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Sample records for attitudes subjective norms

  1. The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

  2. Korean homemakers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions toward energy conservation behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and predict Korean homemakers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions toward energy conservation behaviors. The reasoned action model was adopted to accomplish the objective. The household energy consumption could be determined by person's personal factors including behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, normative beliefs, motivation to comply, attitudes, and subjective norms. Therefore, the change of person's behaviors could influence energy consumption in the household. The subjects' intentions were explained by path analysis to test the explanatory model. The Korean households' intentions were significantly accounted for by past behaviors, behavioral beliefs, motivation to comply, and subjective norms. The insignificant relationship between attitudes and intentions may be happened by the cultural difference. That is, Korean households were more concerned about the social standards rather than personal standards. This study showed that in order to facilitate energy conservation behaviors in the household level, the program should provide households the manifest results of the conservation behaviors and the households member would be the good messengers to diffuse energy conservation information and the program should be planned based on the subjects' characteristics such income and education level.

  3. [Intention, attitude, subjective norms and perception of control in Spanish adolescents about using Double Dutch].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Oscar; Goulet, Céline; Lampron, Annie

    2005-09-01

    With adolescence, boys and girls reach their sexual maturity and initiate their sexual encounters. They very frequently adopt risk behaviors as they tend not to use any contraceptive methods. Today's trend in relation to contraceptive methods is to recommend the combined utilization of condom and pill. In comparison to other methods, this last one, known as the Double Dutch (DD) method, has the advantage of preventing pregnancy and STD's, at the same time it increases the efficiency of contraception. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior the purpose of the study was to measure the intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control towards the utilization of the DD method among 15-16 year-old Spanish students and to determine the relationships among these variables. The results indicate that adolescents show favorable intention, attitude and subjective norm toward the utilization of the DD method. They seem to be more worried about pregnancy prevention than about STDs'prevention. Parents seem to be the most important reference people for adolescents, followed by their friends; the results show that at this age, adolescents tend to take into consideration these reference people's opinion. PMID:16231616

  4. Obstetricians' attitudes, subjective norms, perceived controls, and intentions on antibiotic prophylaxis in caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2003-11-01

    Over 10% of current births in all countries of the world are delivered by caesarean section. Single-dose ampicillin or cefazolin administered after cord clamping has been proven to be effective for the prevention of post-caesarean infections as indicated in many randomised trials and reviews in the Cochrane Library. This study aimed to determine three determinants of behavioural intention using the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived controls. Intentions were examined for five aspects of the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, namely whether or not antibiotics were used, used in all caesarean sections, after rather than before cord clamping, whether ampicillin/cefazolin or broader-spectrum antibiotics were used, and whether single or multiple doses were given. Fifty obstetricians selected from university, regional, and general hospitals in southern Thailand, were surveyed using a questionnaire and in-depth interview. Their intentions to use a single dose and to use in all cases were low, and this was related to negative attitudes and reference groups who did not approve of the single dose. The negative attitude was based on scepticism concerning the applicability of well-equipped trials from the developed world and fear of consequences of post-caesarean infections. Norms carried over from residency training had more long-term influence in their practice than newer information from books or journals. Perceived external controls on their practice were less predictive of intentions. Intentions were only partly predictive of behaviour. Changing attitudes, introducing evidence-based information into residency training and strengthening control systems in the hospital are essential to improve intentions. PMID:12948575

  5. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  6. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  7. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  8. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  9. Factors related to condom use behavior among club-working women in South Korea: importance of subjective norms and customer-related attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Ja-young

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to understand factors associated with condom use behavior among club-working women and identify the most influential factors to be addressed in future health programs. A total of 158 club-working women were surveyed from 3 midsize cities in South Korea from July to September 2004. Survey questionnaires were developed based on the theory of planned behavior. A total of 7 distinct themes emerged: Health aspects, Customer related, Pleasure related, Finance related, Societal norm, Occupational norm, and Perceived control. The results indicated that the Customer-related theme, Societal norm, and Occupational norm were statistically significant factors affecting condom use. On the other hand, self-related factors such as health, pleasure, and finance are not significantly related to the condom use behavior of club-working women in South Korea, suggesting that the currently used knowledge-focused education programs may not be sufficient for this population. PMID:22345303

  10. Teacher Involvement in School Development Activity and Its Relationships to Attitudes and Subjective Norms among Teachers: a Study of Norwegian Elementary and Junior High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midthassel, Unni Vere

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on a survey covering 1,435 Norwegian teachers in compulsory schools in 47 municipalities. It examines associations between teacher involvement in school development activity (SDA) and teachers' attitudes toward SDA as well as their perceived working environment concerning innovation activity among staff and the principal's…

  11. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  12. Fruit and Vegetable Attitudes, Norms, and Intake in Low-Income Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) attitudes and norms have been shown to influence intake in youth; yet research with low-income youth and studies supplementing self-report with objective measures of intake are lacking. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated FV intake, FV attitudes, and FV norms were collected in a sample of 116 youth attending a…

  13. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  14. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Attitudes, Norms, and Intake in Low-Income Youth.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2015-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) attitudes and norms have been shown to influence intake in youth; yet research with low-income youth and studies supplementing self-report with objective measures of intake are lacking. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated FV intake, FV attitudes, and FV norms were collected in a sample of 116 youth attending a residential summer camp serving low-income families. FV intake also was estimated by direct observation. Differences between self-rated and observed FV intake, perceived and observed peer intake, and perceived and peer-reported attitudes toward eating FVs were assessed with paired samples t tests. The role of FV attitudes, descriptive norms (perceived peer FV intake), injunctive norms (perceived peer attitudes toward eating FVs), and actual norms (observed peer FV intake and peer-reported FV attitudes) in predicting FV intake also was examined with multiple regression analysis. Youth misperceived their own and their peers' FV intake (i.e., overestimated intake of fruit and underestimated intake of vegetables) and believed that peers held less favorable attitudes toward eating FVs than was the case. The models predicting self-rated intake were significant, accounting for 34% of the variance in fruit intake and 28% of the variance in vegetable intake. Attitudes and descriptive norms were positively associated with FV intake, and observed peer fruit intake was negatively associated with fruit intake. Findings suggest that in low-income youth, FV attitudes, descriptive norms, and normative peer behavior predict perceived but not actual intake. Youth may benefit from intervention to promote favorable FV attitudes and norms. A focus on descriptive norms holds promise for improving self-rated intake in this population. PMID:25842389

  16. The role of group orientation and descriptive norms on water conservation attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Rimal, Rajiv N; Devries, Rebecca; Lee, Ee Lin

    2007-01-01

    Social norms have been shown to impact behaviors, but with mixed results. The theory of normative social behavior delineates factors that moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors, and it addresses the attributes of behaviors that make them susceptible to normative influence. This study tests whether group orientation moderates the impact of descriptive norms on water conservation attitudes and behavioral intentions. Findings indicate a consistent pattern of interactions for descriptive norms and group orientation on both attitudes and behavioral intent. Implications for normative theory and campaign design are addressed. PMID:17668993

  17. Norms, attitudes, and sex behaviors among women with incarcerated main partners.

    PubMed

    Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Villarroel, Maria A; Grieb, Suzanne D; Latkin, Carl A

    2013-12-01

    Incarceration has been extensively linked with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While a great deal of attention has been given to the risk behaviors of people who have been incarcerated, examination of the behaviors of partners of incarcerated individuals is also needed to understand the direct and indirect links between incarceration and HIV and to identify prevention avenues. In the present study, we hypothesize that incarceration is associated with risk behavior through attitudes and norms. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the attitudes and norms about sexual behaviors that women have when a sexual partner is incarcerated; and (2) to examine the association between attitudes and norms with the behavior of having other sex partners while a main partner is incarcerated. In our sample (n = 175), 50 % of women reported having other sex partners while their partner was incarcerated. Our findings show that attitudes, descriptive norms (i.e., norms about what other people do), and injunctive norms (i.e., norms about what others think is appropriate) were associated with having other partners. Interventions designed for couples at pre- and post-release from prison are needed to develop risk reduction plans and encourage HIV/STI testing prior to their reunion. PMID:22872432

  18. Parenting, Peers, and Perceived Norms: What Predicts Attitudes toward Sex among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ronald B., Jr.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Dowdy, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although attitudes strongly predict later sexual behaviors, few studies have investigated the factors that influence early adolescent attitudes toward sex. Using a general population sample of urban seventh-grade students (N = 1,736), we examined how supportive parenting, television viewing, perceived social norms, and having a friend and/or…

  19. Parenting, Peers, and Perceived Norms: What Predicts Attitudes toward Sex among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ronald B., Jr.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Dowdy, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although attitudes strongly predict later sexual behaviors, few studies have investigated the factors that influence early adolescent attitudes toward sex. Using a general population sample of urban seventh-grade students (N = 1,736), we examined how supportive parenting, television viewing, perceived social norms, and having a friend and/or…

  20. Setting an Egalitarian Social Norm in the Classroom: Improving Attitudes towards Diversity among Male Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jill E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a message describing a social norm of egalitarian attitudes and behaviors in an engineering college on male students' attitudes and behavioral intentions surrounding diversity in engineering. Participants were first-semester university students enrolled in four sections of an introductory engineering course in…

  1. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  2. Car driver attitudes, perceptions of social norms and aggressive driving behaviour towards cyclists.

    PubMed

    Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists. PMID:26275525

  3. Big Five Personality Traits and Eating Attitudes in Intensively Training Dancers: The Mediating Role of Internalized Thinness Norms

    PubMed Central

    Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; Falzon, Charlène; Lewton-Brain, Peter; Filaire, Edith; d’Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Dancers are at high risk of developing disordered eating attitudes, notably because of internalized thinness norms. Although the big five personality traits have been shown to be associated with eating attitudes in daily life, in dancers where eating issues and thinness norms internalization could be salient little is known about these associations and the role of the internalization of thinness norms in this relationship. The main objectives of this study were thus to examine the relationships between the personality traits defined in the big five model and the self-regulation of eating attitudes, and to assess the role of internalized thinness norms in this association. The study included 180 intensively training dancers with an average age of 15.6 years (SD = 2.8). Dancers completed questionnaires measuring the big five personality traits, internalization of thinness norms and self-regulation of eating attitudes in sport. Bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-regulation of eating attitudes, both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of internalized thinness norms. This study suggested that: (a) neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for self-regulation of eating attitudes in dancers, as already evidenced in the general population, and (b) the internalization of thinness norms is a pathway through which neuroticism affects self-regulation of eating attitudes. The big five model is therefore partially related to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Key points The big five model relates to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Neuroticism is negatively related to the self-regulation of eating attitudes. The internalization of thinness norms is correlated to the relationship between neuroticism and self-regulation of eating attitudes PMID:26336350

  4. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Norms of Adult Research Participants as a Basis for Outreach Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Millions of adults volunteer as research participants annually at research institutions across the nation. This research explored the attitudes, beliefs, and norms of rurally situated, adult research participants at a large research university. This systematic exploration of research participant experiences gathered information to inform the…

  5. Knowledge and Perceived Social Norm Predict Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…

  6. Knowledge and Perceived Social Norm Predict Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…

  7. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed. PMID:26174353

  8. Injury and the orchestral environment: part II. Organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes to injury.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Dale Ll; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2014-06-01

    The organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes of a workplace have a profound influence on levels of injury and illness amongst its workers. While this is well established in Work Health and Safety literature, very little research has attempted to understand the influence of organisational culture on injury risk in the orchestral profession. To address this, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of organisational culture on injury outcomes for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case study methodology, in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 freelance and 8 fulltime members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a themes-based "analysis of narrative" approach. The findings indicate that an orchestral culture exists in which musicians see injury as a sign of weakness, failure, and poor musicianship. Such negative perceptions of injury influence musicians to play through considerable levels of pain and continue performing with injuries. Because of perceived judgment from the orchestral group, musicians were found to conceal injuries from colleagues and management staff. Freelance musicians felt that disclosing injuries may lead to decreased work opportunities, and both full-time and casual musicians felt that "opening up" about injury may subject them to group judgment about their technique or musicianship. The study suggests education measures which may be effective at influencing individual behaviours and attitudes as well as cultural change initiatives which could lead to long-term positive health outcomes in the orchestral workplace. PMID:24925177

  9. Affective response to exercise as a component of exercise motivation: Attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and temporal stability of intentions.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM: A positive affective response is associated with increased participation in voluntary exercise, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well known. Consistent with a Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, we tested whether affective response to exercise leads to greater motivation in terms of attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and intentions to exercise. We were also specifically interested in whether a positive affective response leads to more temporally stable intentions. METHOD: Participants (N = 127) self-reported Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs and exercise behavior at baseline and three months later, and provided reports of exercise-related affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate intensity treadmill exercise at baseline. RESULTS: We show that participants who experience greater improvements in positive affect, negative affect and fatigue during exercise tended to report more positive attitudes, exercise self-efficacy and intentions to exercise three months later. Affective response was not predictive of subjective norms. As hypothesized, positive affective response was associated with more stable intentions over time. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a positive affective response to acute bouts of exercise can aid in building and sustaining exercise motivation over time. PMID:20161385

  10. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

  11. Attitudes, Norms and Standardization in English: Some Aspects of the Language in Its Social Context; Metapragmatics and Chauncey Gardener: Toward an Ecology of Communication. ROLIG-papir 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisler, Bent; Caffi, Claudia

    Two papers address different issues in linguistic theory. "Attitudes, Norms and Standardization in English: Some Aspects of the Language In Its Social Context," by Bent Preisler, looks at how attitudes affect language norms and ultimately, standardization in British and U.S. English. It begins with the attitudes and communicative patterns of…

  12. Subject Preference and Attitude to Religion in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, William K.

    1981-01-01

    Of 14 English public and private schools surveyed, only in the case of one girls' convent school could differences between beliefs and attitudes of arts and science-preferring pupils be found. In all other cases subject specialism or preference did not affect attitude to religion or a fundamental religious belief. (Author/SJL)

  13. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

    2013-04-01

    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  14. Maternal autonomy and attitudes towards gender norms: associations with childhood immunization in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort

    2013-07-01

    Globally 2.5 million children under-five die from vaccine preventable diseases, and in Nigeria only 23 % of children ages 12-23 months are fully immunized. The international community is promoting gender equality as a means to improve the health and well-being of women and their children. This paper looks at whether measures of gender equality, autonomy and individual attitudes towards gender norms, are associated with a child being fully immunized in Nigeria. Data from currently married women with a child 12-23 months from the 2008 Nigeria demographic and health survey were used to study the influence of autonomy and gender attitudes on whether or not a child is fully immunized. Multivariate logistic regression was used and several key socioeconomic variables were controlled for including wealth and education, which are considered key inputs into gender equality. Findings indicated that household decision-making and attitudes towards wife beating were significantly associated with a child being fully immunized after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Ethnicity, wealth and education were also significant factors. Programmatic and policy implications indicate the potential for the promotion of gender equality as a means to improve child health. Gender equality can be seen as a means to enable women to access life-saving services for their children. PMID:22696106

  15. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  16. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  17. "Boys Don't Cry": Examination of the Links between Endorsement of Masculine Norms, Self-Stigma, and Help-Seeking Attitudes for Men from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Hubbard, Asale

    2011-01-01

    The role of conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms as an antecedent to help-seeking attitudes in men has been established using convenience samples made up largely of college-age and European American males. However, the role of conformity to masculine norms on help-seeking attitudes for noncollege-age men or for men from diverse backgrounds…

  18. "Boys Don't Cry": Examination of the Links between Endorsement of Masculine Norms, Self-Stigma, and Help-Seeking Attitudes for Men from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Hubbard, Asale

    2011-01-01

    The role of conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms as an antecedent to help-seeking attitudes in men has been established using convenience samples made up largely of college-age and European American males. However, the role of conformity to masculine norms on help-seeking attitudes for noncollege-age men or for men from diverse backgrounds…

  19. Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

  20. Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

  1. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions1

    PubMed Central

    Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635

  2. Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice. PMID:24331890

  3. Differences across Academic Subjects in Teachers' Attitudes about Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce; Byrnes, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A survey study examined how attitudes about professional development (PD) vary among teachers of different subjects. Elementary teachers were more supportive of PD than health and physical education, social studies, and science teachers; special education teachers were more supportive of PD than social studies and science teachers; and five…

  4. Differences across Academic Subjects in Teachers' Attitudes about Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce; Byrnes, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A survey study examined how attitudes about professional development (PD) vary among teachers of different subjects. Elementary teachers were more supportive of PD than health and physical education, social studies, and science teachers; special education teachers were more supportive of PD than social studies and science teachers; and five…

  5. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people’s day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists. PMID:19805793

  6. Intention, subjective norms, and cancer screening in the context of relational culture.

    PubMed

    Pasick, Rena J; Barker, Judith C; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people's day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists. PMID:19805793

  7. Dysfunctional Attitudes Lead to Depressive Symptoms by Generating Subjective Stress.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that objective stress-negative events that have actually occurred outside of individuals-is involved in processes of dysfunctional attitudes leading to depression. Subjective stress-individuals' perception of negative events that have not actually occurred outside of them-is also predicted to be involved in these processes. However, few studies have empirically investigated this prediction. The primary purpose of this study was to fill this gap by testing the hypothesis that dysfunctional attitudes lead to depression by generating subjective stress. A longitudinal design was employed and initial depression was controlled. The results supported the hypothesis. It was also found that initial depression fostered subsequent depression by generating subjective stress. This study contributes to the literature on depression mechanisms by elucidating that subjective stress plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of depression. This study also has important clinical implications as it suggests that preventing subjective stress in individuals with dysfunctional attitudes or depression helps to protect the development or exacerbation of their depression. PMID:26168353

  8. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié ŕ stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé ŕ un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, ŕ la discrimination perçue au niveau interpersonnel et au niveau de l’attitude générale de préjugé envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Les résultats soulignent l’importance de comprendre les normes sociales et les attitudes personnelles dans l’étude de la stigmatisation lié au VIH et pr?nent l’incorporation de l’existence du capital humain dans les futurs programmes de réduction de la stigmatisation du VIH. En este estudio se examinó el estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA entre proveedores de servicios chinos mediante la comparación de sus actitudes hacia las personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA con su precepción de las normas sociales relacionadas a personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA. Se seleccionaron al azar tres hospitales provinciales, cuatro de la ciudadlhospitales de la prefectura, diez hospitales del condado, 18 clinicas de salud municipales, y 54 clinicas de la aldea de Yunnan, China. Los médicos y las enfermeras fueron incluidos en la muestra de manera aleatoria y considerando la relación enfermera-médico de cada hospital o clínica. Una muestra grande de técnicos de laboratorio fue incluida en el estudio con el fin de garantizar su adecuada representación en los análisis. Un total de 1,101 proveedores de servicios participaron de manera voluntaria en una encuesta anónima, en la cual se evaluaron las caracteristicas demográficas, las actitudes individuales, asi como la percepción de las normas sociales hacia personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, la intención de discriminación laboral, las actitudes globales de prejuicio y los conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA. La mayor parte de la muestra presentó similitudes entre sus opiniones personales y lo que ellos pensaban, eran las creencias de la mayoria de las personas de su sociedad. En una regresión logistica multiple se pudo observar que los participantes más jóvenes o que indicaron un contacto personal con personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, mostraron de manera más significativa respecto de esta población actitudes personales mucho más liberales que las normas sociales percibidas. El presentar una actitud personal más liberal que las normas sociales percibidas, hacia personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, estaba significativa y negativamente relacionado con el nivel de intención de discriminación laboral, la percepción de discriminación a nivel interpersonal y el nivel general del actitudes prejuiciosas hacia estas personas. Los resultados remarcan la importancia de la comprensión de las normas sociales y de las actítudes personales en el estudio del estigma relacionado con el VIH y propone la incorporación del capital humano existente en programas futuros de reducciôn del estigma hacia el VIH. PMID:20090857

  9. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p<0.03) except for forced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  10. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p < 0.03) except for forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  11. First, Third, and Fifth Grade Children's Attitudes about Gender Norm Violations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This questionnaire study examined elementary school student's knowledge of a number of gender norms as well as some moral and social norms. Participating in the study were 111 first, third, and fifth graders, the majority of whom were white, with a small number of Hispanic and Asian children. The gender roles related to children's play, hair…

  12. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes in fourth grade students.

