Sample records for attitudes subjective norms

  1. Attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions of nurses toward dying patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Waltman, N L

    1990-01-01

    This investigation aimed to develop and validate an instrument, "Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Behavioral Intentions of Nurses Toward the Care of Dying Patients and Their Families" (ASBID), and to examine the relationship among selected demographic variables, death anxiety, and social desirability response tendency on the behavioral intentions of nurses toward the dying. The Ajzen-Fishbein theory of reasoned action was used as the conceptual framework. Nursing behaviors toward the dying included in the ASBID were developed from interviews with bereaved family members. Three hundred seventy-two registered nurses caring for dying patients were used as the sample population for testing the ASBID. Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the ASBID achieved satisfactory standards. Factor analysis suggested three factors were being measured: general acute care measures for the dying, open communication with the dying, and continuing care for bereaved family members. Results supported the Ajzen-Fishbein theory that attitudes and subjective norms were major determinants of intentions. Findings indicate that educational programs planned to influence nursing care of the dying should focus on the consequences of specific behaviors of nurses rather than on death anxiety in nurses, and they should include nursing supervisors as well as nurses providing direct care for the dying. PMID:2342984

  2. Race and willingness to cooperate with the police: The roles of quality of contact, attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms.

    PubMed

    Viki, G Tendayi; Culmer, Michelle J; Eller, Anja; Abrams, Dominic

    2006-06-01

    Black individuals are usually reluctant to co-operate with the police (Smith, 1983a). We propose that a history of unpleasant interactions with the police generates hostile attitudes towards the institution (Jefferson & Walker, 1993). Using a sample of 56 black and 64 white participants, we examined whether quality of contact predicts black people's attitudes and subjective norms concerning co-operating with the police. Our findings indicated that the Contact Hypothesis (Pettigrew, 1998) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) jointly provide some insight into the disinclination of black individuals to co-operate with the police. We found that the relationship between race and attitudes or subjective norms concerning co-operation with police investigations was mediated by quality of previous contact with the police. In turn, the relationship between quality of contact and willingness to co-operate with police investigations was mediated by both attitudes and subjective norms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:16762102

  3. The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

  4. Factors related to condom use behavior among club-working women in South Korea: importance of subjective norms and customer-related attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Ja-young

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to understand factors associated with condom use behavior among club-working women and identify the most influential factors to be addressed in future health programs. A total of 158 club-working women were surveyed from 3 midsize cities in South Korea from July to September 2004. Survey questionnaires were developed based on the theory of planned behavior. A total of 7 distinct themes emerged: Health aspects, Customer related, Pleasure related, Finance related, Societal norm, Occupational norm, and Perceived control. The results indicated that the Customer-related theme, Societal norm, and Occupational norm were statistically significant factors affecting condom use. On the other hand, self-related factors such as health, pleasure, and finance are not significantly related to the condom use behavior of club-working women in South Korea, suggesting that the currently used knowledge-focused education programs may not be sufficient for this population. PMID:22345303

  5. The Impact of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude toward Computer Use: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…

  6. Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

  7. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed. PMID:24354888

  8. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  9. The Influence of Confidence on Associations Among Personal Attitudes, Perceived Injunctive Norms, and Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Knee, C. Raymond; Fossos, Nicole; DiBello, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Social norms theories hold that perceptions of the degree of approval for a behavior have a strong influence on one’s private attitudes and public behavior. In particular, being more approving of drinking and perceiving peers as more approving of drinking, are strongly associated with one’s own drinking. However, previous research has not considered that students may vary considerably in the confidence in their estimates of peer approval and in the confidence in their estimates of their own approval of drinking. The present research was designed to evaluate confidence as a moderator of associations among perceived injunctive norms, own attitudes, and drinking. We expected perceived injunctive norms and own attitudes would be more strongly associated with drinking among students who felt more confident in their estimates of peer approval and own attitudes. We were also interested in whether this might differ by gender. Injunctive norms and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured in a sample of 708 college students. Findings from negative binomial regression analyses supported moderation hypotheses for confidence and perceived injunction norms but not for personal attitudes. Thus, perceived injunctive norms were more strongly associated with own drinking among students who felt more confident in their estimates of friends’ approval of drinking. A three-way interaction further revealed that this was primarily true among women. Implications for norms and peer influence theories as well as interventions are discussed. PMID:21928864

  10. Competitive testing of health behavior theories: how do benefits, barriers, subjective norm, and intention influence mammography behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Competitive hypothesis testing may explain differences in predictive power across multiple health behavior theories. Purpose We tested competing hypotheses of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to quantify pathways linking subjective norm, benefits, barriers, intention, and mammography behavior. Methods We analyzed longitudinal surveys of women veterans randomized to the control group of a mammography intervention trial (n=704). We compared direct, partial mediation, and full mediation models with Satorra-Bentler ?2 difference testing. Results Barriers had a direct and indirect negative effect on mammography behavior; intention only partially mediated barriers. Benefits had little to no effect on behavior and intention; however, it was negatively correlated with barriers. Subjective norm directly affected behavior and indirectly affected intention through barriers. Conclusions Our results provide empiric support for different assertions of HBM and TRA. Future interventions should test whether building subjective norm and reducing negative attitudes increases regular mammography. PMID:23868613

  11. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  12. Ingroup norms, intergroup contact and intergroup anxiety as predictors of the outgroup attitudes of majority and minority youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti; Tuuli Anna Mähönen; Karmela Liebkind

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the interplay of perceived parental and peer norms and the quality of intergroup contact in predicting outgroup attitudes among majority and minority youth. In addition, the role of intergroup anxiety on the contact-attitude association was studied simultaneously with the effects of social norms. 225 adolescents (93 Finnish majority and 132 Russian-speaking minority youth) were surveyed. As

  13. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  14. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Norms of Adult Research Participants as a Basis for Outreach Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Millions of adults volunteer as research participants annually at research institutions across the nation. This research explored the attitudes, beliefs, and norms of rurally situated, adult research participants at a large research university. This systematic exploration of research participant experiences gathered information to inform the…

  15. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n?=?500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (??=?0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (??=?0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (??=?0.19); also, both positive (??=?0.13) and negative (??=?-0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

  16. Factor analyses of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy measures in diverse samples.

    PubMed

    Pratte, Katherine; Whitesell, Nancy; McFarlane, Mary; Bull, Sheana

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy is variable, reducing research generalizability. The purpose of this study was to assess reliability and construct validity of measures of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy across 3,989 youth. Data were collected at computer kiosks and on the Internet. Analyses included internal consistency reliability assessments and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of three constructs in a 32-item a priori instrument. Reliability estimates ranged between 0.68 and 0.89, and goodness of fit indices all exceeded 0.90. Factor analysis results supported the compatibility of the items from the three subscales with their conceptual domains. Final scales include measures of positive and negative outcome expectancies related to condom use, peer and partner condom norms, self-efficacy for condom negotiation, and self-efficacy for condom use. These measures of condom attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy can be employed for assessments to improve standardization of measures and generalizability of research, particularly related to HIV prevention. PMID:21290923

  17. Chinese attitudes, norms, behavioral control and gambling involvement in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kowk Kit; Tao, Vivienne Y K

    2013-12-01

    This study tested the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on gambling intention and involvement in a representative Chinese sample in Macao, recruited by a random residential number dialing method. We successfully interviewed 685 respondents, with about one-third of them reporting that they had participated in gambling activities during the 12 months prior to the interview. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that favorable attitudes toward superstition and techniques, poor sense of perceived behavioral control over gambling refusal, and high gambling intention increased vulnerability to excessive gambling involvement. These findings generally support the efficacy of the TPB in explaining gambling intention and involvement among both Chinese gamblers and non-gamblers. Some practical implications of the findings are discussed within the Chinese context. PMID:23179299

  18. Men's enjoyment of explicit erotica: Effects of person?specific attitudes and gender?specific norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Lopez; William H. George

    1995-01-01

    Through three studies, we examined how person?specific sexual attitudes and gender?specific sexual norms influence men's erotica enjoyment (operationalized as self?regulated viewing of erotic slides). In Study 1, men viewed more erotica than did women, supporting a gender?typing interpretation that legitimizes erotica enjoyment for men but condemns it for women. In Study 2, gender was a situational variable; men viewed erotica

  19. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

    2013-04-01

    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  20. The attitude-behavior relationship in consumer conduct: the role of norms, past behavior, and self-identity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Manstead, Antony S R; Louis, Winnifred R; Kotterman, Diana; Wolfs, Jacqueline

    2008-06-01

    The authors used a revised planned behavior model in the consumer domain. The revised model incorporated separate measures of descriptive and injunctive/ prescriptive norms, self-identity, and past behavior in an effort to improve the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985) in relation to a self-reported consumer behavior: purchasing one's preferred soft drink. At Time 1, respondents (N = 112) completed self-report measures of (a) attitudes, (b) perceived behavioral control, (c) descriptive and injunctive/prescriptive norms, (d) self-identity, (e) past behavior, and (f) intentions. The authors assessed self-reported behavior 1 week later (Time 2). Attitudes, injunctive/prescriptive norms, descriptive norms, past behavior, and self-identity were all positively related to purchase intentions, and intentions were predictive of self-reported behavior at Time 2. These findings highlight the utility of the TPB in the consumer domain. PMID:18605180

  1. Measuring Attitudes toward Gender Norms among Young Men in Brazil: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the GEM Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Pulerwitz; Gary Barker

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a twenty-four-item scale to measure attitudes toward gender norms among young men: the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) Scale. Scale items on gender norms related to sexual and reproductive health, sexual relations, violence, domestic work, and homophobia are designed. Items are based on previous qualitative work in the community and a literature review

  2. Placing project partakers’ emotions, attitudes and norms in the context of project vision, artifacts, leader values, contextual performance and success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvi H. Aronson; Aaron J. Shenhar; Richard R. Reilly

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose a model suggesting that project leader building activities which support instilling a project vision, artifacts and are guided by this individual's values, affect partakers' emotions, attitudes and behavioral norms that are focused on expected project outcomes, termed project spirit. Furthermore, spirit is proposed to affect partakers' contextual performance and, through contextual performance, to affect project success. The

  3. Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

  4. Channel Capacity Subject to Frequency Domain Normed Uncertainties -SISO and MIMO Cases

    E-print Network

    Djouadi, Seddik M.

    Channel Capacity Subject to Frequency Domain Normed Uncertainties - SISO and MIMO Cases Stojan Z, of which two are related to SISO channels, and one is related to MIMO channel. The channel capacities of robustness of channel capacity of additive Gaussian channels, with respect to channel transfer function

  5. On the Capacity of a Class of MIMO Channels Subject to Normed Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Loyka, Sergey

    On the Capacity of a Class of MIMO Channels Subject to Normed Uncertainty Sergey Loyka School 20537 Nicosia, 1678, Cyprus Email: chadcha@ucy.ac.cy Abstract-- The compound capacity of uncertain MIMO] and to evaluate the compound capacity of uncertain rank-one (Ricean) MIMO channels [12]. In this paper, we

  6. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rena J. Pasick; Judith C. Barker; Regina Otero-Sabogal; Nancy J. Burke; Galen Joseph; Claudia Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and\\/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these

  7. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé à un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, à la discrimination perçue au nivea

  8. Sorting through chickens and eggs: A longitudinal examination of the associations between attitudes, norms, and sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, David M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Health behavior theories posit that health-relevant attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral skills drive subsequent actions people take to protect themselves from health threats. Within the realm of HIV-related sexual risk behavior, much of the research in support of this notion is cross-sectional, rather than longitudinal, particularly in studies of gay and bisexual men. Other psychological theories (e.g., self-perception or cognitive dissonance theories) suggest that the opposite could be true – that health-relevant attitudes and beliefs might change as a function of previous risk or precautionary behavior. Appreciating the complex nature of these associations is essential for modifying theory and developing appropriate interventions. Design Using longitudinal data from gay and bisexual men (n = 1465), we used structural equation modeling to examine three possibilities – that perceived norms and attitudes about sexual risk would be (a) related to unprotected anal intercourse cross-sectionally, (b) related to unprotected anal intercourse at a subsequent time point, and/or (c) predicted from previous instances of unprotected anal intercourse. Results Safe-sex norms and attitudes were related to unprotected anal intercourse cross-sectionally, but did not predict unprotected sex longitudinally. Rather, perceived norms and attitudes changed as a function of previous risk behavior. Conclusions These results raise the possibility that modified theoretical models might be necessary to adequately describe sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men. PMID:21299299

  9. “Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Chyvette T.; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women’s networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women’s attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted. PMID:18563573

  10. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  11. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV\\/AIDS?related stigma among service providers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li; Chunqing Lin; Zunyou Wu; Yi Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV\\/AIDS?related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV\\/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV\\/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city\\/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled

  12. Male Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence: Associations with Neighborhood Violence Involvement, Gender Attitudes, and Perceived Peer and Neighborhood Norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Reed; Jay G. Silverman; Anita Raj; Michele R. Decker; Elizabeth Miller

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as\\u000a well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of\\u000a urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N?=?275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community

  13. The Development of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale. Report No. 85:7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynowsky, Bernie A.

    This report outlines the stages of development and validation of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale (ATSSS). The instrument, developed in accordance with the Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) theory of attitude assessment, can be used by junior secondary science teachers or administrators to assess student attitudes toward the subject science…

  14. The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

    2001-01-01

    Social norms are usually neglected in economics because they are to a large extent enforced through non-market interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to live off one’s own income and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people

  15. The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

    2004-01-01

    Social norms are usually neglected in economics, because they are to a large extent enforced through nonmarket interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to work and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people find a new job.

  16. Gateway to doping? Supplement use in the context of preferred competitive situations, doping attitude, beliefs, and norms.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, S H; Whitaker, L; Petróczi, A

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional supplement (NS) use is widespread in sport. This study applied an integrated social cognitive approach to examine doping attitudes, beliefs, and self-reported doping use behavior across NS users (n = 96) and nonusers (n = 116). Following ethical approval, 212 competitive athletes (age mean = 21.4, s = 4.5; 137 males) completed self-reported measures of doping-related social cognitions and behaviors, presented in an online format where completion implied consent. Significantly more NS users (22.9%) reported doping compared with nonusers (6.0%; U = 4628.0, P < 0.05). NS users presented significantly more positive attitudes toward doping (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05) and expressed a significantly greater belief that doping is effective (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05). When presented with the scenario that performance-enhancing substances are effective and increase the possibility of winning, NS users were significantly more in favor of competing in situations that allow doping (U = 3504.5, P < 0.05). In sum, doping use is three-and-a-half times more prevalent in NS users compared with nonusers. This finding is accompanied by significant differences in doping attitudes, norms, and beliefs. Thus, this article offers support for the gateway hypothesis; athletes who engage in legal performance enhancement practices appear to embody an "at-risk" group for transition toward doping. Education should be appropriately targeted. PMID:22092778

  17. Development of Psychometric Measures of Student Attitudes Toward Technical Training: Norm Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gary G.; Sellman, Wayne S.

    The Phase 2 effort of a task to develop a new student critique form for the Air Training Command (ATC) is described. Phase 1 recommended the further development of group specific norms for officers, NCOs, and airmen enrolled in technical training schools. In Phase 2 additional items were added to the prototype form resulting in a later version of…

  18. Subject's attitudes toward psychology as a determinant of experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Adair; David P. Fenton

    1971-01-01

    Proposed attitudes toward psychology and psychological research as the basis of ss' differential willingness to cooperate with the demands of the experiment. To test this proposition, demand characteristics for positive opinion-change were communicated in a pretest-posttest design with 144 undergraduates as ss. The psychology research survey (prs) was developed to measure ss' attitudes toward psychology. Although all ss showed significant

  19. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  20. Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behaviour: using an expanded theory of planned behaviour to predict participation in a kerbside recycling programme.

    PubMed

    Nigbur, Dennis; Lyons, Evanthia; Uzzell, David

    2010-06-01

    In an effort to contribute to greater understanding of norms and identity in the theory of planned behaviour, an extended model was used to predict residential kerbside recycling, with self-identity, personal norms, neighbourhood identification, and injunctive and descriptive social norms as additional predictors. Data from a field study (N=527) using questionnaire measures of predictor variables and an observational measure of recycling behaviour supported the theory. Intentions predicted behaviour, while attitudes, perceived control, and the personal norm predicted intention to recycle. The interaction between neighbourhood identification and injunctive social norms in turn predicted personal norms. Self-identity and the descriptive social norm significantly added to the original theory in predicting intentions as well as behaviour directly. A replication survey on the self-reported recycling behaviours of a random residential sample (N=264) supported the model obtained previously. These findings offer a useful extension of the theory of planned behaviour and some practicable suggestions for pro-recycling interventions. It may be productive to appeal to self-identity by making people feel like recyclers, and to stimulate both injunctive and descriptive norms in the neighbourhood. PMID:19486547

  1. An Exploratory Study of Jamaican Family and Consumer Sciences Educators' Attitudes toward Research Engagement, Perceptions of Research Norms, and Perceived Control over Conducting Research and Research Engagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonie Patricia Clarke

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between attitudes toward research engagement, research norms, perceived control over the ability to conduct research and research engagement among family and consumer sciences (FCS) faculty in post-secondary institutions in Jamaica. The literature shows that in the family and consumer sciences discipline, faculty members are predominantly female. Females in higher education

  2. Project spirit: Placing partakers' emotions, attitudes and norms in the context of project vision, artifacts, leader values, contextual performance and success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Aronson; A. J. Shenhar; R. R. Reilly

    2010-01-01

    Our model posits that leader building activities which support instilling a project vision, artifacts and are guided by this individual's values, affect partakers' emotions, attitudes and behavioral norms that are focused on expected project outcomes, termed project spirit. By partakers, we refer to project participants. Furthermore, spirit is proposed to affect partakers' contextual performance and, through contextual performance, to affect

  3. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  4. The impact of Hispanic and white group cues on attitudes towards the violation of generic norms.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Mirjam; Cranmer, Skyler J

    2013-01-01

    While much work in political science has examined the impact of racial cues on individual perceptions, we know little about how individuals evaluate members of minority outgroups on issues that are not linked to stereotypes. We measure the impacts of Hispanic and White cues on individual assessments related to a stereotype-independent norm violation: alcoholism. We test three competing theories--cognition, intergroup emotions, and social identity--using a population-based vignette experiment included in the General Social Survey. Our results contradict much of the literature, but keep with social identity theory's predictions. Hispanic alcoholics, when Hispanics constitute the outgroup, are assessed less negatively than White alcoholics in the ingroup, the latter experiencing what is called the black sheep effect. The black sheep effect occurs when ingroup members are more punitive towards members of the ingroup than the outgroup. However, the black sheep effect does not extend to measures that are more consistent with outgroup stereotypes, such as violence or money mismanagement; Hispanic alcoholics are evaluated more negatively than Whites on these measures. The implication is that the effect of racial cues depends strongly on issue linkages to group stereotypes. PMID:24386153

  5. The Impact of Hispanic and White Group Cues on Attitudes Towards the Violation of Generic Norms

    PubMed Central

    Cranmer, Mirjam; Cranmer, Skyler J.

