stigmatized behaviors with biological explanations will be perceived more positively than\\u000a those with psychological explanations, but informing people of the biological explanations of homosexuality has produced mixed\\u000a results on attitudes. To examine if biased processing could explain previous findings we tested whether biased assimilation\\u000a (initial attitudes’ effect on perceived persuasiveness) and attitude polarization (initial attitudes’ effect
Data based on questionnaire measures from parents in New Zealand, the UK, and Sweden on attitudes toward advertising to children is presented. There is cross-national evidence that attitudes in this area are affectively strong and consistent and data is presented on responses to particular attitude statements that support this claim. An exploratory factor analysis on the Swedish and UK data
|Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
The relationships between teacher attitudes about children, children's peer relations, and achievement orientation were investigated. Eighteen preschool children were administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and a standard sociometric nomination procedure as measures of achievement and peer status, respectively. Fourteen student teachers involved in a practicum experience responded to an attitude measurement procedure designed to assess attitudes of Attachment,
The paper is mostly a review of the evolution of the attitude control systems requirements, of the concepts and equipment developed by Sodern for the spacecraft attitude sensing with respect to the earth and of the experience gained from sensors operation on board satellites. It ends with remarks about the future of sensing techniques for the spacecraft attitude control with respect to the earth.
Desvignes, Francois; Doittau, Francois-Xavier; Krebs, Jean-Pierre; Tissot, Maurice
The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on sexual differences in secondary school students' attitudes towards science. Attitudinal differences were also analyzed for the independent variables of science programs and grade levels. Data were collected from 988 students using a modified version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales to represent attitudes toward science. Reliabilities of the
The aim of our survey was to capture the attitudes of Swedes to marginal donors and xenotransplantation. Modern biotechnology makes it possible to replace non-functioning organs, cells, and genes. Nonetheless, people may have reservations and fears about such treatments. With the survey, Attitudes of the General Public to Transplants, we have sought to expose the ambivalence that arises when medical possibilities are juxtaposed with ideas of risk. The design of the questionnaire originates from the interdisciplinary cooperation between ethnologists, medical scientists, and geneticists. By combining qualitative and quantitative methods, it is possible to illustrate the complexity that characterises people's view of modern biomedicine. People's reflections are based on a personal and situation bound morality, which does not necessarily coincide with what they generally consider as ethically justifiable.
c SYNOPSIS Objectives. The Hispanic population in the United States represents more than 40 million individuals, with Mexican Americans (MA) as the largest subgroup. To assess the utility of death certificates and medical records as the source of race\\/ethnicity data for epidemiologic studies, we compared self-reported race\\/ ethnicity to race\\/ethnicity recorded on death certificates and medical records in a bi-ethnic,
Angela F. Caveney; Melinda A. Smith; Lewis B. Morgenstern; Lynda D. Lisabeth
The giving of dowry on marriage is a widespread custom in India, but the attitude of society towards this practice is neither uniform nor consistent. 'Dowry death' is the result of a unique form of violence suffered by Indian women. The existing legal provisions relating to dowry and dowry deaths are summarized, and the role of the Indian Penal Code is discussed. Case reports are presented. PMID:9604654
Based upon the goal of scientific literacy and the importance of socioscientific issues (SSIs), the purpose of this study was to investigate the Taiwanese public's awareness of, inclinations to buy/use, and their attitudes towards three attributes of SSIs including genetically modified food (GM food), organic food, and DDT and malaria (DDT). Data from a total of 865 participants across ten populations (six different educational levels and four different vocations) were validated and analyzed. The results revealed that the awareness regarding GM food and DDT increased with the levels of education. The inclinations to buy/use and the attitudes towards the three SSIs, were not related to levels of education, vocation or gender, but were related to attributes of the SSIs. The implications for education and policy development are discussed. PMID:22397081
IntroductionPatient safety is a strong driver for quality improvement within the NHS. Maternity units deal with unintended harm to patients on a daily basis. Ensuring a strong patient safety culture within the workforce is important in achieving good clinical outcomes. In Norwich we were unsure of how staff perceived patient safety issues.ObjectiveTo measure staff attitudeto patient safety.SettingLarge tertiary hospital
M J Cameron; J Corfe; W Evans; R Goodsell; S Hunt; D Nirmal; S Rajshekhar; J Tinsey
Objectives To explore the attitudes of ethnic minority parents to preschool immunisations, particularly first MMR (measles, mumps and rubella vaccination).Design Focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 21 Pakistani, Somali and Afro-Caribbean mothers of infants aged 16 months to 3 years. Focus groups were held in the first language of participants.Setting and Method Focus groups were held at an inner-city health
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The main reasons for doing so included babies' enjoyment of them and the fact that the walker was used for an older sibling. Although none of the users listed safety concerns as a reason to stop using the walker, non-users (45%) did so; 12.5% of the users had at least one walker related injury. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of babies who use a walker perceive them as beneficial. However these babies are placed at unnecessary risk. It behoves all health professionals and child carers to alert parents to these dangers and the sale of walkers should be reviewed.
Laffoy, M.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Jordan, M.; Dowdall, D.
This study reports findings of gender differences in tax attitude changes influenced by better tax knowledge. Male students are more exposed to tax knowledge in a way that makes them reconsider more easily their attitudes towards their own tax evasion, i.e. tax ethics, than their female peers. Male students get a significantly stricter attitude towards their own tax evasion. On
A controlled analysis of the attitudes of doctors and homosexual men to male homosexuality is reported. Not surprisingly the homosexual men held the most liberal attitudes which served as a yard-stick against which the doctors' attitudes could be assessed. The implications of these data, collected before the AIDS era, are discussed in terms of the current needs of homosexual patients.
Given the dearth of literature on the influence of religiosity on attitudes toward people with HIV\\/AIDS, the present study surveyed these variables in a sample of South African Muslim university students using the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) and an attitudeto people with HIV scale. Gender differences in attitudes towards people with HIV were also examined. The sample comprised 90
Explores how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudes toward science and space during the five months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. Discusses positive outcomes and negative effects of the Challenger experience on children's attitude toward…
|In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences…
|This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
Despite documented, negative effects of sexist language, some people still strongly oppose inclusive language. Their attitudes need study, but existing measures of attitude lack comprehensiveness or validity. This paper reports construction and validation of the 42-item Inventory of Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language (IASNL), which is based on a conceptual framework related to beliefs about language, recognition of sexist language, and
In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…
BACKGROUND--The aim was to establish a continuing district based confidential enquiry into deaths from asthma. METHODS--A confidential enquiry was conducted in an English health district. Subjects comprised 24 residents of the Norwich health district aged between 16 and 65 years who had died between 1988 and 1991 with asthma as the principal cause of death. RESULTS--Twenty one of the patients
N J Wareham; B D Harrison; P F Jenkins; J Nicholls; D E Stableforth
Programmed cell death claims up to 99.9% of the cells in the mammalian female germ line, which eventually drives irreversible infertility and ovarian failure — the menopause in humans. New insights into the mechanisms that underlie germ-cell apoptosis have been provided by the study of oocyte death in lower organisms and in genetically manipulated mice that lack apoptosis-regulatory proteins. With
Children s opinion of advertising and their general skepticism toward it is of the utmost importance to both practitioners and those responsible for advertising control. In this article, the authors detail the development and validation of a scale measuring 8- to 12-year-olds global attitude toward TV advertising. This scale has been built and validated in a French-speaking context following all
The study was conducted in seven private co-educational English-medium schools in Cochin to understand adolescent attitudes\\u000a in this part of the country. Queries submitted by students (n=10660) and responses to separate pretested questionnaires for boys (n=886 received) and girls (n=589 received) were analysed. The study showed a lacuna of knowledge among adolescents with the most frequently asked queries\\u000a being on
Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Objective To analyse attitudesto priority setting among patients in Swedish primary healthcare. Design A questionnaire was given to patients comprising statements on attitudes towards prioritizing, on the role of politicians and healthcare staff in prioritizing, and on patient satisfaction with the outcome of their contact with primary healthcare (PHC). Settings Four healthcare centres in Sweden, chosen through purposive sampling. Participants All the patients in contact with the health centres during a two-week period in 2004 (2517 questionnaires, 72% returned). Main outcomes Patient attitudesto priority setting and satisfaction with the outcome of their contact. Results More than 75% of the patients agreed with statements like “Public health services should always provide the best possible care, irrespective of cost”. Almost three-quarters of the patients wanted healthcare staff rather than politicians to make decisions on priority setting. Younger patients and males were more positive towards priority setting and they also had a more positive view of the role of politicians. Less than 10% of the patients experienced some kind of economic rationing but the majority of these patients were satisfied with their contact with primary care. Conclusions Primary care patient opinions concerning priority setting are a challenge for both politicians and GPs. The fact that males and younger patients are less negative to prioritizing may pave the way for a future dialogue between politicians and the general public.