  13. Do the effects of subjective frequency and age of acquisition survive better word frequency norms?

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Cortese, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Megastudies with processing efficiency measures for thousands of words allow researchers to assess the quality of the word features they are using. In this article, we analyse reading aloud and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for 2,336 words to assess the influence of subjective frequency and age of acquisition on performance. Specifically, we compare newly presented word frequency measures with the existing frequency norms of Kucera and Francis (1967), HAL (Burgess & Livesay, 1998), Brysbaert and New (2009), and Zeno, Ivens, Millard, and Duvvuri (1995). We show that the use of the Kucera and Francis word frequency measure accounts for much less variance than the other word frequencies, which leaves more variance to be "explained" by familiarity ratings and age-of-acquisition ratings. We argue that subjective frequency ratings are no longer needed if researchers have good objective word frequency counts. The effect of age of acquisition remains significant and has an effect size that is of practical relevance, although it is substantially smaller than that of the first phoneme in naming and the objective word frequency in lexical decision. Thus, our results suggest that models of word processing need to utilize these recently developed frequency estimates during training or setting baseline activation levels in the lexicon. PMID:20700859

  14. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  15. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  16. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  17. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  18. A novel tool to assess community norms and attitudes to multiple and concurrent sexual partnering in rural Zimbabwe: participatory attitudinal ranking.

    PubMed

    Mavhu, Webster; Langhaug, Lisa; Pascoe, Sophie; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Hart, Graham; Cowan, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships are important in understanding the evolution and maintenance of the HIV heterosexual epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. While it is possible to measure individual attitudes around sensitive behaviours through questionnaire surveys, studies suggest that responses may be subject to social desirability bias and may not reflect community norms. This study used a novel tool to collect data on community norms relating to the acceptability of concurrency in rural Zimbabwe. Six questions exploring general concurrency concepts and 28 scenarios in which multiple-partnerships might occur were developed and translated into Shona. Participatory attitudinal ranking (PAR), an approach adapted from participatory wealth ranking, was used to conduct group discussions (n=24) with 170 participants recruited in a household survey. Participants discussed and ranked scenarios according to the acceptability of the multiple-partnering described in the short accounts. Data analysis followed grounded theory principles. Qualitative data were examined against quantitative survey data collected from a representative sample of 18-44-year olds. While discussants indicated that concurrency was common among both males and females, self-reports from survey participants indicated that 37.1% of males (n=717/1931; 95% CI: 35.0-39.3%) and only 7.3% of females (n=215/2948; 95% CI: 6.4-8.3%) were in concurrent relationships suggesting under-reporting of this behaviour, particularly by women. We found that concurrency is an accepted community norm for men but never for women. Concurrency is considered more acceptable in specific social contexts, including infertility and lack of a male heir. Having protected rather than unprotected sex with a concurrent partner does not render this behaviour more acceptable. Using PAR, we managed to gain a more nuanced understanding of socially sanctioned concurrency, knowledge that could prove useful for improving behaviour change interventions targeting this behaviour. PAR allowed us to rank attitudes in terms of acceptability, which would enable us to compare attitudes between communities and evaluate changes over time. PMID:21218276

  19. Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

  20. Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

  1. "Boys don't cry": examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self-stigma, and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Vogel, David L; Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R; Hammer, Joseph H; Hubbard, Asale

    2011-07-01

    The role of conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms as an antecedent to help-seeking attitudes in men has been established using convenience samples made up largely of college-age and European American males. However, the role of conformity to masculine norms on help-seeking attitudes for noncollege-age men or for men from diverse backgrounds is not well understood. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study examined the cross-cultural relevance of a mediational model of the relationships between conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms and attitudes toward counseling through the mediator of self-stigma of seeking counseling for 4,773 men from both majority and nonmajority populations (race/ethnicity and sexual orientation). Structural equation modeling results showed that the model established using college males from majority groups (European American, heterosexual) may be applicable to a community sample of males from differing racial/ethnic groups and sexual orientations. However, some important differences in the presence and strengths of the relationships between conformity to dominant masculine norms and the other variables in the model were present across different racial/ethnic groups and sexual orientations. These findings suggest the need to pay specific theoretical and clinical attention to how conformity to dominant masculine norms and self-stigma are linked to unfavorable attitudes toward help seeking for these men, in order to encourage underserved men's help-seeking behavior. PMID:21639615

  2. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  3. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  4. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  5. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand, and four Western nations: A cross-cultural comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK, and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind. PMID:20186642

  6. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand and four Western nations: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind. PMID:20186642

  7. Predictors of the Development of Elementary-School Children=s Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Hostility, Prototypes, and Subjective Norms

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Children’s intentions to smoke are reliable predictors of subsequent smoking and precede smoking initiation, so identifying predictors of intentions is important for preventing or delaying smoking initiation. Children’s hostility and sociability, mediated by the development of prototypes (i.e., social images of children who smoke cigarettes) and subjective norms regarding smoking among peers, were expected to predict the development of their intentions to smoke cigarettes in the future. Children in 2nd through 5th grades (N = 809) from a Western Oregon community participated in a longitudinal study. Hostility and sociability were assessed by teachers = ratings, and prototypes, subjective norms, and intentions were assessed by self-report at each of the first four annual assessments. Children’s intentions to smoke predicted whether they had tried cigarettes by the fifth assessment. For both genders, latent growth modeling demonstrated that hostility, but not sociability, predicted the development of smoking intentions. More hostile children were more likely to have higher initial levels of intentions to smoke and, for boys, this effect was mediated by their higher initial levels of subjective norms about smoking. Sociability was not related to the development of smoking cognitions for boys or girls. These results were discussed in terms of opportunities to intervene on early influences on smoking intentions. PMID:17577804

  8. Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in grades 9 through 12, on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), used to measure symptoms of eating disorders. Obtained significant sex, but not age, differences, and some racial and socioeconomic differences among the girls. (Author/KS)

  9. The impact of Hispanic and white group cues on attitudes towards the violation of generic norms.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Mirjam; Cranmer, Skyler J

    2013-01-01

    While much work in political science has examined the impact of racial cues on individual perceptions, we know little about how individuals evaluate members of minority outgroups on issues that are not linked to stereotypes. We measure the impacts of Hispanic and White cues on individual assessments related to a stereotype-independent norm violation: alcoholism. We test three competing theories--cognition, intergroup emotions, and social identity--using a population-based vignette experiment included in the General Social Survey. Our results contradict much of the literature, but keep with social identity theory's predictions. Hispanic alcoholics, when Hispanics constitute the outgroup, are assessed less negatively than White alcoholics in the ingroup, the latter experiencing what is called the black sheep effect. The black sheep effect occurs when ingroup members are more punitive towards members of the ingroup than the outgroup. However, the black sheep effect does not extend to measures that are more consistent with outgroup stereotypes, such as violence or money mismanagement; Hispanic alcoholics are evaluated more negatively than Whites on these measures. The implication is that the effect of racial cues depends strongly on issue linkages to group stereotypes. PMID:24386153

  10. The influence of subjective norm on intention to use of learning management system among Malaysian higher education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baleghi-Zadeh, Sousan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of learning management system by universities has been increasingly growing. However, the results of several studies have revealed that students do not fully use the information systems. The present study proposes a model which investigates the influence of three constructs of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and subjective norm on behavior intention to use of learning management system. The sample size was 216 Malaysian undergraduate students. The results of the study revealed that the proposed model accounts for 31.1 % variance of behavior intention to use.

  11. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  12. Adult daughters' influence on mothers' health-related decision making: an expansion of the subjective norms construct.

    PubMed

    Washington, Pamela K; Burke, Nancy J; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J

    2009-10-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother-adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother-daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers' ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  13. Personal attitudes, perceived social norms, and health-risk behavior among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Jennifer H; Greenley, Rachel N; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary E; Lerand, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Sixty-eight females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent's current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  14. Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

  15. Students attitude towards calculus subject: A case-study using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Noorehan; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd.

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of Bumiputera students towards mathematics. The instrument used to measure the attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA). This test measures students' attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics (N), attitudes towards mathematics inquiry (I), adoption of mathematics attitude (A) and enjoyment of mathematics lessons (E). The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled in a Calculus subject at UiTM Negeri Sembilan. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the inter-relationship among the four criteria was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The students scored high in E, moderately in A and relatively low in N and I.

  16. The conflict of social norms may cause the collapse of cooperation: indirect reciprocity with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Jusup, Marko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-04-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a cooperation maintaining mechanism based on the social evaluation of players. Here, we consider the case of a group in which two social norms with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism are mixed. One norm, called Bushido (the way of warriors), regards cooperation with outsiders as betrayal, whereas the second norm, called Shonindo (the way of merchants), regards cooperation with outsiders as desirable. Each member of the group, irrespective of being a Bushido or a Shonindo player, is evaluated in two different ways and assigned two different labels: "ally" or "enemy" according to the Bushido evaluation; "good" or "bad" according to the Shonindo evaluation. These labels change in response to the action taken (cooperation or defection) when acting as a donor, as well as the label attached to the recipient. In addition to Bushido players, who cooperate with an ally and defect from an enemy, and Shonindo players, who cooperate with a good recipient and defect from a bad recipient, the group contains a third kind of players--unconditional defectors. The fractions of the three types of players follow the replicator dynamics. If the probability of interacting with outsiders is small, and if the cost-to-benefit ratio of cooperation is low, we observe several important patterns. Each social norm is able to maintain a high level of cooperation when dominant. Bushido and Shonindo players evaluate each other unfavorably and engage in a severe conflict. In the end, only one norm permeates the whole group driving the other to the extinction. When both social norms are equally effective, a rare occurrence of unconditional defectors may lead to a successful invasion. PMID:24380777

  17. A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students.

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use. PMID:24611821

  18. Teacher Attitudes toward Subject-Specific Acceleration: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the research supporting acceleration, some teachers are still hesitant to recommend acceleration for advanced students. The Teacher Attitudes Toward Subject-Specific Acceleration (TATSSA) instrument was designed to uncover the factors that influence teacher decisions to recommend students for subject-specific acceleration. First, we…

  19. Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…

  20. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 adult male and female respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age (?35 years and >35 years), and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not indicate their sex. The majority of women (77%) and men (74%) agreed “a man needs other women, even if things with his wife are fine”. Respondents who reported no education (60%) were more likely than those who reported any education (45%) to agree “if a woman is married, she should have sex with her husband whenever he wants to, even if she doesn’t want to” (p?=?0.002). The majority of women (74%) and men (73%) agreed “it is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant”. Respondents who reported no education (81%) were more likely than those who reported any education (72%) to agree with this statement (p?=?0.04). When asked about condom use, the majority of respondents, across both sexes and both age groups, agreed “it would be outrageous for a wife to ask her husband to use a condom” and “women who carry condoms are easy”. There were no statistically significant differences between the two age groups for any of the assessed gender inequitable norms. Conclusion The study reveals differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms among those surveyed in South Sudan when stratified by sex and education. As a new nation seeks to strengthen its health system, these data can inform sexual and reproductive health policies and programming in South Sudan. PMID:24209789

  1. Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

  2. Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

  3. The Potential of Multivariate Analysis in Assessing Students' Attitude to Curriculum Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaotlhobogwe, Michael; Laugharne, Janet; Durance, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding student attitudes to curriculum subjects is central to providing evidence-based options to policy makers in education. Purpose: We illustrate how quantitative approaches used in the social sciences and based on multivariate analysis (categorical Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis and General Linear…

  4. Ability Grouping in the Secondary School: Attitudes of Teachers of Practically Based Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Ireson, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to explore the attitudes of teachers of practically based subjects (arts and sports) towards ability grouping. Teachers from 45 secondary schools adopting different levels of ability grouping completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Overall, the…

  5. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

  6. Should Bible Studies Remain in Israeli Public Schools? Teachers' Attitudes toward Bible Teaching as a Mandatory Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idalovichi, Israel

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and analysis of attitudes of Israeli K-12 educators and bible teachers toward religious studies. Teachers' attitudes toward bible teaching as a mandatory subject are, on the whole, positive throughout the country. The present study addresses the absence of systematic research into the opinions…

  7. Three scales assessing high school students’ attitudes and perceived norms about seeking adult help for distress and suicide concerns

    PubMed Central

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help for Suicidal Youth, and Reject Codes of Silence. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.64 – 0.84. In support of construct validity, lower scores on each scale were associated with more maladaptive coping norms; and for each one unit increase on each scale, students were one-third to one-half as likely to report suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and elevated depression. PMID:22324773

  8. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  9. Attitudes, beliefs and norms relating to contraceptive use among young migrant and non-migrant adults in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irani, Laili; Speizer, Ilene; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The young urban population of Tanzania is growing rapidly, primarily due to rural-urban migration. More information is needed on the challenges facing young adult urban women and men in using family planning (FP). The purpose of this study is to identify perceptions, interpersonal and familial attitudes, and sociocultural norms regarding FP among young adults (18-25 years) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, comparing responses by sex, marital status and migration status. We conducted 12 focus groups with young adult men and women (n=74) in Dar es Salaam in December 2009. Participants knew of modern contraceptive methods, but had serious concerns about side effects. Single men and women preferred condoms. Female migrants stated that traditional methods were ineffective, yet commonly used in rural areas. Men's desires for more children frequently led female migrants not to use FP, while many married long-term residents used FP discreetly. Single women sometimes received the support of their parents/boyfriends to access and use contraception. Findings highlight differences in experiences among young adult men and women based on their migrant and marital status at the individual, interpersonal and normative levels. Future efforts to promote FP should engage existing social support systems and cultivate new ones in response to barriers. PMID:24156247

  10. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  11. How International Students Select Offshore Programs: The Influence of Image, Attitude, Subject Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianyao; Liu, Fang; Rojas-Méndez, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research studies identified country image as an important variable in international students' selection of onshore programs, and it is often perceived that there is little difference between onshore and offshore program selection. Looking at a sample of high school students in China and their selections of offshore programs (from a…

  12. How International Students Select Offshore Programs: The Influence of Image, Attitude, Subject Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianyao; Liu, Fang; Rojas-Méndez, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research studies identified country image as an important variable in international students' selection of onshore programs, and it is often perceived that there is little difference between onshore and offshore program selection. Looking at a sample of high school students in China and their selections of offshore programs (from a…

  13. The Impact of Subject Age, Gender, and Arch Length on Attitudes of Syrian Dentists towards Shortened Dental Arches

    PubMed Central

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Al-Nahhal, Tammam Ibrahim; Kujan, Omar; Tarakji, Bassel; Kay, Elizabeth Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subject age, gender, and arch length on dentists' attitudes towards unrestored shortened dental arches. Materials and Methods. 93 Syrian dentists were interviewed and presented with 24 scenarios for male and female subjects of different ages and shortened dental arches of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analogue scale how they would value the health of the mouth if the posterior space was left unrestored. Results. A value of 0.0 represented the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 represented the best. The highest mean value (0.73) was assigned to a shortened dental arch with missing second molar teeth in the mouth of a 70-year-old subject. A 35-year-old female subject with an extremely shortened dental arch (all molar and premolar teeth are missing) attracted the lowest mean value (0.26). The statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the value placed on unrestored shortened dental arches as the number of remaining teeth decreased (p < 0.008). While subject gender had almost no impact on dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, the scenarios for the older shortened dental arch subjects attracted significantly higher values compared to the scenarios for the younger subjects (p < 0.017). Conclusion. Subject age and arch length affect dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, but subject gender does not. PMID:26265916

  14. A Path Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes to Computer Use: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…

  15. Attitude, Desire, and Frequency of Extra-Marital involvement as Correlated with Subject Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Sharon; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study of desire for, frequency of, and attitudes towards extramarital involvement (EMI) was conducted, using 100 male and female college students ranging in age from 19 to 55. Predictive factors other than desire, frequency, and attitude were number of marriages, and the social desirability scale. (Author)

  16. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cox, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert. PMID:25937833

  17. The control of space manipulators subject to spacecraft attitude control saturation limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.; Vance, E. E.; Torres, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The motions of robotic manipulators mounted on spacecraft can disturb the spacecraft's positions and attitude. These disturbances can surpass the ability of the system's attitude control reaction jets to control them, for the disturbances increase as manipulator speeds increase. If the manipulator moves too quickly the resulting disturbances can exceed the saturation levels of the reaction jets, causing excessive spacecraft motions. A method for planning space manipulator's motions is presented, so that tasks can be performed as quickly as possible without saturating the system's attitude control jets.

  18. Patients’ and clinicians’ attitude towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with a first episode of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Anastasia; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kaiser, Stefan; Jäger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The acceptance and use of long-acting depot antipsychotics has been shown to be influenced by the attitudes of patients and clinicians. Depot treatment rates are low across countries and especially patients with first-episode psychosis are rarely treated with depot medication. The aim of this article was to review the literature on patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotic in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Results: Six studies out of a total of 503 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four studies conveyed a negative and two a positive opinion of clinicians toward depot medication. No systematic study directly addressed the attitude of patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatrists frequently presume that patients with first-episode psychosis would not accept depot medication and that depots are mostly eligible for chronic patients. Conclusions: Full information of all patients especially those with first episode psychosis in a therapeutic relationship that includes shared decision-making processes could reduce the negative image and stigmatization attached to depots. PMID:24167680

  19. Social norms and diet in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Bartle, Naomi; Wardle, Jane

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16-19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers' attitudes to (injunctive norms), and intake of (descriptive norms), the same foods. Misperceptions were calculated from differences between perceived norms and median self-reports of peer groups. Respondents overestimated their peers' intake of snacks by 1.8 portions a week, and sugar-sweetened drinks by 5.2 portions, and overestimated how positive their peers' attitudes were towards these behaviours. They underestimated their peers' consumption of fruits and vegetables by 3.2 portions per week and how positive their peers' attitudes were towards fruit and vegetables. Descriptive norms were strongly associated with intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snacks, explaining between 17% and 22% of the variance in consumption. There was no association between injunctive norms and intake. Descriptive norms indicated that misperceptions of peers' food intake were associated with respondents' own intake. Interventions to correct misperceptions have the potential to improve adolescents' diets. PMID:21843568

  20. Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-01-01

    The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed. PMID:25154118

  1. A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

  2. “It’s not smoke. It’s not tar. It’s not 4000 chemicals. Case closed”: Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and perceived social norms of e-cigarette use among adult users

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Blair N.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Tessman, Greta K.; Tworek, Cindy; Alexander, Jennifer; Dickinson, Denise M.; Rath, Jessica; Green, Kerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among adults in the U.S. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore consumer perceptions about e-cigarettes, including knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived social norms. Methods A total of 14 focus groups (N = 116) were conducted with current adult e-cigarette users in five U.S. cities from March through May, 2014. Focus groups were segmented by age (young adults aged 18–29 and older adults aged 30 and older) as well as by e-cigarette use status (exclusive e-cigarette users and non-exclusive e-cigarette users). Focus group discussions lasted approximately 60-min and were audio-recorded and transcribed; data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results Participants expressed many positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and simultaneously reported a lack of information and knowledge about the products. Focus group participants overwhelmingly felt as though the ingredients of e-cigarettes were likely less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Additionally, many described positive reactions from family and friends, especially when e-cigarettes were used in place of conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Findings from this qualitative study provide insight into consumer knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about e-cigarettes increasing our understanding of why and how they are being used. Such information will help provide insight into the potential public health impact of these emerging products. PMID:26708706

  3. Attitudes toward and Motivation for PE. Who Collects the Benefits of the Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Säfvenbom, Reidar; Haugen, Tommy; Bulie, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Due to attitudinal and motivational aims in the national curriculum, and to lack of research on adolescents' experiences with physical education (PE) in Norway, the purposes of this study were to (1) attain data on attitudes toward PE and self-determined motivation for PE among a representative sample of adolescents (N =…

  4. Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

  6. Attitudes toward Women as a Function of Subject's Experience with Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahly, Geraldine Butts

    Evidence is accumulating that experiences of children within the violent family are fundamental causes of the continuing problem of family and societal violence. To examine attitudes and values as a function of experience with family violence, 114 male undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing general demographics, and several…

  7. Changing Norms to Change Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dale T; Prentice, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Providing people with information about the behavior and attitudes of their peers is a strategy commonly employed by those seeking to reduce behavior deemed harmful either to individuals (e.g., high alcohol consumption) or the collective (e.g., high energy consumption). We review norm-based interventions, detailing the logic behind them and the various forms they can take. We give special attention to interventions designed to decrease college students' drinking and increase environment-friendly behaviors. We identify the conditions under which norm information has the highest likelihood of changing the targeted behavior and discuss why this is the case. PMID:26253542

  8. Attitude to the subject of chemistry in undergraduate nursing students at Fiji National University and Federation University, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen; Wakeling, Lara; Peck, Blake; Naiker, Mani; Hill, Dolores; Naidu, Keshni

    2015-01-01

    Attitude to the subject of chemistry was quantified in first-year undergraduate nursing students, at two geographically distinct universities. A purpose-designed diagnostic instrument (ASCI) was given to students at Federation University, Australia (n= 114), and at Fiji National University, Fiji (n=160). Affective and cognitive sub-scales within ASCI showed reasonable internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha for the cognitive sub-scale was 0.786 and 0.630, and 0.787 and 0.788 for affective sub-scale for the Federation University and Fiji National University students, respectively. Mean (SD) score for the cognitive sub-scale was 10.5 (5.6) and 15.2 (4.1) for students at Federation University and Fiji National University, respectively (P<0.001, t-test). Mean (SD) score for the affective sub-scale was 13.1 (5.1) and 20.7 (4.3) for students at Federation University and Fiji National University, respectively (P < 0.001, t-test). An exploratory factor analysis (n=274) confirmed a two-factor solution consistent with affective and cognitive sub-scales, each with good internal consistency. Quantifying attitude to chemistry in undergraduate nursing students using ASCI may have utility in assessing the impact of novel teaching strategies used in the education of nursing students in areas of bioscience and chemistry. However, geographically distinct populations of undergraduate nurses may show very different attitudes to chemistry. PMID:26775523

  9. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  10. [Autonomy attitudes in the treatment compliance of a cohort of subjects with continuous psychotropic drug administration].