    2013-01-01

    While much work in political science has examined the impact of racial cues on individual perceptions, we know little about how individuals evaluate members of minority outgroups on issues that are not linked to stereotypes. We measure the impacts of Hispanic and White cues on individual assessments related to a stereotype-independent norm violation: alcoholism. We test three competing theories – cognition, intergroup emotions, and social identity – using a population-based vignette experiment included in the General Social Survey. Our results contradict much of the literature, but keep with social identity theory's predictions. Hispanic alcoholics, when Hispanics constitute the outgroup, are assessed less negatively than White alcoholics in the ingroup, the latter experiencing what is called the black sheep effect. The black sheep effect occurs when ingroup members are more punitive towards members of the ingroup than the outgroup. However, the black sheep effect does not extend to measures that are more consistent with outgroup stereotypes, such as violence or money mismanagement; Hispanic alcoholics are evaluated more negatively than Whites on these measures. The implication is that the effect of racial cues depends strongly on issue linkages to group stereotypes. PMID:24386153

  6. The potential of multivariate analysis in assessing students' attitude to curriculum subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gaotlhobogwe; Janet Laugharne; Isabelle Durance

    2011-01-01

    Background:?Understanding student attitudes to curriculum subjects is central to providing evidence-based options to policy makers in education.Purpose:?We illustrate how quantitative approaches used in the social sciences and based on multivariate analysis (categorical Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis and General Linear Modelling), can complement qualitative analysis to support this need.Sample:?Our example involved an attitude survey of 128 students from five high

  7. Models of Attitude-Behavior Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, P. M.; Speckart, George

    1979-01-01

    Three replications of a structural equation model for the prediction of behavior are tested, using a questionnaire assessing undergraduate students' attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and behavior. The proposed models supersede the Fishbein-Ajzen theory in their ability to reflect the dynamics of attitude-behavior relations. (Author/RD)

  8. WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR MEN'S HOSTILE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN?: THE INFLUENCE OF HEGEMONIC MALE ROLE NORMS AND MASCULINE GENDER ROLE STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed. PMID:21531691

  9. The Potential of Multivariate Analysis in Assessing Students' Attitude to Curriculum Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaotlhobogwe, Michael; Laugharne, Janet; Durance, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding student attitudes to curriculum subjects is central to providing evidence-based options to policy makers in education. Purpose: We illustrate how quantitative approaches used in the social sciences and based on multivariate analysis (categorical Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis and General Linear…

  10. Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

  11. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 adult male and female respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age (?35 years and >35 years), and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not indicate their sex. The majority of women (77%) and men (74%) agreed “a man needs other women, even if things with his wife are fine”. Respondents who reported no education (60%) were more likely than those who reported any education (45%) to agree “if a woman is married, she should have sex with her husband whenever he wants to, even if she doesn’t want to” (p?=?0.002). The majority of women (74%) and men (73%) agreed “it is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant”. Respondents who reported no education (81%) were more likely than those who reported any education (72%) to agree with this statement (p?=?0.04). When asked about condom use, the majority of respondents, across both sexes and both age groups, agreed “it would be outrageous for a wife to ask her husband to use a condom” and “women who carry condoms are easy”. There were no statistically significant differences between the two age groups for any of the assessed gender inequitable norms. Conclusion The study reveals differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms among those surveyed in South Sudan when stratified by sex and education. As a new nation seeks to strengthen its health system, these data can inform sexual and reproductive health policies and programming in South Sudan. PMID:24209789

  12. Constrained optimal attitude control of a quadrotor helicopter subject to wind-gusts: Experimental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Alexis; G. Nikolakopoulos; A. Tzes

    2010-01-01

    A Constrained Finite Time Optimal Controller (CFTOC) for attitude set-point maneuvers of an Unmanned Quadrotor Helicopter (UqH) operating under severe wind conditions is the subject of this article. The UqH's nonlinear dynamics is linearized in various operating points resulting in a set of piecewise models. The CFTOC is designed for set-point maneuvers taking into account the switching between the linear

  13. Should Bible Studies Remain in Israeli Public Schools? Teachers' Attitudes toward Bible Teaching as a Mandatory Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idalovichi, Israel

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and analysis of attitudes of Israeli K-12 educators and bible teachers toward religious studies. Teachers' attitudes toward bible teaching as a mandatory subject are, on the whole, positive throughout the country. The present study addresses the absence of systematic research into the opinions…

  14. Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Aarons; Charles Glisson; Kimberly Hoagwood; Kelly Kelleher; John Landsverk; Guy Cafri

    2010-01-01

    The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure and policies, organizational culture and climate, and first-level leadership. EBPAS scores are

  15. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  16. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alan C L; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  17. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  18. Three scales assessing high school students’ attitudes and perceived norms about seeking adult help for distress and suicide concerns

    PubMed Central

    Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help for Suicidal Youth, and Reject Codes of Silence. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.64 – 0.84. In support of construct validity, lower scores on each scale were associated with more maladaptive coping norms; and for each one unit increase on each scale, students were one-third to one-half as likely to report suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and elevated depression. PMID:22324773

  19. A Path Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes to Computer Use: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…

  20. Attitudes, beliefs and norms relating to contraceptive use among young migrant and non-migrant adults in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irani, Laili; Speizer, Ilene; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The young urban population of Tanzania is growing rapidly, primarily due to rural-urban migration. More information is needed on the challenges facing young adult urban women and men in using family planning (FP). The purpose of this study is to identify perceptions, interpersonal and familial attitudes, and sociocultural norms regarding FP among young adults (18-25 years) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, comparing responses by sex, marital status and migration status. We conducted 12 focus groups with young adult men and women (n=74) in Dar es Salaam in December 2009. Participants knew of modern contraceptive methods, but had serious concerns about side effects. Single men and women preferred condoms. Female migrants stated that traditional methods were ineffective, yet commonly used in rural areas. Men's desires for more children frequently led female migrants not to use FP, while many married long-term residents used FP discreetly. Single women sometimes received the support of their parents/boyfriends to access and use contraception. Findings highlight differences in experiences among young adult men and women based on their migrant and marital status at the individual, interpersonal and normative levels. Future efforts to promote FP should engage existing social support systems and cultivate new ones in response to barriers. PMID:24156247

  1. Children with positive attitudes towards mind-wandering provide invalid subjective reports of mind-wandering during an experimental task.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Song, Xiaolan; Ye, Qun; Wang, Qinqin

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated mind-wandering (MW) in children during a laboratory task, and explored the influence of children's attitudes towards MW on the accuracy of their subjective reports. Children's MW experiences were probed during the adapted Sustained-Attention-to-Response-Task (SART), and their attitudes was measured by a questionnaire, according to which children were divided into positive or negative group. Results showed that (1) MW in children was basically identical to MW in adults which was associated with poor performance, increased behavioural variability, and a prospective bias; (2) reliable correlations between behavioural correlates and MW frequency were observed in negative group, but not in positive group; and (3) positive group reported more MW than negative group, while no behavioural correlate was significantly different between the two groups. We concluded that (1) overall, children could accurately introspect their MW experiences during SART; and (2) children with positive attitudes provided invalid subjective reports of MW. PMID:26021724

  2. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

  3. A Newton barrier method for minimizing a sum of norms subject to linear equality constraints, and efficient method to handle the L{sub 1} penalty function

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In this talk we will present a success story of using barrier methods for a large scale non-smooth non-linear convex programming problem. The problem of concern is minimizing a sum of Euclidean norms subject to linear equality constraints (MSN). We will present the duality theory for this problem. This theory is important for the development of an efficient barrier method. We will describe such an algorithm based on the Newton barrier method proposed by K.D. Andersen 1993 for minimizing a sum of norms MSN. The linear equality constraints are handled using an exact Ll penalty function, which is smoothed in the same way as the euclidean norms. Numerical results are presented for large sparse problems arising in plastic collapse analysis. Some of the test problems have been linearized, and interior point LP methods have been used to solve them. A comparison is carried out between the presented method and LP methods for these problems. The results show that the MSN method is not only faster but it also use less memory.

  4. Unpacking attitude certainty: attitude clarity and attitude correctness.

    PubMed

    Petrocelli, John V; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2007-01-01

    Attitude certainty has been the subject of considerable attention in the attitudes and persuasion literature. The present research identifies 2 aspects of attitude certainty and provides evidence for the distinctness of the constructs. Specifically, it is proposed that attitude certainty can be conceptualized, and empirically separated, in terms of attitude clarity (the subjective sense that one knows what one's attitude is) and attitude correctness (the subjective sense that one's attitude is correct or valid). Experiment 1 uses factor analysis and correlational data to provide evidence for viewing attitude clarity and attitude correctness as separate constructs. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that attitude clarity and attitude correctness can have distinct antecedents (repeated expression and consensus feedback, respectively). Experiment 4 reveals that these constructs each play an independent role in persuasion and resistance situations. As clarity and correctness increase, attitudes become more resistant to counterattitudinal persuasive messages. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing attitude strength literature. PMID:17201540

  5. A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

  6. The attitudes and perceptions of medical students towards basic science subjects during their clinical years: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Ashwani K; Verma, Minni; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the conventional system of medical education, basic subjects are taught in the 1st year with least interdisciplinary interaction. The objective of this study was to explore the students’ perception about content, need and application of basic science subjects during the clinical years of their medical education. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among students randomly after taking their written consent for participation in the study. About 265 completely filled questionnaires were received back and the response was analyzed. Results: Students identified anatomy as the subject with overloaded syllabus (75.4%) and also with maximum clinical application with 50.1% of them considering it the most important basic subject. Students were satisfied with the practical integration of subjects to impart clinical skills, but considered problem based learning a better method of teaching. According to 37%, 43.8% and 33.2% of respondents respectively; anatomy, biochemistry and physiology curriculum should only cover the general concepts to give the working knowledge of the subject. Approximately, 65% of the respondents were able to recall the knowledge of anatomy and physiology while biochemistry was retained by 40%. Conclusions: Overall, the attitudes of students toward basic science subjects were positive. The learning experience for them can be improved significantly by better clinical integration of the subjects. PMID:24600572

  7. Social norms and diet in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillippa Lally; Naomi Bartle; Jane Wardle

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16–19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers’ attitudes to

  8. Examining the Influence of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm.…

  9. Social norms and diet in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Bartle, Naomi; Wardle, Jane

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16-19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers' attitudes to (injunctive norms), and intake of (descriptive norms), the same foods. Misperceptions were calculated from differences between perceived norms and median self-reports of peer groups. Respondents overestimated their peers' intake of snacks by 1.8 portions a week, and sugar-sweetened drinks by 5.2 portions, and overestimated how positive their peers' attitudes were towards these behaviours. They underestimated their peers' consumption of fruits and vegetables by 3.2 portions per week and how positive their peers' attitudes were towards fruit and vegetables. Descriptive norms were strongly associated with intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snacks, explaining between 17% and 22% of the variance in consumption. There was no association between injunctive norms and intake. Descriptive norms indicated that misperceptions of peers' food intake were associated with respondents' own intake. Interventions to correct misperceptions have the potential to improve adolescents' diets. PMID:21843568

  10. Attitudes Towards End-of-Life Decisions and the Subjective Concepts of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lotto, Lorella; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rigoni, Davide; Rumiati, Rino; Sartori, Giuseppe; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background People have fought for their civil rights, primarily the right to live in dignity. At present, the development of technology in medicine and healthcare led to an apparent paradox: many people are fighting for the right to die. This study was aimed at testing whether different moral principles are associated with different attitudes towards end-of-life decisions for patients with a severe brain damage. Methodology We focused on the ethical decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in patients with severe brain damage. 202 undergraduate students at the University of Padova were given one description drawn from four profiles describing different pathological states: the permanent vegetative state, the minimally conscious state, the locked-in syndrome, and the terminal illness. Participants were asked to evaluate how dead or how alive the patient was, and how appropriate it was to satisfy the patient's desire. Principal Findings We found that the moral principles in which people believe affect not only people's judgments concerning the appropriateness of the withdrawal of life support, but also the perception of the death status of patients with severe brain injury. In particular, we found that the supporters of the Free Choice (FC) principle perceived the death status of the patients with different pathologies differently: the more people believe in the FC, the more they perceived patients as dead in pathologies where conscious awareness is severely impaired. By contrast, participants who agree with the Sanctity of Life (SL) principle did not show differences across pathologies. Conclusions These results may shed light on the complex aspects of moral consensus for supporting or rejecting end-of-life decisions. PMID:22355392

  11. Using attitude and social influence to develop an extended trust model for information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; Traci J. Hess; Joseph S. Valacich

    2006-01-01

    This research extends an initial trust model proposed and empirically tested by McKnight, Choudhury, and Kacmar (2002) in an e-commerce context. This trust model is extended by the addition of two key constructs: trusting attitude and subjective norm. These added constructs improve the theoretical foundation of this model by more closely aligning it with the theory of reasoned action. The

  12. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  13. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  14. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  15. The Effects of Project-Based Learning on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude, and Retention of Knowledge: The Subject of "Electricity in Our Lives"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçalli, Saide; Korur, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of project-based learning on students' academic achievement, attitude, and retention of knowledge in relation to the subject of "Electricity in Our Lives" in a fourth-grade science course. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental design as a "pre-test, post-test with…

  16. Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

  17. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  18. Implicit attitude towards pictures of back-stressing activities in pain-free subjects and patients with low back pain: an affective priming study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbet Goubert; Geert Crombez; Dirk Hermans; Guy Vanderstraeten

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, it is investigated whether an implicit evaluative-negative attitude towards back-stressing activities exists in pain-free subjects and in chronic low back pain patients. Using an affective priming task, it was investigated whether pictures of threatening back-stressing movements (primes) facilitate (respectively, slow down) the categorisation of subsequent evaluative-negative (evaluative-positive) words (targets). In study 1 using 20 pain-free subjects, the

  19. Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian and vegan diets: an examination of the role of ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Wellens, B; Conner, M

    2001-08-01

    Vegetarianism within the U.K. is growing in popularity, with the current estimate of 7% of the population eating a vegetarian diet. This study examined differences between the attitudes and beliefs of four dietary groups (meat eaters, meat avoiders, vegetarians and vegans) and the extent to which attitudes influenced intentions to follow each diet. In addition, the role of attitudinal ambivalence as a moderator variable was examined. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 111 respondents (25 meat eaters, 26 meat avoiders, 34 vegetarians, 26 vegans). In general, predictions were supported, in that respondents displayed most positive attitudes and beliefs towards their own diets, and most negative attitudes and beliefs towards the diet most different form their own. Regression analyses showed that, as predicted by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intention to follow each diet (apart from the vegetarian diet, where subjective norm was non-significant). In each case, attitudinal ambivalence was found to moderate the attitude-intention relationship, such that attitudes were found to be stronger predictors at lower levels of ambivalence. The results not only highlight the extent to which such alternative diets are an interesting focus for psychological research, but also lend further support to the argument that ambivalence in an important influence on attitude strength. PMID:11562154

  20. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions toward Nuclear Energy before and after Chernobyl in a Longitudinal within-subjects Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bas Verplanken

    1989-01-01

    Beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward nuclear energy in the Netherlands were investigated within a sample of Dutch citizens two months before the Chernobyl accident, one month after the accident, six months after the accident, and one year and seven months after the accident. One month after the accident, analyses revealed more unfavorable attitudes which became less antinuclear five months

  1. Normes comptables, normes prudentielles et normes de gouvernance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    du capitalisme financier ­ normes IAS-IFRS, normes de Bâle I et II et normes de gouvernance - met en ouvrant à une possible émancipation. Mots clés : IAS-IFRS ­ accords de Bâle ­ gouvernance d perspective. A comparative analysis of this process for three bodies of standards ­ IAS-IFRS, Basel I and II

  2. BSL Norms 1 Running head: BSL norms

    E-print Network

    Vigliocco, Gabriella

    articulator, while signed languages involve multiple articulators (both hands, mouth, face, body, etcBSL Norms 1 Running head: BSL norms The British Sign Language (BSL) Norms for Age of Acquisition Vigliocco Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre University College London Corresponding author

  3. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  4. RECONSTRUCTING NORMS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Núria Gorgorió; Núria Planas

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs 'cultural scripts' and 'social representations', and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social representations, mediate the learning of mathematics in multicultural classrooms. When taking into

  5. Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

  6. Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Louis, Winnifred; Davies, Sarah; Smith, Joanne; Terry, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985, 1991) and referent group (student) norms and identification (D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg, 1996), the authors longitudinally predicted healthy eating intentions and behavior in a sample of 137 university students. Specifically, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control predicted intentions at Time 1, which predicted self-reported behavior at Time 2. There was also a link between intentions and observed behavior at Time 2. Beyond the planned behavior variables, referent group norms for university students' eating behavior interacted with participants' identification as students to predict healthy eating intentions. The authors discussed implications for researcher's conceptualization of normative influence and for interventions into this group's eating behavior. PMID:17345922

  7. Effect of Trunk Sagittal Attitude on Shoulder, Thorax and Pelvis Three-Dimensional Kinematics in Able-Bodied Subjects during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Leardini, Alberto; Berti, Lisa; Begon, Mickaël; Allard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling. PMID:24204763

  8. Association of gender norms, relationship and intrapersonal variables, and acculturation with sexual communication among young adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648718

  9. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm

  10. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  11. Disentangling the relationships among self-reflection, insight, and subjective well-being: the role of dysfunctional attitudes and core self-evaluations.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Grant, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Central to many psychological schools of thought is the notion that self-reflection leads to self-insight which, in turn, leads to enhanced well-being. However, empirical research has found that although self-insight is typically associated with well-being, self-reflection is frequently not associated with self-insight or well-being. Past attempts to understand this conundrum have tended to focus on the role of ruminative self-refection. Using a different approach this study investigates the roles of dysfunctional attitudes and positive core self-evaluations. Using data from 227 participants, two key findings are reported: first, dysfunctional attitudes suppress the relationship between self-reflection and self-insight; and second, positive core self-evaluations mediate the relationship between self-insight and subjective well-being. These two findings imply that a path exists from self-reflection to subjective well-being through self-insight and positive core self-evaluations. This path model was found to be a good fit. Implications for future research and positive psychological practice are discussed. PMID:25087316

  12. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13–18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from “not at all” to “always.” Summated composite score ranging from 0–36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR) of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication. Results Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents’ reproductive health (RH) knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure. Conclusions Curtailing the adolescents’ underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents. PMID:26167860

  13. Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

  14. 21% norm. unc. 21% norm. unc.

    E-print Network

    . ±21% norm. unc. ±21% norm. unc. ±21% norm. unc. ds diff / dM X (µb / GeV) ZEUS (prel.) LPS­BPT 97 ZEUS LPS­BPC 95 ZEUS BPC 96­97 W (GeV) ZEUS (prel.) LPS­BPT 97 ZEUS LPS­BPC 95 ZEUS BPC 96­97 ZEUS (prel.) LPS­BPT 97 ZEUS LPS­BPC 95 ZEUS BPC 96­97 ZEUS (prel.) LPS­BPT 97 ZEUS LPS­BPC 95 ZEUS BPC 96­97 ZEUS

  15. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

  16. Differential effects of exposure to social norms campaigns: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Campo, Shelly; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2006-01-01

    College students' processing of alcohol social norms messages, related effects on normative judgments, attitudes toward their own behaviors, and perception of undergraduate attitudes were examined using expectancy violation theories and social norms marketing. Data were collected from 2 universities (N = 393). Following message exposure, the majority moved their normative judgments toward the statistic provided in the message. Slight attitude change occurred but not always in the desired direction. Those most likely to develop unhealthier attitudes drank more than those who developed healthier attitudes, consistent with psychological reactance to the messages. Therefore, the effects of social norms campaigns on those at greatest risk for primary and secondary alcohol effects due to their increased alcohol consumption could lead to increased risk for those participants, indicating that the widespread use of social norms campaigns needs to be scrutinized. PMID:16719724

  17. The effect of video interviews with STEM professionals on STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest of middle school students in conservative Protestant Christian schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsup, Philip R.

    Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.