Arvidsson, Eva; Andre, Malin; Borgquist, Lars; Lindstrom, Kjell; Carlsson, Per
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the physical activity of children with and without asthma in Greece, the factors affecting their intention to exercise, and the influence of gender. Method The study involved 50 children with asthma and 50 children without asthma, aged 9–14-years old. We used the leisure time exercise questionnaire to assess the frequency and intensity of exercise. The planned behavior scale examined seven factors affecting physical activity: attitude, intention, self-identity, attitude strength, social role model, information, and knowledge. Results Asthmatic children did not differ significantly in mild, moderate, and overall level of physical activity from children without asthma but they participated less in intense and systematic exercise. The two asthmatic groups did not differ in any of the planned behavior factors. Significant differences between genders occurred with respect to self-identity and social role model. Boys appeared to exercise more regularly and intensely compared to girls. Conclusion Asthmatic children did not systematically participate in physical activity, preferring mostly mild and moderate intensity activities. Children with and without asthma had comparable positive attitudes and intentions toward exercise.
We have begun a mixed methods study that uses longitudinal and interview data to inform our understanding of student's beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. We are also seeking the input of the broader Astro 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of an introductory astronomy course. We describe specific attitudinal categories that the survey questions are being designed to address. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Education and Public Outreach Program.
Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C.; CATS
This study assesses children's attitudesto television advertisements. Five hundred and forty-five middle-class white boys and girls (average age = 10.67 years) completed a 28-item scale after viewing a TV commercial; initial analysis resulted in one item being omitted. Factor analysis of the remaining 27 items yielded two interpretable factors, labelled Entertainment and Irritation-Boredom. Two issues emerge: First, children's and
This report presents the findings from a series of 20 surveys carried out between 1991 and 2001. The main objectives of the research were to:•obtain information on mothers’ knowledge of immunisation;•obtain information on mothers’ attitudes towards immunisation;•obtain information on mothers’ experience of immunisation services;•monitor the recall and interpretation of NHS Immunisation Information (NHS II) advertising and immunisation information materials.This unique
Joanne Yarwood; Karen Noakes; Dorian Kennedy; Helen Campbell; David Salisbury
Arousal is an interesting phenomenon in consumer behavior. Thayer (1978b) suggested the existence of two dimensions of arousal — energetic arousal (energy–sleep) and tense arousal (tension–calmness). Although developed in the 1970s, this model has rarely been adopted in consumer studies about effects of arousal on consumer evaluations such as attitudes. To address potential contributions of the two-dimensional arousal model in
Teachers of human sexuality classes are one of the most important factors in the success of school based programs; until recently, professionals involved in sex education acquired their expertise randomly and informally. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 16 week sexuality education training program on attitudes and knowledge about human sexuality among teachers in a public school district. 39 participants (teachers, school nurses, and psychologists) were enrolled in a University of South Carolina course which consisted of lectures, group discussions, role playing, and films. The evaluation instrument used was the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), and was administered to each participant before and after the course was given. Results show that there are significant changes in knowledge, acceptance and rejection of sexual myths, and attitudes concerning abortion and autoeroticism. The training course resulted in a shift deemed positive and conducive for teacher effectiveness in teaching sex education. There was a significant shift in a more liberal direction in all of the attitudinal scales except heterosexual relations. This positive change in attitudinal scores is essential for teachers who will be instructing students from a variety of family backgrounds. PMID:12314199
Evasion of death receptor ligand-induced apoptosis contributs to cancer development and progression. To better understand mechanisms conferring resistance todeath ligands, we screened an siRNA library to identify sequences that sensitize resistant cells to fas activating antibody (CH-11). From this screen, we identified the Sterol-Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1 (SREBP1), a transcription factor, which regulates genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis including fatty acid synthase. Inhibition of SREBP1 sensitized PPC-1 and HeLa to the death receptor ligands CH-11 and TRAIL. In contrast, DU145 prostate cancer cells that are resistant todeath ligands despite expressing the receptors on their cell surface remained resistant to CH-11 and TRAIL after knockdown of SREBP1. Consistent with the effects on cell viability, the addition of CH-11 activated caspases 3 and 8 in HeLa but not DU145 cells with silenced SREBP1. We demonstrated that knockdown of SREBP1 produced a marked decrease in fatty acid synthase expression. Furthermore, genetic or chemical inhibition of fatty acid synthase with shRNA or orlistat, respectively, recapitulated the effects of SREBP1 inhibition and sensitized HeLa but not DU145 cells to CH-11 and TRAIL. Sensitization todeath receptor ligands by inhibition of fatty acid synthase was associated with activation of caspase 8 prior to caspase 9. Neither silencing of SREBP1 or fatty acid synthase changed basal expression of the core death receptor components Fas, caspase 8, FADD, caspase 3 or FLIP. Thus, inhibition of SREBP1 or its downstream target fatty acid synthase sensitizes resistant cells todeath ligands.
Nurses are frequently exposed to dying patients and death in the course of their work. This experience makes individuals conscious of their own mortality, often giving rise to anxiety and unease. Nurses who have a strong anxiety about death may be less comfortable providing nursing care for patients at the end of their life. This paper explores the literature on death anxiety and nurses’ attitudesto determine whether fear of death impacts on nurses’ caring for dying patients. Fifteen quantitative studies published between 1990 and 2012 exploring nurses’ own attitudes towards death were critically reviewed. Three key themes identified were: i). nurses’ level of death anxiety; ii). death anxiety and attitudes towards caring for the dying, and iii). death education was necessary for such emotional work. Based on quantitative surveys using valid instruments, results suggested that the level of death anxiety of nurses working in hospitals in general, oncology, renal, hospice care or in community services was not high. Some studies showed an inverse association between nurses’ attitude towards death and their attitude towards caring for dying patients. Younger nurses consistently reported stronger fear of death and more negative attitudes towards end-of-life patient care. Nurses need to be aware of their own beliefs. Studies from several countries showed that a worksite death education program could reduce death anxiety. This offers potential for improving nurses’ caring for patients at the end of their life.
Peters, L; Cant, R; Payne, S; O'Connor, M; McDermott, F; Hood, K; Morphet, J; Shimoinaba, K
Disclosure of the diagnosis of cancer to patients is a difficult task for physicians in developing countries. Family members often oppose truth telling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the “do not tell” attitude in a general population of cancer patients and to explore the factors affecting the attitude of cancer patients’ relatives about honest
Mustafa Ozdogan; Mustafa Samur; Hakan Sat Bozcuk; Erkan Coban; Mehmet Artac; Burhan Savas; Arzu Kara; Zekiye Topcu; Yeliz Sualp
250 women selected at random from outpatients of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were interviewed about their attitudes toward female sterilization by nurses with a standard questionnaire. Factors affecting attitudes toward sterilization were multiple and results are reported as percentages. The study population excluded women with infertility, a common problem, and further differed from the general population because the women were older and more highly educated. The number of living children was 3 or more in 59%; the ideal family size was at least 5 in 48%. 48% had used some type of contraception. 87.6% had heard of female sterilization, most often from medical personnel. Factors reported as affecting attitudes included: number of living children (59.6%); age of patient (52%); experience with complications of pregnancy and labor (45.2%); other medical disorders (36%); effect on reincarnation (17.6%); sex of living children (17.2%); fear of impotence (7.2%); and religion or culture (3.2%). The average age for female sterilization is 40 in Nigeria. A more extensive study of resistance to sterilization is indicated. PMID:12283795
Objective: To determine the role of homicide and other injuries in maternal deaths in North Carolina over the three-year period from 1992 through 1994.Methods: Maternal deaths were identified from death certificates that indicated a maternal death and through an enhanced surveillance system that matches death certificates with live-birth and fetal-death certificates. Deaths were classified as direct, indirect, medically unrelated, or
This article outlines the development of an instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers' attitudesto teaching mathematics. A trial questionnaire was devised using the set of Fennema-Sherman scales on students' attitudesto the subject mathematics as a model. Analysis of the responses to the questionnaire by 155 student teachers was carried out to develop meaningful attitude scales and to refine the instrument. The end-product is a new instrument which can be used to monitor the attitudes of student teachers. The attitude scales identified in the analysis and built into the final form of the questionnaire are (i) anxiety, (ii) confidence and enjoyment, (iii) desire for recognition and (iv) pressure to conform.