    PubMed

    Baumann, M; Trincard, M

    2002-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs are part of a general practitioner's daily routine. As with all drugs, they need to be controlled by a phenomenon of observance. Respecting prescriptions is in fact a major public health concern. Our problematic is centred on the analysis of the association between observance and autonomy in order to gain a better understanding of the links between the drug, how it is to be taken, and how the patients adapt and control it. Identifying and comparing autonomous practices psychotrope users associated with attitudes put into play by those who claim to observe or not to observe their treatment is the aim of this project. The qualitative analysis of the speech is based on the categorial analysis of the contents of 46 transcriptions of 23 women et 23 men continuous (regular monthly intake for at least 5 years), aged between 50 and 65. The majority live in couples, have professional activities, and are executives. The psychotropes with the largest consumption are: anxiolytics and antidepressors. The average duration of their consumption is more than 17 years. Two types of attitude can be distinguished through the qualitative analyse. The attitudes of non-observers towards the psychotropic drug and dependence show controlled, autonomous acts. Autonomy is an influencing factor in their observation of the prescribed treatment, it is a major component of their non-observance regarding psychotropes; thus our hypothesis is confirmed. The strategy adopted around the medication arises from autonomy of action. Organising the treatment is seen as a sign of autonomy, as taking an initiative in relation to the medical prescription, and not as rebellious, or carefree behaviour, or as a sign of inconsistency. Non-observers seem more to be involved in a step towards self-regulation. Active taking verbs such as stop, diminish, increase , and success verbs succeed the I is greatly used, reinforced in some cases by myself ; this vocabulary situates the patient as an actor facing the drug and shows that he is capable of action. For observers, taking the drug is qualified as regular and some users categorically refuse to bypass the doctor's advice never . Looking for additional information is an act of autonomy. It is found partly with the doctor; but also from the media, the exchanges with the others and the reading of the notes. But talking to other people and reading the information leaflets are more often done by non-observers. Recognizing oneself in the indications and the dosage marked on the leaflet seems to be the first step to adopting the drug so as to know it better and to gain mastery of it. Autonomy is gained through finding alternative, substitutive or complementary solutions with a large share left to herbal medicine and homeopathy. Non-observers seem to be more active than observers in diminishing or stopping taking psychotropes. Affirming one's autonomy is also shown in the direction given to each person's trajectory of life, behaviour referring to it, the projection into the future, and the dynamics of life. These actions underlie a capacity of resistance, non-observers using evocative terms such as taking things in hand , recognizing the while, in certain cases, the need to be supported. This capacity of action is far less present in observers who acknowledge their difficulties in facing up to events. The intentionality and the determination of their behaviour and their choices depend on the autonomy of willpower. Adjusting the amount taken is shown by expressions of intention, and justifies self-regulation. Non-observers direct their behaviour towards a reduction in the medication and commit themselves not to go over a certain amount. Stopping usage is declared as certain , it is planned. On the other hand, it remains unpredictable for observers for whom consumption is linked to the description of a need to have long-lasting health. Observers describe taking their medication as automatic, routine, and easy. A sort of fatality and resignation is attached to the prescription, linked to a negative perception of their health. The medication is at the same time nourishing and destructive . The disagreeable sensations caused by its suppression and the secondary effects appear less important than the benefits to be had from it. Autonomy can be recognized in the type of commitment established with the professional. It can be shown around a prescription negociated for treatment and delivered in mutual agreement. It places the patient in an active partnership. The presence of I and of more frequent active verbs in non-observers shows the role played by the patient. His conversation organizes itself round how the medication is to be taken. Systematic use of the prescription reinforces the instrumental recourse to the doctor for a renewal especially for non-observers. For observers, the prescription is followed despite disagreements. The professional is appreciated for his expertise in advice, how to use the medication . Confidence results from this know-how. The feeling of fear inspired by the psychotrope puts taking the medication into perspective and removes the guilt from non-observance. This process contributes to the patient's carrying on taking the medication. The positive effects found again thanks to the medication strengthen the later's perpetuation. When the patient is asked to participate in the prescription, this participation is described differently in the two groups. In observers, it is understood from the viewpoint of the doctor-patient association with, us and for the other group from the viewpoint of cooperation I, one . In non-observers, a type of delegation is highlighted leave it to be managed , the patient's confidence in the doctor lets him manage his medication under medical control . The autonomy of willpower is shown by the degree of openness to the Other Person. Non-observers have quite open and trendy character traits and give a rather positive image of themselves. These elements are absent from the speech of observers in favour of a negative self-image. The autonomy of willpower shows up in their free expression within the family, and with friends, the patient is freed from the influence of other people. For non-observers it is admitted easily . Observers show reserve through a concern of being discrete; rules of good behaviour do not allow them to speak about their consumption since it lifts the veil on their person and its affects. Two types of attitude can be distinguished: Observers for whom the psychotrope supports them against an unhappy life and is part of a habit which is hidden from other people, they keep to the prescribed doses and don't try to change them, they have absolute confidence in the medical profession; non-observers for whom psychotropes are a crutch which they mistrust. They are conscious of the bad effects and state their intention and their will to control this medication by planning on a reduction in, or even an end to, consumption. In order to give a meaning to the prescription and to avoid too great a feeling of guilt, they legitimize the later by an obligation created by a need, and by an improvement in symptomatology, and they minimize the quantity and the effects of taking the medication. They cooperate with the doctor and are involved in a close relationship with my doctor . They show a certain familiarity to the medication and talk openly about their consumption. Autonomy is a means to responsibility and to valorise a part of the patients in particular those which are non-observing so as to strengthen their capacity to manage their health as best they can. It contributes to a better observance of treatment in as much as autonomous patients are more inclined to negotiate with their doctors. Looking for self-regulatory behaviour allows us a better understanding of those patients non-observers who are willing, and helps them to develop their aptitude to face up to their illness. PMID:12386539

  11. Attitudes Towards End-of-Life Decisions and the Subjective Concepts of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lotto, Lorella; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rigoni, Davide; Rumiati, Rino; Sartori, Giuseppe; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background People have fought for their civil rights, primarily the right to live in dignity. At present, the development of technology in medicine and healthcare led to an apparent paradox: many people are fighting for the right to die. This study was aimed at testing whether different moral principles are associated with different attitudes towards end-of-life decisions for patients with a severe brain damage. Methodology We focused on the ethical decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in patients with severe brain damage. 202 undergraduate students at the University of Padova were given one description drawn from four profiles describing different pathological states: the permanent vegetative state, the minimally conscious state, the locked-in syndrome, and the terminal illness. Participants were asked to evaluate how dead or how alive the patient was, and how appropriate it was to satisfy the patient's desire. Principal Findings We found that the moral principles in which people believe affect not only people's judgments concerning the appropriateness of the withdrawal of life support, but also the perception of the death status of patients with severe brain injury. In particular, we found that the supporters of the Free Choice (FC) principle perceived the death status of the patients with different pathologies differently: the more people believe in the FC, the more they perceived patients as dead in pathologies where conscious awareness is severely impaired. By contrast, participants who agree with the Sanctity of Life (SL) principle did not show differences across pathologies. Conclusions These results may shed light on the complex aspects of moral consensus for supporting or rejecting end-of-life decisions. PMID:22355392

  12. An investigation of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility among African American crack cocaine smokers

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, M.; BOWEN, A.; ROSS, M.; TIMPSON, S.; PALLONEN, U.; AMOS, C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the unique contribution of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility to the formation of intentions to use male condoms during vaginal sex. Data were collected from 402 male and 157 female heterosexual African American crack cocaine smokers in Houston, Texas, US. Two structural equation models of the intention to use a condom with the last sex partner were estimated. One model included measures of condom-use attitudes, subjective norms and condom-use self-efficacy. A second model included these three measures and a fourth measure of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility. Separate models were estimated for men and women. The addition of a personal norm of condom-use responsibility provided a significantly better fit to the data than did models including only outcome expectations, subjective norms and self-efficacy. Results also showed distinctly different underlying cognitive structures of condom-use intention for men and women. A personal norm of condom-use responsibility had a strong direct effect on men’s intentions to use condoms with the last sex partner. Other variables appeared to have no direct effect on men’s intentions. Women’s intentions were strongly influenced by a personal norm and social subjective norms. Situational self-efficacy and outcome expectations had weaker, yet significant, effects on women’s intentions. Given the strong effect of personal norms on men’s intentions to use condoms, further research should be undertaken. PMID:18293133

  13. Social norms theory and concussion education.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R; Baugh, Christine M; Calzo, Jerel P

    2015-12-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To-date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed at increasing concussion reporting. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether perceived team concussion reporting norms would be less supportive of an individual's safe concussion symptom reporting behavior than objective team norms. Participants were 328 male and female US collegiate athletes. Written surveys were completed in person during the spring of 2014. Among both male and female athletes, team concussion reporting norms were significantly misperceived, with athletes tending to think that they themselves have safer attitudes about concussion reporting than their teammates. Perceived norms were associated with symptom reporting intention, independent of the team's objective reporting norm. A social norms approach to concussion education, in which misperceived group norms are corrected and shifted in the direction of safety, is an important avenue for program development and evaluation research aimed at the secondary prevention of harm from concussion. Implications for the design of this type of educational programming are discussed. PMID:26471918

  14. Zero tolerance against patriarchal norms? A cross-sectional study of Swedish physicians' attitudes towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration.

    PubMed

    Juth, Niklas; Lynöe, Niels

    2015-03-01

    Many countries, Sweden among them, lack professional guidelines and established procedures for responding to young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration due to honour-related threats. The purpose of the present survey study was to further examine the attitudes of the Swedish healthcare professionals concerned towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restorations. The study indicates that a small majority of Swedish general practitioners and gynaecologists would accommodate these patients, at least given certain circumstances. But a large minority of physicians would under no circumstances help the young females, regardless of speciality, years of practice within medicine, gender, or experience of the phenomenon. Their responses are similar to other areas where it has been claimed that society should adopt a zero tolerance policy against certain phenomena, for instance drug policy, where it has also been argued that society should never act in ways that express support for the practice in question. However, this argument is questionable. A more pragmatic approach would also allow for follow-ups and evaluation of virginity certificates and hymen restorations, as is demonstrated by the Dutch policy. Hence, there are some obvious advantages to this pragmatic approach compared to the restrictive one espoused by a large minority of Swedish physicians and Swedish policy-makers in this area. PMID:24574429

  15. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  16. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  17. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  18. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  19. Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

  20. Effects of the Physical Laboratory versus the Virtual Laboratory in Teaching Simple Electric Circuits on Conceptual Achievement and Attitudes Towards the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ercan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Current study examined the effects of virtual and physical laboratory practices on students' conceptual achievement in the subject of electricity and their attitudes towards simple electric circuits. Two groups (virtual and physical) selected through simple random sampling was taught with web-aided material called "Electricity in Our…

  1. The Effects of Project-Based Learning on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude, and Retention of Knowledge: The Subject of "Electricity in Our Lives"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçalli, Saide; Korur, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of project-based learning on students' academic achievement, attitude, and retention of knowledge in relation to the subject of "Electricity in Our Lives" in a fourth-grade science course. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental design as a "pre-test, post-test with…

  2. A School-Based Study of Cooperative Learning and Its Effects on Social Studies Achievement, Attitude towards the Subject and Classroom Climate in Four Social Studies Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine Kim-Eng; Ng, Maureen; Phang, Rosalind

    This paper is a report of a year-long school-based study in Singapore that investigated the effects of the use of cooperative learning in elementary social studies classrooms on social studies achievement, attitude towards the subject, and classroom climate. Results indicated that lower ability pupils benefited the most from the use of cooperative…

  3. The Effects of Project-Based Learning on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude, and Retention of Knowledge: The Subject of "Electricity in Our Lives"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçalli, Saide; Korur, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of project-based learning on students' academic achievement, attitude, and retention of knowledge in relation to the subject of "Electricity in Our Lives" in a fourth-grade science course. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental design as a "pre-test, post-test with…

  4. Effects of the Physical Laboratory versus the Virtual Laboratory in Teaching Simple Electric Circuits on Conceptual Achievement and Attitudes Towards the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ercan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Current study examined the effects of virtual and physical laboratory practices on students' conceptual achievement in the subject of electricity and their attitudes towards simple electric circuits. Two groups (virtual and physical) selected through simple random sampling was taught with web-aided material called "Electricity in Our…

  5. Pakistani English: Acceptability and the Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgardner, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the language attitudes of Pakistani journalists, teachers, and university students between 1987 and 1992, finding that although the British model of English still has considerable influence in the former colony, a Pakistani norm is beginning to emerge and become more acceptable. (22 references) (MDM)

  6. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  7. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  8. Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health – a Swedish questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Lars; Andersson, Ingemar; Hĺkansson, Anders; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2005-01-01

    Background Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. Methods The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL), sense of coherence (SOC), subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. Results Work ethics (WE) and general work attitudes (GWA) were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. Conclusion Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender, good QOL, high SOC and good health as well as support from both parents, positive experience of school and work contacts related positively to attitudes towards work. Further planning and supportive work have to take these factors into account. PMID:16212657

  9. The Role of Age and Gender in the Relationship between (Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control) and Adoption of E-Learning at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating factors that effect on adaption e-learning among students in Jordanian universities. Two models of e-learning that are observed among adopting institutions are: E-learning as a supplement to traditional classroom model have been introduced by the respondents in this research. The paper takes a…

  10. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  11. The Effects of Mentored Problem-Based STEM Teaching on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers: Scientific Reasoning and Attitudes Toward STEM Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliendo, Julia C.

    Problem-based learning in clinical practice has become an integral part of many professional preparation programs. This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of a specialized 90-hour field placement on elementary pre-service teachers' scientific reasoning and attitudes towards teaching STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) subjects. A cohort of 53 undergraduate elementary education majors, concurrent to their enrollment in science and math methods classes, were placed into one of two clinical practice experiences: (a) a university-based, problem-based learning (PBL), STEM classroom, or (b) a traditional public school classroom. Group gain scores on the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (CTSR) and the Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes Toward STEM Survey-Elementary Teachers (T-STEM) survey were calculated. A MANCOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in gain scores between the treatment and comparison groups' scientific reasoning (p = .011) and attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects (p = .004). The results support the hypothesis that the pre-service elementary teachers who experienced STEM mentoring in a PBL setting will have an increase in their scientific reasoning and produce positive attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects. In addition, the results add to the existing research suggesting that elementary pre-service teachers require significant academic preparation and mentored support in STEM content.

  12. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  13. Values, attitudes and perceptions of managers as predictors of corporate environmental responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakis, Giorgos; Lioukas, Spyros

    2012-06-15

    We examine whether managers' values, attitudes, and perceptions influence the greening of organizations. To that purpose, we specify and test a model of corporate environmental responsiveness (CER), drawing upon a modified version of the theory of planned behavior and the value-belief-norm theory. Based on survey data from 142 Greek companies, we find that top managers' personal values influence responses indirectly, through shaping their environmental attitudes, while direct relationship is not significant. Subjective norms, expressing stakeholder expectations, do affect CER, with their effect being stronger than that of attitudes. Managers' perceived ability to handle environmental issues also appears to influence responses. Results have theoretical implications, indicating the significant role of managers' values, attitudes and perceptions in a firm's environmental response. Practical implications are discussed in relation to selection of managers and training. PMID:22361109

  14. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm

  15. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13–18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from “not at all” to “always.” Summated composite score ranging from 0–36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR) of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication. Results Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents’ reproductive health (RH) knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure. Conclusions Curtailing the adolescents’ underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents. PMID:26167860

  16. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency. PMID:23373978

  17. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

  18. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  19. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  20. Association of gender norms, relationship and intrapersonal variables, and acculturation with sexual communication among young adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648718

  1. Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364

  2. Use of the Semantic Differential Technique to Measure Prospective Elementary School Teacher Attitude Toward Mathematics and Other Subjects. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert B.

    The first objective of this research was to compare the attitudes of prospective elementary school teachers toward mathematics and three other areas-- language arts, science, and social studies--as academic disciplines and as future teaching areas. The second objective was to test the predictive validity of congruity theory when applied to Ss and…

  3. Why are religious people happy? The effect of the social norm of religiosity across countries.

    PubMed

    Stavrova, Olga; Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Schlösser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on social norms theories, we suggest that religiosity substantially increases subjective well-being if it is considered normative in a certain national context. In Study 1, we test this hypothesis using an indicator of a country's social norm of religiosity that includes both the national level of religiosity and the social desirability of religion. The results of a multilevel regression analysis suggest that religious individuals are on average happier and more satisfied with life than non-religious individuals. This effect is stronger in religious countries with dominant negative attitudes towards non-believers. In Study 2, we further examine whether the differences in social recognition of religious and non-religious individuals in countries where religiosity is normative account for this finding. The results of a moderated mediation analysis indicate that in religious countries, religious people report being treated with more respect, which partially explains their higher levels of happiness and life satisfaction. PMID:23146600

  4. Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

  5. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  6. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lauren B

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual's attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  7. Subjective and objective measures of attractiveness and their relation to sexual behavior and sexual attitudes in university students.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2007-02-01

    This study examined both self-rated and objectively measured attractiveness in relation to sexual behaviors and attitudes in an undergraduate sample (N=456). About a quarter of the variance in self-ratings of attractiveness was predicted from combining standard objective measures of attractiveness, including face photo ratings, body mass index, and chest-to-waist ratio for men, and face photo ratings, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio for women. Correlations were investigated among self-rated attractiveness, measured attractiveness, the residual component of self-rated attractiveness (controlling for measured attractiveness), and a number of sexual and related variables. Measured attractiveness correlated moderately with sexual behaviors but not with sociosexuality or sexual moral attitudes, indicating that higher levels of observable attractiveness may serve to increase opportunities for sex with multiple desirable partners without affecting interests in or moral acceptance of casual sex. Self-rated attractiveness correlated positively with sexual behaviors and with sociosexuality, but the correlation with sociosexuality was based entirely on residual factors beyond the objective measures of attractiveness. Other predictors of sexual behavior were discussed in terms of their variable roles in affecting interest in, opportunities for, and social costs of promiscuous sexual activity. PMID:17136591

  8. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  9. Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding

    PubMed Central

    Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

  10. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm…

  11. Nerds and Freaks: A Theory of Student Culture and Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Bishop, Matthew; Gelbwasser, Lara; Green, Shanna; Zuckerman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between the study behavior and academic engagement of individual students, the norms and attitudes of close friends, and the peer culture of school. The authors are particularly interested in how the academic orientation of a student and his or her close friends invites or protects him or her from harassment by…

  12. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  13. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  14. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  15. Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

  16. Content-blind norms, no norms, or good norms? A reply to Vranas.

    PubMed

    Gigerenzer, G

    2001-08-01

    In the psychology of thinking, little thought is given to what constitutes good thinking. Instead, normative solutions to problems have been accepted at face value, thereby determining what counts as a reasoning fallacy. I applaud Vranas (Cognition 76 (2000) 179) for thinking seriously about norms. I do, however, disagree with his attempt to provide post hoc justifications for supposed reasoning fallacies in terms of 'content-neutral' norms. Norms need to be constructed for a specific situation, not imposed upon it in a content-blind way. The reason is that content-blind norms disregard relevant structural properties of the given situation, including polysemy, reference classes, and sampling. I also show that content-blind norms can, unwittingly, lead to double standards: the norm in one problem is the fallacy in the next. The alternative to content-blind norms is not no norms, but rather carefully designed norms. PMID:11525483

  17. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  18. Graph-Based Norm Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Madalina; Oren, Nir; Miles, Simon; Luck, Michael

    Norms impose obligations, permissions and prohibitions on individual agents operating as part of an organisation. Typically, the purpose of such norms is to ensure that an organisation acts in some socially (or mutually) beneficial manner, possibly at the expense of individual agent utility. In this context, agents are normaware if they are able to reason about which norms are applicable to them, and to decide whether to comply with or ignore them. While much work has focused on the creation of norm-aware agents, much less has been concerned with aiding system designers in understanding the effects of norms on a system. The ability to understand such norm effects can aid the designer in avoiding incorrect norm specification, eliminating redundant norms and reducing normative conflict. In this paper, we address the problem of norm understanding by providing explanations as to why a norm is applicable, violated, or in some other state. We make use of conceptual graph based semantics to provide a graphical representation of the norms within a system. Given knowledge of the current and historical state of the system, such a representation allows for explanation of the state of norms, showing for example why they may have been activated or violated.