  18. Racial Norming: A Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Robyn M.; Humphreys, Lloyd G.

    1993-01-01

    Two sides of debate on racial norming of aptitude tests are argued: that aptitude tests cannot be neutral to experience because aptitude itself is not neutral to experience, thus fairness to everyone is not possible in a single test; and that, predictively, ability tests are essentially color-blind and racial norming satisfies affirmative action…

  19. Controls coefficient generalized inversion Lyapunov design for spacecraft attitude control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman H. Bajodah

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a controls coefficient generalized inversion attitude tracking design methodology for realization of desired linear spacecraft attitude deviation dynamics. A prescribed stable linear second order time-invariant ordinary differential equation in a spacecraft attitude deviation norm measure is evaluated along the solution trajectories of the spacecraft equations of motion, yielding a linear relation in the control variables. Generalized inversion

  20. Attitude Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norland, Emmalou

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…

  1. International legal norms and the preservation of peace, 1820–1964: Some evidence and Bivariate relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Kegley Jr; Gregory A. Raymond

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether changes in international legal norms have historically been associated with changes in the frequency of war, uses of force short of war, and arbitral activity among major powers. International legal norms are conceptualized as quasi?authoritative statements that communicate the prevailing attitudes held by members of the state system regarding the acceptability

  2. Hierarchical Models of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Srinivas K.; LaBarbera, Priscilla A.

    1985-01-01

    The application and use of hierarchical models is illustrated, using the example of the structure of attitudes toward a new product and a print advertisement. Subjects were college students who responded to seven-point bipolar scales. Hierarchical models were better than nonhierarchical models in conceptualizing attitude but not intention. (GDC)

  3. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; De Vries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as an evaluative norm. (Contains 1…

  4. Nerds and Freaks: A Theory of Student Culture and Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Bishop, Matthew; Gelbwasser, Lara; Green, Shanna; Zuckerman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between the study behavior and academic engagement of individual students, the norms and attitudes of close friends, and the peer culture of school. The authors are particularly interested in how the academic orientation of a student and his or her close friends invites or protects him or her from harassment by…

  5. Norms of Rhetorical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and responds to Thomas Farrell's book "Norms of Rhetorical Culture," a book which reconsiders Aristotle while also contending with powerful currents in contemporary social theory. Suggests that the book provides a template for the construction of rhetorical theory. (SR)

  6. Correlates of Attitudes Toward Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Tom; And Others

    Results of a study using a theoretical model to measure student attitudes toward social studies are reported. Attitudes were measured as they related to five constructs: (1) teacher attitudes, including support and reinforcement for the student and enthusiasm for subject; (2) student self-concept, scholastic attitude, peer acceptance, and…

  7. On the automatic activation of attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell H. Fazio; David M. Sanbonmatsu; Martha C. Powell; Frank R. Kardes

    1986-01-01

    We hypothesized that attitudes characterized by a strong association between the attitude object and an evaluation of that object are capable of being activated from memory automatically upon mere presentation of the attitude object. We used a priming procedure to examine the extent to which the mere presentation of an attitude object would facilitate the latency with which subjects could

  8. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently. PMID:22477038

  9. Serotonin and Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

    2014-01-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

  10. The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

  11. Attitudes and Achievement: A Complex Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mary L.

    This paper investigates the popular belief that children's attitudes toward school and particular subjects have a positive relationship with their school and subject achievement. Definitions of attitude by L. L. Thurstone, L. W. Doob, and M. Fishbein are presented as a basis for the investigation. The difficulties involved in assessing attitudes

  12. Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

  13. Social norms and human cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

    2004-01-01

    The existence of social norms is one of the big unsolved problems in social cognitive science. Although no other concept is invoked more frequently in the social sciences, we still know little about how social norms are formed, the forces determining their content, and the cognitive and emotional requirements that enable a species to establish and enforce social norms. In

  14. A Social Norms Approach to Drug Prevention in Schools in Ireland: Results from a Pre Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Leigheann Ryan; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Foley, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that social norms interventions, which aim to educate individuals and groups on their actual attitudinal and behavioural norms relating to alcohol, cigarette and drug use,incur some success in reducing positive attitudes to substance use and rates of substance use. The research aimed to investigate the extent of misperceptions…

  15. Spacecraft attitude control using nonlinear servomechanism theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Huang; Ching-Fang Lin; Fred Y. Hadaegh; Richard Y. Chiang

    1994-01-01

    The nonlinear servomechanism theory is applied to the attitude control of large maneuvering spacecraft subject to sinusoidal disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Simulation shows significant advantages of our attitude controller over the controller resulting from the feedback linearization approach

  16. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595

  17. NORM survey in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Canoba, A C

    2012-01-01

    A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested. PMID:23089035

  18. Attitudes and intentions of homeless people towards service provision in South Wales.

    PubMed

    Christian, Julie; Armitage, Christopher J

    2002-06-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB: Ajzen, 1988, 1991) was used as a framework to investigate homeless people's participation in outreach service programmes. In total, 104 homeless people from South Wales were interviewed using a schedule based on the TPB. Congruent with previous research on the TPB, attitude was the dominant predictor of behavioural intentions, and intention and perceived behavioural control were predictive of behaviour. Contrary to predictions, subjective norms also exerted a direct effect on behaviour. The discussion focuses on two issues: first, the utility of social cognition models in explaining the relationship between demographic variables and behaviour in homelessness research; second, the direct effects of norms on behaviour and the extent to which work on social groups might usefully extend research on models such as the TPB to aid understanding of behaviour amongst stigmatized populations. PMID:12133225

  19. Effects of norm referent salience on young people's dietary orientation.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. PMID:25447012

  20. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  1. Eroticism as a Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderone, Mary S.

    1974-01-01

    Erotic feelings, thoughts, and responses invariably occur in children from their earliest days onward. The attitudes of the parent figures about these and about the gender identity and role behavior of the child constitute its primary sex education from birth to five years. (Author)

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between Three Types of Peer Norms and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Dekovi?, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed = .40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed = .22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed = .10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed = .11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363

  3. The use of quaternions with an all-attitude IMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niva, G. D.

    Quaternion algebra is described and the use of quaternions in system software development is discussed. Quaternions are defined, as are equality, addition, scalar multiplication, subtraction, multiplication, conjugation, inverse, and norm of quaternions. The theory is translated into meaningful terms with a discussion of trigonmetric form, sign convention, vector transformation, quaternion combination, quaternion attitude error, attitude rate, attitude update, attitude maneuvers, and orthonormality. The band angle readout system, a spherical inertial measurement unit, is discussed, and the extraction of the quaternion equivalent to the flight program attitude data is analyzed

  4. Entry Attitudes of Students towards Using Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nancy P.; Bohlin, Roy M.

    This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine the computer anxiety, attitudes, and confidence levels of students enrolling in preservice teacher education computing courses. Specific questions compared these students with national norms, and looked to see whether sex, age, or past computer experiences had any effect on measures…

  5. Attitude to Suicide in Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; And Others

    Attitudes about suicide were examined among older adults in Padua, Italy and were compared to attitudes of younger subjects. Elderly subjects (N=246) consisted of 122 adults living in residential homes, 73 medical inpatients of a geriatric hospital, and 51 depressed inpatients with primary affective disorders. Younger subjects (N=263) consisted of…

  6. Descriptive and injunctive social norms' interactive role in gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Matthew K; Goodie, Adam S

    2014-06-01

    Social norms have a fundamental impact on behavior, yet little research has examined social norms regarding gambling and no research has examined possible interaction effects. The current study examined the interaction between perceived approval of gambling by others (i.e., injunctive norms) and perceived prevalence of gambling by others (i.e., descriptive norms) on the respondent's gambling frequency and problems, in a sample of relatively frequent gamblers. The current study examined 2 distinct reference groups: 1 close in proximity (i.e., family and friends) and 1 distally located (i.e., other students). The sample consisted of 252 undergraduates who gambled at least twice a month. Two interactions were observed on gambling frequency based on the proximity of the reference groups; however, only descriptive norms significantly predicted gambling problems. When the reference group was closer in proximity, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the individual's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. When the reference group was distally located, differences in respondents' gambling frequency emerged only in contexts in which they perceived other students to gamble infrequently. Specifically, when respondents perceived that other students gambled infrequently and disapproved of gambling, respondents gambled the most frequently. The results suggest that individuals are influenced by their perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors, regardless of proximity, and that these perceptions of others' behavior are strongly associated with gambling problems. PMID:24955677

  7. Technical norms, social norms, the chinese internet under control

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Technical norms, social norms, the chinese internet under control olivier arifon 1, * 1 : resic several forms of control. actually, four registers co exists: a technical control, a legal regu- lation and socio technical context. in other words, it's a sovereign internet on its own bases (for more details

  8. Team behavioral norms: a shared vision for a healthy patient care workplace.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Mickey L; Clark, Paul; Marshall, Michelle; Cornett, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Leaders are bombarded with healthy workplace articles and advice. This article outlines a strategy for laying the foundation for healthy patient care workplaces at the pivotal unit level. This process facilitates the nursing unit staff to create and implement a shared vision for staff working relationships. Fourteen acute care hospital units, all participants in a healthy workplace intervention, were selected for this analysis because they chose team behavioral norms as a top priority to begin to implement their vision for a desired future for their units, a healthy workplace. These units developed specific team behavioral norms for their expectations of each other. The findings revealed 3 major norm themes and attributes: norms for effective communication, positive attitude, and accountability. Attributes of each norm are described to assist nurses to positively influence their core unit work culture. PMID:17579304

  9. An evolved cognitive bias for social norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick O'Gorman; David Sloan Wilson; Ralph R. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Social norms are a widely used concept for explaining human behavior, but there are few studies exploring how we cognitively utilize them. We incorporate here an evolutionary approach to studying social norms, predicting that if norms have been critical to biological fitness, then individuals should have adaptive mechanisms to conform to, and avoid violating, norms. A cognitive bias toward norms

  10. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  11. On inverse problems in 2-norm and infinity-norm controller synthesis Anthony M. Holohan

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    On inverse problems in 2-norm and infinity-norm controller synthesis Anthony M. Holohan School-norm and the infinity-norm. These inverse problems identify the class of controllers which are optimal with the 1-block 2-norm problems, inf KK W1 S 2; inf KK W2T 2; with the 1-block infinity-norm problems, inf

  12. Attitudes to spanking children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham

    1995-01-01

    One-hundred and thirty-six adults completed a 10-item questionnaire on the spanking of children. Three clear factors emerged concerned with pro-spanking attitudes; the rarity of spanking; and alternatives to spanking. Overall subjects were against spanking though more conservative voters tended to be more pro than anti.

  13. Job attitudes.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

  14. Thoughts on attitude measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Norman

    2006-05-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner attitudes to explore why they were deserting studies in such subjects. This paper explores the place of attitude measurement in science education and traces the main approaches that have been developed. The place and nature of attitude scaling techniques is analysed and it is demonstrated that such techniques have many fundamental flaws. These weaknesses make such approaches unlikely to offer the kind of precision needed to take our understanding of attitude development forward in the context of science education. Alternative approaches are outlined and it is strongly suggested that science education research rejects such scaling techniques and moves forward to develop new approaches that can give the kind of detailed analysis which will prove to be positive and useful. This paper seeks to bring evidence from many sources together, to challenge many of the unquestioned assumptions behind the metholodogies used in many attitude-related studies today and to make a positive contribution in encouraging more appropriate methodologies to be adopted more widely.

  15. Systeme, norme, usage: Etudes contrastives (System, Norm, Usage: Contrastive Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gak, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of languages can be an effective instructional technique if used well. The comparison of isolated elements is less effective than the examination of languages at several levels: system, norm, and usage. (MSE)

  16. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  17. Access to Attitude-Relevant Information in Memory as a Determinant of Attitude-Behavior Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallgren, Carl A.; Wood, Wendy

    Recent reserach has attempted to determine systematically how attitudes influence behavior. This research examined whether access to attitude-relevant beliefs and prior experiences would mediate the relation between attitudes and behavior. Subjects were 49 college students with a mean age of 27 who did not live with their parents or in…

  18. Slicing the Attitude Pie: A Validity and Reliability Study of a New Attitude Assessment Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; Cappella, Joseph N.

    This paper introduces a new measure of attitude, the "attitude pie," which attempts to separate true neutrality from degree of indifference while providing an evaluation score on the issue being judged. A large reliability-validity study involving ten attitude traits, four different methods, and over one hundred subjects at three different times…

  19. Extramarital Sexual Attitudes and Norms of an Undergraduate Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medora, Nilufer P.; Burton, Mary M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of 200 single undergraduate students' opinions on extramarital sexual behavior indicates (1) fraternity/sorority membership does not predict students' opinions, (2) females are more conservative than males, and (3) religiosity is negatively correlated with extramarital sexual permissiveness. (CM)

  20. Science Education Assessment Instruments: Problems in Assessing Student Attitude in Science Education: A Partial Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynowsky, Bernie A.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies some of the problems of attitude assessment in science education. Describes the development of the Attitude Toward the Subject Science Scale (ATSSS) and gives an overview of the Ajzen and Fishbein attitude theories. Provides five sample items. (YP)

  1. The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing.

    PubMed

    Achourioti, Theodora; Fugard, Andrew J B; Stenning, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the "new paradigm" of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply. PMID:25368590

  2. Attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

  3. Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Janet L.

    This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

  4. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  5. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  6. Inverse Problems in 2-norm and infinity-norm Controller Synthesis.

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Inverse Problems in 2-norm and infinity-norm Controller Synthesis. Anthony M. Holohan1 and Gjerrit frequency-domain syn- thesis of robust controllers, in both the 2-norm and the infinity-norm. These in with the 1-block infinity-norm problems, inf KK W1 S inf KK W2T with the 2-block 2-norm problem, inf KK |W1

  7. Spectral Norm of Symmetric Functions

    E-print Network

    Ada, Anil; Hatami, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The spectral norm of a Boolean function $f:\\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{-1,1\\}$ is the sum of the absolute values of its Fourier coefficients. This quantity provides useful upper and lower bounds on the complexity of a function in areas such as learning theory, circuit complexity, and communication complexity. In this paper, we give a combinatorial characterization for the spectral norm of symmetric functions. We show that the logarithm of the spectral norm is of the same order of magnitude as $r(f)\\log(n/r(f))$ where $r(f) = \\max\\{r_0,r_1\\}$, and $r_0$ and $r_1$ are the smallest integers less than $n/2$ such that $f(x)$ or $f(x) \\cdot parity(x)$ is constant for all $x$ with $\\sum x_i \\in [r_0, n-r_1]$. We mention some applications to the decision tree and communication complexity of symmetric functions.

  8. A worldwide, web-based study of the attitudes of college freshmen toward computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bunny J. Tjaden; Brett C. Tjaden

    2000-01-01

    We propose to initiate a worldwide survey of colleges and universities to re-evaluate attitudes of students toward computing courses. In 1985, a study of college freshmen was conducted to determine their attitudes toward introductory computer science courses [10]. At that time, access to and experience with computers was not the norm for the typical student about to enter the university.

  9. Social Identity and Media Dependency in the Gay CommunityThe Prediction of Safe Sex Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS A. MORTON; JULIE M. DUCK

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between social identity and media dependency in the prediction of safe sex attitudes in the gay community. A sample of 76 gay men completed a survey measuring (a) frequency of gay media use and media dependency, (b) identification with the gay community and perceptions of community norms, and (c) personal attitudes toward safe sex. Consistent

  10. Kalman Filter Innovation Sequence Based Fault Detection in LEO Satellite Attitude Determination and Control System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Okatan; Ch. Hajiyev; U. Hajiyeva

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, fault detection algorithm for LEO satellite attitude determination and control system using an approach for checking the statistical characteristics of Extended Kalman filter (EKF) innovation sequence is proposed. It is based on given statistics for the mathematical expectation of the spectral norm of the normalized innovation matrix of the EKF. The attitude dynamics of the LEO satellite

  11. Birth cohort effects on adolescent alcohol use: The influence of social norms from 1976-2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Context The substantial changes adolescent alcohol use prevalence over time suggests that population-level environmental factors are important determinants of use, yet the potential influence of such environmental factors is inadequately understood. Objective The present study investigated whether adolescents in birth cohorts and/or time periods characterized by restrictive social norms towards alcohol were at decreased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking, controlling for individual attitudes (disapproval) towards use. Design Aggregated data from thirty-two annual national surveys of U.S. high school students. Participants A total of 1,032,052 students contributed data from 1976 through 2007. Exposure The social norm was measured by creating scores for each time period and birth cohort indicating the proportion disapproving of weekend binge drinking. Outcomes Frequency of past-year alcohol use and any instance of binge drinking (5+ drinks) in the past two-weeks, analyzed using multi-level models clustering individuals within time periods and birth cohorts. Period- and cohort-specific social norm scores were modeled as predictors, controlling for individual attitudes and demographics. Results Individuals who matured in birth cohorts with more restrictive social norms were less likely to use alcohol compared to individuals who matured in cohorts with more permissive norms; each 5% increase in the cohort-specific disapproval was associated with a 12% decrease in the odds of past-year alcohol use (OR=0.88, 99% C.I. 0.87-0.89). The effects of cohort-specific disapproval were notably stronger among White than non-White adolescents. Conclusions The present study documents the importance of considering time-varying population-level risk factors in the study of adolescent alcohol use, and indicates that even after an individual’s personal attitudes are accounted for, risk is shaped by cohort effects whereby the norms within the cohort contribute to the risk of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:22868751

  12. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Heath; Marie Mackay Murphy

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime was examined in three studies. In Study 1,73 items about guns were administered to subjects to determine if the construct “Gun Attitudes” contained sub-constructs, possibly causing the confusion in the literature on gun attitudes and fear of crime. Nine factors were revealed, which were grouped into Socio-cultural and Personal Indices.

  13. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  14. Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

  15. Client and counselor attitudes toward the use of medications for treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Thomas, Cindy P; McCarty, Dennis

    2007-03-01

    Attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1,083 clients from outpatient, methadone, and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms, and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, whereas their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence. PMID:17306729

  16. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-05-01

    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  17. Organisational Dynamics, Social Norms and Information Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald K. Stamper; Kecheng Liu

    1994-01-01

    An organisation is defmed as a system of social norms. The concept of a norm is the social analogue of the concept of an afforrdance which Gibson introduced to account for perception of the physical world. Their conjunction is a logic of Norms and Aflordances, Norma, which serves as a meta-model for &namic organisational systems. All elements in a Norma

  18. Norm negotiations. The construction of new norms regarding gender and development in EU foreign aid policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Elgström

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explain norm change regarding gender and development in the EU. I trace the policy process from initiation to implementation to clarify how new norms were introduced and spread. The article combines a constructivist approach to norm diffusion with a negotiation perspective. Constructivist accounts underline the role of norm entrepreneurs and how they persuade

  19. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  20. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. PMID:22732053

  1. Applicability of the planned behavior theory to attitudes of students in early childhood education toward teaching culturally diverse classes: the role of self-identity.

    PubMed

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Tsioumis, Konstantinos; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2007-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the predictive utility of planned behavior theory to the multicultural education domain. One hundred and forty-eight students in early childhood studies (146 women, 2 men; M age = 21.8 yr., SD = 2.6) were asked to complete a questionnaire based on planned behavior theory to measure attitudes toward teaching multicultural classes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-identity. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the planned behavior model components explained 52.5% of the students' intentions. Addition of self-identity increased the amount of variance accounted for by the model 157.3%). It was concluded that researchers may have increased confidence when applying the planned behavior theoretical framework to study prospective educators' attitudes, and that self-identity seems to represent a useful explanatory variable. PMID:17886499

  2. Measures of condom and safer sex social norms and stigma towards HIV/AIDS among Beijing MSM.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yifei; Lu, Hongyan; Raymond, H Fisher; Sun, Yanming; Sun, Jiangping; Jia, Yujiang; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; Xiao, Yan; McFarland, Willi; Ruan, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior. PMID:24057931

  3. Modeling Attitude Change from Political Dialogues

    E-print Network

    Duggins, Peter

    2014-01-01

    I use an agent-based simulation to model how individual and societal attitude change arise from the mutual interactions that occur within political dialogues. Agents converse with members of their social network, express their political attitudes, and update their beliefs in a manner that reflects their personal convictions, their tolerance for dissimilarity, and local social norms. The model extends previous work by endowing agents with multiple, theoretically motivated heuristics for reevaluating and expressing their opinions, including homophily, attitude strength, and conformity. I demonstrate that novel macroscopic phenomenon emerge from the interactions of these cognitively and socially refined agents. Specifically, I find that (a) interactions between persuadable and closed-minded agents drive non-monotonic changes in the societal distribution of opinions; (b) extremists instigate neighborhood polarization that propagates outward through undecided agents; (c) preference falsification produces non-repre...