This article1 documents recent developments in British legal policy towards polygamy.2 The issue of polygamy became linked to the arrival and the different cultural patterns of Asian and African migrants to Britain in the post Second World War period. At first, questions were raised about the recognition of polygamous unions or the possibility of English law's control over men in
|Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)|
|The right of terminally ill patients to decide whether they want to be kept alive by extraordinary means is discussed. Efforts of the Society for the Right to Die, including the living will, are described. (RM)|
Behavior Clinics are now being used in an urban-rural area of five secondary schools as substitutes for suspension. Various infractions of school rules which can lead to placement in the behavior clinic are: truancy, fighting, use of obscene language, smoking, disrespectfulness, and/or suspension. During the 1975-76 school year, a random sample of…
|Recently, higher education has witnessed a renewed commitment to the mission of preparing students for lives of active citizenship. Under the leadership of President Lawrence S. Bacow, Tufts University (Medford, Massachusetts) has articulated an institutional mission that embraces three areas of focus: active citizenship, internationalism, and…
Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; O'Leary, Lisa S.; Wilson, Nancy E.; Diaz, Ande
|Carr (2002), in her investigation of boys' alienation from languages and language learning, addressed the question of an "appropriate curriculum" for boys and boys' understanding of masculinity. Boys reported in that research that they preferred physical activities so found the written text orientation of language learning to be "hard" and…
Is there any sense in wondering if one can "die a good death" Indeed, the word "euthanasia" as such offers food for thought. Obviously, human beings must die. The only real question is: Can help and assistance be given (through others) to a person when facing this ineluctable issue; and, if so, in which way and how far? To make things clearer, two points may be taken into consideration. On the one hand, it is a fact that the roman-catholic tradition has been able to set up a practice of a "good death piety", or even a "good death pastoral". But, on the other hand, we must not forget that when we consider what "euthanasia" means for the end of life and bear in mind what "eugenism" means for the beginning of life as well as the way it has been used, then it can only put us on the alert for possible serious abuse.... Considering all this, the question may be put as follows: not: is it possible, under certain circumstances, to give someone his or her death; but: how must I help and assist a person to live his or her life to the very end, if possible up todeath? PMID:10464996
(1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses' personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers. PMID:23180191
Aim: We wanted to assess Indian palliative-care nurses and physicians’ attitudes toward pain control and palliative sedation. Materials and Methods: From May to September 2008, we interviewed 14 physicians and 13 nurses working in different palliative-care programs in New Delhi, using a semi-structured questionnaire, and following grounded-theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss). Results: The interviewees did not consider administration of painkillers in large doses an ethical problem, provided the pain killers are properly titrated. Mild palliative sedation was considered acceptable. The interviewees disagreed whether palliative sedation can also be deep and continuous. Arguments mentioned against deep continuous palliative sedation were the conviction that it may cause unacceptable side effects, and impedes basic daily activities and social contacts. A few interviewees said that palliative sedation may hasten death. Conclusion: Due to fears and doubts regarding deep continuous palliative sedation, it may sometimes be too easily discarded as a treatment option for refractory symptoms.
Contemporary media representations of warfare are marked by a glaring paradox: whilst modern media technology has the potential to permit us to see more details of warfare than ever before, and whilst fictional representations of warfare, and of violent acts in general, have become ever bloodier and more explicit, non-fictional ones (at least in the British and US mainstream media)
BACKGROUND: In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific
Vendhan Gajalakshmi; Richard Peto; Santhanakrishnan Kanaka; Sivagurunathan Balasubramanian
The Broadway musical is an excellent prism for viewing the narrative of American life as it is, has been, and perhaps should be. In the first part of the twentieth century, musicals viewed life through rose-colored glasses; musicals were equivalent to musical comedy. Starting in the 1940s, the mood of musicals darkened. One indication of the new, serious tone was
Since the collapse of Japan’s bubble economy in the early 1990’s, the Japanese economy has only recovered slightly. This has\\u000a direct implications for employment. Both the seniority wage system and the lifetime employment system, which were popular\\u000a during the period of economic growth in Japan, unavoidably changed to an outcome-wage system. Now there is greater mobility\\u000a in employment, increased use
The present study provides within- and between-group comparisons of pro-and anti-euthanasia groups on demographic, afterlife-belief, related-attitude, and attitude-influence variables, using a questionnaire that was filled out by 785 members of the Hemlock Society and 161 members of the California Pro-Life Council. It was conjectured that afterlife belief is the foundation upon which people structure fundamental issues of life and death,
This paper deals with the influence of shame on the way in which Western society, particularly North America, is coping with death and dying. From being a familiar event, death and dying have become a shameful aspect of life. Thus, this paper provides some understanding of this important transformation, and it challenges some of our present attitudes regarding death and
This study examines the gender gap in attitudes toward the death penalty, including attention to global versus specific measures.\\u000a The study is based on a survey in Tennessee of attitudes toward crime and criminal justice. Specifically, the study examines\\u000a male and female global attitudes, attitudes toward a life without parole option, reasons that supporters and opponents give\\u000a for their views,
...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. 718.304 Section...DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Presumptions Applicable...Irrebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. There is...
The research questions was: 'How do psychiatrists describe their responses to patients' suicidal deaths in the light of a published model of consolation?' The textual data (n = 5) was a subset of a larger (n = 19) study. Thematic analysis showed a main theme, 'unburdening grief', and six themes. Embedded in the results is a story about suffering that reveals that, through ethical reflectiveness, a meaning of suffering can be recreated that unburdens grief and opens up new understandings with and among disciplines. This can help to prepare health professionals to respond to people who suffer because of suicidal death. PMID:17901173
We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed after having a physical altercation with her husband. Despite immediate resuscitation, she died on arrival at the hospital. The victim's parents requested an autopsy because they believed that their daughter was killed by her husband. Postmortem examination revealed that the victim had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland and cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no evidence of significant trauma on the body. Further postmortem thyroid function tests and review of her medical history indicated that her death was due to Graves' disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia from Graves' disease induced by physical and emotional stress associated with the criminal activity of another person. The autopsy findings are described. In addition, the literature is reviewed and the significance of postmortem evaluation of thyroid hormones in the cases of sudden death is discussed. PMID:23919315
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The Morris family is on a road trip through California. One day they are driving from Death Valley to Sequoia National Park. Death Valley is home to th...
Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…
|Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…
|This handbook is a compilation and evaluation of 106 attitude scales for survey research. An introductory chapter outlines the ten chapters and discusses the rationale and background of the project. Chapter 2 reviews survey evidence on the correlates of life satisfaction and happiness in the general public. Chapters 3 through 9 review and…
... 2013-07-01 false Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. 3.800...Special Benefits Â§ 3.800 Disability or death due to hospitalization, etc. This...363. (a) Where disease, injury, death or the aggravation of an...
With this resource, students in middle and high school Earth science classes can follow the life cycle of a star from its birth as a nebula to its death as a white dwarf or a black hole. The introduction explains how a star's death is determined by its solar mass. The resource presents an illustrated flowchart that shows the stages of stars, as well as points of divergence for stars of different masses. Students click on each stage to see an enlarged, telescopic image of a sample star. Each image is labeled with the name and location of the star. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States. Although relatively safe, there is a small risk of post-operative mortality. The majority of deaths come from airway compromise or hemorrhage. The authors present a case of a 32-month-old child who underwent routine adenotonsillectomy for sleep disordered breathing and chronic pharyngitis who was found unresponsive and pulseless in his bed on the morning of postoperative day 2. The cause of death determined by post mortem autopsy was massive pulmonary embolism (PE). PE is a rare event in children and has never been reported as the cause of death following adenotonsillectomy in a child. This case is reviewed in addition to recent literature regarding obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for venous thrombosis and PE. PMID:23419932
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
OBJECTIVE: To survey medical practitioners' experience with and attitudes toward litigation alleging medical malpractice. DESIGN: A survey using a questionnaire. SETTING: The Sudbury and Manitoulin Health District of Northern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Medical practitioners in the area. RESULTS: Physicians are sometimes negligent; malpractice is not simply created by entrepreneurial lawyers and patients with unrealistic expectations. At present malpractice is restrained by both the threat of civil litigation and the disciplinary committee of the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons. CONCLUSION: We must address the fear of malpractice suits if the North is to attract and retain the physicians it needs to provide modern standards of medical care.