  19. The effect of video interviews with STEM professionals on STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest of middle school students in conservative Protestant Christian schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsup, Philip R.

    Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.

  20. Computational Substrates of Norms and Their Violations during Social Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ting; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P. Read

    2013-01-01

    Social norms in humans constrain individual behaviors to establish shared expectations within a social group. Previous work has probed social norm violations and the feelings that such violations engender; however, a computational rendering of the underlying neural and emotional responses has been lacking. We probed norm violations using a two-party, repeated fairness game (ultimatum game) where proposers offer a split of a monetary resource to a responder who either accepts or rejects the offer. Using a norm-training paradigm where subject groups are preadapted to either high or low offers, we demonstrate that unpredictable shifts in expected offers creates a difference in rejection rates exhibited by the two responder groups for otherwise identical offers. We constructed an ideal observer model that identified neural correlates of norm prediction errors in the ventral striatum and anterior insula, regions that also showed strong responses to variance-prediction errors generated by the same model. Subjective feelings about offers correlated with these norm prediction errors, and the two signals displayed overlapping, but not identical, neural correlates in striatum, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that responses in anterior insula can encode information about social norm violations that correlate with changes in overt behavior (changes in rejection rates). Together, these results demonstrate that the brain regions involved in reward prediction and risk prediction are also recruited in signaling social norm violations. PMID:23325247

  1. Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

  2. The Concept of Norms in Translation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Christina

    1998-01-01

    Introduces an issue dedicated to examining the concept of norms in translation studies (based on a 1998 seminar on translation and norms), providing an overview of the concept of norms, linguistic norms in translation studies, norms and conventions in text-linguistic approaches, the concept of equivalence, and translational norms. (SM)

  3. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595

  4. Eroticism as a Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderone, Mary S.

    1974-01-01

    Erotic feelings, thoughts, and responses invariably occur in children from their earliest days onward. The attitudes of the parent figures about these and about the gender identity and role behavior of the child constitute its primary sex education from birth to five years. (Author)

  5. Storage of household firearms: an examination of the attitudes and beliefs of married women with children

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R. M.; Runyan, C. W.; Coyne-Beasley, T.; Lewis, M. A.; Bowling, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Although safe firearm storage is a promising injury prevention strategy, many parents do not keep their firearms unloaded and locked up. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examines factors associated with safe storage among married women with children and who have firearms in their homes. Data come from a national telephone survey (n?=?185). We examined beliefs about defensive firearm use, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and firearm storage practices. A Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was conducted to assess associations between psychosocial factors and firearm storage practices. Women were highly motivated to keep firearms stored safely. Those reporting safe storage practices had more favorable attitudes, more supportive subjective norms and higher perceptions of behavioral control than those without safe storage. One-fourth believed a firearm would prevent a family member from being hurt in case of a break-in, 58% believed a firearm could scare off a burglar. Some 63% said they leave decisions about firearm storage to their husbands. Women were highly motivated to store firearms safely as evidenced by favorable attitudes, supportive subjective norms and high perceptions of behavioral control. This was especially true for those reporting safer storage practices. PMID:17890758

  6. A Social Norms Approach to Drug Prevention in Schools in Ireland: Results from a Pre Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Leigheann Ryan; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Foley, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that social norms interventions, which aim to educate individuals and groups on their actual attitudinal and behavioural norms relating to alcohol, cigarette and drug use,incur some success in reducing positive attitudes to substance use and rates of substance use. The research aimed to investigate the extent of misperceptions…

  7. A Social Norms Approach to Drug Prevention in Schools in Ireland: Results from a Pre Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Leigheann Ryan; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Foley, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that social norms interventions, which aim to educate individuals and groups on their actual attitudinal and behavioural norms relating to alcohol, cigarette and drug use,incur some success in reducing positive attitudes to substance use and rates of substance use. The research aimed to investigate the extent of misperceptions…

  8. Assimilation linguistique et attitudes linguistiques de jeunes Alsaciens (Linguistic Assimilation and Linguistic Attitudes of Young Alsatians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khettry, Francoise

    1986-01-01

    A study examined the relationship of young Alsatians' language attitudes to both their language behavior at school and their linguistic norm and attitudes toward maintenance of their dialect. Results suggest that maintenance of minority languages can be helped by teaching linguistic minority youth to value their language and combat stereotypes.…

  9. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

  10. Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

  11. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  12. Systeme, norme, usage: Etudes contrastives (System, Norm, Usage: Contrastive Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gak, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of languages can be an effective instructional technique if used well. The comparison of isolated elements is less effective than the examination of languages at several levels: system, norm, and usage. (MSE)

  13. Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.

    PubMed

    Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents. PMID:23955132

  14. The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

  15. Modeling the theory of planned behavior for intention to improve oral health behaviors: the impact of attitudes, knowledge, and current behavior.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Wagle, Madhu; Dogaru, Beatrice C; Manolescu, Bogdan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intention to improve oral health behaviors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 153 first-year medical students (mean age 20.16, 50 males and 103 females) who completed a questionnaire assessing intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, and current oral hygiene behaviors. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors and perceived behavioral control contributed to the model for predicting intention, whereas subjective norms did not. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors were slightly more important than perceived behavioral control in predicting intention. Oral health knowledge significantly affected affective and cognitive attitudes, while current behavior was not a significant predictor of intention to improve oral health behavior. The model had a slightly better fit among females than among males, but was similar for home and professional dental health care. Our findings revealed that attitude, perceived behavioral control, and oral health knowledge are predictors of intention to improve oral health behaviors. These findings may help both dentists and dental hygienists in educating patients in oral health and changing patients' oral hygiene habits. PMID:21959666

  16. Mediating Role of Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control in the Relationships between Their Respective Salient Beliefs and Behavioural Intention to Adopt E-Learning among Instructors in Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altawallbeh, Manal; Soon, Fong; Thiam, Wun; Alshourah, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that determine intention to adopt e-learning in Jordanian universities. Two models of e-learning that are observed among adopting institutions: E-learning as a supplement to traditional classroom mode, and total electronic learning. The respondents in this research have just been introduced to…

  17. Drugs and the college athlete: an analysis of the attitudes of student athletes at risk.

    PubMed

    Tricker, R; Connolly, D

    1997-01-01

    Theories related to planned behavior and reasoned action have included an individual's attitude as an important factor in the formation of behavioral intentions and behaviors. Research on this topic suggests that salient beliefs affect intentions and subsequent behaviors, either through attitudes or subjective norms, or the degree of (perceived) control that an individual feels he/she has over the behavior. This study was designed to examine the relative importance of selected attitude variables in describing a profile of athletes who were at risk for using anabolic steroids, human grown hormone, amphetamines, cocaine, and marijuana. Responses from 563 student athletes at two Division One NCAA universities were used in the study. The results of this study suggest that subjective norms, based on the influence of drug testing, peer influence, and a fear of detection are significant factors that influence the decisions of student athletes related to using banned substances. In this article characteristics of at-risk athletes are presented with recommendations for drug education programs for student athletes. PMID:9270209

  18. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  19. The effect of education on behavioral intention model of mothers’ attitude towards over weight preschool children's nutritional patterns

    PubMed Central

    Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Momenzadeh, Fatemeh; Tavakkol, Khosrow; Kelishadi, Roya; Rad, Gholamreza Sharifi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and over weight is one of the causes of threatening children's present and future life. One of the factors that cause this problem is parents’ attitude toward preschool children's nutritional patterns. Education can improve the parents’ attitude and prevents from this big issue. This study aimed to assess changes in mother's attitude and behavioral intention using intention model. METHODS: This was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post test design. Forty-five mothers with overweight preschool children attended this study. Sampling was based on cluster randomize sampling method. The researcher-made questionnaire which was used in this study was standardized through content validity and test, re-test. RESULTS: Comparing the pretest and posttest scores indicated a statistically significant difference in the attitude mean score. The findings of this study suggest that attitude and behavioral intention about nutritional patterns can be improved through parents’ education based on behavioral intention model such as attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention. CONCLUSIONS: In order to have healthy children, parents should improve their knowledge about how they promote their attitude towards children's nutritional pattern. Therefore, new model of education can optimize correct healthy behavior. PMID:22069415

  20. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  1. Effects of an Educational Workshop on Pediatric Nurses' Attitudes and Beliefs About Family-Centered Bedside Rounds.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Lara; Benzies, Karen; Barnard, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effects of an educational workshop on nurses' (N=36) attitudes and beliefs toward family-centered bedside rounds (FBR) using a single group, pretest/posttest design on two pediatric inpatient units at an academic tertiary-care center in Western Canada. The theory of planned behavior was used to develop the Nurses Attitudes and Behaviors about Rounds (NABAR) questionnaire. There were statistically significant increases between pretest and posttest scores on nurses' intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control related to FBR, and on providing education to families about FBR. A brief, educational workshop can positively affect nurses' attitudes and beliefs about FBR. Future research should include additional psychometric evaluation of the NABAR. PMID:26614612

  2. A Test of Turk's Theory of Norm Resistance Using Observational Data on Police-Suspect Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Robert R.; Terrill, William

    2005-01-01

    Turk's theory of norm resistance explains how authority-subject relations can be structured in manners that have different probabilities of overt conflict (norm resistance). Building on previous research by Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf, this study uses data collected as part of an observational study of the police in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St.…

  3. The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing

    PubMed Central

    Achourioti, Theodora; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stenning, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the “new paradigm” of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply. PMID:25368590

  4. Reading Abilities Tests: Development and Norming for Air Force Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, John J.; Roach, Bennie W.

    This report describes the development and norming of parallel forms of the Air Force Reading Abilities Test (AFRAT) which have been designed for Air Force use as replacements for commercial reading tests. A previous study on service applicants found considerably divergent reading grade levels (RGL's) from different commercial tests for subjects of…

  5. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  6. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  7. Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Janet L.

    This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

  8. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  9. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  10. Puerto Rican Spanish: Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Francisco

    As part of a larger sociolinguistic study investigating the attitudes of Puerto Ricans on the island toward their own vernacular speech, the present research focused on the subjective reactions of 104 public high school teachers and students to spoken speech styles. The subjects' task was to: listen to a prerecorded tape, rate the voices on the…

  11. A Study of the Sex Role Attitudes of Incarcerated Juvenile Delinquents toward Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundtree, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined sex-role attitudes toward women of incarcerated White male (n=30) and Black male (n=30) juvenile delinquents. Found significant differences in sex role attitudes toward women between first-born and later-born juvenile delinquents and sex role attitudes toward women relative to available norms. (Author/CM)

  12. A Handful of Paragraphs on "Translation" and "Norms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toury, Gideon

    1998-01-01

    Presents some thoughts on the issue of translation and norms, focusing on the relationships between social agreements, conventions, and norms; translational norms; acts of translation and translation events; norms and values; norms for translated texts versus norms for non-translated texts; and competing norms. Comments on the reactions to three…

  13. Whose Opinion Matters? The Relationship Between Injunctive Norms and Alcohol Consequences in College Students

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Harm reduction approaches may benefit from research extending the exploration of predictors of alcohol use per se to those components most directly related to alcohol-related harm. This investigation evaluated the relationship between perceived injunctive norms of alcohol use (level of approval of drinking behaviors in specific situations) and the experience of alcohol-related consequences as a function of typical student reference groups at increasing levels of similarity to the respondent: based on race, gender, Greek status, and combinations of these dimensions, as well as parents, close friends, and the students' own attitudes. Participants were 3753 students (61% female) from two campuses who completed an online survey. Preliminary analyses determined that there were no differences in the relationship between perceived injunctive norms and consequences across the eight student groups of varying specificity, thus all eight levels were combined into one variable of perceived student injunctive norms. However, the relationship between this variable and consequences was weaker than the perceived attitudes of more proximal referents (parents, close friends, as well as their own personal attitudes). Subsequent analyses predicting consequences while controlling for demographic variables and drinking level, revealed that perceived injunctive norms for students, parents, and close friends as well as personal attitudes each significantly predicted consequences. Results suggest an important role for perceived injunctive norms in the experiencing of consequences over and above the amount of consumption and point to types of injunctive norms feedback that might form effective interventions (i.e., incorporating close friend and parent feedback as well as general student feedback). PMID:20045262

  14. McCarthyism's Rhetorical Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rebecca M.

    Rhetorical norms of early McCarthyist discourse reveal a reliance upon images of chaos and the body. Through such metaphors, rhetors crafted a model of discussion that feminized "democracy" and "tolerance" to support anti-Communist measures and de-legitimize their opponents. Political variety was coded as deviant to national identity. "Tolerance"…

  15. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  16. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  18. Predictors of intentions to perform six cancer-related behaviours: roles for injunctive and descriptive norms.

    PubMed

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Fishbein, Martin

    2008-08-01

    This study reports an application of the integrative model to the prediction of intentions to engage in three cancer screening behaviours (mammogram, colonoscopy and PSA test) and three healthy lifestyle behaviours (exercising, eating fruits and vegetables, and controlling ones diet to lose weight). We examined the roles of attitudes, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norms (what important others think one should do), and descriptive norms (perceptions of what others do) as predictors of participant's intentions to engage in each behaviour. Results indicated that injunctive norms were the strongest predictors of prostate and colon cancer screening intentions and contributed significantly to the prediction of intentions to get a mammogram. In contrast, injunctive norms contributed relatively little to the prediction of lifestyle behaviours, but were strongly predictive of intentions to eat fruits and vegetables. Implications for designing behaviour-specific communications and interventions are discussed. PMID:18825578

  19. Entry Attitudes of Students towards Using Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nancy P.; Bohlin, Roy M.

    This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine the computer anxiety, attitudes, and confidence levels of students enrolling in preservice teacher education computing courses. Specific questions compared these students with national norms, and looked to see whether sex, age, or past computer experiences had any effect on measures…

  20. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  1. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  2. Norm Theory: Comparing Reality to Its Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel; Miller, Dale T.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of norms and normality is applied to some phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norm theory is applied in analyses of enhanced emotional response to events that have abnormal causes, of generation of prediction from observations of behavior, and of the role of norms. (Author/LMO)

  3. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  4. Attitudes towards euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Winget, C; Kapp, F T; Yeaworth, R C

    1977-01-01

    There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163

  5. Perceptions, Attitudes and Institutional Factors That Influence Academic Performance of Visual Arts Students in Ghana's Senior High School Core Curriculum Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Essel, Harry Barton

    2015-01-01

    Senior High School (SHS) students in Ghana are required to pass all core and elective curricula subjects in the West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) to qualify for higher education. Unfortunately, many Visual Arts students perform poorly or fail in English, Mathematics, Integrated Science and Social Studies, which constitute…

  6. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  7. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  8. Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2007-01-01

    Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables.…

  9. A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Schensul, Stephen L.; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    This paper responds to the call for culturally relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low income community in Mumbai, India (2008–2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities. PMID:21524835

  10. Videotaped Commitment: Influence on Subsequent Student Attitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael R.

    Cognitive dissonance theory assumptions were used in a formal program of attitude change. The objective was first to improve subject attitudes toward an instructional activity, then subject achievement in this instructional activity was measured to determine if achievement was influenced by subject attitudes toward instruction. Two hundred…

  11. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. PMID:22732053

  12. Norm stability in Jirisan National Park: effects of time, existing conditions, and background characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2008-04-01

    Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for "quiet time" and "seeing others littering" were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for "number of other tents." There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users' demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed. PMID:18214588

  13. Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

  14. Do Different Types of Social Identity Moderate the Association between Perceived Descriptive Norms and Drinking Among College Students?

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university’s student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. PMID:24836160

  15. Do different types of social identity moderate the association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among college students?

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-09-01

    Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university's student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. PMID:24836160

  16. Attitudes Toward the Physically Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Carol A.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of non-disabled persons toward physically disabled persons. The degree of impairment, sex of stimulus persons, and sex of subjects were the independent variables. The subjects consisted of 120 psychology students from Kent State University, Ashtabula Regional Campus. Each subject

  17. What are other parents saying? Perceived parental communication norms and the relationship between alcohol-specific parental communication and college student drinking

    PubMed Central

    Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parents’ normative perceptions of other college parents’ alcohol-specific communication, and how parents’ perceived communication norms and alcohol-specific communication relate to student drinking outcomes. A sample of 457 student-parent dyads were recruited from a mid-size university. Students completed web-based assessments of alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors. Parents completed alcohol-specific measures of communication norms and parent-child communication, including communication content (i.e., targeted communication) and frequency of communication. Results indicated that parents overestimated how much other parents talked to their college students about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, but underestimated how often parents initiated conversations about alcohol. In a path model, perceived communication norms positively predicted both targeted communication and frequency of communication. Perceived communication norms and targeted communication negatively predicted students’ attitude toward alcohol use. In contrast, more frequent communication predicted students holding more approving attitudes toward alcohol. The relationship between parents’ perceived communication norms and students’ drinking behaviors was mediated by the parental communication variables and student attitudes. Tests of indirect effects were undertaken to examine meditational processes. The findings underscore relations involving parental perceived communication norms and parents’ own alcohol communication and their children’s drinking outcomes. The complex relationships of different types of parental communication and student outcomes warrant further research. PMID:24128293

  18. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  19. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  20. A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of Individual Characteristics and Classroom Norms in Explaining Bullying Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René; Kiuru, Noona; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study was set out to examine the interplay between individual characteristics (social standing in the classroom) and descriptive and injunctive classroom norms (behavior and attitudes, respectively) in explaining subsequent bullying behavior, defined as initiating, assisting, or reinforcing bullying. The target sample contained fourth- to sixth-grade students (n = 2,051) who attended the control schools in the Finnish evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program. Random slope multilevel analyses revealed that, over time, higher popularity or rejection, or lower acceptance were associated with increases in bullying behaviors, especially in classrooms with a high descriptive bullying norm. In contrast, the injunctive norm did not moderate the associations between social standing and engagement in bullying, except for children high on popularity. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25370007

  1. My beliefs of my peers' beliefs: exploring the gendered nature of social norms in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted. PMID:24144721

  2. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  3. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  4. Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

    2006-01-01

    This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

  5. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  6. Hormesis and radiation safety norms.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2012-07-01

    Today's radiation safety norms are based on the linear no-threshold theory (LNT): extrapolation of the dose-response relationships down to the minimal doses, where such relationships are unproven and can be inverse due to hormesis. The most promising way to obtaining reliable data on the dose-effect relationships for low radiation doses would be large-scale animal experiments. Outstanding published data on carcinogenic effects of the doses e.g. below 100 mSv should be verified by experiments. Arguments against applicability of the LNT to the doses comparable to those from the natural radiation background are discussed. Furthermore it is stressed that medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been overestimated; and this theme has been exploited to strangle development of atomic energy and to elevate prices for fossil fuels. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will be possible only after a concentration of authority within a powerful international executive. It would enable the construction of nuclear reactors in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographical, and geological conditions, which would contribute to the prevention of accidents like in Japan in 2011. A concluding point is that radiation safety norms are exceedingly restrictive and should be revised to become more realistic and workable. Elevation of the limits must be accompanied by measures guaranteeing their strict observance. It is also concluded that there are no evidence-based contraindications to fivefold elevation of the total equivalent effective doses to individual members of the public (up to 5 mSv/year), and doubling of the limits for professional exposures. PMID:22249392

  7. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  8. Attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

  9. The attitudes toward transgendered individuals scale: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Walch, Susan E; Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Francisco, Jacquelyn; Stitt, Rashunda L; Shingler, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals are sexual and gender minorities subject to stigma in a heteronormative culture with binary gender role norms. Although much research has examined sexual stigma in the form of homophobia, or negative attitudes and reactions to homosexuals and homosexuality, little is known about the stigma experienced by transgendered individuals. Transgendered people are those whose gender identity (sense of oneself as a man or a woman) or gender expression (expression of oneself as a man or a woman in behavior, manner, and/or dress) differ from conventional expectations for their physical sex. Although a scale exists to measure transphobia or negative attitudes and reactions to transgendered individuals, it includes items tapping into overt behavioral expression of this stigma, or gender-bashing, and fails to identify or define transgendered persons as the attitudinal target of the items. A new scale was developed and evaluated in an effort to assess transgender-related stigma, separately from discrimination and violence, among members of the general population. Using two separate samples of college students ranging in age from 18-64 years, exploratory (N = 134) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 237) were performed. The resulting 20-item, self-report measure demonstrated a single-factor structure, high internal consistency reliability, and evidence of convergent and discriminant construct validity. PMID:22810996

  10. A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

  11. Attitude toward Abortion and Attitude-Relevant Overt Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1978-01-01

    This investigation looked at the relationship between questionnaire-assessed attitude toward abortion, and later behaviors when subjects were requested to make a tape-recording of an emphatically pro- or anti-abortion script. A correlational study allowed the subject to select the script. In the experimental study, a script was assigned randomly.…

  12. Norms for hand grip strength.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D G; Pearn, J; Barnes, A; Young, C M; Kehoe, M; Newman, J

    1984-01-01

    Norms for hand grip strength of healthy children are presented. Sex and age specific centiles for age 5 to 18 years have been determined using a portable strain gauge dynamometer with an accuracy of 0.5 N. The test group comprised 1417 healthy, urban school children from a middle class suburb of Brisbane. Mean maximum grip strength (of four tests, two with each hand) and mean peak grip strength (best of four tests) were recorded. Mean values of peak grip strength were 10 to 15% higher than the average maximum grip in all age groups. At all ages girls had a reduced grip strength compared with boys and although boys manifested a continual, approximately linear increase in grip strength through all age groups, girls manifested an approximately linear increase up to 13 years after which mean hand grip usually remained constant. By the age of 18 years boys had a mean grip strength some 60% higher than girls. Correlations with height and weight are also presented. "Handedness' influenced grip strength and was most noticeable in children aged over 10 years. The clinical use of hand grip strength centiles for the early indication of neurological and muscular disorders and for following the natural history of neuromuscular disease is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6732276

  13. College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

  14. The Transmission of Attitudes Toward Child Rearing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    Assesses the relationship between the childrearing attitudes of 93 adult subjects and their perceptions of their parents' attitudes toward them during childhood and adolescence. Implications of the varying patterns for males vs. females and parents vs. nonparents are discussed. (SDH)

  15. Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

  16. Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

  17. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, H.P.