  4. Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of technical secondary school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie; Afsaneh Bagheri

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students’ intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia. The findings indicate that students scored high on entrepreneurial attitude components including self?esteem cognition, achievement cognition,

  5. Response to cartoons and attitudes toward aging.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, A

    1981-01-01

    Although it has commonly been asserted that cartoon images of aging convey deep psychological significance, the relationship between attitudes and cartoon appreciation has received little systematic attention. The present study examined the relationship between responses to cartoons and attitudes toward aging among college students. Subjects rated the funniness of 60 cartoons and completed the Attitudes Toward Aging Inventory, Tuckman-Lorge, and Semantic Differential. Factor analysis revealed four categories of cartoons on aging: Disparagement, Ineffectuality, Obsolescence, and Isolation. No significant relationships were found between attitudes and humor appreciation, although age and education were inversely related to several cartoon themes. PMID:7451828

  6. Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Patricia M.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan; Linkenbach, Jeff; Stark, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design…

  7. Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

    2006-01-01

    This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

  8. Premarital Sexual Behavior, Attitudes, and Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamant, Louis

    1970-01-01

    No relationship was found between adjustment and premarital sexual intercourse for either male or female subjects. Low permissiveness scores (Attitude Scales on Sexual Permissiveness and Sexual Behavior Questionnaires) were related to maladjustment in males. (DB)

  9. A Model for Optimal Reaction Norms: The Case of the Pregnant Garter Snake and Her Temperature?Sensitive Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stevan J. Arnold; Charles R. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    We present a model to test Osgood's (1978) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature- sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or U-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by

  10. A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of Individual Characteristics and Classroom Norms in Explaining Bullying Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René; Kiuru, Noona; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study was set out to examine the interplay between individual characteristics (social standing in the classroom) and descriptive and injunctive classroom norms (behavior and attitudes, respectively) in explaining subsequent bullying behavior, defined as initiating, assisting, or reinforcing bullying. The target sample contained fourth- to sixth-grade students (n?=?2,051) who attended the control schools in the Finnish evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program. Random slope multilevel analyses revealed that, over time, higher popularity or rejection, or lower acceptance were associated with increases in bullying behaviors, especially in classrooms with a high descriptive bullying norm. In contrast, the injunctive norm did not moderate the associations between social standing and engagement in bullying, except for children high on popularity. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25370007

  11. Aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism: taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account.

    PubMed

    Biron, Michal; Bamberger, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of attitude-behavior relations to examine how peer absence-related norms and leader support combine to explain the effect of aversive workplace conditions on absenteeism. Using a prospective design and a random sample of transit workers, we obtained results indicating that perceived job hazards and exposure to critical incidents are positively related to subsequent absenteeism, but only under conditions of more permissive peer absence norms. Moreover, this positive impact of peer norms on absenteeism is amplified among employees perceiving their supervisor to be less supportive and is attenuated to the point of nonsignificance among those viewing their supervisor as more supportive. PMID:22390387

  12. Homogenization and norm resolvent convergence for elliptic operators in a strip perforated along a curve

    E-print Network

    Denis Borisov; Giuseppe Cardone; Tiziana Durante

    2015-03-21

    We consider an infinite planar straight strip perforated by small holes along a curve. In such domain, we consider a general second order elliptic operator subject to classical boundary conditions on the holes. Assuming that the perforation is non-periodic and satisfies rather weak assumptions, we describe all possible homogenized problems. Our main result is the norm resolvent convergence of the perturbed operator to a homogenized one in various operator norms and the estimates for the rate of convergence. On the basis of the norm resolvent convergence, we prove the convergence of the spectrum.

  13. Pew Global Attitudes Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

  14. The false enforcement of unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

    2009-09-01

    Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

  15. Dissonance effects as conformity to consistency norms: the effect of anonymity and identity salience.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Toby

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents an induced compliance experiment (N=55) that tests the idea, developed from social identity theory (SIT), that attitude shift towards advocacy reflects conformity to a consistency norm. Following computer-mediated group discussion of the primed consistency norm in either anonymous or identified conditions, participants were given either high or low choice to advocate counterattitudinally. As predicted by the social identity model of de-individuation effects (SIDE), anonymity increased identity salience and adherence to the in-group's consistency norm. As predicted by the social identity approach to dissonance, high choice/anonymous participants shifted attitude significantly more than high choice/identified participants, an effect that was mediated by salience. Contrary to predictions, the high choice/identified condition did not shift attitude significantly more than the low choice condition, though the predicted effect was found when salience was controlled for. These data strongly support both SIDE's view of anonymity and the SIT approach to dissonance, especially as alternative approaches predict the reverse of these effects. Implications for research and theory are discussed in relation to dissonance, anonymity and social identity. PMID:17393875

  16. Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

  17. Hilbert metrics and Minkowski norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Foertsch; Anders Karlsson

    2005-01-01

    .  It is shown that the Hilbert geometry (D, hD) associated to a bounded convex domain\\u000a \\u000a $$D \\\\subset \\\\mathbb{E}^{n} $$\\u000a is isometric to a normed vector space\\u000a \\u000a $${\\\\left( {{\\\\text{V}},{\\\\left\\\\| {\\\\, \\\\cdot \\\\,} \\\\right\\\\|}} \\\\right)}$$\\u000a if and only if D is an open n-simplex. One further result on the asymptotic geometry of Hilbert’s metric is obtained with corollaries for the behavior\\u000a of geodesics.

  18. Unitarily invariant norms related to factors

    E-print Network

    Fang, Junsheng

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\M$ be a semi-finite von Neumann algebra and $\\J(\\M)$ be the set of operators in $\\M$ with finite range projections. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of semi-finite factors $\\M$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of a type ${\\rm II}\\sb \\infty$ (or type ${\\rm I}\\sb \\infty$) factor $\\M$ coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $\\J(L^\\infty[0,\\infty))$ (or $\\J(l^\\infty(\

  19. Concave 1-norm group selection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. PMID:25417206

  20. Attitudes in a Web-Supported Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acun, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the possible effect of web-supported teaching on students' attitudes on Human Rights, Democracy and Citizenship Education and technology (HRDCE). To examine weather web-supported instruction would make a difference in attitude levels of the subjects, a quasi-experimental design was employed. Subjects of…

  1. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  2. A Study on Attitude of Urban and Rural College Student Teachers Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2014-01-01

    There is a great need to identify and develop positive attitude towards science subject of student teachers. The time has come to increase our efforts to develop positive attitude towards science subject among teachers, student teachers and school children. This is an immediate requirement of the present day. This paper reports on attitude of…

  3. Finding Maximum Length Tours Under Polyhedral Norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Barvinok; David S. Johnson; Gerhard J. Woeginger; Russell Woodroofe

    1998-01-01

    We consider the traveling salesman problem when the cities are points in IRdfor some fixed d and distances are computed according to a polyhedral norm. Weshow that for any such norm, the problem of finding a tour of maximum lengthcan be solved in polynomial time. If arithmetic operations are assumed to takeunit time, our algorithms run in time O(nf+1), where

  4. Best Monotone Approximation Using a Peak Norm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Legg; D. W. Townsend

    1997-01-01

    Monotone approximation relative to peak norms is studied both on an interval and in the discrete case. Existence and some structure results are obtained which demonstrate that peak norm approximation has similar properties toL1approximation. In particular, sup's and inf's of best approximants are best approximants (in the discrete case) and a half-above, half-below property is demonstrated.

  5. Norms and Laughter in Rhetorical Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charland, Maurice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and responds to Thomas Farrell's book "Norms of Rhetorical Culture," a book which reconsiders Aristotle while also contending with powerful currents in contemporary social theory. Suggests that rhetoric needs to transcend Farrell by locating his norms at one pole of a shared existence. (SR)

  6. NORMES IFRS ET MESURE DE LA PERFORMANCE.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 NORMES IFRS ET MESURE DE LA PERFORMANCE. ETUDE COMPARATIVE AUPRES DES ETABLISSEMENTS BANCAIRES différences de performance avant et après l'application des normes IFRS. En particulier, nous examinons si la bancaire ­ Juste valeur ­ IFRS ­ Capitaux Abstract The purpose of this paper is to question the financial

  7. LES PROBLMATIQUES DE TRANSITION AUX NORMES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LES PROBLÉMATIQUES DE TRANSITION AUX NORMES IFRS DES SOCIÉTÉS FONCIÈRES Eric TORT Expert-comptable certifié IFRS par les institutions (CSOEC, CNCC) Docteur en sciences de gestion, GREGOR de l'IAE de Paris 8 opérationnel, les problématiques du passage aux normes IFRS des sociétés foncières (évaluation des actifs

  8. Introduction Existence of a Perceptual Norm

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Aude

    : Results: 1) People are consistent when they select the preferred visual angle to view an object. 2 14 16 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 real world norm toy norm Real-world Size Rank Large to the preferred size when observers think these objects are toys? Answer:Normative size is 5 degrees smaller

  9. Parameterized Norm Form Equations with Arithmetic progressions

    E-print Network

    Pethõ, Attila

    Parameterized Norm Form Equations with Arithmetic progressions A. B´erczes a,1 A. Petho b,2 V all algebraic numbers µ = x0 +x1+x22 Z[], such that x0, x1, x2 Z forms an arithmetic progression a family of Thue equations and solve this family completely. Key words: Arithmetic progressions, norm form

  10. BLIND: a set of semantic feature norms from the congenitally blind.

    PubMed

    Lenci, Alessandro; Baroni, Marco; Cazzolli, Giulia; Marotta, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    Feature-based descriptions of concepts produced by subjects in a property generation task are widely used in cognitive science to develop empirically grounded concept representations and to study systematic trends in such representations. This article introduces BLIND, a collection of parallel semantic norms collected from a group of congenitally blind Italian subjects and comparable sighted subjects. The BLIND norms comprise descriptions of 50 nouns and 20 verbs. All the materials have been semantically annotated and translated into English, to make them easily accessible to the scientific community. The article also presents a preliminary analysis of the BLIND data that highlights both the large degree of overlap between the groups and interesting differences. The complete BLIND norms are freely available and can be downloaded from http://sesia.humnet.unipi.it/blind_data . PMID:23435658

  11. Texas producers attitudes on agricultural policy issues

    E-print Network

    Ewell, Frank David

    1977-01-01

    TEXAS PRODUCERS ' ATTITUDES ON AGRICULTURAL POLICY ISSUES A Thesis by FRANK DAVID EWELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIH University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 I...'iajor Subject: Agricultural Economics TEXAS PRODUCERS' ATTITUDES ON AGRICULTURAL POLICY ISSUES A THESIS by FRANK DAVID EWELL Approved as to style and content by: hairman o Committee ead of epartment em er August 1977 ABSTRACT Texas Producers...

  12. The impact of initial and recurrent cockpit resource management training on attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    It is noted that previous analyses of the boomerang effect (attitude change as a result of training in the direction opposite of that intended) in aviation training environments were limited in that each subscale of the cockpit management attitudes questionnaire (CMAQ) was examined independently. This study develops and utilizes a new algorithm for grouping subjects such that a global attitude change score is derived from the attitude change scores on each CMAQ subscale. By evaluating global attitude change in addition to the more specific attitude change on each subscale, it might be possible to better comprehend the effects of crew resource management training on pilot attitudes.

  13. The mentalizing network orchestrates the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Götte, Lorenz; Gügler, Rahel; Fehr, Ernst

    2012-06-01

    Parochial altruism--a preference for altruistic behavior towards ingroup members and mistrust or hostility towards outgroup members--is a pervasive feature in human society and strongly shapes the enforcement of social norms. Since the uniqueness of human society critically depends on the enforcement of norms, the understanding of the neural circuitry of the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement is key, but unexplored. To fill this gap, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects had the opportunity to punish ingroup members and outgroup members for violating social norms. Findings revealed that subjects' strong punishment of defecting outgroup members is associated with increased activity in a functionally connected network involved in sanction-related decisions (right orbitofrontal gyrus, right lateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsal caudatus). Moreover, the stronger the connectivity in this network, the more outgroup members are punished. In contrast, the much weaker punishment of ingroup members who committed the very same norm violation is associated with increased activity and connectivity in the mentalizing-network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporo-parietal junction), as if subjects tried to understand or justify ingroup members' behavior. Finally, connectivity analyses between the two networks suggest that the mentalizing-network modulates punishment by affecting the activity in the right orbitofrontal gyrus and right lateral prefrontal cortex, notably in the same areas showing enhanced activity and connectivity whenever third-parties strongly punished defecting outgroup members. PMID:21574212

  14. The development of intergroup bias in childhood: how social norms can shape children's racial behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; de França, Dalila Xavier; Rodrigues, Ricardo

    2009-02-01

    The present research examined the developmental course of racial behaviours in childhood. It tested the hypothesis that White children's expressions of racial prejudice do not necessarily decline in middle childhood due to the development of particular cognitive skills but that instead, as argued by the socio-normative approach, children older than seven will go on expressing prejudiced attitudes under appropriate conditions. This would be explained by the presence of an anti-racism norm, along with the existence of values promoting equal rights, which impede blatant expressions of racism. In the first study 283 White children aged 6-7 and 9-10 years performed a task of resource allocation to White and Black target children in conditions of high (White interviewer was present) or low (White interviewer was absent) salience of the anti-racist norm. The 6- to 7-year-old children discriminated against the Black target in both conditions whereas older children discriminated against the Black child only when the anti-racist norm was not salient. In Study 2, 187 White children aged 6-7 and 9-10 years performed the same resource allocation task in conditions of explicit activation of similarity vs dissimilarity or egalitarian vs merit-based norms regarding race relations. Supporting the hypothesis of the role of racist or anti-racist norms on the expression of intergroup discrimination, results have again shown that 6- to 7-year-old children discriminated against the Black target in both conditions while older children presented significantly different prejudiced/nonprejudiced behaviours consistent with the activated norms. These results were discussed in terms of the need for a reanalysis of the assumptions and research results of the cognitive-developmental theory and of further developments in the socio-normative approach regarding the development of prejudice in childhood. PMID:22029439

  15. What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

  16. First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

  17. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  18. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  19. Effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice among Muslim women in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, S; Al-Khozahe, H O; Ohtsuka, R

    2006-06-01

    Based on the authors' interview survey for 275 Muslim women of an ethnically divergent community in Amman, Jordan, this study examined the psychosocial effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice, using the normative interpretations of legal provisions in Islam (hukm). The categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) reduced the eight items regarding family planning and contraception use to two factors, i.e. the pressures of childbearing and acceptability of contraception use, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Even though the majority of the female subjects were conservative rather than innovative in terms of reproduction norms and significant interrelations were observed between their reproduction norms and contraception practice, approximately 70% of the female subjects who were closely in consonance with the normative interpretations of their religious leader had used contraception. It is thus indicated that religious leaders may play significant roles in increase of contraception practice among Muslim women. PMID:16854689

  20. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  1. Attitudes about Food

    E-print Network

    Baker, Nicole Alexis

    2012-10-19

    Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

  2. Attitudes about Food 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Nicole Alexis

    2012-10-19

    Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

  3. Robust attitude control of aircraft based on partitioned backstepping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Bi; Haibo Ji; Shanjie Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust nonlinear attitude control method for aircraft based on partitioned backstepping and input-to-state stability theory. With this strategy the coupling of the model attitude can be dealt naturally. A stable attitude control is realized semi-globally and the scheme has a good robust property subjected to external disturbances. The control design can be applied directly to an

  4. Attitude Set, Group Learning, and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne, Dwight Carroll

    A special Training Institute on Problems of School Desegregation was held at the North Carolina Advancement School; the project was undertaken to determine the degree of attitude change related to group learning method, social attitude set, and characteristics of race, sex, and age among 72 teachers and counselors participating in an adult…

  5. Using Non-Normed Tests in Title I Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    Research evidence relating to the utility of the RMC evaluation models of compensatory education employing non-normed tests is examined. The history and evolution of five early models into the current norm-referenced model utilizing a non-normed test (Model A2), non-normed versions of a comparison model (Model B2), and the regression model (Model…

  6. Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

  7. Synthesis of optimal generalized LQG and Hankel-norm controllers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Dharmasanam; R. S. Erwin; D. S. Bernstein; D. A. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    A useful application of the convolution operator norm is the problem of actuator saturation. The L2?L? convolution operator norm is induced by energy and peak-excursion type signal norms. If a bound is known for the energy of the disturbance, this norm can be used to bound state amplitude or actuator excursion (saturation). The objective of this paper is to develop

  8. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  9. Control of Markovian jump discrete-time systems with norm bounded uncertainty and unknown delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Shi; E.-K. Boukas; R. K. Agarwal

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of control for discrete time delay linear systems with Markovian jump parameters. The system under consideration is subjected to both time-varying norm-bounded parameter uncertainty and unknown time delay in the state, and Markovian jump parameters in all system matrices. We address the problem of robust state feedback control in which both robust stochastic stability and

  10. Mercury toxicity in the Amazon: contrast sensitivity and color discrimination of subjects exposed to mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Rodrigues; C. R. B. Souza; A. M. Braga; P. S. S. Rodrigues; A. T. Silveira; E. T. B. Damin; M. I. T. Côrtes; A. J. O. Castro; G. A. Mello; J. L. F. Vieira; M. C. N. Pinheiro; D. F. Ventura; L. C. L. Silveira

    2007-01-01

    We measured visual performance in achromatic and chromatic spatial tasks of mercury-exposed subjects and compared the results with norms obtained from healthy individuals of similar age. Data were obtained for a group of 28 mercury-exposed subjects, comprising 20 Amazonian gold miners, 2 inhabitants of Amazonian riverside com- munities, and 6 laboratory technicians, who asked for medical care. Statistical norms were

  11. Expanding the Psychosocial Work Environment: Workplace Norms and Work-Family Conflict as Correlates of Stress and Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tove Helland Hammer; Per Øystein Saksvik; Kjell Nytrø; Hans Torvatn; Mahmut Bayazit

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms

  12. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  13. Unscented Filtering in a Unit Quaternion Space for Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yee-Jin Cheon; Jong-Hwan Kim

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach to the straightforward implementation of unscented filtering in a unit quaternion space is proposed for spacecraft attitude estimation. A method of weighted mean computation for quaternions is derived in a rotational space, leading to a quaternion with a unit norm. Quaternion multiplication, which allows a quaternion in the filter to lie in the unit quaternion space, is

  14. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

  15. Neural-network-based spacecraft attitude control and momentum management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mun-Taek Choi

    2000-01-01

    The attitude control and momentum management of spacecraft actuated by momentum exchange devices was investigated in this study. The spacecraft were assumed to be rigid and nonlinear, subject to uncertain spacecraft mass parameters and disturbances with their known bounds. The control objective was to achieve the attitude tracking maneuvers of the spacecraft to a reference trajectory while keeping the angular

  16. Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

  17. Attitudes of Residents and Anesthesiologists Toward Basic Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Schonhorst

    2006-01-01

    The perceived relevance of the subject matter is an essential condition for adult learning. Attitudes refer to internal states that influence learner's choices of personal action, which determine the probability of learning behaviors. Our objectives in this study were to describe and compare attitudes of residents and anesthesiologists towards the relevance of basic sciences to clinical practice. An 8-item questionnaire

  18. Chaotic attitude control of satellite using impulsive control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karim Kemih; Adel Kemiha; Malek Ghanes

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, attitude control systems of satellites demand better performance, resulting in the application of new advanced nonlinear control theory. In this paper, impulsive control is applied to a six-dimensional system which describes the attitude dynamics of a satellite subjected to deterministic external perturbations which induce chaotic motion when no control is affected. Several theorems on the stability of impulsive control

  19. Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

  20. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  1. Youth Leadership Program for Changing Self-Image and Attitude Toward People With Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronen Cohen; Dana Roth; Alan York; Shimshon Neikrug

    2012-01-01

    Society has a negative attitude toward people with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric disabilities. It is well documented that they are subjected to prejudice, stigma, and negative attitudes (Di Giulio, 2003; Finger, 1994). Professional literature indicates that information about disabilities and encounters with persons with disabilities can change negative attitudes (Carter, Hughes, Copeland, & Breen, 2001; Krajewski & Flaherty, 2000). This

  2. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  3. A Comparison of Upper Elementary School Children's Attitudes toward Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.

    This study was conducted to compare upper elementary school children's attitudes toward physical activity, by grade level and gender across six attitude scale subdomains in order to assist physical education teachers in planning programs designed to foster positive attitudes toward physical activity. Subjects (N=429) were 243 girls and 186 boys in…

  4. Prison norms for Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Templer, D I

    1992-06-01

    Prison norms for the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were developed using 1126 male inmates in a prison in Nevada. 556 of the men were white, 480 black, 55 Mexican, 19 Cuban, 9 Asian, and 7 Native-American. Norms were provided for three age categories--under 35 years, age 36 to 54, and all ages combined. Normative information was presented for white inmates, black inmates, and all ethnicities combined. There was substantial overlap in distribution of scores by black and white inmates. PMID:1501988

  5. On the complexity of approximating the diamond norm

    E-print Network

    Avraham Ben-Aroya; Amnon Ta-Shma

    2009-09-08

    The diamond norm is a norm defined over the space of quantum transformations. This norm has a natural operational interpretation: it measures how well one can distinguish between two transformations by applying them to a state of arbitrarily large dimension. This interpretation makes this norm useful in the study of quantum interactive proof systems. In this note we exhibit an efficient algorithm for computing this norm using convex programming. Independently of us, Watrous recently showed a different algorithm to compute this norm. An immediate corollary of this algorithm is a slight simplification of the argument of Kitaev and Watrous [STOC 2000] that QIP is contained in EXP.