Objectives To clarify the mechanisms and risk factors of methadone toxicity and to describe the findings of deaths related to methadone use Design Retrospective review of case notes in the records of the San Francisco Medical Examiner comparing the findings in cases where methadone was deemed the cause of death with findings in decedents where methadone was an incidental finding, and with 50 age-matched, disease and drug free, trauma victims. Results 38 cases out of the 3317 processed by our office during 1997-1998 were identified in which methadone had been detected. Cases were mostly male 28/38 (74%) and white, 28/38 (74%). In 17 of 38 cases death was deemed to have been caused by methadone toxicity. For the group the mean blood methadone concentration for all 38 patients, was 957 ng/ml SD =.681, SE =.14). The mean blood concentration of the main methadone metabolite (EDDP) was 253 ng/ml, SD = 529 ng/ml, SE =.089. The mean ratio of methadone in the blood to EDDP in the blood was 13.6:1 Values were not significantly different between cases in which methadone toxicity was the cause of death and in those in which it was an incidental finding. Cocaine, or the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine, was detected in the blood or urine of 16/38 cases (42%); morphine in one-third (13/38) and methamphetamine in only one. Pulmonary edema was evident in all cases, coronary artery disease in 9/38 (24%) and cirrhosis in 7/38 (18%) of the methadone users. Necrotizing fasciitis was the cause of death in 4 of the 38 methadone users (11%). Nationally, a sizeable percent of methadone deaths are from drugs diverted from treatment programs. Conclusions The presence of methadone is often an incidental finding during postmortem examination which is unrelated to the cause of death. Postmortem measurements of methadone or its metabolite, or both, cannot be used in isolation to identify which deaths are associated with methadone toxicity.
September 11 seared our collective memory perhaps even more vividly than December 7, 1941, and has evoked a natural demand both for retribution and for measures to keep us safe. Given the existing statutory and judicial authority for capital punishment, the U.S. Government has to confront the issue whether to seek the death penalty against those who are linked to
BACKGROUND: Deaths from childhood injury are a public health problem worldwide. A relatively high proportion of child deaths of undetermined manner in Estonia raises concerns about potential underestimation of intentional deaths, especially in infants. This suggests that more information on the circumstances surrounding death is needed to establish the manner of death correctly and, more importantly, to prevent these deaths.
Katrin Lang; Kersti Pärna; Andrej M Grjibovski; Marika M Väli
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES.Our aim was to review the evidence for a reduction in the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) with pacifier (“dummy” or “soother”) use, to discuss possible mechanisms for the reduction in SIDS risk, and to review other possible health effects of pacifiers. RESULTS.There is a remarkably,consistent reduction of SIDS with pacifier use. The
Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…
LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James
The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference between the attitudes of youth and adults towards mobile advertising. As it is known, youth and adults are two quite different consumer groups in terms of their consumption styles and patterns. The differences show themselves in various aspects such as product, brand, advertising message, and media preference.
Use art to take on the grim topics of death and bodily decay by visting this exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. Highlights of the website include "Ohne Titel [Untitled]," 1965, by Gunter Brus, a collage documenting what Brus called a "Self-painting." Brus covered his body with white paint, and over-painted black lines suggesting cracks. The collage juxtaposes pins, razor blades and a pen knife alongside photographs of the artist in his white paint coating. There is also an installation video for Ernesto Neto's room-size work, "It happens when the body is anatomy of time," 2000, that resembles a forest of the skeletal legs of some large imaginary animal. In addition to the National Gallery website highlights, visit the associated article in "The Independent" for a slideshow of 12 works of art by Sarah Lucas, Louise Bourgeois, Rene Magritte, Marcel Duchamp, Matthew Barney, and others.
The authors publish a consensus document designed to assist nursing professionals to recognize and work with bereavement related to the death of an intimate family member or friend, inside the conceptual framework for nursing treatment and care. This project exposes bereavement in a fashion similar to that used by "NANDA" for its distinct diagnostic categories: title, definition and distinguishing characteristics. Furthermore, the authors include an evaluation guide which may facilitate making a diagnosis between normal and dysfunctional bereavement; the authors propose objectives and activities which a nurse can perform to help to complete the bereavement process in a healthy and adaptive manner. In order to deal with these situations, a consensus document may be useful; at the same time this can become a professional development aide which includes theoretical knowledge about bereavement, adroitness in relation to helpful measures and which facilitates a conscious awareness by health professionals regarding their own personal attitudes and difficulties in the face of death and bereavement. Adequate nursing care during the first phases of this process, which helps the individual or family to mobilize all their resources, may lead to a better evolution of this process and to a recuperation of the affective loss. PMID:14969203
Giacchi Urzainqui, Alain; Legarra Zubiría, Aranzazu M
Selenium is an essential element incorporated into selenoproteins. Selenium deficiency may predispose to immune deficiency, mood disorders, and cancer. On the other hand, excessive environmental exposure to selenite may cause a variety of disorders including anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from accelerated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the
Mentor Sopjani; Michael Föller; Erich Gulbins; Florian Lang
|This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project…
National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Ceramide induces cell death in response to many stimuli. Its mechanism of action, however, is not completely understood. Ceramide induces autophagy in mammalian cells maintained in rich media and nutrient permease downregulation in yeast. These observations suggested to us that ceramide might kill mammalian cells by limiting cellular access to extracellular nutrients. Consistent with this proposal, physiologically relevant concentrations of ceramide produced a profound and specific downregulation of nutrient transporter proteins in mammalian cells. Blocking ceramide-induced nutrient transporter loss or supplementation with the cell-permeable nutrient, methyl pyruvate, reversed ceramide-dependent toxicity. Conversely, cells became more sensitive to ceramide when nutrient stress was increased by acutely limiting extracellular nutrients, inhibiting autophagy, or deleting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Observations that ceramide can trigger either apoptosis or caspase-independent cell death may be explained by this model. We found that methyl pyruvate (MP) also protected cells from ceramide-induced, nonapoptotic death consistent with the idea that severe bioenergetic stress was responsible. Taken together, these studies suggest that the cellular metabolic state is an important arbiter of the cellular response to ceramide. In fact, increasing nutrient demand by incubating cells in high levels of growth factor sensitized cells to ceramide. On the other hand, gradually adapting cells to tolerate low levels of extracellular nutrients completely blocked ceramide-induced death. In sum, these results support a model where ceramide kills cells by inducing intracellular nutrient limitation subsequent to nutrient transporter downregulation. PMID:18981422
Guenther, Garret G; Peralta, Eigen R; Rosales, Kimberly Romero; Wong, Susan Y; Siskind, Leah J; Edinger, Aimee L
The paper is devoted to analysis of data related to traffic accidents at one of the roads in Czech Republic. The data sets are available as discrete-valued variables providing results of traffic accident (with death or not) as well as conditions under which the accident has happened (weather, visibility, speed etc). Situation of a traffic accident is modeled within state-space
Several morphological alterations of the pancreatic tissue have been described as common findings in hypothermia (e.g. bleedings, pancreatitis, vacuoles). The frequency of these findings varies a lot. It was the aim of this study to clarify the kind and frequency of pancreatic changes in cases of death due to hypothermia. The autopsy reports of 143 cases of fatal hypothermia were,
This paper reports on an intervention to promote breastfeeding that was carried out in Bristol during National Breastfeeding Awareness Week 2009. The aim of the intervention was to increase public awareness of breastfeeding, and change attitudesto breastfeeding in public. To do this, four almost life-size cardboard cut-out figures were designed and produced that showed local mothers breastfeeding their babies, and these were displayed in a variety of public places around Bristol. The figures were accompanied by breastfeeding supporters who distributed feedback questionnaires to members of the public. The intervention was carried out by a multidisciplinary team, consisting of the breastfeeding development managers from the public health directorate at NHS Bristol, local peer supporters, breastfeeding counsellors, health visitors, children's centre workers and members of the National Childbirth Trust from Bristol and South Gloucestershire. On-the-spot evaluation of public opinion suggested that this intervention can contribute to raising awareness of breastfeeding and changing attitudesto breastfeeding in public. PMID:20441098
The authors compared adolescent mortalities due to external causes in two 5-year periods (from 1986-1990 and 1996-2000) in Hong Kong. Leading external causes are traffic accidents and suicide. The mortality rate is comparatively low and has decreased significantly over time. Suicide deaths are, however, on the increase. Monitoring the changing trend is useful in setting public health priorities.