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  18. NORM in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-09-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes} or specific activity levels in the range of one part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn`t be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930s, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980s. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. This paper will address the most significant aspects of NORM in the oil patch by discussing original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, an update will be given on industry NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies dealing with NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed.

  19. Significance of norms and completeness in variational based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, Joel A.

    1989-01-01

    By means of a simple structural problem, an important requirement often overlooked in practice on the basis functions used in Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin type methods is brought into focus. The problem of the static deformation of a uniformly loaded beam is solved variationally by expanding the beam displacement in a Fourier Cosine series. The potential energy functional is rendered stationary subject to the geometric boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the variational approach does not converge to the true solution. The object is to resolve this paradox, and in so doing, indicate the practical implications of norms and completeness in an appropriate inner product space.

  20. Motion models in attitude estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.

    1994-01-01

    Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.

  1. Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

  2. A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: an example from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2011-05-01

    This paper responds to the call for culturally-relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low-income community in Mumbai, India (2008-2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally-relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities. PMID:21524835

  3. Affective norms for 1,586 polish words (ANPW): Duality-of-mind approach.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2015-09-01

    This article presents valence/pleasantness, activity/arousal, power/dominance, origin, subjective significance, and source-of-experience norms for 1,586 Polish words (primarily nouns), adapted from the Affective Norms for English Words list (1,040 words) and from my own previous research (546 words), regarding the duality-of-mind approach for emotion formation. This is a first attempt at creating affective norms for Polish words. The norms are based on ratings by a total of 1,670 college students (852 females and 818 males) from different Warsaw universities and academies, studying various disciplines in equal proportions (humanities, engineering, and social and natural sciences) using a 9-point Likert Self-Assessment Manikin scale. Each participant assessed 240 words on six different scales (40 words per scale) using a paper-and-pencil group survey procedure. These affective norms for Polish words are a valid and useful tool that will allow researchers to use standard, well-known verbal materials comparable to the materials used in other languages (English, German, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, etc.). The normative values of the Polish adaptation of affective norms are included in the online supplemental materials for this article. PMID:25294041

  4. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  5. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  6. Do my peers approve? Interest in injunctive norms feedback delivered online to college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Miller, Mary Beth; Balestrieri, Sara G; Carey, Kate B

    2016-07-01

    Injunctive norms feedback is promising but understudied as a component of college drinking interventions. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate acceptability of injunctive norms feedback delivered to college drinkers via the web. We examined subjective interest in information reflecting peer approval of four sets of drinking behaviors and outcomes, and correlates of interest in the normative feedback. A sample of 221 young adults enrolled in a 2- or 4-year college or university (ages 18-25years; 52% female) completed online surveys in which they were asked to rate their interest in each of 11 injunctive norms statements. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four sets of statements regarding peer approval of (a) intoxicated behaviors, (b) safe drinking strategies, (c) drinking-related consequences, and (d) drinking behaviors of potential partners. All items were framed to reflect disapproval of risky behaviors and approval of protective behaviors. Across norm sets, participants found the items to be moderately interesting and interest ratings did not differ across sets. Higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), stronger perceived approval of drinking in general (injunctive norms), stronger perceptions of drinking among peers (descriptive norms), and female gender were bivariately correlated with more interest. In a multiple regression, female gender, higher AUDIT (consequence subscale), and stronger general drinking injunctive norms remained significantly associated with interest in the pro-moderation statements. An important future direction is to determine whether the presentation of specific types of injunctive norms feedback can result in downward changes in drinking behavior. PMID:26978277

  7. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-05-01

    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  8. Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

  9. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  10. Self-reported health and gender: The role of social norms.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane

    2016-03-01

    The role of social norms in accounting for the different attitudes of men and women with respect to health is still an open issue. In this research, we investigate the role of social norms associated with specific gender environments in the workplace in accounting for differences in health-reporting behaviours across men and women. Using the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we build a database containing 30,124 observations. We first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider. We then proxy social norms by the gender structure of the workplace environment and study how the latter affects self-reported health for men and women separately. Our findings indicate that individuals in workplaces where women are a majority tend to report worse health than individuals employed in male-dominated work environments, be they men or women. These results are robust to controlling for a large array of working condition indicators, which allows us to rule out that the poorer health status reported by individuals working in female-dominated environments could be due to worse job quality. This evidence suggests that social norms associated with specific gender environments play an important role in explaining differences in health-reporting behaviours across gender, at least in the workplace. PMID:26921837

  11. Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuy, Roger W., Ed.; Fasold, Ralph W., Ed.

    Subjective reactions to language (language attitudes, beliefs, values, etc.) are the focus of this monograph. Chapters include: (1) "Sociolinguistic Correlates of Speech Style in Quebec" by Alison d'Anglejan and G. Richard Tucker; (2) "Some 'Unexpected' Reactions to Various American-English Dialects" by Bruce Fraser; (3) "Attitudes and Learning a…

  12. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  13. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  14. Fisher discriminant analysis with L1-norm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixian; Lu, Xuesong; Hu, Zilan; Zheng, Wenming

    2014-06-01

    Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a classical subspace learning technique of extracting discriminative features for pattern recognition problems. The formulation of the Fisher criterion is based on the L2-norm, which makes LDA prone to being affected by the presence of outliers. In this paper, we propose a new method, termed LDA-L1, by maximizing the ratio of the between-class dispersion to the within-class dispersion using the L1-norm rather than the L2-norm. LDA-L1 is robust to outliers, and is solved by an iterative algorithm proposed. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and is theoretically shown to arrive at a locally maximal point. LDA-L1 does not suffer from the problems of small sample size and rank limit as existed in the conventional LDA. Experiment results of image recognition confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23912504

  15. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  16. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  17. Comparison of the Mexican and American norms of the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Lucio, E; Ampudia, A; Durán, C; León, I; Butcher, J N

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the results of the norms for the Mexican general population in comparison with the North American normative population. This study addresses psychopathology from the point of view in which emic and etic traditions are combined. The Mexican sample includes 1744 adults from different regions of the country. Means and standard deviations were calculated and compared with the North-American normative sample. Cronbach alpha coefficients also were obtained. The greatest differences observed were in the scales L (lies) and 5 (masculinity-femininity), which indicates that the greater distinctions between both populations are with respect to test-taking attitude in taking the test, which may be due to cultural factors. In comparison to the American norms, the Mexican population does not show psychopathology on the MMPI-2 scales. PMID:11745588

  18. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  19. Development of a School Attitude Questionnaire for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Guy

    This report summarizes the findings of Jackson and Lahadern who used a revised form of the Student Opinion Poll (SOP) and a questionnaire to study the intercorrelations of attitudes and achievement. The study found that: (1) first graders have attitudes toward school work but these attitudes were not differentiated toward specific school subjects;…

  20. Improving Students' Writing Attitudes: The Effects of the Writing Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin

    A study was designed to ascertain the effect writing centers and peer tutoring have on the attitudes of student writers. Subjects, 121 students enrolled in either basic writing or English composition courses at Davis and Elkins College, had their attitudes toward writing measured. Over the semester the attitudes, of both those that did (43) and…

  1. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy. PMID:26074628

  2. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  3. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

  4. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  5. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  6. Group bias in cooperative norm enforcement.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Dunham, Yarrow

    2016-01-19

    A hallmark of human social cognition is the tendency for both adults and children to favour members of their own groups. Critically, this in-group bias exerts a strong influence on cooperative decision-making: people (i) tend to share more with members of their in-group and (ii) differentially enforce fairness norms depending on the group membership of their interaction partners. But why do people show these group biases in cooperation? One possibility is that the enforcement of cooperative norm violations is an evolved mechanism supporting within-group cooperation (Norms-Focused Hypothesis). Alternatively, group bias in cooperation could be a by-product of more general affective preferences for in-group members (Mere Preferences Hypothesis). Here, we appraise evidence from studies of both adults and children with the goal of understanding whether one of these two accounts is better supported by existing data. While the pattern of evidence is complex, much of it is broadly consistent with the Mere Preferences Hypothesis and little is uniquely supportive of the Norms-Focused Hypothesis. We highlight possible reasons for this complexity and suggest ways that future work can continue to help us understand the important relationship between group bias and cooperation. PMID:26644592

  7. Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

  8. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  9. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  10. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us. PMID:25287376

  11. Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

  12. Non-Euclidean-normed Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-03-01

    This analysis introduces a possible generalization of Statistical Mechanics within the framework of non-Euclidean metrics induced by the Lp norms. The internal energy is interpreted by the non-Euclidean Lp-normed expectation value of a given energy spectrum. The presented non-Euclidean adaptation of Statistical Mechanics involves finding the stationary probability distribution in the Canonical Ensemble by maximizing the Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis entropy under the constraint of internal energy. The derived non-Euclidean Canonical probability distributions are respectively given by an exponential, and by a q-deformed exponential, of a power-law dependence on energy states. The case of the continuous energy spectrum is thoroughly examined. The Canonical probability distribution is analytically calculated for a power-law density of energy. The relevant non-Euclidean-normed kappa distribution is also derived. This analysis exposes the possible values of the q- or Îş-indices, which are strictly limited to certain ranges, depending on the given Lp-norm. The equipartition of energy in each degree of freedom and the extensivity of the internal energy, are also shown. Surprisingly, the physical temperature coincides with the kinetically defined temperature, similar to the Euclidean case. Finally, the connection with thermodynamics arises through the well-known standard classical formalisms.

  13. Link Floer homology and the Thurston norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsvath, Peter; Szabo, Zoltan

    2008-07-01

    We show that link Floer homology detects the Thurston norm of a link complement. As an application, we show that the Thurston polytope of an alternating link is dual to the Newton polytope of its multi-variable Alexander polynomial. To illustrate these techniques, we also compute the Thurston polytopes of several specific link complements.

  14. Normes linguistiques: Determination, description, contenu, utilite (Linguistic Norms: Determination, Description, Content, Usefulness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Discusses different approaches for determining second language proficiency norms to be set by employers for personnel, all involving varying degrees of emphasis on linguistic proficiency on the one hand, and communicative competence on the other. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  15. Contradictory sexual norms and expectations for young people in rural Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wight, Daniel; Plummer, Mary L; Mshana, Gerry; Wamoyi, Joyce; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A

    2006-02-01

    There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs are socially constructed and subject to social change. Sexual activity is constrained by clear norms of school pupil abstinence, female sexual respectability and taboos around the discussion of sex. However, these norms are incompatible with several widely held expectations: that sexual activity is inevitable unless prevented, sex is a female resource to be exploited, restrictions on sexual activity are relaxed at festivals, and masculine esteem is boosted through sexual experience. Differential commitment to these norms and expectations reflects conflicts between generations and genders. Young people appear to manage the contradictions in these norms by concealing their sexual relationships. This almost certainly contributes to their short duration and the high levels of partner change, since relationships are not reinforced through social recognition and there is little scope to develop intimacy through non-sexual contacts. PMID:16139937

  16. The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

  17. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  18. Differential strength of association of child injury prevention attitudes and beliefs on practices: a case for audience segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, C J; Nansel, T R; Weaver, N L; Jacobsen, H A; Kreuter, M W

    2006-01-01

    Objective Many injuries to children cannot be prevented without some degree of active behavior on the part of parents. A better understanding of social and cognitive determinants of parents' injury prevention behavior and the identification of potential subgroups for targeted message delivery could advance the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions. This study assessed the degree to which parents' injury prevention behavior is associated with theoretical determinants and examined whether this relation differs by age or birth order of child. Design Cross sectional observational study. Setting Three Midwestern pediatric clinics. Subjects 594 parents of children ages 0–4 attending routine well child visits. Measures Injury prevention attitudes, beliefs, and practices. Results Overall, only modest relations were observed between injury beliefs and attitudes and injury prevention behaviors. However, these relations differed substantially by child age and birth order, with stronger associations observed for parents of older first born children. Outcome expectations and social norms were more strongly related to injury prevention behavior among parents of preschool children than among parents of infants and toddlers, while attitudes were more predictive for parents of first born children than parents of later born children. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of relations between theorized determinants and behavior, and suggest the potential utility of using audience segmentation strategies in behavioral interventions addressing injury prevention. PMID:16461418

  19. Girls' Attitudes Toward Violence as Related to TV Exposure , Family Attitudes, and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…

  20. Attitude to the Study of Chemistry and Its Relationship with Achievement in an Introductory Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen J.; White, Sue; Sharma, Bibhya; Wakeling, Lara; Naiker, Mani; Chandra, Shaneel; Gopalan, Romila; Bilimoria, Veena

    2015-01-01

    A positive attitude to a subject may be congruent with higher achievement; however, limited evidence supports this for students in undergraduate chemistry--this may result from difficulties in quantifying attitude. Therefore, in this study, the Attitude to the Study of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI)--a validated instrument to quantify attitude, was…

  1. Potential Applications of Social Norms Theory to Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, social norms theory has become prevalent in student development literature and research. Subsequently, social norms interventions to change student behavior have spread across campuses nationwide through marketing campaigns. Theorists and practitioners have applied the social norms approach to primarily health-related student…

  2. An Analytical Approach to Generating Norms for Skewed Normative Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Jen

    Approaches for norming skewed test score distributions are reviewed, and an analytical approach is proposed for norming the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). Methods used in constructing norms for several well-known personality instruments that are reviewed include: (1) linear T-scores transformation in the Minnesota Multiphasic…

  3. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    PubMed

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  4. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  5. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays among American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

  6. Measuring attitude with a gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnabend, David; Gardner, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores using a gravity gradiometer to measure the attitude of a satellite, given that the gravity field is accurately known. Since gradiometers actually measure a combination of the gradient and attitude rate and acceleration terms, the answer is far from obvious. The paper demonstrates that it can be done and at microradian accuracy. The technique employed is dynamic estimation, based on the momentum biased Euler equations. The satellite is assumed nominally planet pointed, and subject to control, gravity gradient, and partly radom drag torques. The attitude estimator is unusual. While the standard method of feeding back measurement residuals is used, the feedback gain matrix isn't derived from Kalman theory. instead, it's chosen to minimize a measure of the terminal covariance of the error in the estimate. This depends on the gain matrix and the power spectra of all the process and measurement noises. An integration is required over multiple solutions of Lyapunov equations.

  7. Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

  8. The Complex Angle in Normed Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thürey, Volker

    2014-03-01

    We consider a generalized angle in complex normed vector spaces. Its definition corresponds to the definition of the well known Euclidean angle in real inner product spaces. Not surprisingly it yields complex values as 'angles'. This 'angle' has some simple properties, which are known from the usual angle in real inner product spaces. But to do ordinary Euclidean geometry real angles are necessary. We show that even in a complex normed space there are many pure real valued 'angles'. The situation improves yet in inner product spaces. There we can use the known theory of orthogonal systems to find many pairs of vectors with real angles, and to do geometry which is based on the Greeks 2000 years ago.

  9. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  10. Married Women's Justification of Intimate Partner Violence in Bangladesh: Examining Community Norm and Individual-Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S

    2015-01-01

    One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR=4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link. PMID:26439820

  11. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  12. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  13. Les pseudopotentiels ŕ norme conservée relativistes étendus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejjar, Mounir; Qachaou, Ahmed

    2000-12-01

    The extended norm-conserving pseudopotentials developed by Shirley et al., in the nonrelativistic case, has been extended to the relativistic case. We have discussed the importance of the relativistic terms added in the case of the hard pseudopotentials. This correction allows us to revise the precision linked to the nonlinearity of the electronic structure methods on a solid in the particular case of heavy atoms.

  14. Trigonometric approximation in Lp-norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leindler, László

    2005-02-01

    We shall weaken the conditions of monotonicity given by Chandra [J. MathE Anal. Appl. 275 (2002) 13-26], where he investigated trigonometrical polynomials associated with f[set membership, variant]Lip([alpha],p) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1, p[greater-or-equal, slanted]1) to approximate f in Lp-norm to the degree of O(n-[alpha]) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1).

  15. Attitudes in a Web-Supported Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acun, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the possible effect of web-supported teaching on students' attitudes on Human Rights, Democracy and Citizenship Education and technology (HRDCE). To examine weather web-supported instruction would make a difference in attitude levels of the subjects, a quasi-experimental design was employed. Subjects of…

  16. Attitudes toward Reading in the Adult Learner Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Elizabeth N.

    A study determined differences, if any, in attitude toward reading between remedial reading adult learners and reading proficient adult learners. Subjects, 129 adult learners from both the high school and college populations in New Jersey, completed an attitude survey using a Likert scale. Subjects were identified as remedial or proficient readers…

  17. Attitudes in a Web-Supported Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acun, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the possible effect of web-supported teaching on students' attitudes on Human Rights, Democracy and Citizenship Education and technology (HRDCE). To examine weather web-supported instruction would make a difference in attitude levels of the subjects, a quasi-experimental design was employed. Subjects of…

  18. Effects of Verbal Corrections on Student Attitude and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Henninger, Jacqueline C.

    1998-01-01

    Compares effects of negative feedback statements and specific directives in music-performance instruction. Indicates that subjects' attitudes and performance achievements were unaffected by type of comment: all subjects expressed positive attitudes about the experience, and the time required to reach the learning goal was unaffected by type of…

  19. Establishing a NORM based radiation calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J

    2016-05-01

    An environmental radiation calibration facility has been constructed by the Radiation and Nuclear Sciences unit of Queensland Health at the Forensic and Scientific Services Coopers Plains campus in Brisbane. This facility consists of five low density concrete pads, spiked with a NORM source, to simulate soil and effectively provide a number of semi-infinite uniformly distributed sources for improved energy response calibrations of radiation equipment used in NORM measurements. The pads have been sealed with an environmental epoxy compound to restrict radon loss and so enhance the quality of secular equilibrium achieved. Monte Carlo models (MCNP),used to establish suitable design parameters and identify appropriate geometric correction factors linking the air kerma measured above these calibration pads to that predicted for an infinite plane using adjusted ICRU53 data, are discussed. Use of these correction factors as well as adjustments for cosmic radiation and the impact of surrounding low levels of NORM in the soil, allows for good agreement between the radiation fields predicted and measured above the pads at both 0.15 m and 1 m. PMID:26921707

  20. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  1. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911

  2. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  3. First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

  4. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  5. First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

  6. A Study on Attitude of Urban and Rural College Student Teachers Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2014-01-01

    There is a great need to identify and develop positive attitude towards science subject of student teachers. The time has come to increase our efforts to develop positive attitude towards science subject among teachers, student teachers and school children. This is an immediate requirement of the present day. This paper reports on attitude of…

  7. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

  8. Local Active Sound Control Using 2-NORM and ?-NORM Pressure Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TSENG, W.-K.; RAFAELY, B.; ELLIOTT, S. J.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a method of designing active noise control systems to generate zones of quiet in which a new approach was employed, involving 2-norm or ?-norm pressure minimization in the quiet zone. This is in contrast to the conventional design method, where the acoustic pressure or the acoustic pressure and particle velocity are set to zero at given cancellation points, with no direct control on the size and shape of the quiet zones. It is shown that larger zones of quiet are obtained using this new approach, with better control over the shape of the zones of quiet.