  6. Attitude orientation control for a spinning satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Frost

    1991-01-01

    The Department of the Air Force, Headquarters Space Systems Division, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently involved in litigation with Hughes Aircraft Company over the alledged infringement of the 'Williams patent,' which describes a method for attitude control of a spin-stabilized vehicle. Summarized here is pre-1960 RAND work on this subject and information obtained from RAND

  7. Students' Attitudes toward Introductory Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2004-01-01

    The problem examined in this study deals with students' attitude toward physics among the freshmen and sophomore students who were taking first introductory physics course. In the study there were 176 students, and they were chosen sample of convenience from Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida. 125 subjects were male students, and…

  8. Instructional Media, Attitude Change and Field Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloock, Terryl R.; And Others

    The effectiveness of two media types (sound film and still slides with audiotape) in changing student attitudes, and their impact on students varying in field dependency levels was examined. Subjects, 82 college students scoring at the high and low extremes of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), were randomly assigned to either a (1) multi-cue…

  9. Personality and attitudes towards marginal social groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbigniew Zaleski; Sybil Eysenck; Hans Eysenck

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that high scorers on the EPQ extraversion scale express more tolerant and humanitarian attitudes towards marginal social groups whereas the high scorers on psychoticism take a more repressive position. The data collected among 249 Polish subjects by means of Eysenck and Eysenck's (Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 1975) EPQ questionnaire and the scale measuring

  10. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the workhorse of real-time spacecraft attitude estimation. Since the group SO3 of rotation matrices has dimension three, most attitude determination EKFs use lower- dimensional attitude parameterizations than the nine-parameter attitude matrix itself. The fact that all three- parameter representations of SO3 are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to extended discussions of constraints and attitude representations in EKFs. The most successful EKF uses a nonsingular parameterization for the global attitude, which necessarily has more than three parameters, while employing a three-component representation for the attitude errors. This filter has become known as the Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter. These issues are now well understood, however, and the EKF has performed admirably in the vast majority of attitude determination applications. Nevertheless, poor performance or even divergence arising from the linearization implicit in the EKF has led to the development of nonlinear filters, most recently sigma point or unscented filters and particle filters.

  11. Load Balancing in the Lp Norm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azart; Edward F. Grove; Ming-yang Kao; P. Krishnan; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

    1995-01-01

    In the load balancing problem, there is a set of servers, and jobs arrive sequentially. Each job can be run on some subset of the servers, and must be assigned to one of them in an online fashion. Traditionally, the assignment of jobs to servers is measured by the L? norm; in other words, an assignment of jobs to servers

  12. Ethnography of Communication: Cultural Codes and Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbaugh, Donal

    The primary tasks of the ethnographic researcher are to discover, describe, and comparatively analyze different speech communities' ways of speaking. Two general abstractions occurring in ethnographic analyses are normative and cultural. Communicative norms are formulated in analyzing and explaining the "patterned use of speech." Analysis of…

  13. Specifying norm-governed computational societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Artikis; Marek J. Sergot; Jeremy V. Pitt

    2009-01-01

    Electronic markets, dispute resolution and negotiation protocols are three types of application domains that can be viewed as open agent societies. Key characteristics of such societies are agent heterogeneity, conflicting individual goals and unpredictable behaviour. Members of such societies may fail to, or even choose not to, conform to the norms governing their interactions. It has been argued that systems

  14. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  15. Whose Norm?1 Common Sense, Reasoning, & Rationality

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Stuart C.

    Whose Norm?1 Common Sense, Reasoning, & Rationality Edited by Renée Elio, Oxford University Press, Reasoning, & Rationality is a collection of 11 papers based on some of the invited talks at the Eleventh Reasoning and Rationality, and, indeed, that is the phrase used in the title of the editor's introductory

  16. Outsourcing the Constitution and Administrative Law Norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Rosenbloom; Suzanne J. Piotrowski

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, the constitutional constraints and administrative law requirements imposed on government agencies generally have no applicability to private entities performing outsourced public administrative activities. In this article, the authors broadly explore the issues associated with outsourcing constitutional and administrative law norms along with government work by imposing them on private contractors. The authors seek to help frame

  17. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  18. The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

  19. Sustainable Tourism and the emergence of new Environmental Norms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sustainable Tourism and the emergence of new Environmental Norms Malgorzata OGONOWSKA Dominique tourism. Consequently a new segment of demand desiring sustainable tourism products have appeared how environmental quality standards can become general norms in tourism industry. By analyzing a case

  20. Thoughts on attitude measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Reid

    2006-01-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner attitudes to explore why they were deserting

  1. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  2. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  3. Pornography and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  4. Assessment of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Mark W.; Kershner, Keith M.

    The Assessment of Student Attitudes Scale (ASA) is a Likert-type instrument composed of 26 items grouped to yield four subtest scores and a total score. Data indicates that the ASA is both a reliable and valid measurement tool for the assessment of secondary school-age students' attitudes toward learning environments. (Author)

  5. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  6. Signal norm testing in additive and independent standard Gaussian noise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Signal norm testing in additive and independent standard Gaussian noise Dominique Pastor (Télécom,version1-5Jun2012 #12;Abstract This paper addresses signal norm testing (SNT), that is, the problem of deciding whether a random signal norm exceeds some specified value 0 or not, when the signal has unknown

  7. Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato in Fisica

    E-print Network

    1 Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato in Fisica Approvate dal Consiglio di Dipartimento di Fisica il 19 aprile 2004 e modificato nelle sedute del 9 maggio 2006, del 13 febbraio 2007 e del 29 maggio 2008 #12;Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca in Fisica 1 INDICE Art. 1 - Norme

  8. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Winters; K. P. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the

  9. Constitutive Norms in the Design of Normative Multiagent Systems

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    Constitutive Norms in the Design of Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella1 and Leendert van der of normative multiagent systems composed of both constitutive and regulative norms. We analyze the properties of constitutive norms, in particular their lack of reflexivity, and the trade-off be- tween constitutive

  10. PASSAGE OBLIGATOIRE AUX NORMES COMPTABLES IAS/IFRS, CONTRAINTES EN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PASSAGE OBLIGATOIRE AUX NORMES COMPTABLES IAS/IFRS, CONTRAINTES EN LIQUIDITE ET RATIONNEMENT DU'adoption obligatoire par les banques des normes comptables IAS/IFRS, réputées d'une qualité supérieure pour la prise de obligatoire des normes comptables IAS/IFRS, conséquences économiques, banques, rationnement du crédit Abstract

  11. The "Permissiveness with Affection" Norm and the Labeling of Deviants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreadbury, Constance Lizotte

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=167) about norms for sexual behavior. Concluded that the "permissiveness with affection" norm exists and violators of this norm are negatively labeled, but different standards apply to men and women. Suggests counselors become aware of the complexity of this sex code and their own biases. (JAC)

  12. Fuzzy Anti-norm and Fuzzy $?$-anti-convergence

    E-print Network

    Bivas Dinda; T. K. Samanta; Iqbal H. Jebril

    2012-02-20

    Fuzzy anti-norm and corresponding $\\alpha$-norms are defined. A few properties of finite dimensional fuzzy anti-normed linear space are studied. Fuzzy $\\alpha$-anti-convergence and fuzzy $\\alpha$-anti-complete linear space are defined and a few of their properties are studied.

  13. Content and Construct Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Yen, Wendy M.

    Basic skills tests in which measurement of growth is defined in the context of national norms are discussed. An integral part of the construction of norms is the production of a trait or ability score which is normed. Test publishers define a multidimensional trait by including items which measure it. The trait as a construct is a distinct…

  14. Direct Zero-norm Optimization for Feature Selection Kaizhu Huang

    E-print Network

    King, Kuo Chin Irwin

    Direct Zero-norm Optimization for Feature Selection Kaizhu Huang Department of Engineering.T., Hong Kong {king, lyu}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract Zero-norm, defined as the number of non-zero elements in a vector, is an ideal quantity for feature selection. How- ever, minimization of zero-norm is generally

  15. NORMS OF 0-1 MATRICES IN CP IAN DOUST

    E-print Network

    Doust, Ian

    NORMS OF 0-1 MATRICES IN CP IAN DOUST on the von Neumann-Schatten ideals Cp. We also show that for 1 p 2 the average Cp norm of a 0. Introduction Calculating the norm of an operator which acts on one of the von Neu- mann Schatten ideals Cp

  16. Constraining Autonomy through Norms Fabiola Lopez y Lopez

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    . Finally, through some simulation experiments, the effects of autonomous norm compliance in both individual Social order, control, norms 1. INTRODUCTION It has been argued by many [3, 4, 7, 18] that agents work, reduce complex- ity, and in general to achieve a desirable social order. This is the role of norms, which

  17. Remote attitude measurement tecniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmer, J. F.

    A probabilistic approach is developed to treat practical problems in physical geometry where the necessary data are measured by separated sensors. Remote measurement of the attitude of these sensor's own local coordinate system into its equivalent description in a common coordinate system. A technique is presented to determine the relative attitude of remotely located sensors based upon each sensor measuring the same set of two physical vectors. Sensors measure physical vectors in terms of probabilistic vectors. The attitude of the sensor is expressed in terms of a probabilitic matrix. The engineering considerations for implementing a remote attitude measurement, ReAtMent, system are presented including the development of an error budget necessary to insure that the ReAtMent system performs to the required accuracy. An experimental section is presented using an electro-optical sensor whose attitude is measured in terms of a probabilistic matrix.

  18. Attitudes and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding. PMID:16318599

  19. Assessment of perceived and actual alcohol norms in varying contexts: exploring Social Impact Theory among college students.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Labrie, Joseph W; Lac, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The social norms approach to college drinking suggests that students misperceive the drinking behavior and attitudes of their peers. While much is known about these misperceptions, research is sparse regarding the context in which perceived and actual norms are assessed. As social influence is pronounced in college, the principles of Social Impact Theory may contribute to differences between assessments performed individually and those completed when surrounded by members of one's salient reference group. The current study examines 284 members of campus organizations in two contexts (online and group) to determine if individuals endorse different responses to questions of perceived and actual drinking norms across contexts. All participants endorsed higher responses on questions of actual and perceived group behavior and of perceived group attitudes towards drinking during the group assessment. Men and students in Greek organizations may be more influenced by the proximity of their peers when presented with questions regarding perceived alcohol use. These results suggest that context of assessment needs to be considered when collecting self-report data from college students. PMID:18068308

  20. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the quaternion estimate was normalized, the estimate converged faster and to a lower error than with tuning only. In last years, symposium we presented three new AEKF normalization techniques and we compared them to the brute force method presented in the literature. The present paper presents the issue of normalization of the MEKF and examines several MEKF normalization techniques.

  1. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  2. Word Association Norms in Mexican Spanish.

    PubMed

    Barrón-Martínez, Julia B; Arias-Trejo, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to present a Spanish Word Association Norms (WAN) database of concrete nouns. The database includes 234 stimulus words (SWs) and 67,622 response words (RWs) provided by 478 young Mexican adults. Eight different measures were calculated to quantitatively analyze word-word relationships: 1) Associative strength of the first associate, 2) Associative strength of the second associate, 3) Sum of associative strength of first two associates, 4) Difference in associative strength between first two associates, 5) Number of different associates, 6) Blank responses, 7) Idiosyncratic responses, and 8) Cue validity of the first associate. The resulting database is an important contribution given that there are no published word association norms for Mexican Spanish. The results of this study are an important resource for future research regarding lexical networks, priming effects, semantic memory, among others. PMID:26055657

  3. Attitudes Toward Nontraditional Academic Programs: Attitude Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dan

    Little research has been done on attitudes toward and levels of support for nontraditional academic programs in higher education. A research project was conducted involving students, faculty, professional staff, and administrators at three institutions of varying size, location, and academic program: The University of Massachusetts at Amherst;…

  4. A STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE MATHEMATICS STUDENTS' ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES IN LEARNING LINEAR ALGEBRA BY USING GRAPHING CALCULATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAMON EKTHAICHARERN

    This study attempted to explore the possibility of using graphing calculators at the undergraduate level by focusing on Linear Algebra. In particular, it proposed to study the effects of graphing calculators on instruction and the classroom social norm, students' achievement and attitudes in learning Linear Algebra by using graphing calculators. Twenty-eight undergraduate mathematics students participated in the study. Each of

  5. Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; König, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

  6. Le passage aux Normes internationales : de nouvelles options pour la gestion du rsultat ?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2005 toutes les Normes et interprétations de l'IASB1 (Normes IAS2 / IFRS3 ). Le passage à ces Normes Normes IAS / IFRS. Mots clé : Normes internationales ; IAS ; IFRS ; Théorie politico contractuelle comptables internationales (Normes IAS / IFRS) à toutes les sociétés européennes faisant appel public à l

  7. Relativistic Optimized Norm-Conserving Vanderbilt Pseudopotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, D. R.

    2014-03-01

    Two-projector fully non-local pseudopotentials obeying the generalized norm-conserving condition and incorporating systematic convergence optimization have been shown to accurately reproduce all-electron results with high computational efficiency. The generalized norm-conservation theorem guarantees exact reproduction of all-electron norms, radial log-derivatives, and first energy derivatives of radial log derivatives at several energies, as well as the hermiticity of the non-local pseudopotential operator. This theorem is exact only for non-relativistic all-electron wave functions. Averaging out small asymmetries of the non-local operators generated using scalar-relativistic Schrödinger equation solutions preserves agreement of these quantities to order 10-4, and yields excellent results for solids.I show that fully-relativistic Dirac-equation solutions can be treated in the same manner, with comparably small errors. Spin-orbit band splittings as well as other properties of several solids calculated with these pseudopotentials will be compared to fully-relativistic all-electron results. D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. B 41, 7892 (1990).

  8. Adaptive mixed norm optical flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrela, Vania V.; Franz, Matthias O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; De Araújo, A. P.

    2005-07-01

    The pel-recursive computation of 2-D optical flow has been extensively studied in computer vision to estimate motion from image sequences, but it still raises a wealth of issues, such as the treatment of outliers, motion discontinuities and occlusion. It relies on spatio-temporal brightness variations due to motion. Our proposed adaptive regularized approach deals with these issues within a common framework. It relies on the use of a data-driven technique called Mixed Norm (MN) to estimate the best motion vector for a given pixel. In our model, various types of noise can be handled, representing different sources of error. The motion vector estimation takes into consideration local image properties and it results from the minimization of a mixed norm functional with a regularization parameter depending on the kurtosis. This parameter determines the relative importance of the fourth norm and makes the functional convex. The main advantage of the developed procedure is that no knowledge of the noise distribution is necessary. Experiments indicate that this approach provides robust estimates of the optical flow.

  9. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality. PMID:20480684

  10. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  11. Pergamon Automatica, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp.1099-1112, 1995 A Novel Approach to the Attitude

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    nonlinear control systems feedback control. Abstract| In this paper we consider the problem of attitudePergamon Automatica, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp.1099-1112, 1995 A Novel Approach to the Attitude Control for the attitude stabilization and reorienta- tion of an axi-symmetric spacecraft subject to two gas jet actuators

  12. Extramarital sexual relationships of middle-aged Danish men: attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Solstad, K; Mucic, D

    1999-05-31

    This study explored Danish men's attitudes and behavior towards extramarital sexual relations (ESR), seen from two sides: men who had engaged in such relations (involved) and men who had not (non-involved). The participants, 439 men aged 51, completed a questionnaire concerning sexuality (behavior, attitudes and experience) as a part of a Danish cohort-investigation of health risk-factors. Thereafter 100 of the 439 men were interviewed. A high degree of permissiveness toward ESR emerged in both involved and non-involved individuals but approval of ESR was higher among the participants who were involved in ESR. The frequency of ESR increased with higher social rank. Both involved and non-involved participants mostly did not consider the ESR as a serious threat to the marital happiness. Attitudes-behavior discrepancies are discussed seen in the light of the social norms and known attitudes-behavior models. PMID:10423716

  13. Children's Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Children's attitudes and beliefs about death and dying are examined, and some recommendations are made to parents, teachers, and administrators to establish a base from which the child can operate during encounters with death and dying. (JMF)

  14. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  15. The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    We developed affective norms for 1,121 Italian words in order to provide researchers with a highly controlled tool for the study of verbal processing. This database was developed from translations of the 1,034 English words present in the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999) and from words taken from Italian semantic norms (Montefinese, Ambrosini, Fairfield, & Mammarella, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 440-461, 2013). Participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a Web survey procedure. Participants also provided evaluations of three subjective psycholinguistic indexes (familiarity, imageability, and concreteness), and five objective psycholinguistic indexes (e.g., word frequency) were also included in the resulting database in order to further characterize the Italian words. We obtained a typical quadratic relation between valence and arousal, in line with previous findings. We also tested the reliability of the present ANEW adaptation for Italian by comparing it to previous affective databases and performing split-half correlations for each variable. We found high split-half correlations within our sample and high correlations between our ratings and those of previous studies, confirming the validity of the adaptation of ANEW for Italian. This database of affective norms provides a tool for future research about the effects of emotion on human cognition. PMID:24150921

  16. Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rouatbi, Sonia; Chouchene, Mohamed Ali; Sfaxi, Ines; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed; Tabka, Zouhair; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant), Belgium). Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males) were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb) = 3.47?0.56× height (m). After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60?ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) of FeNO (ppb) for the total sample was 13.54 ± 4.87 (5.00–26.00). For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00?ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00?ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms. PMID:24991544

  17. Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage. PMID:25587802

  18. Social power and attitude strength over the life course.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Asia A; Visser, Penny S; Krosnick, Jon A; Anand, Sowmya

    2009-12-01

    Past findings indicate that middle-aged adults in the United States tend to be more resistant to attitude change than younger and older adults, but little is known about why this is so. The authors propose that midlife adults' disproportionate occupation of high-power social roles (which call for resoluteness) may partly explain their heightened resistance to persuasion. Using nationally representative data sets, the article first documents that in various domains the possession of social power peaks in midlife. It next documents that middle-aged adults place a high value on resoluteness, which suggests that they have internalized powerful role norms. Next, it shows that directly activating the concept of social power increases the perceived value of resoluteness. Finally, it demonstrates that the possession of powerful social roles partially mediates the relationship between age and resistance to persuasion. This work is the first to uncover a mechanism responsible for changes in attitude strength over the adult life course. PMID:19903975

  19. Preferences don't have to be personal: expanding attitude theorizing with a cross-cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Hila; Shavitt, Sharon; Koo, Minkyung; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-10-01

    Attitudes, theorized as behavioral guides, have long been a central focus of research in the social sciences. However, this theorizing reflects primarily Western philosophical views and empirical findings emphasizing the centrality of personal preferences. As a result, the prevalent psychological model of attitudes is a person-centric one. We suggest that incorporating research insights from non-Western sociocultural contexts can significantly enhance attitude theorizing. To this end, we propose an additional model-a normative-contextual model of attitudes. The currently dominant person-centric model emphasizes the centrality of personal preferences, their stability and internal consistency, and their possible interaction with externally imposed norms. In contrast, the normative-contextual model emphasizes that attitudes are always context-contingent and incorporate the views of others and the norms of the situation. In this model, adjustment to norms does not involve an effortful struggle between the authentic self and exogenous forces. Rather, it is the ongoing and reassuring integration of others' views into one's attitudes. According to the normative-contextual model, likely to be a good fit in contexts that foster interdependence and holistic thinking, attitudes need not be personal or necessarily stable and internally consistent and are only functional to the extent that they help one to adjust automatically to different contexts. The fundamental shift in focus offered by the normative-contextual model generates novel hypotheses and highlights new measurement criteria for studying attitudes in non-Western sociocultural contexts. We discuss these theoretical and measurement implications as well as practical implications for health and well-being, habits and behavior change, and global marketing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347311

  20. Attitudes of female athletes toward their male and female coaches 

    E-print Network

    Newcomb, Connie Karcher

    1976-01-01

    ATTITUDES OF FEMALE ATHLETES TOWARD THEIR MALE AND FEMALE COACHES A Thesis by CONNIE KARCHER NEWCOMB Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1976 Major Subject: Health and Physical Education ATTITUDES OF FEMALE ATHLETES TOWARD THEIR MALE AND FEMALE COACHES A Thesis by CONNIE KARCHER NEWCOMB Approved as to style and content by: Co-chair of C mmittee Head of epartment Member...