The literature on near-death experiences (NDEs) and their aftereffects has focused on the positive personality transformations and spiritual development that often follow an NDE, while it has neglected the emotional and interpersonal problems sometimes precipitated by the experience. We report general guidelines and specific interventions, developed at an interdisciplinary conference, to assist NDErs in coping with psychological difficulties following their
Cells use different pathways for active self-destruction as reflected by different morphology: while in apoptosis (or “type I”) nuclear fragmentation associated with cytoplasmic condensation but preservation of organelles is predominant, autophagic degradation of cytoplasmic structures preceding nuclear collapse is a characteristic of a second type of programmed cell death (PCD). The diverse morphologies can be attributed – at least to
The accomplishments of John Snow (1813–1858), physician-epidemiologist, inventor and anaesthetist to Queen Victoria, are well documented, but the causes of his untimely death at age 45 remain conjectural. Snow suffered a paralysing stroke while working on his magnum opus, On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics, and died a few days later on 16 June 1858. Snow had a history of renal
Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength toattitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…
|Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength toattitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite…
Attitudes of occupational health care professionals toward smoking and their activity to address smoking issues were investigated by a questionnaire survey. Data were also collected on employees' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and on smoking policies that existed in workplaces. Questionnaires were mailed to all occupational health care centers (n = 1,004) in Finland. The prevalence of daily smokers was 9.6% among physicians and 3.6% among nurses; 15% and 11%, respectively smoked occasionally. Smoking restrictions were enforced in more than 70% of all workplaces, but only 3.6% of them had a total smoking ban. Nonsmoking professionals were in favor of smoke-fee workplaces and smoking restrictions significantly more often than their smoking colleagues. Nonsmokers also regarded smoking as a serious problem to the organizational climate of workplaces. Almost half of nonsmoking respondents, but only 11% of daily smokers, would totally ban smoking in workplaces. Although the personal smoking status of the respondent had a strong effect on attitudesto smoking regulations, it did not have a clear influence on interest in discussing smoking issues when seeing patients. Nurses were more active in addressing smoking issues than physicians. Occupational health professionals of large companies reported stricter smoking policies at work than those who represented small enterprises PMID:9617390
This comparative survey contrasted 571 parents who lost children to various death causes: 48 to drug-related deaths and overdoses, 462 to suicide, 24 to natural death cases, and 37 to mostly accidental death cases. Groups were compared in terms of grief difficulties, mental health problems, posttraumatic stress, and stigmatization. Results did not show any appreciable differences in these respects between the suicide bereaved parents and those losing children to drug-related deaths. However, when the suicide and drug-related death survivors were specifically contrasted against accidental and natural death loss cases, a consistent pattern emerged showing the former group was consistently more troubled by grief and mental health problems than the latter two sub-groups. These differences remained when controls of time since the loss and gender differences were employed as covariates. These findings suggest that the powerful and intense stigma against drug use and mental illness, shared among the public-at-large, imposes challenges in healing of immense proportion for these parents as they find less compassionate responses from their significant others, following their losses. PMID:22010370
Feigelman, William; Jordan, John R; Gorman, Bernard S
The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced
Laurie Chassin; Clark C. Presson; Steven J. Sherman; Dong-Chul Seo; Jonathan T. Macy
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known syndromic cause of life threatening obesity, yet few studies have examined the causes of death in PWS. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of choking leading to mortality in PWS. In 1999, a brief survey was made available from the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) bereavement program, which documented demographic data and causes of death. Families were subsequently offered the opportunity to fill out a detailed questionnaire and additional forms to release medical records. Demographic information was available on 178 deceased individuals with PWS, and cause of death available on 152 individuals. Fifty-four families completed questionnaires. Of the deceased individuals with completed questionnaires, 34% reported a history of choking. Choking was listed by familial report as the cause of death in 12 (7.9%) of 152 subjects with an average age of 24 years (range 3–52y; median 22.5y) at death from choking. Only two of these individuals were less than eight years of age. The data suggest that risks associated with choking are different in the PWS population compared with normal. Potential causes of increased choking in PWS include poor oral/motor coordination, poor gag reflex, hypotonia, hyperphagia, decreased mastication and voracious feeding habits. We recommend implementation of preventive measures and education for families and group home care providers for all individuals with PWS including the Heimlich maneuver, supervised meals, better food preparation and diet modification to avoid high risk choking items.
Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Butler, Merlin G.; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Clericuzio, Carol L.; Scheimann, Ann O.
The theory of essentialism suggests that biological explanations of stigmatized behavior may not be effective at decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. The effects of biological explanations on stigmatizing attitudes were the topic of two experiments. In the first experiment, participants (N = 243) perceived a biological explanation as a less effective in relation to dangerousness and social distancing attitudes about mental illness than about homosexuality. The second experiment (N = 113) compared the effect of biological and free choice explanations on stigmatizing attitudes about abnormal sexual and eating behaviors. The results indicated that a biological explanation increased belief in essentialism and was most effective for attitudes related to anger and blame. These results suggest that the effectiveness of biological explanations as an antistigma tool varies according to the attitude and stigmatized group. PMID:21675182
Polish brain-death criteria, similar to the original Harvard criteria, were published in 1984. In 1990, they were converted to brainstem death criteria, and were revised twice, in 1994 and in 1996. However, they could not be used in many complicated clinical situations such as intoxication, metabolic alterations, major facial injury, infratentorial lesions, and cervical spinal cord injury. The new Polish Transplant Act, passed by the Polish Parliament in 2005, recommends implementation of criteria for whole-brain death for brain-death diagnosis. In 2007, the Polish Ministry of Health Commission outlined new Polish brain-death criteria. Optional use of instrumental confirmatory tests was implemented in the new Polish national code of practice for the diagnosis of brain death in adults. In children up to age 2 years, instrumental tests are obligatory. Initially, there were problems in understanding the new, slightly more complicated classifications of primary and secondary brain injuries, infratentorial and supratentorial processes, modified apnea test. A broad commentary that addressed the most frequently asked questions was published in Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, the official journal of the Polish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy. This article dealt with most of the problems associated with implementation of the new criteria for diagnosis of brain death. PMID:19857649
Bohatyrewicz, R; Bohatyrewicz, A; Zukowski, M; Marzec-Lewenstein, E; Biernawska, J; Solek-Pastuszka, J; Sienko, J; Sulikowski, T
When an attitude changes from A1 to A2, what happens to A1? Most theories assume, at least implicitly, that the new attitude replaces the former one. The authors argue that a new attitude can override, but not replace, the old one, resulting in dual attitudes. Dual attitudes are defined as different evaluations of the same attitude object an automatic, implicit
Timothy D. Wilson; Samuel Lindsey; Tonya Y. Schooler
Are student attitudes toward science-technology-society (TSS) affected by visitation to science-technology museums? The purpose of this study was to determine whether such visitations affected student STS attitudes, and in what ways particular factors of the visitation impacted these attitudes. Factors examined included prior classroom experience with STS, instructional methodology employed by teachers, grade level, socioeconomic status, school type (public or
The purpose of this study was to conduct an intervention to change attitudes toward obese individuals. Ninety-five Kinesiology\\u000a undergraduates conducted a FITNESSGRAM service-learning project with school-aged children. They completed anti-fat attitude\\u000a test (AFAT) and explicit attitude assessments before and after the intervention. The results indicated participants had anti-fat\\u000a bias toward obese individuals on the lazy\\/motivated scale, but not on the
The death instinct has always been a controversial concept, insufficient to account for actual dying, and usually taken to be fused with aggression. After dislodging it from the shadow of aggression in order to evaluate its function, the instinct turns out to be one of the components that form the death motivation. Human beings develop a complex motivation for death, one that is more than biology (instincts) or physics (entropy). It includes (a) the death instinct, the primary analogue; (b) sequellae of the universal experience of object-loss, with identification and fantasies of a restorative reunion; (c) guilt over hostile attitudes toward the lost object, with depression, longings for atonement , and self-punishment; (d) compliance with reality, like that of old age or grave sickness. Examined in light of the complementary series of Freud's aetiological equation, the death instinct turns into a precondition of the composition motivation. Death motivation is a comprehensive concept, since patients express various of its aspects during their psychoanalyses , and it facilitates a metapsychological understanding and refines the accuracy of interpretation. PMID:6427810