  9. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain. PMID:8399248

  10. Sample Size Requirements for Traditional and Regression-Based Norms.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Hannah E M; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-04-01

    Test norms enable determining the position of an individual test taker in the group. The most frequently used approach to obtain test norms is traditional norming. Regression-based norming may be more efficient than traditional norming and is rapidly growing in popularity, but little is known about its technical properties. A simulation study was conducted to compare the sample size requirements for traditional and regression-based norming by examining the 95% interpercentile ranges for percentile estimates as a function of sample size, norming method, size of covariate effects on the test score, test length, and number of answer categories in an item. Provided the assumptions of the linear regression model hold in the data, for a subdivision of the total group into eight equal-size subgroups, we found that regression-based norming requires samples 2.5 to 5.5 times smaller than traditional norming. Sample size requirements are presented for each norming method, test length, and number of answer categories. We emphasize that additional research is needed to establish sample size requirements when the assumptions of the linear regression model are violated. PMID:25940350

  11. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  12. The impact of initial and recurrent cockpit resource management training on attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    It is noted that previous analyses of the boomerang effect (attitude change as a result of training in the direction opposite of that intended) in aviation training environments were limited in that each subscale of the cockpit management attitudes questionnaire (CMAQ) was examined independently. This study develops and utilizes a new algorithm for grouping subjects such that a global attitude change score is derived from the attitude change scores on each CMAQ subscale. By evaluating global attitude change in addition to the more specific attitude change on each subscale, it might be possible to better comprehend the effects of crew resource management training on pilot attitudes.

  13. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  14. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  15. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  16. Children's Perceptions of Authority in Botswana and Their Antecedent Childrearing Practices and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frieda A.

    This study examines Botswana children's perceptions of the various authority figures influential in their development and the degree to which children internalize the norms of those authority figures. In addition, parental attitudes and the influence of specific childrearing patterns were examined in conjunction with children's perceptions of…

  17. Mental Health and Substance Use: A Qualitative Study of Resident Assistants' Attitudes and Referral Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingle, Jennifer; Thombs, Dennis; Osborn, Cynthia; Saffian, Steven; Oltersdorf, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This study described mental health and substance use referral practices of resident assistants (RAs). Interviews were conducted with 48 RAs at three campuses. RAs generally had positive attitudes toward helping residents, and believed that existing norms supported their referral actions. However, many perceived referring residents to be…

  18. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P<0.001) for the total error scores of the age groups, except the 6-, 9-, 10-, and 11-year-old age groups (P>0.05). DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese-speaking children in Nanjing and will be proposed for children throughout China. PMID:26881754

  19. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P<0.001) for the total error scores of the age groups, except the 6-, 9-, 10-, and 11-year-old age groups (P>0.05). DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese-speaking children in Nanjing and will be proposed for children throughout China. PMID:26881754

  20. NORME PEDAGOGIQUE--LES STRUCTURES INTERROGATIVES DU FRANCAIS (PEDAGOGICAL NORM--THE INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES OF FRENCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE SELECTION OF A PEDAGOGICAL NORM FOR FRENCH INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES. SINCE THIS AREA OF FRENCH GRAMMAR IS PARTICULARLY POLYMORPHOUS, OBJECTIVE CRITERIA ARE SET UP TO MAKE THE SELECTION--FREQUENCY, COMPLEXITY, AND EXTENSIVITY. BECAUSE "EST-CE QUE" CAN BE APPLIED WITHOUT EXCEPTION TO ALL TYPES OF KERNEL SENTENCES, IT WAS…

  1. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  2. Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

  3. The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    We developed affective norms for 1,121 Italian words in order to provide researchers with a highly controlled tool for the study of verbal processing. This database was developed from translations of the 1,034 English words present in the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999) and from words taken from Italian semantic norms (Montefinese, Ambrosini, Fairfield, & Mammarella, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 440-461, 2013). Participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a Web survey procedure. Participants also provided evaluations of three subjective psycholinguistic indexes (familiarity, imageability, and concreteness), and five objective psycholinguistic indexes (e.g., word frequency) were also included in the resulting database in order to further characterize the Italian words. We obtained a typical quadratic relation between valence and arousal, in line with previous findings. We also tested the reliability of the present ANEW adaptation for Italian by comparing it to previous affective databases and performing split-half correlations for each variable. We found high split-half correlations within our sample and high correlations between our ratings and those of previous studies, confirming the validity of the adaptation of ANEW for Italian. This database of affective norms provides a tool for future research about the effects of emotion on human cognition. PMID:24150921

  4. Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage. PMID:25587802

  5. Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rouatbi, Sonia; Chouchene, Mohamed Ali; Sfaxi, Ines; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed; Tabka, Zouhair; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant), Belgium). Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males) were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb) = 3.47?0.56× height (m). After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60?ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) of FeNO (ppb) for the total sample was 13.54 ± 4.87 (5.00–26.00). For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00?ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00?ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms. PMID:24991544

  6. Geology and genesis of NORM industrial links and depositional processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has now been found to be associated with many industrial activities that extends far beyond oil and gas production. There are approximately 59 naturally occurring radionuclides that might end up in a train of NORM contamination, which could impact at least 13 industries. It is appropriate and indeed necessary to examine the geological roots of NORM and its concentration in various industries. Impacted NORM industries and their associated problems are presented. Some plant and environmental managers may not even suspect they have NORM problems, because one cannot ``sense`` NORM without instrumentation, until it might be too late for the health and safety of the effected employees and surrounding community. Others want to ``see no evil, hear no evil or speak any evil`` until they are forced into ``reactive`` environmental management, rather than ``proactive`` management. It has been the experience of many that reactive management is far more costly than proactive management.

  7. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-02-01

    A completely new set of formulas, based on matrix algebra, has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms. The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme. The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs. Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO; corrected formula weights for apatite, pyrite and fluorite; and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals. Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Verma et al (2002, 2003), the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text, but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition

  8. Subjective status shapes political preferences.

    PubMed

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; Kay, Aaron C; Payne, B Keith

    2015-01-01

    Economic inequality in America is at historically high levels. Although most Americans indicate that they would prefer greater equality, redistributive policies aimed at reducing inequality are frequently unpopular. Traditional accounts posit that attitudes toward redistribution are driven by economic self-interest or ideological principles. From a social psychological perspective, however, we expected that subjective comparisons with other people may be a more relevant basis for self-interest than is material wealth. We hypothesized that participants would support redistribution more when they felt low than when they felt high in subjective status, even when actual resources and self-interest were held constant. Moreover, we predicted that people would legitimize these shifts in policy attitudes by appealing selectively to ideological principles concerning fairness. In four studies, we found correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Studies 2-4) evidence that subjective status motivates shifts in support for redistributive policies along with the ideological principles that justify them. PMID:25416138

  9. Relations between convergence rates in Schatten p-norms

    SciTech Connect

    Albini, Paolo; Toigo, Alessandro; Umanita, Veronica

    2008-01-15

    In quantum estimation theory and quantum tomography, the quantum state obtained by sampling converges to the ''true'' unknown density matrix under topologies that are different from the natural notion of distance in the space of quantum states, i.e., the trace class norm. In this paper, we address such problem, finding relations between the rates of convergence in the Schatten p-norms and in the trace class norm.

  10. Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Hales, Derek; Chung, Hyuk; Oh, Suhak; Wood, Heather M.

    2004-01-01

    A revised push-up test for college students was presented in 2002. The purpose of this study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test when it is used with college students. Revised push-up scores collected on 177 male and 274 female college students were used to develop percentile norms. The norms for the men have a different…

  11. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  12. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  13. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

  14. Attitudes toward psychotropic medications.

    PubMed

    Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N

    2012-04-01

    Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401

  15. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sabrina; ZeledĂłn, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in LeĂłn, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua. PMID:26890184

  16. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

  17. Individual and community attitudes toward financial elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Mihaljcic, Tijana; Lowndes, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward financial elder abuse by sections of the Australian community using three focus groups, including Aged Care Workers, Older Adults, and Younger Adults. Participants were provided discussion cues prior to their focus group (i.e., What is financially abusive behavior? Why does it occur? How can it be prevented?). Two researchers authenticated the transcripts and identified micro- and macro-level themes within and across the groups. The study revealed a range of similar, different, and individual attitudes expressed across the groups, which could be used to develop a survey for a broader investigation of the role of individual attitudes and social/cultural norms in financial elder abuse. PMID:23473299

  18. DRG benchmarking study establishes national coding norms.

    PubMed

    Vaul, J H

    1998-05-01

    With the increase in fraud and abuse investigations, healthcare financial managers should examine their organization's medical record coding procedures. The Federal government and third-party payers are looking specifically for improper billing of outpatient services, unbundling of procedures to increase payment, assigning higher-paying DRG codes for inpatient claims, and other abuses. A recent benchmarking study of Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data has established national norms for hospital coding and case mix based on DRGs and has revealed the majority of atypical coding cases fall into six DRG pairs. Organizations with a greater percentage of atypical cases--those more likely to be scrutinized by Federal investigators--will want to conduct suitable review and be sure appropriate documentation exists to justify the coding. PMID:10179440

  19. Community Gender Norms Change as a Part of a Multilevel Approach to Sexual Health Among Married Women in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Burleson, Joseph A; Nastasi, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    Inequitable gender norms in societies and communities negatively contribute to women's sexual and reproductive health. While the need for change in gender norms is well recognized, the task is highly challenging in terms of intervention design, implementation and assessment of impact. This paper describes a methodology for identification of gender norms, the design of community level intervention, community participation and the assessment of intervention impact in a low income, predominately Muslim community of 600,000 people in Mumbai, India. Formative research focused on in-depth interviews with women, men and couples yielding gender normative statements and assessment of community resources to facilitate change. A Gender Equity Scale (GES) based on this formative research was developed and administered annually for a three-year period to random, cross-sectional samples in the intervention and control communities, and to community based, non-governmental organizations (NGO) staff and Imams (religious leaders) in the intervention community. NGO staff disseminated gender oriented messages to their female constituency through their regular outreach activities and through special events and festivals in the community. Imams disseminated gender messages through lectures on social issues for men attending Friday prayers. The results showed that the NGO staff and Imams, assumed more gender equitable attitudes across time. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in attitudes towards gender equity in the intervention relative to the control community. Men showed a dramatic change in more positive gender attitudes, while women lagged behind in their GES scores. The meaning of these results are explored and the implications assessed for the generalizability of the methodology for other countries, cultures and communities. PMID:26136202

  20. Norms in Research on Conference Interpreting: A Response to Theo Hermans and Gideon Toury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    In response to two papers on translation and norms, this article reflects on the role of norms and research on norms in the field of interpreting and refers to a case study which shows that norms should be considered in one type of empirical research where they have been neglected so far (norms in interpreting research). (SM)

  1. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  2. Schooling and the Norming of Intelligence Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the effects of schooling on the development of intelligence in children and how the amount of schooling should be considered when developing norms for turning intelligence test performance into IQ scores. Suggests that because of differences in schooling among same-age children, use of age-based norms results in biased deviation IQS.…

  3. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  4. Norm inflation for generalized magneto-hydrodynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheskidov, Alexey; Dai, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    We consider the incompressible magneto-hydrodynamic system with fractional powers of the Laplacian in the three-dimensional case. We discover a wide range of spaces where the norm inflation occurs and hence small initial data results are out of reach. The norm inflation occurs not only in scaling invariant (critical) spaces, but also in supercritical and, surprisingly, subcritical ones.

  5. The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

  6. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  7. Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms

    PubMed Central

    GĂ«rxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

  8. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers for Introducing Social Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Dolk, Maarten; Zulkardi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teachers in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos…

  9. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  10. A Method for the Construction of Differentiated School Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetler, Mark

    Empirical norms are a traditional and accepted tool for reporting performance. Other methods (e.g., statistical regression) are used more often in a research context to make conditional statements about performance given a certain demographic context. This paper illustrates a method for the construction of differentiated school norms and the…

  11. Family Norms in a Rapidly Industrializing Society: Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, David; Chaney, David

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 1123 young people in Hong Kong responded to a number of statements concerning family norms. Data suggest that with regard to relationships between husband and wife, and parents and children, views are more consonant with the norms of the Western conjugal family than the traditional Chinese family. (Author)

  12. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  13. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  14. Television Content Viewing Patterns: Some Clues from Societal Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Daniel G.; Glynn, Carroll J.

    Focusing on how television viewing fits into a general model of consumer consumption patterns, a study examined (1) the extent to which the viewing of certain television content can be considered a "norm" of society, (2) similarities and differences between the norms for adults and those for children, and (3) some of the antecedents of beliefs…

  15. NORM Management in the Oil and Gas Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-07

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  16. CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

  17. Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

  18. A Questionnaire Method for Measuring the Autonomy/Equality Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, John S.

    Lortie has described teacher sentiments that meld into a structure called the autonomy/equality norm. This norm helps preserve the separation of teaching from organizational and collegial purviews. As part of a larger study which looks for conditions that affect and are influenced by variations in task interdependence among teachers, an effort was…

  19. Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the differences between norm-referenced tests (standardized assessments of intelligence, aptitude, achievement, and personality) and criterion-referenced tests. Until school districts improve their potential to develop meaningful criterion-referenced tests, norm-referenced tests will be the major yardstick for measuring student…

  20. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  1. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development. PMID:19851937

  2. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  3. Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

  4. Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

  5. Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

  6. Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

  7. Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chingching

    2012-01-01

    In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

  8. Consumer Attitudes toward Health and Health Care: A Differential Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaires returned by 343 out of 350 subjects measured health attitudes and health status. Results suggest that some consumers take a more scientific approach to health care and prevention. Demographic factors, health status, and health consciousness are partial predictors of consumer attitudes and approach to health care. (SK)

  9. Changing Attitudes toward Women: A Longitudinal Study of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; Spandikow, Deborah Bohn

    1981-01-01

    Cross sectional data found that college students show more liberal attitudes toward women with increasing years of college attendance. For both sexes, attitudes involving women's educational-vocational rights became more liberal than those involving women's marital and maternal responsibilities. Socio-demographic characteristics of subjects were…

  10. Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chingching

    2012-01-01

    In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

  11. The Motherhood Inventory: A Questionnaire for Studying Attitudes Toward Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.

    The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects

  12. Attitudes toward Online Communications in Open and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem Aydin, Irem

    2012-01-01

    This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students' attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students' gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and "Online…

  13. The role of attitude functions, efficacy, anticipated emotions, and relationship status on college students' condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Conducted from the reasoned action perspective, previous research related to condom use generally included a limited number of variables and treated attitudes and self-efficacy as unidimensional constructs. Informed by attitude functions theory and health literature on condom use and anticipated emotions, this project aims to provide a more detailed understanding of college students' intentions to use condoms during sexual intercourse. Results show that relationship status moderated the relationships between several psychological variables and condom use intentions. For female college students negative anticipated emotions were a stronger predictor of condom use intentions for those in monogamous relationships for three months or longer than for those in other relationships or not in a relationship. On the other hand, subjective norms were a stronger predictor of intentions for those in other types of relationship or not in a relationship than for those in a monogamous relationship for three months or longer. For male participants, sexual sensation was a more important, negative predictor of condom use intentions among those in monogamous relationships for three months or longer (versus other relationship status or not in a relationship). Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22946831

  14. Between DSM and ICD: Paraphilias and the Transformation of Sexual Norms.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The simultaneous revision of the two major international classifications of disease, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases, serves as an opportunity to observe the dynamic processes through which social norms of sexuality are constructed and are subject to change in relation to social, political, and historical context. This article argues that the classifications of sexual disorders, which define pathological aspects of "sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors" are representations of contemporary sexual norms, gender identifications, and gender relations. It aims to demonstrate how changes in the medical treatment of sexual perversions/paraphilias passed, over the course of the 20th century, from a model of pathologization (and sometimes criminalization) of non-reproductive sexual behaviors to a model that reflects and privileges sexual well-being and responsibility, and pathologizes the absence or the limitation of consent in sexual relations. PMID:25933671

  15. Law and bioethics in Israel: between liberal ethical values and Jewish religious norms.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Amos

    2006-01-01

    In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other. PMID:17902326

  16. Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park.

    PubMed

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; Sánchez, Mercedes

    2012-12-30

    This paper analyses whether the environmental profile of park visitors as defined by the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory, determines their willingness to pay for park conservation. The sample consists of 194 visitors to a suburban Spanish park. Under these theories, it is shown that positive attitudes, a strong orientation towards biospheric and altruistic values with strong pro-environmental and normative beliefs determine the visitors' willingness to pay. Various fit statistics and the proportion of explained variance reveal that Theory of Planned Behavior has a greater influence on willingness to pay. The managers of urban spaces should direct their efforts to obtaining greater knowledge of people's attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental values given their importance in their decisions regarding economic valuation of this sort of resources. PMID:23041517

  17. Developmental reaction norms for water stressed seedlings of succulent cacti.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Ulises; Zhou, Royce W; Castillo, Guillermo; Collazo-Ortega, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Succulent cacti are remarkable plants with capabilities to withstand long periods of drought. However, their adult success is contingent on the early seedling stages, when plants are highly susceptible to the environment. To better understand their early coping strategies in a challenging environment, two developmental aspects (anatomy and morphology) in Polaskia chichipe and Echinocactus platyacanthus were studied in the context of developmental reaction norms under drought conditions. The morphology was evaluated using landmark based morphometrics and Principal Component Analysis, which gave three main trends of the variation in each species. The anatomy was quantified as number and area of xylem vessels. The quantitative relationship between morphology and anatomy in early stages of development, as a response to drought was revealed in these two species. Qualitatively, collapsible cells and collapsible parenchyma tissue were observed in seedlings of both species, more often in those subjected to water stress. These tissues were located inside the epidermis, resembling a web of collapsible-cell groups surrounding turgid cells, vascular bundles, and spanned across the pith. Occasionally the groups formed a continuum stretching from the epidermis towards the vasculature. Integrating the morphology and the anatomy in a developmental context as a response to environmental conditions provides a better understanding of the organism's dynamics, adaptation, and plasticity. PMID:22479481

  18. Developmental Reaction Norms for Water Stressed Seedlings of Succulent Cacti

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Ulises; Zhou, Royce W.; Castillo, Guillermo; Collazo-Ortega, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Succulent cacti are remarkable plants with capabilities to withstand long periods of drought. However, their adult success is contingent on the early seedling stages, when plants are highly susceptible to the environment. To better understand their early coping strategies in a challenging environment, two developmental aspects (anatomy and morphology) in Polaskia chichipe and Echinocactus platyacanthus were studied in the context of developmental reaction norms under drought conditions. The morphology was evaluated using landmark based morphometrics and Principal Component Analysis, which gave three main trends of the variation in each species. The anatomy was quantified as number and area of xylem vessels. The quantitative relationship between morphology and anatomy in early stages of development, as a response to drought was revealed in these two species. Qualitatively, collapsible cells and collapsible parenchyma tissue were observed in seedlings of both species, more often in those subjected to water stress. These tissues were located inside the epidermis, resembling a web of collapsible-cell groups surrounding turgid cells, vascular bundles, and spanned across the pith. Occasionally the groups formed a continuum stretching from the epidermis towards the vasculature. Integrating the morphology and the anatomy in a developmental context as a response to environmental conditions provides a better understanding of the organism's dynamics, adaptation, and plasticity. PMID:22479481

  19. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  20. Attitudes of Young Adults toward Children. Research Report #4-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Patricia T.; Sedlacek, William E.