  1. Parent attitudes and congenital factors in infant temperament

    E-print Network

    Walters, Jacquyn Renee

    1980-01-01

    1980 Major Subject: Psychology PARENT ATTITUDES AND CONGENITAL FACTORS IN INFANT TEMPERAMENT A Thesis by JACQUYN RENEE WALTERS Approved as to style and content by: C i mman of Committee) (Mem r) (Member ) (Head of Department) December 19 80... ABSTRACT Parent Attitudes and Congenital Factors in Infant Temperament. (December 1980) Jacquyn Renee Walters, B . S . , Texas A&M University Chai rman of Advisory Committee: Dr . Candi da Lutes Two main questions were addressed 1n the present study...

  2. Attitude orientation control for a spinning satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Gerald

    The Department of the Air Force, Headquarters Space Systems Division, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently involved in litigation with Hughes Aircraft Company over the alledged infringement of the 'Williams patent,' which describes a method for attitude control of a spin-stabilized vehicle. Summarized here is pre-1960 RAND work on this subject and information obtained from RAND personnel knowledgeable on this subject. It was concluded that there is no RAND documentation that directly parallels the 'Williams patent' concept. Also, the TIROS II magnetic torque attitude control method is reviewed. The TIROS II meteorological satellite, launched on November 23, 1960, incorporated a magnetic actuation system for spin axis orientation control. The activation system was ground controlled to orient the satellite spin axis to obtain the desired pointing direction for optical and infrared sensor subsystems.

  3. Date Subject Name Experimenter Subject #

    E-print Network

    Date Subject Name Experimenter Subject # PNa-o Aphasia Score Sheet - Session 1 PNa-o Aphasia BOARD 36. FEED 37. SKELETON 38. CANNON 39. DRUM 40. YELL #12;PNa-o Aphasia Score Sheet - Session 1 PNa-o Aphasia Session 1 Page2 Item # Target Notes P1. LION P2. HUG P3. CAR 1. SWEAT 2. SUBMARINE 3. FAUCET 4

  4. Viability of sharing MEG data using minimum-norm imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafulla, Syed; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Mosher, John; Hämäläinen, Matti; Liu, Brent; Leahy, Richard M.

    2011-03-01

    Cortical activation maps estimated from MEG data fall prey to variability across subjects, trials, runs and potentially MEG centers. To combine MEG results across sites, we must demonstrate that inter-site variability in activation maps is not considerably higher than other sources of variability. By demonstrating relatively low inter-site variability with respect to inter-run variability, we establish a statistical foundation for sharing MEG data across sites for more powerful group studies or clinical trials of pathology. In this work, we analyze whether pooling MEG data across sites is more variable than aggregating MEG data across runs when estimating significant cortical activity. We use data from left median nerve stimulation experiments on four subjects at each of three sites on two runs occurring on consecutive days for each site. We estimate cortical current densities via minimum-norm imaging. We then compare maps across machines and across runs using two metrics: the Simpson coefficient, which admits equality if one map is equal in location to the other, and the Dice coefficient, which admits equality if one map is equal in location and size to the other. We find that sharing MEG data across sites does not noticeably affect group localization accuracy unless one set of data has abnormally low signal power.

  5. Norms, Expectations, and Deception: A Norm Violation Model of Veracity Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Anders, Lori N.; Banas, John; Baum, Karie Leigh; Endo, Keriane; Hu, Allison D. S.; Wong, Norman C. H.

    2000-01-01

    Tests four alternative models of veracity judgment including a normative expectation model, an expectancy model, an expectancy violation sufficient model, a model based on Expectancy Violation Theory, and a norm violation model. Provides additional evidence of the primacy of behavior over prior expectations in the evaluation of face to face…

  6. 94 5 Metrics on Normed Structures lp-metric

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    system by the formula x, y = n i=1 xiyi. In a standard coordinate system #12;5 Metrics on Normed94 5 Metrics on Normed Structures · lp-metric The lp-metric dlp , 1 p , is a norm metric on Rn p . For p = , we obtain ||x|| = limp p n i=1 |xi|p = max1in |xi|. The metric space (Rn , dlp

  7. L0-Norm-Based Sparse Representation Through Alternate Projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Mancera; Javier Portilla

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple and robust method for finding sparse rep- resentations in overcomplete transforms, based on minimiza- tion of the L0-norm. Our method is better than current solu- tions based on minimization of the L1-norm in terms of energy compaction. These results strongly question the equivalence of minimizing both norms in real conditions. We also show application to in-painting

  8. Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Angeles Alonso; Angel Fernandez; Emiliano Díez

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of occurrence is an important attribute of lexical units, and one that is widely used in psychological research\\u000a and theorization. Although printed frequency norms have long been available for Spanish, and subtitle-based norms have more\\u000a recently been published, oral frequency norms have not been systematically compiled for a representative set of words. In\\u000a this study, a corpus of over

  9. Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park.

    PubMed

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; Sánchez, Mercedes

    2012-12-30

    This paper analyses whether the environmental profile of park visitors as defined by the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory, determines their willingness to pay for park conservation. The sample consists of 194 visitors to a suburban Spanish park. Under these theories, it is shown that positive attitudes, a strong orientation towards biospheric and altruistic values with strong pro-environmental and normative beliefs determine the visitors' willingness to pay. Various fit statistics and the proportion of explained variance reveal that Theory of Planned Behavior has a greater influence on willingness to pay. The managers of urban spaces should direct their efforts to obtaining greater knowledge of people's attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental values given their importance in their decisions regarding economic valuation of this sort of resources. PMID:23041517

  10. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jen?ová, A. [Mathematical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 49, Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Mathematical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 49, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  11. ABC-type estimates via Garsia-type norms

    E-print Network

    Dyakonov, Konstantin M

    2012-01-01

    We are concerned with extensions of the Mason--Stothers $abc$ theorem from polynomials to analytic functions on the unit disk $\\mathbb D$. The new feature is that the number of zeros of a function $f$ in $\\mathbb D$ gets replaced by the norm of the associated Blaschke product $B_f$ in a suitable smoothness space $X$. Such extensions are shown to exist, and the appropriate $abc$-type estimates are exhibited, provided that $X$ admits a "Garsia-type norm", i.e., a norm sharing certain properties with the classical Garsia norm on BMO. Special emphasis is placed on analytic Lipschitz spaces.

  12. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Young African-American Men: Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Charles Ray

    2013-12-05

    Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer to kill African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African-American men have CRC incidence and mortality rates 20% and 45% higher, respectively...

  14. A Canon, a Norm and an Attitude--Ideological Dimensions in Foreign Language Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    An examination of China's policy, "making the ancient serve the present and foreign things serve China," introduced by Mao Ze-dong, is intended to provoke further discussion of the ideological dimension of foreign language education (FLE) in China. Some observers suggest that this has been an important guiding doctrine in FLE since 1949, both…

  15. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Young African-American Men: Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Charles Ray

    2013-12-05

    Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer to kill African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African-American men have CRC incidence and mortality rates 20% and 45% higher, respectively...

  16. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  17. From attitudes to commonplaces -A discursive approach to attitude interviews

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    discusses the fundamental epistemological shortcomings of different approaches to attitude research. Three of presenting analyses. Introduction The fundamental idea of an attitude investigation and opinion polls collection using self-report measures is that questions about the participant's beliefs, attitudes, behaviour

  18. Sports Ideology, Attitudes toward Women, and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)

  19. A model for optimal reaction norms: the case of the pregnant garter snake and her temperature-sensitive embryos.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Stevan J; Peterson, Charles R

    2002-09-01

    We present a model to test Osgood's ( 1978 ) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature-sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or [Formula: see text]-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by maintaining 67 female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) at eight different constant temperatures (21 degrees -33 degrees C) during pregnancy and making a series of scale counts on their newborn offspring (n = 491). To insure that the experimental temperatures were ecologically relevant, we used automated radiotelemetry to record the body temperature of pregnant, free-ranging females. The resulting temperature data allowed us to test the prediction that the inflection points of reaction norms would correspond to the average temperature experienced by embryos in the field. In line with predictions of the Osgood model, reaction norms were flat or U-shaped. In the case of U-shaped reaction norms, the inflection point of the curves corresponded to the average temperature imposed on embryos by free-ranging females. In contrast to some past studies, none of the standard scale scores (ones commonly used in systematics) showed significant temperature effects in either sex. Reaction norms were flat. In contrast, incidences of various abnormalities showed U-shaped reaction norms. Temperature effects were more pronounced in males than in females. The results have implications for systematics and for the evolution of canalization and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:18707441

  20. Between DSM and ICD: Paraphilias and the Transformation of Sexual Norms.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The simultaneous revision of the two major international classifications of disease, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases, serves as an opportunity to observe the dynamic processes through which social norms of sexuality are constructed and are subject to change in relation to social, political, and historical context. This article argues that the classifications of sexual disorders, which define pathological aspects of "sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors" are representations of contemporary sexual norms, gender identifications, and gender relations. It aims to demonstrate how changes in the medical treatment of sexual perversions/paraphilias passed, over the course of the 20th century, from a model of pathologization (and sometimes criminalization) of non-reproductive sexual behaviors to a model that reflects and privileges sexual well-being and responsibility, and pathologizes the absence or the limitation of consent in sexual relations. PMID:25933671

  1. Norms Network Members Use: An Alternative Perspective for Indicating Network Success or Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise P. A. M. van Raaij

    2006-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one approach to learn more on network success is by studying the norms network members use to control their own network. The results of this study in four health care networks indicate three norms to be central: the norm of network legitimacy, the norm of activating capacity, and the norm of network climate.

  2. Dissociative Mothers' Subjective Experience of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 54 mothers with a dissociative disorder, 20 mothers with other mental problems, and 20 normal mothers investigated what effect, if any, dissociation had on parenting. When tested on the Subjective Experiences of Parenting Scale, mothers with dissociation presented significantly more negative parenting behavior and attitudes. (CR)

  3. Global optimal attitude estimation using uncertainty ellipsoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit K. Sanyal; Taeyoung Lee; Melvin Leok; N. Harris McClamroch

    2008-01-01

    A deterministic attitude estimation problem for a rigid body in a potential field, with bounded attitude and angular velocity measurement errors is considered. An attitude estimation algorithm that globally minimizes the attitude estimation error is obtained. Assuming that the initial attitude, the initial angular velocity and measurement noise lie within given ellipsoidal bounds, an uncertainty ellipsoid that bounds the attitude

  4. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  5. Got an Attitude Problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

  6. Drug Attitude and Adherence to Anti-Glaucoma Medication

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Yoon, Jong Uk; Kang, Uicheon; Seong, Gong Je

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess patient attitudes towards anti-glaucoma medication and their association with adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits. Materials and Methods One hundred and forty-seven glaucoma patients were enrolled this study. The participants were divided into 'pharmacophobic' and 'pharmacophilic' groups according to their scores on the Modified Glaucoma Drug Attitude Inventory (MG-DAI). To establish a correlation with patient drug attitude, each group had their subjective drug adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits examined. For personality traits, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to sub-classify each group. Results Among the patients analyzed, 91 (72.80%) patients showed a 'pharmacophobic' attitude and 34 (27.20%) patients showed a 'pharmacophilic' attitude. The pharmacophobic group tended to have worse adherence than the pharmacophilic group. Personality dichotomies from the MBTI also showed different patterns for each group. Conclusion In glaucoma patients, pharmacological adherence was influenced by their attitude towards drugs; an association might exist between drug attitude and underlying personality traits. PMID:20191020

  7. An introduction to journalism norms and representations of politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lance Bennett

    1996-01-01

    In addition to providing an overview of this special issue of Political Communication, this introduction identifies a preliminary set of rules that journalists use for representing politics in the news. These rules guide news decisions in keeping with underlying journalistic norms about the workings of politics and the role of the press in the political system. Such political norms must

  8. Algorithms for lattice problems with respect to general norms

    E-print Network

    upon previous results. Furthermore, Ajtai et al. describe their algorithm only for the Euclidean normAlgorithms for lattice problems with respect to general norms Dipl.-Math. Stefanie Naewe November for carefully proof-reading parts of my thesis and for giving valuable criticisms. Last but not least, I would

  9. The Maximum Traveling Salesman Problem Under Polyhedral Norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander I. Barvinok; David S. Johnson; Gerhard J. Woeginger; Russell Woodroofe

    1998-01-01

    . We consider the traveling salesman problem when the citiesare points in Rdfor some fixed d and distances are computed accordingto a polyhedral norm. We show that for any such norm, the problem offinding a tour of maximum length can be solved in polynomial time. Ifarithmetic operations are assumed to take unit time, our algorithms runin time O(nf \\\\Gamma2log n),

  10. Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato in Ingegneria dei Materiali

    E-print Network

    Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato in Ingegneria dei Materiali Approvate dal Consiglio di Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali il 6 aprile 2004 e modificate nella seduta del 14 giugno 2006 #12;Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca in Ingegneria dei

  11. An attack-norm separation approach for detecting cyber attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nong Ye; Toni Farley; Deepak Lakshminarasimhan

    2006-01-01

    The two existing approaches to detecting cyber at- tacks on computers and networks, signature recognition and anomaly detection, have shortcomings related to the accu- racy and efficiency of detection. This paper describes a new approach to cyber attack (intrusion) detection that aims to overcome these shortcomings through several innovations. We call our approach attack-norm separation. The attack- norm separation approach

  12. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  13. Establishing Computer Science Professional Norms among High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David; Pollack, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Norms govern the criteria by which students decide what is good and what is not good, and align their learning trajectories accordingly.We found that the high-school students' norm is to produce working, but not necessarily error-free, programs and to argue for their correctness solely on the basis of a few executions. Therefore, they prefer…

  14. Modelling the Emergence of Possession Norms using Memes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Flentge; Daniel Polani; Thomas Uthmann

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the emergence and the effects of a possession norm in an artificial society. We link the study of norms and the concept of memes as put forward by Richard Dawkins. Normative behaviour is modelled using memes as carriers for certain behaviours. For our simulations we extend the sugarscape model from Epstein and Axtell (1996) and

  15. ECART D'ACQUISITION ET NORMES IAS/IFRS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ECART D'ACQUISITION ET NORMES IAS/IFRS UNE ETUDE EMPIRIQUE DES PRATIQUES DES ENTREPRISES FRANCAISES cet actif. Mots clés : Ecart d'acquisition, normes IAS 36, 38 et IFRS 3, actifs incorporels, test de discount rate of goodwill. Besides, we outline the impact of IAS/IFRS concerning the disclosure

  16. Changement de normes : la stabilit des choix comptables Samira DEMARIA

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    comptables effectués par les groupes français lors de la première adoption des normes comptables IAS/IFRS questionnaire en ligne et des entretiens semi-directifs auprès des responsables de la migration vers les IFRS au normatif. Mots clés : normes IAS/IFRS, transition, choix d'options comptables, théorie des conventions

  17. A robust mixed-norm adaptive filter algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathon Chambers; Apostolos Avlonitis

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new member of the family of mixed-norm stochastic gradient adaptive filter algorithms for system identification applications based upon a convex function of the error norms that underlie the least mean square (LMS) and least absolute difference (LAD) algorithms. A scalar parameter controls the mixture and relates, approximately, to the probability that the instantaneous desired response of the

  18. The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

    This publication presents national norms for college freshmen in fall 1993 based on the 28th annual survey of 220,757 incoming students at 427 two- and four-year colleges and universities. Three major tables present the norms for type of institution and control for all freshmen, for men, for women; for universities by selectivity level and by sex;…

  19. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association,…

  20. The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

  1. Social Norms, Self Control, and Privacy in the Online World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Strandburg

    This chapter explores ways in which human limitations of rationality and susceptibility to temptation might affect the flow of personal information in the online environment. It relies on the concept of “willpower norms” to understand how the online environment might undermine the effectiveness of social norms that may have developed to regulate the flow of personal information in the offline

  2. A Case-Based Reasoning approach for Norm Jordi Campos

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    A Case-Based Reasoning approach for Norm adaptation Jordi Campos 1 , Maite López-Sánchez 1 key. In this paper, we propose to use Case-Based Reasoning learning to adapt norms that regulate to diculties to dene an optimal mechanism, we advocate by the learning approach. In this paper, we use a Case-Based

  3. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  4. Group Beneficial Norms Can Spread Rapidly in a Structured Population

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    . The persistence of such norms is consistent with evolutionary game theory, but existing models do not provide productive effort, rules against murder and assault encourage civil order, norms governing the filling of political offices reduce the chances of civil war, and product standards, building codes, and rules

  5. Categorizing Social Norms in a Simulated Resource Gathering Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Villatoro; Jordi Sabater-mir

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Our main interest research is focused on reaching a decentral- ized form of social order through the usage of social norms in virtual communities. In this paper, we analyze the effects of different sets of social norms within a society. The simulation scenario used for the experiments is a metaphor,of a resource- gatherer prehistoric society. Finally, we obtain a

  6. DRG benchmarking study establishes national coding norms.

    PubMed

    Vaul, J H

    1998-05-01

    With the increase in fraud and abuse investigations, healthcare financial managers should examine their organization's medical record coding procedures. The Federal government and third-party payers are looking specifically for improper billing of outpatient services, unbundling of procedures to increase payment, assigning higher-paying DRG codes for inpatient claims, and other abuses. A recent benchmarking study of Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data has established national norms for hospital coding and case mix based on DRGs and has revealed the majority of atypical coding cases fall into six DRG pairs. Organizations with a greater percentage of atypical cases--those more likely to be scrutinized by Federal investigators--will want to conduct suitable review and be sure appropriate documentation exists to justify the coding. PMID:10179440

  7. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    PubMed

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies. PMID:18493030

  8. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  9. Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracy Dietz

    This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

  10. Graduate Statistics: Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward statistics of graduate students who used a computer program as part of the instruction, which allowed for an individualized, self-paced, student-centered, activity-based course. The twelve sections involved in this study were offered in the spring and fall 2001, spring and fall 2002, spring and fall…

  11. Teacher Attitudes and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) were administered to 183 undergraduate students enrolled in teacher education courses. The MTAI was compared with each of the two personality instruments by canonical analysis. Concludes that teacher's…

  12. Thoughts on Attitude Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Norman

    2006-01-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

  13. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  14. Assessing Attitudes to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, J. M.

    Many measurement techniques have been developed to assess elements related to attitudes toward reading, which encompass an individual's views, feelings, values, and beliefs. Instruments developed by British teachers include Likert-type scales, a repertory grid technique, and an approach assessing reactions to screened photographs of different…

  15. Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

  16. Gender Differences on Attitudes, Computer Use and Physical Activity among Greek University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover any possible relation(s) between the subject of computer, the involvement in physical activity examine and the attitudes of Greek Physical Education students, divided by gender. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen students, 93 males and 72 females. They completed: a) the "Computer Attitude Scale"…

  17. Stability of Body Attitudes and Self-esteem in Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padin, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Measures of body- and self-attitudes were assessed among 152 undergraduate students of both sexes. Subjects' self-rated physical attractiveness, physical effectiveness and self-esteem were measured at the initiation and end of their physical education classes. Results indicated no significant differences in stability of body attitudes and…

  18. Attitudes of Primary Initial Teacher Training Students to Special Educational Needs and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In this article Joseph Mintz explores the importance of developing positive attitudes to SEN and Inclusion among primary teacher trainees. The research reported indicates that student attitudes towards SEN/Inclusion were generally positive, but that such views are fluid and subject to change during a course of training. The article reinforces the…

  19. Students' Attitudes toward School Chemistry: The Effect of Interaction between Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of interaction between gender and grade level on secondary school students' attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The sample is composed of 197 students across Grades 9 to 11. The Attitude Scale Toward Chemistry, developed by Geban & Ertepinar (1994), is used to collect data.…

  20. Locus of Control, Study Habits and Attitudes, and College Academic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry J. Prociuk; Lawrence J. Breen

    1974-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between locus of control and two academic-related variables: study habits and attitudes, and college academic performance. Subjects were administered (a) the Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes and (b) the Levenson Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance scales, the latter providing separate measures of two external control dimensions. Results indicated that internal control was related

  1. Physician attitudes toward and prevalence of the hospitalist model of care: results of a national survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D Auerbach; Elizabeth A Nelson; Peter K Lindenauer; Steven Z Pantilat; Patricia P Katz; Robert M Wachter

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We sought to determine the availability and utilization of, as well as physician attitudes toward, the hospitalist model in the United States.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a telephone survey, we asked physicians who were board certified in internal medicine about their inpatient practice arrangements, the availability of hospitalist services, and their attitudes toward the hospitalist model. All physicians were generalists

  2. The Effect of a Student-Designed Data Collection: Project on Attitudes toward Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    Students often enter an introductory statistics class with less than positive attitudes about the subject. They tend to believe statistics is difficult and irrelevant to their lives. Observational evidence from previous studies suggests including projects in a statistics course may enhance students' attitudes toward statistics. This study examines…

  3. Parental Attitudes toward Preschoolers' Career Education: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Dan, Orly

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined a neglected area in career education: parents' attitudes toward the relevance of early career development, parents' attitudes toward the implementation of career education in preschools (including preferred subjects to be included in curricula), and the contribution of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and…

  4. Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Conformity to the Norms of Science: Are Norms Compensatory Integrating Mechanisms for Professional Fragmentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopersmith, Georgia A.; Braxton, John M.