This study was designed to explore gender attitudes and religious behaviors among sorority\\/fraternity (S\\/F) and non-S\\/F undergraduates. Two hundred and seventy-nine participants completed the Gender Attitude Inventory (GAI, a multidimensional gender attitudes instrument), items that assessed religious behaviors (i.e., attendance in a place of worship and frequency of prayer), and a measure of social desirability. Overall, it was found that
Dianne T. Robinson; Gina Gibson-Beverly; Jonathan P. Schwartz
This paper reports data from a set of questions exploring public attitudes towards car use and modal shift included in the 2002 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey on a representative sample of 1,665 Scottish adults. Three-quarters now live in households that own or have regular use of a car and 63% currently drive. These proportions vary with gender (more males than
|This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…
In Hungary, which has one of the highest rates of suicide in the world, physician assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia are punishable criminal acts. Attitudes towards self destruction and assisted suicide are, however, very controversial. We investigated the attitudes of medical students, nurses and social science students in Hungary towards PAS, using a twelve item scale: the total number of
|There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…
Recent research showed that perception of death-related vs death-unrelated linguistic cues produced increased frontoparietal activity but decreased insular activity. This study investigated (i) whether the increased frontoparietal and decreased insular activities are, respectively, associated with transient trial-specific processes of death-related linguistic cues and sustained death-related thought during death-relevance judgments on linguistic cues and (ii) whether the neural activity underlying death-related thought can predict individuals' dispositional death anxiety. Participants were presented with death-related/unrelated words, life-related/unrelated words, and negative-valence/neutral words in separate sessions. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing death-relevance, life-relevance, and valence judgments on the words, respectively. The contrast of death-related vs death-unrelated words during death-relevance judgments revealed transient increased activity in the left inferior parietal lobule, the right frontal eye field, and the right superior parietal lobule. The contrast of death-relevance judgments vs life-relevance/valence judgments showed decreased activity in the bilateral insula. The sustained insular activity was correlated with dispositional death anxiety, but only in those with weak transient frontoparietal responses todeath-related words. Our results dissociate the transient and sustained neural responses todeath-related linguistic cues and suggest that the combination of the transient and sustained neural activities can predict dispositional death anxiety. PMID:22422804
\\u000a Research into people’s response to the death of a companion animal demonstrates considerable variability among individuals,\\u000a ranging from minimal reaction to extreme and protracted distress, and that pet owners themselves may be surprised at their\\u000a own reaction. Two questions arise from this. First, how can we best predict who is likely to suffer extreme distress at the\\u000a loss of a
To assess physician attitudes and practices in controversial areas of child abuse and neglect, anonymous questionnaires were mailed to pediatricians, family practitioners, and emergency medicine physicians in Pima County (Tucson) and Arizona (statewide). The effects of respondent characteristics on responses to each item were analyzed. Three hundred and ninety-three questionnaires (49.3%) were returned. Responses differed according to gender, age, specialty, and practice or training status. Females estimated a higher percentage of adult women had been sexually abused as children (26.6 vs. 21.6, p < .01) and a lower incidence of false accusations, when sexual abuse was alleged in custody disputes (48.1 vs. 56.1, p < .005) than did males. Older physicians were more likely to refer cases of sexual abuse to a specialist, were more concerned about false reports of child abuse, and gave higher estimates of the percentage of adolescent child sexual abuse offenders who could be rehabilitated (54.4 vs. 43.4, p < .05). Pediatricians expected a lower percentage of sexual abuse exams to be positive than did family practitioners (32.6 vs. 40.7, p < .05). Pediatricians were less likely to agree to involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS) in failure to thrive cases or to criminal prosecution of maternal drug use in pregnancy than either family practitioners or emergency physicians. Respondents were uncertain that reporting to CPS would lead to an improvement in the child's welfare. Exposition and explanation of physician attitudes may benefit medical education about child abuse. PMID:9056096
BACKGROUND. Pharmaceutical representatives are a vital component of the marketing of pharmaceutical products and an important source of prescribing information for general practitioners. AIM. A study was undertaken to explore the attitudes of New Zealand general practitioners to pharmaceutical representatives. METHOD. A questionnaire survey of 100 general practitioners was undertaken to which 67 general practitioners responded. RESULTS. The provision of practical prescribing advice by representatives and gifts relevant to medicine were seen as desirable activities by many respondents. However, gifts of value considerably greater than suggested acceptable in recent guidelines for general practitioners were also highly favoured by some practitioners. CONCLUSION. Current ethical guidelines setting out the relationship between pharmaceutical representatives and medical practitioners are inadequate and should be based on the need for the general practitioner to become an unbiased promoter of patient health.
Cells use different pathways for active self-destruction as reflected by different morphology: while in apoptosis (or "type I") nuclear fragmentation associated with cytoplasmic condensation but preservation of organelles is predominant, autophagic degradation of cytoplasmic structures preceding nuclear collapse is a characteristic of a second type of programmed cell death (PCD). The diverse morphologies can be attributed--at least to some extent--to distinct biochemical and molecular events (e.g. caspase-dependent and -independent death programs; DAP-kinase activity, Ras-expression). However, apoptosis and autophagic PCD are not mutually exclusive phenomena. Rather, diverse PCD programs emerged during evolution, the conservation of which apparently allows cells a flexible response to environmental changes, either physiological or pathological. PMID:15489192
Deaths related to abortion accounted for 20% of all maternal mortality in Sweden during the period 1931–80. The risk of dying as a consequence of abortion, per 100,000 pregnancies, declined with a factor of 160 during the study period. Three main reasons for the improvement are discussed. The introduction of antibiotics reduced mortality due to illegal abortions, but during the
The attitudes of 118 New Zealand obstetricians and gynaecologists (81.7% response rate) to various methods of continuing education were objectively assessed by questionnaire. Most gynaecologists stated that they were likely to attend congresses despite the educative value of such meetings being much less than scientific training courses, refresher courses or scientific meetings: informal discussion with colleagues may thus be the real value of congresses. Hospital medical officer attachments and mail order self-education kits were not regarded as useful educative methods. Doctors in major cities had the greatest difficulty in attending courses, largely due to time rather than money or locum arrangement difficulties. The preferred season for formal meetings was autumn and the duration of meetings was two to three days. PMID:3865092
A survey of 106 medical students assessing their interest in and attitudesto medical ethics in the curriculum is reported by the authors. Results indicate that 64 per cent of the students rated the importance of medical ethics to good medical care as high or critical and 66 per cent desired to learn more about the topic. However, in reports of patient encounters identifying ethical issues, less than six per cent of the students reported a frequency of more than one such patient encounter per week. The students also demonstrated a greater awareness of more obvious ethical issues than of more subtle, less publicised issues. When asked how medical ethics should be taught, the students clearly affirmed a desire for an integrated exposure to the subject throughout the medical curriculum. Possible implications of these findings for medical education are discussed.
Objective: Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and
Nhan T. Tran; Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; V. Cuong Pham; Jeffrey C. Lunnen; Youngji Jo; Jonathon Passmore; Phuong N. Nguyen; Adnan A. Hyder
Objective Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes and
Nhan T. Tran; Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; Cuong Pham V; Jeffrey C. Lunnen; Youngji Jo; Jonathon Passmore; Phuong N. Nguyen; Adnan A. Hyder
Apoptotic cell death is a mechanism by which organisms eliminate superfluous or harmful cells. Expression of the cell death regulatory protein REAPER (RPR) in the developing Drosophila eye results in a small eye owing to excess cell death. We show that mutations in thread (th) are dominant enhancers of RPR-induced cell death and that th encodes a protein homologous to
Although religiosity tends to help older people to cope with physical and social losses, not all studies find a significant association between religious involvement and well-being in old age. It might be that primarily the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic aspect of religiosity is responsible for the positive effect of religiosity on well-being. Using a sample of 103 community dwelling
Given the importance of season ticket holders (STH) to sporting organisations, we empirically examine a scale for measuring their attitudesto the season ticket product. This involved identifying through qualitative research and past literature, the various elements that are perceived to comprise the season ticket package and developing items to measure STH attitudesto them. The season ticket package was
After living in Japan for almost seventeen years, and being constantly intrigued by the attitudes of the Japanese to Australia, upon my return I was naturally interested to learn about Australian attitudesto Japan. The paucity of news concerning Japan in the press suggested that it was not of major interest to the Australian public, and one tends to pre-
|The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudesto, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudesto,…
Women who used combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy to treat menopausal symptoms during the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study had more cases of invasive breast cancer, more lymph-node positive breast cancer, and a slightly higher death rate from breast cancer and other causes than women who received a placebo, researchers reported in an 11-year follow-up report on the study's participants.