    Assessed were the attitudes toward children of 246 college freshmen. A shortened version of the Situational Attitude Scale-Adults/Children (SAS-A/C) was used to obtain indications of subjects' attitudes toward five hypothetical situations representing levels of social distance. The situations were: (1) having a person as a houseguest for a week;…

  1. The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects

  2. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  3. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  4. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  5. Young people and sun safety: the role of attitudes, norms and control factors.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Robinson NG; White KM; Young RM; Anderson PJ; Hyde MK; Greenbank S; Keane J; Rolfe T; Vardon P; Baskerville D

    2008-04-01

    ISSUE ADDRESSED: Differences in the behavioural, normative and control beliefs of young Australian sun-protectors and non sun-protectors are analysed using a theory of planned behaviour belief-based framework.METHODS: A questionnaire assessed the sun-safety-related beliefs and perceptions of a Queensland sample (n=858) of young people aged between 12 and 20 years. Two weeks later, participants reported their sun-protective behaviour for the previous fortnight.RESULTS: The study found that clear differences emerged between sun-protectors and non-protectors on underlying normative and control beliefs related to sun-safety behaviours (but not behavioural beliefs). Specifically, sun-protectors were more likely to believe that their friends and family think they should perform sun-protective behaviours. Sun-protectors were also more likely to perceive that a range of motivating factors would encourage them to perform sun-safety behaviours. Finally, non-protectors were more likely to report forgetfulness and laziness as barriers preventing them from performing sun-protection behaviours than sun-protectors.CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that future interventions should target young people's normative and control beliefs related to sun safety.

  6. Cockpit management attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  7. Attitudes of Israeli Students Toward Emigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Rina; Etzioni, Eva

    1970-01-01

    Students in Israel, whether of Jewish or Oriental origin, tend to form their attitudes on the subject of emigration according to the amount of emphasis they place on career advancement and patriotism. Because of the vital need of Israel for all of its best brains, emigrants are often viewed as quasi-traitors. (CK)

  8. Students' Attitudes toward Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2004-01-01

    The problem examined in this study deals with students' attitude toward physics among the freshmen and sophomore students who were taking first introductory physics course. In the study there were 176 students, and they were chosen sample of convenience from Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida. 125 subjects were male students, and…

  9. Instructional Media, Attitude Change and Field Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloock, Terryl R.; And Others

    The effectiveness of two media types (sound film and still slides with audiotape) in changing student attitudes, and their impact on students varying in field dependency levels was examined. Subjects, 82 college students scoring at the high and low extremes of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), were randomly assigned to either a (1) multi-cue…

  10. Instructional Media, Attitude Change and Field Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloock, Terryl R.; And Others

    The effectiveness of two media types (sound film and still slides with audiotape) in changing student attitudes, and their impact on students varying in field dependency levels was examined. Subjects, 82 college students scoring at the high and low extremes of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), were randomly assigned to either a (1) multi-cue…

  11. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  12. Contemporary Women and Their Attitudes toward Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others

    Several sets of attitudes of young women were investigated: (1) timing of parenthood and its effects on marriage; (2) roles of males and females; (3) contributions of children to marriage; and (4) their own preparedness to be parents. Subjects were 212 undergraduate females enrolled in family or women's studies courses, who completed the Timing…

  13. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  14. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Tolsma, Jochem; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Quillian, Lincoln

    2009-06-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermarriage by using diagonal mobility models. We test several hypotheses derived from ethnic competition theory and socialization theory with data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, waves 1995, 2000, and 2005) and The Netherlands Kinship and Panel Study (NKPS, wave 2002). We find that the relative influence of social origin and social destination depends on the specific origin and destination combination. If one moves to a more tolerant social destination position, the influence of the social origin position is negligible. If on the other hand, one is socially mobile to a less tolerant social position, the impact of the origin on antagonistic attitudes is substantial and may even exceed the impact of the destination category. This confirms our hypothesis that adaptation to more tolerant norms is easier than adaptation to less tolerant norms. We find only meagre evidence for the hypothesis that downward mobility leads to frustration and consequently to more antagonistic attitudes. PMID:19489819

  15. [UNESCO's bioethical norms to avoid eugenic practices].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    2000-06-01

    The author, member of the UNESCO Bioethics Committee, participated in the preparation of the Universal Declaration about Human Genome and Human Rights, in 1997. The aim of this work is to analyze the initial articles of such Declaration, defining the bioethical principles that defend human dignity, freedom and rights, against the madness of the present biotechnological revolution. The development of genetics for the benefit of mankind will be guaranteed if these principles are honored. Genetic discrimination, reductionism and determinism, are identified by the author as perversions that, if used by biotechnologists, can lead to the rebirth of eugenism and racism, that were condemned by the Code of Nuremberg, in 1947. Investigators must assume their responsibility, respecting the principles of human dignity, the real freedom of research and solidarity among people. This attitude will avoid the use of genetics for purposes other than the welfare of mankind. PMID:11016069

  16. Assessment of Attitudes Regarding Tobacco-Free Campus Policy and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among College Students, Faculty, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael E.; Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Hunt, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently there has been a push to implement tobacco-free policies on college campuses. Policies creating tobacco-free college campuses have increased with changes in social norms. The campus environment provides a setting for individuals to express their attitudes regarding tobacco use. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess…

  17. Assessment of Attitudes Regarding Tobacco-Free Campus Policy and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among College Students, Faculty, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael E.; Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Hunt, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently there has been a push to implement tobacco-free policies on college campuses. Policies creating tobacco-free college campuses have increased with changes in social norms. The campus environment provides a setting for individuals to express their attitudes regarding tobacco use. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess…

  18. Do Actions Speak Louder than Words? Classroom Attitudes and Behavior in Relation to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron; Sentse, Miranda; Granic, Isabela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent classroom factors (i.e., classroom antibullying attitudes and behavioral norms) contributed to individual bullying, after controlling for individual difference characteristics. Participants were 2,547 early adolescents (M = 13.4 years, SD = 0.63) from 109 middle school classes. Self- and…

  19. Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Fifth and Eighth Grade Students Regarding Alcoholic Beverages in Urban Parochial Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Essie E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of fifth- and eighth-grade urban parochial school students (N=3,785) regarding alcoholic beverages. Survey results showed a religiously oriented school environment had little influence on drinking behavior. Family, friends, and cultural norms were strong influences. Sixth and seventh grades appear…

  20. Improved radiological/nuclear source localization in variable NORM background: An MLEM approach with segmentation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Robert D.; Crowley, Tanya M.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Mandell, Myron J.; Guo, Yanlin; Haas, Eric B.; Knize, Duane J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Ranta, Dale; Shyffer, Ryan; Labov, Simon; Nelson, Karl; Seilhan, Brandon; Valentine, John D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach and algorithm have been developed to rapidly detect and localize both moving and static radiological/nuclear (R/N) sources from an airborne platform. Current aerial systems with radiological sensors are limited in their ability to compensate for variable naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) background. The proposed approach suppresses the effects of NORM background by incorporating additional information to segment the survey area into regions over which the background is likely to be uniform. The method produces pixelated Source Activity Maps (SAMs) of both target and background radionuclide activity over the survey area. The task of producing the SAMs requires (1) the development of a forward model which describes the transformation of radionuclide activity to detector measurements and (2) the solution of the associated inverse problem. The inverse problem is ill-posed as there are typically fewer measurements than unknowns. In addition the measurements are subject to Poisson statistical noise. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) algorithm is used to solve the inverse problem as it is well suited for under-determined problems corrupted by Poisson noise. A priori terrain information is incorporated to segment the reconstruction space into regions within which we constrain NORM background activity to be uniform. Descriptions of the algorithm and examples of performance with and without segmentation on simulated data are presented.

  1. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. PMID:24131397

  2. When does the in-group like the out-group? Bias among children as a function of group norms.

    PubMed

    Rutland, Adam; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Abrams, Dominic; Killen, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Research indicates that in-group favoritism is prevalent among both adults and children. Although research has documented that individuals do not consistently display an in-group bias, the conditions under which out-group preference exists are not well understood. In this study, participants (N = 462) aged 9 to 16 years judged in-group deviant acts that were either in line with or counter to a generic norm shared by both groups. The findings demonstrated, for the first time, that children preferred out-group over in-group deviance only when the in-group peer's deviance was in line with the generic norm and a threat to their group's identity. Participants justified their disapproval of these deviants by focusing on the need for group cohesion and loyalty, while they signified their approval by spotlighting the need for autonomy. Our findings suggest that children's intergroup attitudes are influenced by how the behavior of their peers matches different levels of group norms. PMID:25888686

  3. La Norme, Les Registres et L'Apprentissage (ou les us et abus de la norme) (The Norm, Registers, and Learning [or the use and abuse of the norm])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besse, Henri

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the relationship in language and specifically in French between the standard language norm, the various registers and styles available to native speakers of a given language, and second language learning. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  4. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    SciTech Connect

    Sandine, Gary; Morgan, Simon P; Vixie, Kevin R; Clawson, Keth; Asaki, Thomas J; Price, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  5. Computer-Delivered Social Norm Message Increases Pain Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Kim; Schroeder, Jacquelyn; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Few experimental studies have been conducted on social determinants of pain tolerance. Purpose This study tests a brief, computer-delivered social norm message for increasing pain tolerance. Methods Healthy young adults (N=260; 44 % Caucasian; 27 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned into a 2 (social norm)×2 (challenge) cold pressor study, stratified by gender. They received standard instructions or standard instructions plus a message that contained artifically elevated information about typical performance of others. Results Those receiving a social norm message displayed significantly higher pain tolerance, F(1, 255)=26.95, p<.001, ηp2=.10 and pain threshold F(1, 244)=9.81, p=.002, ηp2=.04, but comparable pain intensity, p>.05. There were no interactions between condition and gender on any outcome variables, p>.05. Conclusions Social norms can significantly increase pain tolerance, even with a brief verbal message delivered by a video. PMID:24146086

  6. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

  7. Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L.

    2008-08-01

    In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline—Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)—was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

  8. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  9. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the quaternion estimate was normalized, the estimate converged faster and to a lower error than with tuning only. In last years, symposium we presented three new AEKF normalization techniques and we compared them to the brute force method presented in the literature. The present paper presents the issue of normalization of the MEKF and examines several MEKF normalization techniques.

  10. Promoting Positive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Schools have been preoccupied with pupils' attainment in recent years. Consequently there has been a risk of neglecting other important aspects of learning mathematics. One of these is pupils' attitudes and affective responses. In this article, the author discusses the impact of pupils' attitudes on their attainment in mathematics and the…

  11. Pornography and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  12. Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

    2008-01-01

    Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

  13. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  14. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  15. A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode since rest to rest case is not adequate to truly represent an on orbit failure of a single wheel. The study is intended to facilitate the ACS community to further develop a more practical under-actuated control law and present a path to extend these current thinking to address a more realistic reconfigurable ACS subject to a dynamic transition from a 3 RWs mode to 2 RWs mode.

  16. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  17. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  18. Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, J A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype Ă— environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:21224878

  19. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  20. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  1. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Claudio J; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them. PMID:23496564

  2. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy,…

  3. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP) surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group). Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening such as embarrassment. The GP surgery is the ideal place to screen young people for chlamydia as it is not a threatening place for them and our study has shown that they think it is the normal place to go to discuss health matters. PMID:20955570

  4. Development of a face-to-face injunctive norms brief motivational intervention for college drinkers and preliminary outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Mark A.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Rice, Samara L.; Carey, Kate B.

    2015-01-01

    Findings are presented from the first randomized clinical trial that compared changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences among college student drinkers from baseline to follow-up across four conditions: (a) a new single component injunctive norms brief motivational intervention (IN-BMI) condition, (b) a single component descriptive norms brief motivational intervention (DN-BMI), (c) a Combined IN and DN brief motivational intervention (Combined-BMI), and (d) assessment-only control. DN-BMI focused on the juxtaposition of personal, perceived, and actual alcohol use by typical same-sex students at your university. INBMI focused on the juxtaposition of personal, perceived, and actual attitudes about alcohol related consequences by the typical same-sex student at your university. Exploratory analyses assessed the effect of IN-BMI and DN-BMI on matched (e.g., the effect of DN-BMI on perceived DN) and mismatched norms (e.g., the effect of DN-BMI on perceived IN). IN-BMI resulted in greater decreases in alcohol use and consequences when delivered alone and in conjunction with DN-BMI compared to the control condition. Further, the Combined-BMI condition reported greater reductions in alcohol use but not consequences compared to the DN condition. Receiving IN-BMI either alone or in combination with DN-BMI produced greater changes in IN perceptions than were produced in the control group. Grounded in norms theory, this study examined how college student problem drinking is affected by both IN-BMI and DN-BMI alone and in combination. We conclude that IN-BMI alone or in combination with DN-BMI is able to modify alcohol use and reduce alcohol related consequences. PMID:26478943

  5. Changing attitudes and beliefs towards a woman's right to protect against HIV risk in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McMahon, James M

    2016-04-01

    Female empowerment and positive attitudes towards women's rights in sexual relationships have been found to be key elements of successful behaviour-based HIV prevention programmes. However, HIV prevention programmes that do not specifically engage with gender issues may also affect attitudes and beliefs towards women's rights within sexual relationships. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health we compare measures of female empowerment and changing gender norms between intervention participants and non-participants. Results suggest that female intervention participants were more likely than non-participants to believe that: (1) women have more rights within sexual relationships in general and (2) women have the right to protect themselves against HIV risk (indicating possible increases in female self-efficacy in making HIV prevention decisions). Male intervention participants showed no substantial positive change in attitudes towards women's rights. These results highlight an important positive effect of HIV prevention programmes on women's attitudes towards their own rights. PMID:26503918

  6. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  7. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  8. Information and Attitudes toward Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

    1979-01-01

    Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

  9. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

  10. Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

  11. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  12. School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in Russia: Educational Relevant Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khenner, Evgeniy; Semakin, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with some aspects of studying Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part of the "third dimension" of the Darmstadt model (they are also projected on the other two dimensions of this model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards, the learning…

  13. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  14. School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in Russia: Educational Relevant Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khenner, Evgeniy; Semakin, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with some aspects of studying Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part of the "third dimension" of the Darmstadt model (they are also projected on the other two dimensions of this model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards, the learning…

  15. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Anneser, Johanna; Jox, Ralf J.; Thurn, Tamara; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In November 2015, the German Federal Parliament voted on a new legal regulation regarding assisted suicide. It was decided to amend the German Criminal Code so that any “regular, repetitive offer” (even on a non-profit basis) of assistance in suicide would now be considered a punishable offense. On July 2, 2015, a date which happened to be accompanied by great media interest in that it was the day that the first draft of said law was presented to Parliament, we surveyed 4th year medical students at the Technical University Munich on “physician-assisted suicide,” “euthanasia” and “palliative sedation,” based on a fictitious case vignette study. Method: The vignette study described two versions of a case in which a patient suffered from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (physical suffering subjectively perceived as being unbearable vs. emotional suffering). The students were asked about the current legal norms for each respective course of action as well as their attitudes towards the ethical acceptability of these measures. Results: Out of 301 students in total, 241 (80%) participated in the survey; 109 answered the version 1 questionnaire (physical suffering) and 132 answered the version 2 questionnaire (emotional suffering). The majority of students were able to assess the currently prevailing legal norms on palliative sedation (legal) and euthanasia (illegal) correctly (81.2% and 93.7%, respectively), while only a few students knew that physician-assisted suicide, at that point in time, did not constitute a criminal offense. In the case study that was presented, 83.3% of the participants considered palliative sedation and the simultaneous withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as ethically acceptable, 51.2% considered physician-assisted suicide ethically legitimate, and 19.2% considered euthanasia ethically permissible. When comparing the results of versions 1 and 2, a significant difference could only be seen in the assessment of the legality of palliative sedation: it was considered legal more frequently in the physical suffering version (88.1% vs. 75.8%). Conclusion: The majority of the students surveyed wrongly assumed that physician-assisted suicide is a punishable offense in Germany. However, a narrow majority considered physician-assisted suicide ethically acceptable in the case study presented. Compared to euthanasia, more than twice as many participants considered physician-assisted suicide acceptable. There was no significant difference between personal attitudes towards palliative sedation, physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia in light of physical or emotional suffering. Educational programs in this field should be expanded both qualitatively and quantitatively, especially considering the relevance of the subject matter, the deficits within the knowledge of legal norms and the now even higher complexity of the legal situation due to the new law from December 2015. PMID:26958648

  16. Predictive sparse modeling of fMRI data for improved classification, regression, and visualization using the k-support norm.

    PubMed

    Belilovsky, Eugene; Gkirtzou, Katerina; Misyrlis, Michail; Konova, Anna B; Honorio, Jean; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Samaras, Dimitris; Blaschko, Matthew B

    2015-12-01

    We explore various sparse regularization techniques for analyzing fMRI data, such as the â„“1 norm (often called LASSO in the context of a squared loss function), elastic net, and the recently introduced k-support norm. Employing sparsity regularization allows us to handle the curse of dimensionality, a problem commonly found in fMRI analysis. In this work we consider sparse regularization in both the regression and classification settings. We perform experiments on fMRI scans from cocaine-addicted as well as healthy control subjects. We show that in many cases, use of the k-support norm leads to better predictive performance, solution stability, and interpretability as compared to other standard approaches. We additionally analyze the advantages of using the absolute loss function versus the standard squared loss which leads to significantly better predictive performance for the regularization methods tested in almost all cases. Our results support the use of the k-support norm for fMRI analysis and on the clinical side, the generalizability of the I-RISA model of cocaine addiction. PMID:25861834

  17. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, López-Albán, CA, La Rotta-Villamizar, DR, Romero-García, JA, Alonso-Martinez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Wingate Anaerobic Test percentile norms in Colombian healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 217-225, 2016-The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp·kg body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W·kg, and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults. PMID:26691412

  18. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  19. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  20. Fast and accurate matrix completion via truncated nuclear norm regularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao; Zhang, Debing; Ye, Jieping; Li, Xuelong; He, Xiaofei

    2013-09-01

    Recovering a large matrix from a small subset of its entries is a challenging problem arising in many real applications, such as image inpainting and recommender systems. Many existing approaches formulate this problem as a general low-rank matrix approximation problem. Since the rank operator is nonconvex and discontinuous, most of the recent theoretical studies use the nuclear norm as a convex relaxation. One major limitation of the existing approaches based on nuclear norm minimization is that all the singular values are simultaneously minimized, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practice. In this paper, we propose to achieve a better approximation to the rank of matrix by truncated nuclear norm, which is given by the nuclear norm subtracted by the sum of the largest few singular values. In addition, we develop a novel matrix completion algorithm by minimizing the Truncated Nuclear Norm. We further develop three efficient iterative procedures, TNNR-ADMM, TNNR-APGL, and TNNR-ADMMAP, to solve the optimization problem. TNNR-ADMM utilizes the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), while TNNR-AGPL applies the accelerated proximal gradient line search method (APGL) for the final optimization. For TNNR-ADMMAP, we make use of an adaptive penalty according to a novel update rule for ADMM to achieve a faster convergence rate. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithms in comparison to the state-of-the-art matrix completion algorithms on both synthetic and real visual datasets. PMID:23868774

  1. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

  2. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  3. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  4. A Neural Mechanism of Strategic Social Choice under Sanction-Induced Norm Compliance(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Makwana, Aidan; Grön, Georg; Fehr, Ernst; Hare, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, much has been learned about the representation of subjective value in simple, nonstrategic choices. However, a large fraction of our daily decisions are embedded in social interactions in which value guided decisions require balancing benefits for self against consequences imposed by others in response to our choices. Yet, despite their ubiquity, much less is known about how value computation takes place in strategic social contexts that include the possibility of retribution for norm violations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that when human subjects face such a context connectivity increases between the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), implicated in the representation of other peoples' thoughts and intentions, and regions of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) that are associated with value computation. In contrast, we find no increase in connectivity between these regions in social nonstrategic cases where decision-makers are immune from retributive monetary punishments from a human partner. Moreover, there was also no increase in TPJ-vmPFC connectivity when the potential punishment was performed by a computer programmed to punish fairness norm violations in the same manner as a human would. Thus, TPJ-vmPFC connectivity is not simply a function of the social or norm enforcing nature of the decision, but rather occurs specifically in situations where subjects make decisions in a social context and strategically consider putative consequences imposed by others. PMID:26464981

  5. A Neural Mechanism of Strategic Social Choice under Sanction-Induced Norm Compliance1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Makwana, Aidan; Grön, Georg; Fehr, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, much has been learned about the representation of subjective value in simple, nonstrategic choices. However, a large fraction of our daily decisions are embedded in social interactions in which value guided decisions require balancing benefits for self against consequences imposed by others in response to our choices. Yet, despite their ubiquity, much less is known about how value computation takes place in strategic social contexts that include the possibility of retribution for norm violations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that when human subjects face such a context connectivity increases between the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), implicated in the representation of other peoples’ thoughts and intentions, and regions of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) that are associated with value computation. In contrast, we find no increase in connectivity between these regions in social nonstrategic cases where decision-makers are immune from retributive monetary punishments from a human partner. Moreover, there was also no increase in TPJ-vmPFC connectivity when the potential punishment was performed by a computer programmed to punish fairness norm violations in the same manner as a human would. Thus, TPJ-vmPFC connectivity is not simply a function of the social or norm enforcing nature of the decision, but rather occurs specifically in situations where subjects make decisions in a social context and strategically consider putative consequences imposed by others. PMID:26464981

  6. Attitude profile design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

  7. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  8. Defining attitude for science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrigley, Robert L.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.; Simpson, Ronald D.