    The norms of science define appropriate and inappropriate scholarly or research role performance. The four norms described in this study are (1) universalism: research is assessed on its merit, not particularistic criteria; (2) commonality: research must be made public and shared with the research community; (3) disinterestedness: research is…

  5. Soft learning vector quantization and clustering algorithms based on non-Euclidean norms: single-norm algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolaos B. Karayiannis; Mary M. Randolph-Gips

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of soft clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms that rely on a weighted norm to measure the distance between the feature vectors and their prototypes. The development of LVQ and clustering algorithms is based on the minimization of a reformulation function under the constraint that the generalized mean of the norm weights be constant.

  6. When does the in-group like the out-group? Bias among children as a function of group norms.

    PubMed

    Rutland, Adam; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Abrams, Dominic; Killen, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Research indicates that in-group favoritism is prevalent among both adults and children. Although research has documented that individuals do not consistently display an in-group bias, the conditions under which out-group preference exists are not well understood. In this study, participants (N = 462) aged 9 to 16 years judged in-group deviant acts that were either in line with or counter to a generic norm shared by both groups. The findings demonstrated, for the first time, that children preferred out-group over in-group deviance only when the in-group peer's deviance was in line with the generic norm and a threat to their group's identity. Participants justified their disapproval of these deviants by focusing on the need for group cohesion and loyalty, while they signified their approval by spotlighting the need for autonomy. Our findings suggest that children's intergroup attitudes are influenced by how the behavior of their peers matches different levels of group norms. PMID:25888686

  7. Matching humanitarian norms with cold, hard interests: the making of refugee policies in Mexico and Honduras, 1980-89.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, K

    1992-01-01

    Humanitarian norms and institutions should be considered when analyzing the development and state of national policy. Mexico and Honduras, for example, have provided physical security, health care, and education to most Guatemalans and Salvadorans seeking asylum. In neither case, however, are Mexico's and Honduras' economic and political interests being best served. National interest initially forced the deportation or massacre of these refugees, in the case of Honduras, in the early 1980s. In the absence of change in neither national interests nor attitude, these refugees owe their current treatment to the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These cases support this paper's argument that national policy is shaped over time by interaction with international norm-promoting institutions. In the interest of minimizing costs and risk, policymakers and governments tend to adapt institutionally developed and internationally accepted policies to suit their needs. National policy is not developed solely on the basis of calculations of national interest outside of internationally accepted norms. This paper demonstrates the ability to empirically test the nature of forces guiding the development of national policy. PMID:12343989

  8. A preliminary analysis of barriers, intentions, and attitudes towards moderate physical activity in women who are overweight.

    PubMed

    Jewson, Elizabeth; Spittle, Michael; Casey, Meghan

    2008-11-01

    Physical activity is important for the health of all individuals, however, the determinants of physical activity behaviour for women who are overweight remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to explore a range of factors that influence participation in physical activity for a group of women who are overweight. Participants were 30 women, aged 25-71 years, with a mean age of 46.8 years (+12.95) and an average BMI of 31.2kg/m(2) (+5.6). Self-reported level of physical activity, perceived barriers and facilitators of physical activity, attitudes, intentions and perceived behavioural control to physical activity were measured. Seventeen participants were generally active, with self-reported moderate physical activity of 218.53min (+/-113.82) in the last 7 days; whereas 13 participants were reportedly less active 43.46 (+/-42.98)min. Active participants were more likely to identify social reasons for participating in physical activity, while inactive participants perceived that their laziness prevented them from being physically active. There were no significant differences between active and inactive overweight women for attitude, intention or subjective norm for moderate-intensity physical activity. There was a significant difference between these women in perceived behavioural control (p=.014) for moderate-intensity physical activity, as women who felt more in control of their physical activity behaviour were more likely to engage in physical activity than inactive women. Future research should investigate interventions to increase behavioural control of moderate-intensity physical activity in women who are overweight. PMID:17884730

  9. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  10. Intimate partner violence attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S

    2010-07-01

    This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. The survey included questions on women's and men's attitudes toward wife beating and information on IPV victimization (women) and perpetration (men). More than half of men and nearly three quarters of women have attitudes supportive of wife beating in Uganda. More than half of married women report IPV victimization, and 40% of married men report perpetration. Women and men who reported witnessing their fathers beating their mothers were more likely to report IPV victimization (perpetration for men). Witnessing violence was also associated with positive attitudes toward wife beating among men. IPV-prevention programs need to address the important role of having witnessed wife beating between the mother and the father on men's subsequent attitudes and behaviors. Women who witnessed wife beating are also the most likely to have supportive attitudes and IPV experience, possibly indicating that their relationship expectations are different than women who did not witness violence. Community-based prevention programs targeting men and women are needed in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa where gender norms that justify IPV prevail. PMID:19758975

  11. Chronological Changes in Japanese Physicians' Attitude and Behavior Concerning Relationships with Pharmaceutical Representatives: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Miyata, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent qualitative studies indicated that physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives depending on the relative weight of the benefits to the risks and are also influenced by a variety of experiences and circumstances. However, these studies do not provide enough information about if, when, how and why their attitudes and behaviors change over time. Methods and Findings A qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews was conducted on 9 Japanese physicians who attended a symposium on conflicts of interest held in Tokyo. Interviews were designed to explore chronological changes in individual physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives and factors affecting such changes. Their early interaction with pharmaceutical representatives was passive as physicians were not explicitly aware of the meaning of such interaction. They began to think on their own about how to interact with pharmaceutical representatives as they progressed in their careers. Their attitude toward pharmaceutical representatives changed over time. Factors affecting attitudinal change included work environment (local regulations and job position), role models, views of patients and the public, acquisition of skills in information seeking and evidence-based medicine, and learning about the concepts of professionalism and conflict of interest. However, the change in attitude was not necessarily followed by behavioral change, apparently due to rationalization and conformity to social norms. Conclusions Physicians' attitudes toward relationships with pharmaceutical representatives changed over time and factors affecting such changes were various. Paying attention to these factors and creating new social norms may be both necessary to produce change in behavior consistent with change in attitude. PMID:25238544

  12. Studies in robust control systems with application to various spacecraft attitude control schemes 

    E-print Network

    Samaan, Malak Anees

    2000-01-01

    of this thesis is to study the application of different robustness tests on various attitude control systems for spacecraft subject to parameter perturbations. The robust control theories for time domain and frequency domain with linear and non-linear parameters...

  13. Functional attitude theories revisited: an ecological perspective on attitude change 

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Kerry Lynn

    1986-01-01

    a message matched to the attitude function aroused in the priming exercise, a second third received an unmatched message, and the last third received no message. In addition, an extra con- trol group received no priming exercise or persuasive... message. Students listening to a message segmented it into meaningful units; attitude, recall, and evaluations of the message were measured afterwards. Attitude meas- ures were also obtained in the control conditions. Recall and persuasion were...

  14. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  15. The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

  16. A quantitative and qualitative inquiry into the attitudes toward science of nonscience college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogolin, Luanne; Swartz, Fred

    The attitudes toward science of nonscience college students were investigated using quantitative and qualitative forms of inquiry. Quantitative methods were used to determine (a) how attitudes toward science of nonscience college students compare with attitudes of science majors, and (b) whether attitudes toward science change with instruction. Qualitative assessment was used to investigate attitude development as it relates to science. The subjects were 102 nonscience students and 81 science students. Six attitudinal variables were investigated using the Attitudes Toward Science Inventory (ATSI) as the quantitative instrument. Hotelling's T2 showed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) in attitudes between the two groups. T tests revealed significant differences between the two groups for all six variables. A significant difference (p = 0.0001) was found between pretest and posttest results for the nonscience students. T tests showed significant differences between the two sets of scores for all six variables, indicating a favorable change in attitudes. An interview questionnaire was used to investigate factors contributing to attitude development. The interview results suggested that attitudes toward science are formed by interactions of both school and nonschool variables.

  17. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  18. Review Are ''implicit'' attitudes unconscious? q

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertram Gawronski; Wilhelm Hofmann; Christopher J. Wilbur

    A widespread assumption in recent research on attitudes is that self-reported (explicit) evaluations reflect conscious attitudes, whereas indirectly assessed (implicit) evaluations reflect unconscious attitudes. The present article reviews the available evidence regarding unconscious features of indirectly assessed ''implicit'' attitudes. Distinguishing between three different aspects of attitudes, we conclude that (a) people sometimes lack conscious awareness of the origin of their

  19. The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

    2012-01-01

    People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

  20. Personal and societal attitudes to disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The research addresses theoretical and conceptual frameworks dealing with the formation and change of attitudes, cognitive dissonance, positive and negative prejudice, the concept of “spread”, overt and covert attitudes and their formation, and the nexus between attitudes and behavior toward disability. Two attitude scales—the interaction with disabled persons and the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons—are reviewed and results of

  1. Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

  2. Altered Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors Following Near-Death Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Groth-Marnat; Roger Summers

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the extent and types of altered beliefs, attitudes, and values of 53 subjects who reported having had a neardeath experience (NDE). A control group was composed of 27 individuals who reported having had similar life-threatening incidents but without a corresponding NDE. In addition, 45 significant others in the lives of the participants in these groups rated the

  3. Attitudes Toward Risk: Experimental Measurement in Rural India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans P. Binswanger

    1980-01-01

    Attitudes toward risk were measures in 240 households using two methods: an interview method eliciting certainty equivalents and an experimental gambling approach with real payoffs which, at their maximum, exceeded monthly incomes of unskilled laborers. The interview method is subject to interviewer bias and its results were totally inconsistent with the experimental measures of risk aversion. Experimental measures indicate that,

  4. UAV Attitude estimation by vanishing points in catadioptric images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Charles Bazin; Inso Kweon; Cédric Demonceaux; Pascal Vasseur

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are the subject of an increasing interest in many applications and a key requirement is the stabilization of the vehicle. Some previous works have suggested using catadioptric vision, instead of traditional perspective cameras, in order to gather much more information from the environment and therefore improve the robustness of the UAV attitude estimation. This paper belongs

  5. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  6. Juror decision making, attitudes, and the hindsight bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Casper; Kennette Benedict; Jo L. Perry

    1989-01-01

    This study examines juror decision making in civil suits against police officers alleged to have engaged in illegal searches, using simulated case materials and mock jurors drawn both from adults called for jury service and a student subject pool. The experiment assesses the impact of a cognitive process (thehindsight bias) and of individual attitudes on awards and finds that both

  7. Socioeconomic differences in attitudes and beliefs about healthy lifestyles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Wardle; A Steptoe

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: The factors underlying socioeconomic status differences in smoking, leisure time physical activity, and dietary choice are poorly understood. This study investigated attitudes and beliefs that might underlie behavioural choices, including health locus of control, future salience, subjective life expectancy, and health consciousness, in a nationally representative sample.Design: Data were collected as part of the monthly Omnibus survey of

  8. Ethnicity Knowledge and Attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, David S.

    This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…

  9. Hospital Social Workers' Attitudes Toward Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. Csikai

    2000-01-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are the subjects of increasing controversy in the health care setting. In this study of 122 hospital social workers' attitudes toward euthanasia and assisted suicide, many respondents reported agreement that both practices may be ethical, should be legal in some situations, and that they would be willing to participate in the practices. Almost one-fourth of the

  10. Persuasion: Attitude/Behavior Change. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    Designed for teachers, students and researchers of the psychological dimensions of attitude and behavior change, this annotated bibliography lists books, bibliographies and articles on the subject ranging from general introductions and surveys through specific research studies, and from theoretical position essays to literature reviews. The 42…

  11. Attitudes Toward Physical Activity of Champion Women Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    This study was undertaken to determine which attitudes were central to the motivation of women involved in championship basketball competition. Seventy-five women members of teams represented in national basketball championships served as subjects for this experiment. In addition, a control group of 212 women was randomly selected from physical…

  12. The Dimensionality of Agreement and Importance for Attitude Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Loyd, Brenda H.

    Attitude measurement through Likert-type surveys usually provides no opportunity to assess the importance of the statements of the subjects. This study, involving 479 graduate and undergraduate students, examines the question of whether importance and agreement measures have different underlying dimensions, and examines the question of whether the…

  13. An Analysis of Attitudes toward Computer Networks and Internet Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interplay between young people's attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction. After analyzing questionnaire responses of an initial sample of 615 Taiwanese high school students, 78 subjects, viewed as possible Internet addicts, were selected for further explorations. It was found that…

  14. Conceptualization and Measurement of Attitudes Toward Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrightsman, Lawrence S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the issue of children's rights and describes a study in which a 300-item attitude scale was constructed and administered to several groups of adult subjects. Major content areas, dealing with the rights of children aged 10-14 included: health, safety/care, education and information, economics, and legal, judicial, and…

  15. Changing Embedded Student Attitudes within a Mathematical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ruth; Winnington, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    Many students see mathematics as a required, but unpleasant subject. They perceive mathematics as isolated, having no relationship to life, no relationship to future career needs, and no connections to other college courses. Student attitudes and beliefs in mathematics quite often block the knowledge that we as instructors want them to obtain.…

  16. Radio Psychology and Psychotherapy: Comparison of Client Attitudes and Expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amiram Raviv; Alona Raviv; Ronith Yunovitz

    1989-01-01

    We compared the expectations and attitudes of two groups of subjects who sought psychological help. One group (n = 47) comprised callers to a radio counseling program broadcast in Israel that offers psychological help to parents and children; the second group (n = 34) consisted of individuals who had received counseling in a child guidance clinic located in an urban

  17. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Debt.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2015-05-25

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Methods. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Results. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. Conclusion. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt. PMID:26089561

  18. Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes Toward Debt

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Akeem A.; Hadsall, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students’ attitudes toward debt. Methods. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students’ debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Results. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. Conclusion. These 3 themes in students’ attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.

  19. Social Norms Among Peers and Social Norms Among Friends and Their Influences on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk Perceptions 

    E-print Network

    Diep, Cassandra Somadevi

    2012-02-14

    ). One study by Pedlow and Carey (2004) discovered that out of seven HIV/STI prevention programs that measured the impact of peer norms on adolescent sexual activity, five found peer norms that supported abstinence and safer sex practices to have...://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/occpapers/occ64.pdf Bauermeister, J. A., Elkington, K., Brackis-Cott, E., Dolezal, C., & Mellins, C. A. (in press). Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: Comparing perinatally Hiv- infected and Hiv-affected youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Berndt...

  20. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial. PMID:12516838

  1. Complying with norms. a neurocomputational exploration 

    E-print Network

    Colombo, Matteo

    2012-06-27

    The subject matter of this thesis can be summarized by a triplet of questions and answers. Showing what these questions and answers mean is, in essence, the goal of my project. The triplet goes like this: Q: How can we ...

  2. EXPLAINING TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS STATISTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assumpta Estrada; Carmen Batanero

    We summarize three studies aimed at assessing teachers' attitudes towards statistics. In the first study the comparison of prospective and in-service primary school teachers' attitudes towards statistics revealed no differences. The second study explores the structure of pre-service teachers' attitudes towards statistics and its relationships with statistical knowledge. We finally present the preliminary results of an on-going study, where an

  3. Computer-Delivered Social Norm Message Increases Pain Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Kim; Schroeder, Jacquelyn; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Few experimental studies have been conducted on social determinants of pain tolerance. Purpose This study tests a brief, computer-delivered social norm message for increasing pain tolerance. Methods Healthy young adults (N=260; 44 % Caucasian; 27 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned into a 2 (social norm)×2 (challenge) cold pressor study, stratified by gender. They received standard instructions or standard instructions plus a message that contained artifically elevated information about typical performance of others. Results Those receiving a social norm message displayed significantly higher pain tolerance, F(1, 255)=26.95, p<.001, ?p2=.10 and pain threshold F(1, 244)=9.81, p=.002, ?p2=.04, but comparable pain intensity, p>.05. There were no interactions between condition and gender on any outcome variables, p>.05. Conclusions Social norms can significantly increase pain tolerance, even with a brief verbal message delivered by a video. PMID:24146086

  4. Estimates for compression norms and additivity violation in quantum information

    E-print Network

    Benoît Collins; Motohisa Fukuda; Ping Zhong

    2014-08-25

    The free contraction norm (or the (t)-norm) was introduced by Belinschi, Collins and Nechita as a tool to compute the typical location of the collection of singular values associated to a random subspace of the tensor product of two Hilbert spaces. In turn, it was used in by them in order to obtain sharp bounds for the violation of the additivity of the minimum output entropy for random quantum channels with Bell states. This free contraction norm, however, is difficult to compute explicitly. The purpose of this note is to give a good estimate for this norm. Our technique is based on results of super convergence in the context of free probability theory. As an application, we give a new, simple and conceptual proof of the violation of the additivity of the minimum output entropy.

  5. Les normes comptables internationales Et le reporting de la performance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - Performance ­ Capital ­ Juste Valeur - Cadre conceptuel. Abstract The choice of the European Union of adopting Vendémiaire - CS 19519 - 34960 Montpellier cedex 2 francoise.pierrot@free.fr Résumé L'adoption des normes IAS/IFRS

  6. EMOTIONS AND ACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NORM-BREAKING EVENTS

    E-print Network

    Wilson, David. S.

    -breaking events, with males more prone to violence than females; (3) individual differences exist in response violated, or the shame of violating even trivial social norms, which attests to the pow- erful emotions

  7. COBE ground segment attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V. K.; Freedman, I.; Wright, E. L.; Patt, F. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was launched in November 1989 by NASA to survey the sky for primordial radiation left from the Big Bang explosion. The success of the mission requires an accurate determination of the spacecraft attitude. While the accuracy of the attitude obtained from the attitude sensors is adequate for two of the experiments, the higher accuracy required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is obtained by using the DIRBE instrument as a special type of star sensor. Presented here is an overview of the attitude processing algorithms used at the Cosmology Data Analysis Center (CDAC) and the results obtained from the flight data.

  8. Treatment and disposal options for NORM oil field waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, G.H.; Khatib, Z.I.

    1996-12-31

    Treatment and disposal options by Shell Offshore Inc. were shown to reduce effectively NORM waste volumes. Options included scale prediction and inhibition programs, chemical dissolver treatments, minimization through dewatering, waste stream segregation, and on-line vessel cleaning operations. Offshore subsurface injection of NORM waste by the producing operator has been demonstrated for the past four years to be a cost-effective alternative to commercial-site disposal.

  9. Are they just lazy? Student teachers' attitudes about dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Burden, Robert L

    2010-02-01

    It is highly likely that teachers' abilities in dealing with different forms of learning difficulties will be affected by their knowledge about and attitudes towards those difficulties. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provides a useful framework within which to explore such attitudes and was used as the starting point for investigating trainee teachers' attitudes towards aspects of dyslexia. It is assumed that new teachers will enter the profession with a set of intentions according to personal beliefs, normative views within the teaching profession and the sense of competence and power they feel in dealing with dyslexic difficulties. The purpose of this study was to probe student teachers' attitudes at a prestigious School of Education in the Southwest of England. Four hundred and eight primary and secondary Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students responded to a survey asking about their attitudes toward dyslexia. The student teachers expressed strongly positive attitudes toward the construct of dyslexia, with the majority expressing confidence in their ability to support dyslexic pupils. Females held significantly more positive attitudes toward dyslexia than males, but there were no significant differences according to PGCE course subject. Students who took the survey before and after teaching practice demonstrated some small but significant changes in attitude scores over that time. It is proposed that a new breed of teachers may be entering the teaching profession with positive beliefs about their ability to help dyslexic pupils, but who remain unclear as to how this can be accomplished. Some implications for action and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:19557824

  10. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    PubMed Central

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  11. Nursing students' attitudes toward science in the nursing curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroo, Jill Deanne

    The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.