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignancies in children. It is a tumor that can clinically present with varied symptoms\\u000a that can mimic other entities, including child abuse. It is important that forensic pathologists are aware of the diseases\\u000a that can masquerade as child abuse. A case of sudden, unexpected death in a 2-year-old due to previously undiagnosed neuroblastoma
The increase in skin cancer prevalence globally has prompted a range of health promotion sun safety initiatives. An area where evidence has been lacking is on the long-term impact of some of these initiatives on the attitudes and sun protection behaviour of young adults and of the sun protection measures used by people using city parks. This article disseminates a study that examined the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of 18- to 28-year-old Caucasian park users. An interview questionnaire was used with behaviour validation incorporated to corroborate the results and reduce recall bias. A cross comparison of answers and placement into pre-coded responses were made at regular intervals to ensure consistency of data collection. Knowledge of risks associated with sun exposure and knowledge of sun protection methods was high. The most common sources of knowledge on skin cancer prevention were parents and family, followed by television, then magazines and newspapers. Surprisingly, the citing of school sun safety health promotion initiatives as a source of knowledge was low. The vast majority of females and males felt that a suntan had aesthetic qualities and made them look more attractive and healthy. Only a small number of the participants' sun protection behaviour in the park corresponded with their reported normal sun protection behaviour. Males in this study use sunscreen less than females. Females also used sunscreen with a higher sun protection factor. Seeking a tan is intentional behaviour undertaken by the majority of the participants, although females were more likely to seek a tan in comparison to males. The majority of participants had experienced sunburn in the summer period with some reporting severe sunburn. Recommendations are made for a gender specific health promotion approach, which targets familial education with a supportive environment in the school or public domain. PMID:21510096
|Time and death are linked--the passing of time brings us closer todeath. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of death represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about death motivates elongated perceptions of brief…
|This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…
|Objective: The Attitudesto Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…
This research used a survey to investigate the attitudes of people with a disability towards undertaking training. The findings show very positive attitudes towards training by participants and, although the ability to generalise to the wider population is limited, one thing is clear: generally, people with a disability are willing to undertake…
BACKGROUND: During an infectious disease outbreak, it is critical to learn as much as possible about the concerns, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public. Such information can be crucial to the improvement of communication efforts by public health officials and clinicians. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to influenza A (H1N1) among
Hanan H Balkhy; Mostafa A Abolfotouh; Rawabi H Al-Hathlool; Mohammad A Al-Jumah
This research explored how the Challenger experience influenced over 655 elementary boys' and girls' general attitudesto science and space during the 5 months after their visit by examining their responses to four different attitude scales. These were administered to the 10- to 11-year-olds immediately before and after the Challenger experience as well as 2 and 5 months later. Knowledge
SUMMARY The aim of this study is to examine the attitude of the students who are studyng 6 th and 7 th grade to Social Studies and to define what should be done in order to improve the attitude in a positive way. With the aim, 245 students studying 6 th and 7 th grade in elementary school were given
|Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…
To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking. PMID:23482502
Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O
Objectives. We examined the role of body mass index (BMI) and other factors in driver deaths within 30 days after motor vehicle crashes. Methods. We collected data for 22 107 drivers aged 16 years and older who were involved in motor vehicle crashes from the Crashworthiness Data System of the National Automotive Sampling System (1997–2001). We used logistic regression and adjusted for confounding factors to analyze associations between BMI and driver fatality and the associations between BMI and gender, age, seatbelt use, type of collision, airbag deployment, and change in velocity during a crash. Results. The fatality rate was 0.87% (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50, 1.24) among men and 0.43% (95% CI=0.31, 0.56) among women involved as drivers in motor vehicle crashes. Risk for death increased significantly at both ends of the BMI continuum among men but not among women (P<.05). The association between BMI and male fatality increased significantly with a change in velocity and was modified by the type of collision, but it did not differ by age, seatbelt use, or airbag deployment. Conclusions. The increased risk for death due to motor vehicle crashes among obese men may have important implications for traffic safety and motor vehicle design.
Zhu, Shankuan; Layde, Peter M.; Guse, Clare E.; Laud, Purushottam W.; Pintar, Frank; Nirula, Raminder; Hargarten, Stephen
It is a challenge to reduce the ever-increasing flow of waste. In Norway the systems for recycling of organic waste, paper, glass, metals, etc. differ between municipalities, both with regard to organizational and to technological structures. Our hypothesis is that people's attitudes and behaviour may differ with different systems of waste management. People's behaviour and attitudes regarding (organic) waste recycling
This report is part of a series of studies dealing with general public behavior and attitudes towards energy conservation. Specifically, this study concentrates on consumer attitudes toward gasoline prices, shortages, and their relationships to inflation. Respondents to inquiries in the study were categorized according to whether their cars averaged under 15 miles per gallon, 15-19 miles per gallon, or 20
Our purpose was to assess the knowledge and attitudes, source of HIV and AIDS information, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan and to explore the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes of HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan. We employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Using a mail survey, the investigators
Wei-Chen Tung; Jie Hu; Cindy Davis; Wei-Kang Tung; Yin-Mei Lin
|The purpose of this research study was to develop and test new instruments for assessing attitudes and coping responses to air pollution, and to gain insight into the factors influencing these attitudes and coping responses. Concern for air pollution was measured by two instruments a forced choice questionnaire which paired air pollution control…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding children's nutrition habits and the degree to which these perceptions influence television monitoring by parents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire assessing attitudes was distributed among parents of Belgian primary and secondary school children. Parental
|Background: The assumption that parents have some effect on their children's attitudesto learning is one that few educationalists would challenge. The ways in which this influence is brought to bear are a slightly more complex and contentious matter, however. Purpose: The paper uses data from a tri-national PhD study on pupil attitudesto…
Leadership in geriatric education includes conducting research to identify instructional activities that have a positive influence on students' perceptions of the elderly. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a simulation activity to promote positive attitudes and perceptions of the elderly among undergraduate occupational therapy students. Wright's coping?versus?succumbing theory of attitude change was used to develop a simulation of sensory changes
Psychiatric genetic research brings on the possibility of psychiatric genetic testing. The optimal and responsible utilization of genetic testing depends on knowledge of the potential consumers' attitudes and expectations re- garding testing. The aim of this study was to assess potential consumers' attitudes and expectations toward psychiatric genetics and factors influencing their intentions to test. A questionnaire constructed to assess
Mett Marri Laegsgaard; Ann Suhl Kristensen; Ole Mors
The effectiveness of a death education program in reducing death anxiety in Australian undergraduate nursing students was examined. The experimental group (n = 97) participated in a death education program conducted over a 13-week period. The comparison group (n = 122) included undergraduate students at the same academic level who had enrolled in a health-science program of similar structure, design, and duration as the death education program. No subjects in the comparison group had previously participated in a death education program. All participants were pre- and post-tested using the revised Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. Post-test analysis indicated that the 13-week death education program was effective in decreasing death anxiety. PMID:16323712
Text Version... outcomes following tonsillectomy, such as death or permanent disability. ... 1) – Outcome: deaths (7), anoxic brain injury (1) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the antecedents of students' attitude and the impact of students' attitude on the intention to repay study loans. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data from 428 students in universities in Malaysia are collected and six constructs from theory are identified: perceptions that loan repayment will affect the quality of life after graduation;
The study investigated the correlates of attitudes toward the army and pro-nuclear activism among students in Australia, N. Ireland and (white) South Africa. Results showed the South Africans to be most favorably disposed toward the army and also to be most favorably disposed toward the deployment of nuclear weapons. Across the three groups those with positive attitudes toward the army
Patrick G. L. Heaven; John D. Brewer; C. L. Bester
In this article Joseph Mintz explores the importance of developing positive attitudesto SEN and Inclusion among primary teacher trainees. The research reported indicates that student attitudes towards SEN/Inclusion were generally positive, but that such views are fluid and subject to change during a course of training. The article reinforces the…
|Discusses attitude and motivation as macro aspects of second-language learning and empathy and personality as the micro level. Believes learner's attitude, motivation, and personality are as important as intelligence but have nothing to do with capacity to learn. (Author/BK)|
|A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…
Prejudice against gay men and lesbians has continued to fuel negative attitudes that are perpetuated by stereotypes and by validation from those within one’s own social group. While there has been some research regarding the impact of contact on attitudes, the present study expands the theoretical approach of Allport and the empirical work of researchers such as Herek to examine
This paper reports the development of attitudesto science and science teaching scales for primary teachers. The investigation is part of a project intended to improve pupil achievement in science in 16 English city schools. The baseline performance of the attitude scales is reported with 76 teachers, half of whom formed a control group. The…
The "Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale" (MTAS) is a simple scale for middle secondary years students that monitors five affective variables relevant to learning mathematics with technology. The subscales measure mathematics confidence, confidence with technology, attitudeto learning mathematics with technology and two aspects of…
|The "Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale" (MTAS) is a simple scale for middle secondary years students that monitors five affective variables relevant to learning mathematics with technology. The subscales measure mathematics confidence, confidence with technology, attitudeto learning mathematics with technology and two aspects of…
|Objective: To explore whether adults possess implicit attitudes toward children and whether those attitudes are especially negative among respondents who are high in child physical abuse (CPA) risk. Methods: The present study used an implicit evaluative priming procedure. In this procedure, participants were instructed to make decisions about the…
Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Crouch, Julie L.
The Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale (MTAS) is a scale for middle secondary years students that monitors five affective variabl es relevant to learning mathematics with technology. The subscales measure mathematics confidence, confidence with technology, attitudeto learning mathematics with technology an d two aspects of engagement in learning mathematics. The paper reports the responses of 350 students from 6
The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational Attitudes Questionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…
An understanding of basic attitudes toward housework is explored to fill a logical gap in the research into equity issues within households. Men's and women's attitudes and standards are compared. Results for women are compared with findings from a 1975 survey. Discussion relates findings to research and theory. (EMK)
|The aim of this study is to investigate the grades 4 to 8 students' attitudes towards science under the "liking school", "independent investigator" and "what I really think of science" titles. The affect of gender, grade level and science achievement on students' attitudes was analysed in "liking school", "independent investigator", "science…
Background: Research which has investigated children's attitudesto bullying has found that the majority of children display anti-bullying attitudes. However, a small minority of children do appear to admire the bully and lack sympathy for victims of bullying. The just world belief theory has received a great deal of attention in recent years with…
Fox, Claire L.; Elder, Tracey; Gater, Josephine; Johnson, Elizabeth
|We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…
Contractual grievance procedures have long been utilized in union-management relationships to resolve workplace disputes. Little research attention, however, has focused on determining unionized workers' perceptions of and attitudes about such procedures. This study develops an instrument designed to measure worker attitudes toward the grievance procedure (ATGP). The survey items and conceptual framework are based on prior research in the areas
Thomas J. Pavlak; Paul F. Clark; Daniel G. Gallagher
Two studies examined the predictors of seeking psychological services. Study 1 examined the role of attitudes in mediating the relationship between 11 psychological factors and intent to seek help for 3 psychological problems. The results demonstrated that (a) the psychological factors and attitudes predicted 62% of the variance in intent to seek help for interpersonal problems and 18% of the
David L. Vogel; Stephen R. Wester; Meifen Wei; Guy A. Boysen
This paper describes the effect of attitudesto new technology on user experience in two different digital games. User experience is measured by using a framework which includes perceptual-attentive, cognitive-emotional and motivational constructs. They form four experiential dimensions; Physical presence, Emotional involvement, Situational involvement and Performance competence. Attitudesto new technology were measured by asking from the subjects how interested
Heikki Särkelä; Jari Takatalo; Jeppe Komulainen; Göte Nyman; Jukka Häkkinen
While the power of advertisements has long been known, investigations of sociocultural influences on sexual attitudes have been limited primarily to studies of sexually aggressive media. In this study we examined the effects on sexual attitudes of different portrayals of women in advertisements. Male and female white middle-class university students were exposed to one of three groups of advertisements. In
The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcedent value
André Hansla; Amelie Gamble; Asgeir Juliusson; Tommy Gärling
We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…
This article reports on 12 case histories with a view to 1) uncovering the attitudes of players and athletes to drugs in sport, and 2) exploring the implications of these attitudes for the formulation of effective anti-doping policy. The theoretical approach of the research was informed by Zinberg's (1984) model which assumes that the relationship between the drug, individual characteristics
The present research investigated the hypotheses that elderly people can be reminders of our mortality and that concerns about our own mortality can therefore instigate ageism. In Study 1, college-age participants who saw photos of two elderly people subsequently showed more death accessibility than participants who saw photos of only younger people. In Study 2, making mortality salient for participants increased distancing from the average elderly person and decreased perceptions that the average elderly person possesses favorable attitudes. Mortality salience did not affect ratings of teenagers. In Study 3, these mortality salience effects were moderated by prior reported similarity to elderly people. Distancing from, and derogation of, elderly people after mortality salience occurred only in participants who, weeks before the study, rated their personalities as relatively similar to the average elderly person's. Discussion addresses distinguishing ageism from other forms of prejudice, as well as possibilities for reducing ageism. PMID:15536237
Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Schimel, Jeff; Landau, Mark J
The effectiveness of a death education program in reducing death anxiety in Australian undergraduate nursing students was examined. The experimental group (n = 97) participated in a death education program conducted over a 13-week period. The comparison group (n = 122) included undergraduate students at the same academic level who had enrolled in a health-science program of similar structure, design,
Why was death considered polluting within classical Greek society when Olympian sacrifice was ubiquitous? Outside the polis the Greeks’ view of the uncultivated or improperly cultivated geography and of their own ‘city-less’ past was just the other way around. Here death represented no pollution whatsoever, while Olympian sacrifice was either absent or not properly performed. Death and life had yet
This study sought to provide a first crucial step in the direction of developing an intervention program aimed at improving safe attitudes and skills among car drivers towards motorcycles. We intended to improve drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists by exposing them to demands that motorcyclists face on the road. Car drivers were exposed to hazard perception clips taken from a motorcyclist's perspective, and interactive hazards in a motorcycle simulator. Car hazard perception clips and a car simulator were used as control conditions. A questionnaire assessed participant knowledge and attitudes towards motorcyclists before and after the intervention. After the intervention participants had more empathic- and fewer negative-attitudes, as well as safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. Self-reported attitude-change suggested that the use of motorcycle hazard perception clips was more effective than the simulator, and the intervention was most effective for those car drivers who reported the most negative attitudes prior viewing the clips or riding the simulator. Providing car drivers with a perspective of the motorcyclist may prove to be a useful tool for promoting safer attitudes towards motorcyclists. PMID:21658502
Disclosing the diagnosis or prognosis to cancer patients in Saudi Arabia can be a serious challenge to the physician in his daily clinic practice. The public attitude towards full disclosure is still conservative, and in order to appropriately deal with such an attitude, physicians need to deeply understand its sociocultural background. This article attempts to look into what governs the public attitude towards disclosure in Saudi Arabia as an example of what may affect attitudes in developing countries. It also brings some data from local surveys among physicians and patients as well as from public surveys to describe the changing trend in attitude over the years with a comparative analysis of the Western literature.
An investigation into the attitudes of public library staff in the UK towards the Internet involved use of a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The use of an attitude measurement model, an amended version of the technology acceptance model in a questionnaire survey is detailed here and its value to the study in question deliberated on. Quantitative results
BackgroundPerceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents’ attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents:
Silvia S. Martins; Carla L. Storr; Pierre K. Alexandre; Howard D. Chilcoat
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered—one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the offender) and the other reflecting a general preference for unconditional law enforcement (regardless of
|This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against…
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…
|Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…
This study examined the attitudes and commitment to posthumous organ donation among a group of nurses (N=314) in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Attitude was operationally defined by a self-report measure of favorable or unfavorable feelings and beliefs about organ donation, whereas commitment was defined by having signed a donor card. Consistent with findings reported in the West, nurses
Factors that influenced body-image attitudes were studied in 90 African American college women. Data analyses indicated that self and sociocultural variables were associated with evaluation of physical appearance, fitness, and investment in health. The relationship of family variables to body-image attitude is discussed. (SLD)