    A distinct and complex definition of attitude is evolving within the literature. A mental readiness to respond and a correlational consistency between attitude and behavior - although controversial and in need of further study and analysis - remain viable subcomponents within the definition. Most agree that evaluation is the heartbeat of attitude. The impact of social influence on attitudes is becoming increasingly important. Attitudes are learned and not inherited.

  9. Public awareness and attitudes toward palliative care in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation recognises palliative care as a global public health issue and this is reflected at strategic level. Despite this, palliative care may not be universally welcomed. Surveys over the last decade have suggested that the general public have a lack of knowledge and negative perceptions towards palliative care. A detailed and comprehensive understanding of public views is needed in order to target education and policy campaigns and to manage future needs, expectations and resourcing of end of life care. The aim of this study was to establish the current levels of awareness and attitudes towards palliative care among the general public in Northern Ireland. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey with a population of 3,557 individuals aged over 17 years was performed. Information was collected using a structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items. Open questions were subject to content analysis; closed questions were subject to descriptive statistics with inferential testing as appropriate. Results A total of 600 responses were obtained (response rate 17%). Responses indicated limited knowledge about palliative care. Female gender and previous experience influenced awareness in a positive direction. Respondents who worked in healthcare themselves or who had a close relative or friend who had used a palliative care service were more aware of palliative care and the availability of different palliative care services. Findings reveal the preferred place of care was the family home. The main barriers to raising awareness were fear, lack of interaction with health services and perception of lack of resources. A number of strategies to enhance awareness, access and community involvement in palliative care were suggested. Conclusions Public awareness of the concept of palliative care and of service availability remains insufficient for widespread effective and appropriate palliative care to be accepted as the norm. In particular, those without previous family-related experiences lack awareness. This has implications for palliative care service provision and policy. An increased awareness of palliative care is needed, in order to improve knowledge of and access to services when required, empower individuals, involve communities and ultimately to realise the objectives contained within international strategies for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:24044631

  10. From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

  11. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  12. Injunctive Norms and Problem Gambling among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lostutter, Ty W.; Whiteside, Ursula; Fossos, Nicole; Walker, Denise D.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationships among injunctive norms and college student gambling. In study 1 we evaluated the accuracy of perceptions of other students’ approval of gambling and the relationship between perceived approval and gambling behavior. In study 2 we evaluated gambling behavior as a function of perceptions of approval of other students, friends, and family. In study 1, which included 2524 college students, perceptions of other students’ approval of gambling were found to be overestimated and were negatively associated with gambling behavior. The results of study 2, which included 565 college students, replicated the findings of study 1 and revealed positive associations between gambling behavior and perceived approval of friends and family. Results highlight the complexity of injunctive norms and the importance of considering the reference group (e.g., peers, friends, family members) in their evaluation. Results also encourage caution in considering the incorporation of injunctive norms in prevention and intervention approaches. PMID:17394053

  13. Image reconstruction from few views by l0-norm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-Li; Tao, Jin-Xu

    2014-07-01

    In the medical computer tomography (CT) field, total variation (TV), which is the l1-norm of the discrete gradient transform (DGT), is widely used as regularization based on the compressive sensing (CS) theory. To overcome the TV model's disadvantageous tendency of uniformly penalizing the image gradient and over smoothing the low-contrast structures, an iterative algorithm based on the l0-norm optimization of the DGT is proposed. In order to rise to the challenges introduced by the l0-norm DGT, the algorithm uses a pseudo-inverse transform of DGT and adapts an iterative hard thresholding (IHT) algorithm, whose convergence and effective efficiency have been theoretically proven. The simulation demonstrates our conclusions and indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper can obviously improve the reconstruction quality.

  14. Done 4: analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Clapp, John D; Dejong, William

    2005-01-01

    College students commonly believe their peers engage in higher levels of dangerous drinking than is actually the case. Social norms marketing campaigns attempt to correct these misperceptions, decrease the perceived normative pressure to drink, and thereby drive down high-risk alcohol consumption. In this case study, we critically examined "Done 4," an unsuccessful social norms marketing campaign conducted as part of a comprehensive prevention trial at a large urban university. As part of this analysis, undergraduate marketing students were shown the principal print advertisement used in the campaign and asked to complete an advertising analysis questionnaire. The results of this case study suggest that the advertisement was poorly constructed, which decreased its effectiveness and led to confusion about the social norms message. We discuss implications of these findings for future prevention campaigns and new research. PMID:15590342

  15. H2 -norm of fractional transfer functions of implicit type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malti, Rachid; Chevrié, Mathieu; Farges, Christophe; Sabatier, Jocelyn

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the H2 -norm (or impulse response energy) of fractional transfer functions of implicit type. Stability conditions are first shown to be identical as in rational systems with all poles located in the open left half complex plane. Then, analytical expressions of the H2 -norm are derived for elementary fractional transfer functions of the first and the second kind cascaded with a pure fractional integrator. Next, general boundedness conditions are established in terms of transfer function relative degree. Three illustrative examples are finally proposed. The first one evaluates the quality of a rational approximation of a fractional model of implicit type on the basis of the H2 -norm of the error signal. The second one evaluates the Integral Squared Error of a CRONE control loop and compares it to a classical proportional-derivative controller in a vehicle suspension. Finally, the third one allows to set up an implicit fractional preshaping filter for closed-loop control.

  16. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  17. Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Christine M. L.; Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience. PMID:21760974

  18. Social norms shift behavioral and neural responses to foods.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-07-01

    Obesity contributes to 2.8 million deaths annually, making interventions to promote healthy eating critical. Although preliminary research suggests that social norms influence eating behavior, the underlying psychological and neural mechanisms of such conformity remain unexplored. We used fMRI to investigate whether group norms shift individuals' preferences for foods at both behavioral and neural levels. Hungry participants rated how much they wanted to eat a series of healthy and unhealthy foods and, after each trial, saw ratings that ostensibly represented their peers' preferences. This feedback was manipulated such that peers appeared to prefer each food more than, less than, or as much as participants themselves. After a delay, participants rerated each food. Participants' second ratings shifted to resemble group norms. Initial consensus, as compared to disagreement, with peers produced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a region associated with reward prediction errors. Furthermore, the strength of this activity predicted the extent to which participants' ratings conformed to peer ratings, suggesting that the value associated with consensus drives social influence. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC), a region associated with value computation, initially responded more strongly to unhealthy, as compared to healthy, foods. However, this effect was "overwritten" by group norms. After individuals learned their peers' preferences, vMPFC responses tracked the popularity, but not the healthfulness, of foods. Furthermore, changes in vMPFC activity tracked social influence over behavioral ratings. These data provide evidence that group norms can shift food preferences, supporting the use of norms-based interventions to promote healthy eating. PMID:25671502

  19. The Impact of Knowledge, Norms, and Self-Efficacy on Intentions to Engage in AIDS-Preventive Behaviors among Young Incarcerated African American Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, condom use, self-efficacy, and intentions to practice HIV-safe behaviors among 52 young incarcerated African-American males. Although overall knowledge and intent to practice safe sex were moderate, transmission knowledge was low. Peer and subjective norms support condom use. (SLD)

  20. An Investigation of One-week Reliability of the Michigan Restricted Association Norms. Analysis of Meaning with Restricted Association Tests Report Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekoski, William L.

    To test the reliability of four tasks of the Michigan Restricted Association Norms--Superordinates, Parts, Following Words, and Free Associations--30 subjects were asked to respond to 33 stimulus items under each of the four instructions and to perform identical tasks 7-14 days later. Comparisons of the intra-individual reliability and…

  1. Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

  2. Measurement of Multicultural Attitudes of Teacher Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Mary B.; Sherman, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    The Multicultural Attitude Questionnaire, developed to measure multicultural attitudes of teacher trainees, was tested and found to be an effective tool in assessing and comparing student attitudes. (CJ)

  3. Two views of the human person. Ethical decisions: why "exceptionless norms"?

    PubMed

    Ashley, B M

    1985-04-01

    Theoretical differences between the teachings of the U.S. bishops and many moral theologians have left Catholic medical professionals puzzled about whose advice to follow. Although three concepts have influenced the development of medical ethics--physicalism, ecclesiastical positivism, and personalism--the real source of disagreement is two different approaches to understanding the person: the objective and the subjective. Objectivists see persons as living organisms subject to natural laws and unique among animals because they can develop cultures, control the environment, and exercise critical thought. According to the subjective approach, persons are free subjects who transform the objective world into one of meaning. They find reality only in the culture and its social forms, arts, history, and theories. The objective approach identifies basic human needs that transcend cultures and it defends exceptionless moral norms; the subjective demands that the person be free to decide each situation's morality. Objectivity is preferable because it is supported by Catholic tradition, which trusts human reason to arrive at universal ethical truths, and leads to an ethics grounded in an understanding that is transcultural and objectively verifiable. In the future the Church's moral teachings on abortion, euthanasia, and other life issues will not change. They will, however incorporate subjective insights that emphasize the person's uniqueness, sociological conditioning, conscientious responsibility, and moral evolution. PMID:10270740

  4. Modeling Participation Intention of Adults in Continuing Education--A Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…

  5. Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

    1992-06-01

    Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

  6. Attitude: impact on pain assessment.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer Layman; Davidhizar, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Nurses have many attitudes and beliefs about the means with which to navigate the road to pain relief for their patients. The use of an efficient and effective method to "light the path" has been extremely subjective in the past. There are reliable instruments than can be used effectively to measure and treat pain if they are used in the context of cultural appropriateness, a consistent healthcare team effort, and as part of a multidimensional approach. The utilization of the guidelines in this paper can provide direction for nurses to improve best practices and documentation in pain management, so that we may never have to say again "pain assessment instruments don't work. PMID:18655688

  7. Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

  8. The other side of the coin: oxytocin decreases the adherence to fairness norms

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Sina; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in prosocial behaviors such as trust and generosity. Yet, these effects appear to strongly depend on characteristics of the situation and the people with whom we interact or make decisions. Norms and rules can facilitate and guide our actions, with fairness being a particularly salient and fundamental norm. The current study investigated the effects of intranasal OXT administration on fairness considerations in social decision-making in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. After having received 24 IU of OXT or placebo (PLC), participants completed a one-shot Dictator Game (DG) and played the role of the responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG), in which an unfair offer of eight coins for the proposer and two coins for the responder is paired with either a fair-(5:5) or no-alternative (8:2). Rejection rates were higher when a fair alternative had been available than when there was no alternative to an unfair offer. Importantly, OXT did not de-or increase rejection rates overall, but reduced the sensitivity to contextual fairness, i.e., the context of alternatives in which an offer was made. As dictators, participants allocated less coins to the recipient when given OXT than when given PLC, indicating a decline in generosity. These results suggest that OXT decreases the adherence to fairness norms in social settings where others are likely to be perceived as not belonging to one's ingroup. While our findings do not support the prosocial conception of OXT, they corroborate recent ideas that the effects of OXT are more nuanced than assumed in the past. PMID:22754520

  9. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  10. Lack of Acceptance of Reciprocity Norms in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies investigated preschool children's acceptance of the reciprocity norms that allow retaliation and that require returning favors. Children viewed cartoons that portrayed animal puppets involved in reciprocal or nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial behavior. They were then asked to evaluate the actor in each cartoon as "good" or "bad"…

  11. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  12. Empathetic Responsiveness, Group Norms, and Prosocial Affiliations in Bullying Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Mele-Taylor, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationships among gender, empathetic responsiveness, perceived group norms, prosocial affiliations, and bullying roles were examined for 262 fifth- through eighth-grade students (n = 141 males; n = 121 females). According to the Bullying Participant Roles Survey (BPRS), participants were identified as defenders (n = 135;…

  13. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  14. State Norms for the North Carolina Testing Program. 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability/Testing.

    This publication provides a reference for educators and others interested in conducting comparative studies relative to North Carolina tests. It includes norms, tables, and other statistical information for all state-developed tests (state-mandated and local-option tests for which baseline data are available) that were administered during the…

  15. NORM situation in non-uranium mining in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Pan, Z

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection in China is responsible for regulatory control on radiation protection from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The natural radiation caused by human activities is a major contributor to public and occupational exposure in China. This paper introduces the first national census on pollution sources (target year 2007) in China, and describes NORM sites in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, one of the largest rare earth deposits in China. The ores are rich in radioactive elements, with a concentration of ThO(2) of 0.01-0.05% and concentration of U(3)O(8) of 0.0005-0.002%. The large amount of NORM residues is regulated and controlled. After treatment of the waste water, it is discharged into tailing ponds and then pumped directly to milling plants for re-use. The waste gas after off-dust cleaning is discharged into the environment. A substantial amount of blast furnace iron slag from the waste treatment is transformed into cement, concrete, and bricks, or used directly for highway construction. This raises a serious environmental concern. As a result, environmental radiation monitoring and assessment have been introduced recently. Regulatory control of NORM is very important in order to take effective measures to lower the dose. PMID:23089034

  16. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  17. Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…

  18. Children's Judgments of Inequitable Distributions That Conform to Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether distributions by sex are judged to be unfair, children at ages 6, 8, and 10, and adults (N = 96), judged an authority distributing items to children by using different methods (i.e., randomly or by sex), types of items (i.e., related or unrelated to gender norms), and differences in the equivalency of the items (i.e.,…

  19. Nonconvex Nonsmooth Low Rank Minimization via Iteratively Reweighted Nuclear Norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Canyi; Tang, Jinhui; Yan, Shuicheng; Lin, Zhouchen

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear norm is widely used as a convex surrogate of the rank function in compressive sensing for low rank matrix recovery with its applications in image recovery and signal processing. However, solving the nuclear norm based relaxed convex problem usually leads to a suboptimal solution of the original rank minimization problem. In this paper, we propose to perform a family of nonconvex surrogates of $L_0$-norm on the singular values of a matrix to approximate the rank function. This leads to a nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. Then we propose to solve the problem by Iteratively Reweighted Nuclear Norm (IRNN) algorithm. IRNN iteratively solves a Weighted Singular Value Thresholding (WSVT) problem, which has a closed form solution due to the special properties of the nonconvex surrogate functions. We also extend IRNN to solve the nonconvex problem with two or more blocks of variables. In theory, we prove that IRNN decreases the objective function value monotonically, and any limit point is a stationary point. Extensive experiments on both synthesized data and real images demonstrate that IRNN enhances the low-rank matrix recovery compared with state-of-the-art convex algorithms.

  20. Applying Image Norms across Super's Career Development Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannantonio, Cristina M.; Hurley-Hanson, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    D. E. Super's (1957) theory of career development has long been of interest to careers researchers (M. Savickas, 1994; S. C. Whiston & B. K. Brecheisen, 2002). Its insightful illustration of career stages has made it widely applied by careers practitioners, Image norms may influence the career decisions and developmental tasks inherent in each…

  1. Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

  2. Evolving norms at the intersection of health and trade.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-06-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policy making as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them?--?particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO)?--?have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance?--?the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade?--?we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly twenty-five years. Our analytic framework focuses on the actors that advance, defend, and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively into their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

  3. Students' Concern about Indebtedness: A Rank Based Social Norms Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Wood, Alex M.; Maltby, John; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new model of students' concern about indebtedness within a rank-based social norms framework. Study 1 found that students hold highly variable beliefs about how much other students will owe at the end of their degree. Students' concern about their own anticipated debt--and their intention of taking on a part-time job during…

  4. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  5. Deference in Indians' decision making: introjected goals or injunctive norms?

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Morris, Michael W; Naidu, N V R

    2012-04-01

    We examine the claim that Indians are more likely than Americans to act deferentially in the presence of authority figures and explore 2 possible psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: introjected goals and injunctive norms. Studies 1 and 2 showed that after reflecting upon an authority's expectations, Indians were more likely than Americans to make clothing and course choices consistent with the authority's expectations, but there was no such cultural difference for peers' expectations. Study 3 showed that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians' choices but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying introjected goals versus injunctive norms, Study 4 showed that authority primes influenced Indians' sense of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 5 showed that, inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism, the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays. However, Indian participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, which supported the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms can be an effective means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings. PMID:22149457

  6. Forward-Backward Greedy Algorithms for Atomic Norm Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Nikhil; Shah, Parikshit; Wright, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    In many signal processing applications, the aim is to reconstruct a signal that has a simple representation with respect to a certain basis or frame. Fundamental elements of the basis known as "atoms" allow us to define "atomic norms" that can be used to formulate convex regularizations for the reconstruction problem. Efficient algorithms are available to solve these formulations in certain special cases, but an approach that works well for general atomic norms, both in terms of speed and reconstruction accuracy, remains to be found. This paper describes an optimization algorithm called CoGEnT that produces solutions with succinct atomic representations for reconstruction problems, generally formulated with atomic-norm constraints. CoGEnT combines a greedy selection scheme based on the conditional gradient approach with a backward (or "truncation") step that exploits the quadratic nature of the objective to reduce the basis size. We establish convergence properties and validate the algorithm via extensive numerical experiments on a suite of signal processing applications. Our algorithm and analysis also allow for inexact forward steps and for occasional enhancements of the current representation to be performed. CoGEnT can outperform the basic conditional gradient method, and indeed many methods that are tailored to specific applications, when the enhancement and truncation steps are defined appropriately. We also introduce several novel applications that are enabled by the atomic-norm framework, including tensor completion, moment problems in signal processing, and graph deconvolution.

  7. Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helemskii, A. Ya

    2013-07-01

    In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l_1(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l_1^0(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  8. Division of Chemical Education: Condensed Norms: ACS Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Condensed norms are presented for the most recent American Chemical Society examinations. These are the polymer chemistry form 1978, organic chemistry form 1978, physical chemistry form 1976 I, brief qualitative analysis form 1977B, and brief organic chemistry form 1977B examinations. (BB)

  9. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    PubMed

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

  10. Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

  11. Transfer and Changing Linguistic Norms in Jersey Norman French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mari C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a case of transfer within the context of language death. By examining data from Jersey Norman French (known to its speakers as Jerriais) it illustrates the difficulty in determining linguistic norms for this relatively undocumented variety and suggests possible strategies to overcome this problem. The study…

  12. Norms for College Students. Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    This document presents an analysis of a normative study done to determine physical fitness norms of college age young adults. Data for this normative study were collected under the supervision of 24 coinvestigators who were affiliated with institutions distributed in all regions of the United States. The study presents the derivation of the…

  13. Empathetic Responsiveness, Group Norms, and Prosocial Affiliations in Bullying Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Mele-Taylor, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationships among gender, empathetic responsiveness, perceived group norms, prosocial affiliations, and bullying roles were examined for 262 fifth- through eighth-grade students (n = 141 males; n = 121 females). According to the Bullying Participant Roles Survey (BPRS), participants were identified as defenders (n = 135;…

  14. 42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of norms and criteria. 476.100 Section 476.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control...

  15. Vertical Jump and Leg Power Norms for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, David D.; Peterson, D. Fred

    2004-01-01

    Medical students and their spouses (N = 724) served as participants to create norm-referenced vertical jump values for active, healthy people ages 21-30. All tests were conducted and measured by the same individual during a campus fitness evaluation using a Vertec[TM] apparatus. Jump height was measured to the nearest 0.5 in. Mean jump height was…

  16. Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2012-01-01

    Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

  17. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  18. Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Analysis indicated that in general, school-level disapproval lowered the probability of students' use of these substances. A school environment of disapproval was also found to create a protective environment for…

  19. Characterization of TE-NORM wastes in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in concentrated forms arises both in industry and in nature where natural radioisotopes accumulate at particular sites. Technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TE-NORM) often occurs in an acidic environment where precipitates containing radionuclides plate out onto pipe walls, filters, tank linings, etc. Because of the radionuclides are selectively deposited at these sites, radioactivity concentration is extremely higher than the natural concentration. This paper presents characterization and related considerations of TE-NORM wastes in Turkey. Generally, accumulation conditions tend to favour the build-up of radium. As radium is highly radio-toxic, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of such material requires careful management. Turkey has the only low level waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) in Istanbul. This facility has interim storage buildings and storage area for storage of packaged radioactive waste which are containing artificial radioisotopes, but there is an increasing demand for the storage to accept bulk concentrated TE-NORM wastes from iron-steel and related industries. Most of these wastes generated from scrap metal piles which are imported from other countries. These wastes generally contain radium. (authors)

  20. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S.; Raihani, Nichola J.

    2014-01-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496