  12. Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Laiacona; M. G. Inzaghi; A. De Tanti; E. Capitani

    2000-01-01

    The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess\\u000a frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, within 5–17 years\\u000a of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed

  13. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  14. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  15. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy,…

  16. NORM PRESERVERS OF JORDAN PRODUCTS BOJAN KUZMA, GORAZD LESNJAK, CHI-KWONG LI, TATJANA PETEK, AND

    E-print Network

    Li, Chi-Kwong

    NORM PRESERVERS OF JORDAN PRODUCTS BOJAN KUZMA, GORAZD LESNJAK, CHI-KWONG LI§, TATJANA PETEK, AND LEIBA RODMAN§ Abstract. Norm preserver maps of Jordan product on the algebra Mn of n�n complex matrices. For many other norms, it is proved that, after a suitable reduction, norm preserver maps of Jordan product

  17. Attitudes: How Parental Attitudes May Influence Classroom Instructional Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konzal, Jean L.

    When parents develop negative attitudes towards new practices, powerful resistance may develop and new instructional practices may disappear. This paper examines: (1) how parental attitudes towards new classroom instructional practices influence the introduction and continuation of these practices in a school; (2) the impact of the widening gap…

  18. Predicting Student Attitudes and Grades from Perceptions of Instructors' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janie H.

    2006-01-01

    Psychological availability to students defines immediacy, a concept traditionally measured using ratings of instructor behaviors. However, students' perceptions of their professor's attitude toward them may serve as a more parsimonious measure of psychological availability. In fact, ratings of a professor's attitude toward students are positively…

  19. Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    Twelve papers address issues of attitudes towards handicapped persons. The authors were invited to summarize and critically evaluate the literature in their area of expertise, including their own research. Contributions touch on measurement and methodological issues as well as other topics. The following papers are included: "Attitudes and…

  20. Bone mineral density reference norms for Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lynn, H S; Lau, E M C; Au, B; Leung, P C

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms for Hong Kong Chinese using Hologic QDR 2000 and 4500 densitometers, and to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis in the population. Altogether, 4,274 subjects (2,415 females and 1,859 males), aged 9-94 years old, were recruited using a combination of private solicitation and public advertising from schools, community centers, nursing homes, housing estates, and the general community in Hong Kong. Among females, BMD increased by 20% at the total hip and 48% at the lumbar spine between ages 10 and 20 but remained essentially constant between ages 20 and 40. Between ages 40 and 70, BMD declined by 17% at the total hip and 23% at the spine. Total hip BMD continued to drop after age 70 but little change in spine BMD was observed. Among males, BMD increased by 45% at the total hip and 77% at the spine between age 10 and 30. Between ages 30 and 80, total hip BMD decreased by 20%. Lumbar spine BMD decrease was milder, showing a loss of 4% between ages 30 to 50 and remaining relatively constant afterwards. The prevalence of osteoporosis was consistently overestimated when using Hologic-supplied Caucasian cutoffs as compared with local Chinese cutoffs. The prevalence of osteoporosis among Chinese women 50 years or older was 37% and 16% at the spine and total hip, respectively, while that among Chinese men 50 years or older was 7% and 6% at the spine and total hip, respectively. Prior studies have been limited by size or restricted to women. This study represents the largest sample of Hong Kong Chinese amassed to date, provides continuous BMD reference values from ages 10 to 85 for both women and men, and yields more reliable estimates of the prevalence of osteoporosis for the population. PMID:16027958

  1. Attitudes of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening.

    PubMed

    Jans, Suze M P J; de Jonge, Ank; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette L M

    2012-11-01

    Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceive ethnicity as a risk factor for HbP. Moreover, registration of ethnicity is a controversial societal issue, which may complicate the introduction of a national preconception or antenatal carrier screening programme. This study investigates attitudes, intention and behaviour of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening in general. A structured questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour was sent by mail to a random selection of 2100 general practitioners and 1800 primary care midwives. Response was 35% (midwives 44.2%; GPs 27.6%). Although 45% of respondents thought that offering a carrier test on the basis of ethnicity alone should become national policy, it is currently not carried out. The main factor explaining lack of intention towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening was subjective norm, the perception that their peers do not think they should offer screening (52.2% variance explained). If ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening would become national policy, most professionals report that they would carry this out. Most respondents favoured ethnicity registration for health purposes. As most practitioners look for role models among peers, debate among general practitioners and midwives should be encouraged when new policy is to be developed, articulating the voices of colleagues who already actively offer HbP-carrier screening. Moreover, primary care professionals and professional organisations need support of policy at national level. PMID:22549405

  2. Sex as a factor in attitudes toward the mentally ill

    E-print Network

    Wilkerson, Hal Dennis

    1976-01-01

    SEX AS A FACTOR IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MENTALLY ILL A Thesis by HAL DENNIS WILKERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major... Subject: Psychology SEX AS A FACTOR IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MENTALLy ILL A Thesis by Hal Dennis Wilkerson Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) Hem'b e r ) May 1976 ABSTHACT Sex As A Factor...

  3. Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

    This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

  4. Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxclair, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate-elementary education majors at a small, rural south-central U.S. university toward gifted students. Gagne's and Nadeau's (Gagne, 1991) opinions about the gifted and their education was used. The respondents held…

  5. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malina Jordanova; Lidia Vasileva; Maximka Rasheva; Rumiana Bojinova

    2008-01-01

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service.

  6. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  7. Measuring Attitudes toward Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Gerald; Dubin, Samuel S.

    The attitudes of managers toward continuing education management development programs were analyzed, using the Fishbein technique; by this approach, the beliefs people have and their evaluation of these beliefs are measured separately. The evaluation of a belief is multiplied by its strength to get the direction of the attitude. A questionnaire,…

  8. Residents' attitudes toward tourism development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Teye; Ercan Sirakaya; Sevil F. Sönmez

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, tourism has been playing a more significant role in the economies of several African countries, including Ghana. The purpose of the paper is to examine attitudes of residents of two of its towns toward tourism development. Factor analysis of scaled items measuring their attitudes resulted in seven tourism-related factors: social interaction with tourists, beneficial cultural influences, welfare

  9. College Students' Attitudes toward Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Marianna K.

    This study was conducted to investigate the sexual attitudes of college students (N=384) at a Western Kansas university. Students completed the Sexual Attitudes Scale, the Personal Attribute Inventory, and a demographic questionnaire examining gender, birth order, family structure, and age at which one started dating. Of 20 main effects…

  10. Sexual Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etchison, Marilyn G.

    This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

  11. Developing Attitudes towards Science Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per; Jones, Karen; Barmby, Partick

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe the development of measures used to examine pupils' attitudes towards science. In particular, separate measures for attitudes towards the following areas were developed: learning science in school, practical work in science, science outside of school, importance of science, self-concept in science, and future…

  12. Measurement of Attitude to Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    1985-01-01

    Provides definitions of "attitudes" and discusses these attitude measures: (1) Thurstone (equal-appearing) scales; (2) Likert scales; (3) (Osgood's) semantic differential scale; (4) inventories and checklists; (5) preference rankings; (6) projective techniques; (7) enrollments; (8) clinical and anthropological observations; and (9) psychological…

  13. Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

  14. Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, H. C.; Patton, G. M.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward Education was used as a measure of teacher attitudes toward child-centered education, discipline, and the desirability of understanding pupils'…

  15. Age Norms and Age Constraints in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markunas, Patricia V.

    The age-status system in adulthood was investigated, using a 58-item instrument which divided adulthood subjectively into three periods: normative expectations for various adulthood developmental tasks (marriage, parenthood, employment, retirement, etc.); the lower age constraints ("too young") for these behaviors. In addition, 22 items regarding…

  16. Physiological profile of fire fighters compared to norms for the Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M R; Montgomery, D L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical fitness level of Canadian fire fighters and to compare them to norms for Canadians of similar age and sex. The subjects were 1,303 male fire fighters from the Montreal fire department between the ages of 19 and 58 years. The subjects were categorized into four age groups: 19-29 years (n = 351), 30-39 years (n = 408), 40-49 years (n = 408), and 50-59 years (n = 136). Physical fitness was evaluated using the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness. The test battery included: 1) pre-test screening, 2) anthropometric assessment, 3) cardiovascular, 4) flexibility and 5) muscular endurance measurements. Compared to the norms for the Canadian population of similar age, the fire fighters have: 1) higher body mass, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, 2) higher flexibility, 3) higher muscular endurance and 4) lower cardiovascular endurance. The lower cardiovascular endurance of the fire fighters was attributed to elevated body mass and an elevated heart rate response to the step test. It is unknown whether the heart rate response reflects long-term effects of exposure to carbon monoxide and vapours from combustible materials and chemicals. PMID:8500058

  17. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  18. The Ethical Consumer. Moral Norms and Packaging Choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Th?gersen

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates whether the claim that environmental attitudes are based on moral reasoning is valid with regard to consumer buying attitudes, as it has been shown to be in other domains of consumer behaviour. It is proposed that two conditions make moral reasoning in the buying situation more likely: environmental concern and the absence of other highly involving characteristics.

  19. The Social Embeddedness of Academic Online Groups in Offline Networks as a Norm Generating Structure: An Empirical Test of the Coleman Model on Norm Emergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Matzat

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes two questions. First, under which conditions does a norm emerge in academic online groups that prescribes members to help others during group discussions? Second, what effects does such a norm, and other social conditions, have on the contributing behavior of researchers during online discussions? It is argued that the Coleman model (1990) on the emergence of norms

  20. Attitudes Justifying Domestic Violence Predict Endorsement of Corporal Punishment and Physical and Psychological Aggression towards Children: A Study in 25 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children’s development. This study investigated how women’s attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment, and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Study design Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by UNICEF. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85,999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Results Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children, and, in turn, were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers’ attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Conclusions Pediatricians can address parents’ psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents’ attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. PMID:24412139

  1. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2014-11-20

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  2. Fast and accurate matrix completion via truncated nuclear norm regularization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao; Zhang, Debing; Ye, Jieping; Li, Xuelong; He, Xiaofei

    2013-09-01

    Recovering a large matrix from a small subset of its entries is a challenging problem arising in many real applications, such as image inpainting and recommender systems. Many existing approaches formulate this problem as a general low-rank matrix approximation problem. Since the rank operator is nonconvex and discontinuous, most of the recent theoretical studies use the nuclear norm as a convex relaxation. One major limitation of the existing approaches based on nuclear norm minimization is that all the singular values are simultaneously minimized, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practice. In this paper, we propose to achieve a better approximation to the rank of matrix by truncated nuclear norm, which is given by the nuclear norm subtracted by the sum of the largest few singular values. In addition, we develop a novel matrix completion algorithm by minimizing the Truncated Nuclear Norm. We further develop three efficient iterative procedures, TNNR-ADMM, TNNR-APGL, and TNNR-ADMMAP, to solve the optimization problem. TNNR-ADMM utilizes the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), while TNNR-AGPL applies the accelerated proximal gradient line search method (APGL) for the final optimization. For TNNR-ADMMAP, we make use of an adaptive penalty according to a novel update rule for ADMM to achieve a faster convergence rate. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithms in comparison to the state-of-the-art matrix completion algorithms on both synthetic and real visual datasets. PMID:23868774

  3. Psycholinguistic Attitude Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Ellen L.

    The subjects in this study, 18 fifth- and sixth-grade students from a middle-class area, were asked to listen to a tape recording with excerpts of conversations by speakers of three dialects: middle-class white, lower-class white, and lower-class Negro. Subjects were asked to rate the personality of each speaker by voice cues alone. In addition,…

  4. Focus Groups as a Method for Conducting a Needs Analysis: A Case Study for an Employee Attitude Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randall

    A case study used focus groups to examine employee attitudes and concerns. Subjects, about 60 employees and managers of a major university teaching hospital in the southeast, were formed into 4 focus groups to discuss their attitudes. Employees hoped that management would use the information gathered to improve the communication environment and…

  5. Pre-Service Education and Attitudes towards Inclusion: The Role of the Teacher Educator within a Permeated Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers' attitudes towards special educational needs (SEN) and inclusion. A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive…

  6. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  7. Neuroanatomy predicts individual risk attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2014-09-10

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  8. The brief sexual attitudes scale.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Clyde; Hendrick, Susan S; Reich, Darcy A

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of sexual attitudes is important, and ease of scale usability is one key aspect of measurement. This paper details three studies conducted to develop a briefer and thus more efficient version of the multidimensional Sexual Attitudes Scale (43 items). The first two studies (I and II) employed existing data sets to develop a 23-item version of the Sexual Attitudes Scale, using exploratory factor analysis in Study I and confirmatory factor analysis in Study II. The same four subscales of Permissiveness, Birth Control (formerly called Sexual Practices), Communion, and Instrumentality were retained in the 23-item measure, called the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. Study III was a prospective data collection using only the 23 items composing the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. The four subscales were hypothesized to correlate with a number of relationship measures in predictable ways. Results indicated that the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid measure of the four sexual attitudes, and has strong psychometric properties. It should be effective and efficient for both research and clinical uses. PMID:16817070

  9. Alcohol evaluations and acceptability: Examining descriptive and injunctive norms among heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Krieger, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed descriptive and injunctive norms, evaluations of alcohol consequences, and acceptability of drinking. Methods Participants were 248 heavy-drinking undergraduates (81.05% female; Mage = 23.45). Results Stronger perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking and more positive evaluations of alcohol consequences were positively associated with drinking and the number of drinks considered acceptable. Descriptive and injunctive norms interacted, indicating that injunctive norms were linked with number of acceptable drinks among those with higher descriptive norms. Descriptive norms and evaluations of consequences interacted, indicating that descriptive norms were positively linked with number of acceptable drinks among those with negative evaluations of consequences; however, among those with positive evaluations of consequences, descriptive norms were negatively associated with number of acceptable drinks. Injunctive norms and evaluations of consequences interacted, indicating that injunctive norms were positively associated with number of acceptable drinks, particularly among those with positive evaluations of consequences. A three-way interaction emerged between injunctive and descriptive norms and evaluations of consequences, suggesting that injunctive norms and the number of acceptable drinks were positively associated more strongly among those with negative versus positive evaluations of consequences. Those with higher acceptable drinks also had positive evaluations of consequences and were high in injunctive norms. Conclusions Findings supported hypotheses that norms and evaluations of alcohol consequences would interact with respect to drinking and acceptance of drinking. These examinations have practical utility and may inform development and implementation of interventions and programs targeting alcohol misuse among heavy drinking undergraduates. PMID:25437265

  10. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  11. Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Christine M. L.; Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience. PMID:21760974

  12. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  13. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  14. Within Family Leisure Attitude Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neulinger, John; And Others

    This study explores leisure attitudes within the family, specifically addressing itself to three primary questions: (1) Will leisure attitudes of children be "at the same level" as those of their parents?; (2) Will the children's attitudes relate significantly to their parent's attitudes?; and (3) Will the answers to these questions be the same…

  15. Student Attitudes towards Diversity in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeroth, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to study and analyse student attitudes towards ethnic diversity and their expectations regarding the school in creating positive attitudes. The results show that the majority of the students embrace a positive attitude towards multicultural society. However, this attitude varies when the variables…

  16. ISO ground attitude determination during operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Batten

    1991-01-01

    The attitude determination algorithm developed for the ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) spacecraft ground control, to be used for attitude initialization during Launch and Early Operations Phase (LEOP), and for any later attitude updates required during the mission, is described. The attitude determination task contains a star pattern recognition algorithm, using a star map generated by the spacecraft Star Tracker, and

  17. Attitude determination and control system of Sathyabamasat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sheela Rani; C. Gomathy; B. Sowmya; R. Narmadha

    2010-01-01

    A high-precision attitude determination and control of the sathyabama satellite is an essential task for the success of the whole mission. Satellite Attitude determination and control system is an integral part of any satellite. For satellites in LEO an interaction with the local geomagnetic field is an important means of controlling the attitude or orientation. Attitude estimation is highly nonlinear

  18. ISO ground attitude determination using pattern recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Batten

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude determination algorithm developed for the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spacecraft ground control. The attitude determination task contains a star pattern recognition algorithm, using a star map generated by the spacecraft Star Tracker and requires no a priori attitude estimates. Derivation of the algorithms for the attitude determination task is given. The practical implementation of the

  19. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  20. ATTITUDE FILTERING ON SO(3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2005-01-01

    A new method is presented for the simultaneous estimation of the attitude of a spacecraft and an N-vector of bias parameters. This method uses a probability distribution function defined on the Cartesian product of SO(3), the group of rotation matrices, and the Euclidean space W N .The Fokker-Planck equation propagates the probability distribution function between measurements, and Bayes s formula incorporates measurement update information. This approach avoids all the issues of singular attitude representations or singular covariance matrices encountered in extended Kalman filters. In addition, the filter has a consistent initialization for a completely unknown initial attitude, owing to the fact that SO(3) is a compact space.

  1. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  2. Social norms shift behavioral and neural responses to foods.

    PubMed

    Nook, Erik C; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-07-01

    Obesity contributes to 2.8 million deaths annually, making interventions to promote healthy eating critical. Although preliminary research suggests that social norms influence eating behavior, the underlying psychological and neural mechanisms of such conformity remain unexplored. We used fMRI to investigate whether group norms shift individuals' preferences for foods at both behavioral and neural levels. Hungry participants rated how much they wanted to eat a series of healthy and unhealthy foods and, after each trial, saw ratings that ostensibly represented their peers' preferences. This feedback was manipulated such that peers appeared to prefer each food more than, less than, or as much as participants themselves. After a delay, participants rerated each food. Participants' second ratings shifted to resemble group norms. Initial consensus, as compared to disagreement, with peers produced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a region associated with reward prediction errors. Furthermore, the strength of this activity predicted the extent to which participants' ratings conformed to peer ratings, suggesting that the value associated with consensus drives social influence. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC), a region associated with value computation, initially responded more strongly to unhealthy, as compared to healthy, foods. However, this effect was "overwritten" by group norms. After individuals learned their peers' preferences, vMPFC responses tracked the popularity, but not the healthfulness, of foods. Furthermore, changes in vMPFC activity tracked social influence over behavioral ratings. These data provide evidence that group norms can shift food preferences, supporting the use of norms-based interventions to promote healthy eating. PMID:25671502

  3. Linearization of attitude-control error dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Bach; Russell Paielli

    1993-01-01

    Some useful properties of direction-cosine and quaternion attitude formulations that include specification of attitude error and the inversion of rigid-body rotational dynamics are reviewed. The inversion procedure is then applied to a measure of attitude error to realize a new model-follower control system that exhibits linear attitude-error dynamics. Error analyses and simulation results for spacecraft attitude-control systems are presented to

  4. Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedak, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

  5. A Predictive Attitude Determination Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from vector observations. The new algorithm, called the Predictive Attitude Determination (PAD) algorithm, is derived from a general nonlinear predictive filter approach. Traditional deterministic algorithms are shown to be suboptimal for anisotropic measurement errors. The major advantage of the PAD algorithm is that it can be easily applied to the case where anisotropic measurement errors exist. Also, an analytical expression is derived for the steady-state attitude error covariance, which is shown to be equivalent to the optimal covariance derived from maximum likelihood techniques. Simulation studies indicate that the new algorithm is able to accurately determine the attitude of a spacecraft, even for radically anisotropic measurement errors.

  6. Attitude strength and resistance processes.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, E M; Chaiken, S; Tordesillas, R S

    1995-09-01

    This study examined whether multiple indicators of attitude strength form general dimensions that foster differential pathways to resistance. Ego involvement, certainty, personal importance, knowledge, and extremity were assessed. Resistance processes and outcomes were measured in a selective judgment paradigm. Intentions to act on attitudes and information-seeking proclivities were also assessed. Factor analysis of the strength measures revealed 2 factors. Both fostered intentions to act but were associated with differential resistance processes and outcomes. Heightened levels of the factor representing Commitment to one's position were associated with increased selective elaboration, selective judgment, and attitude polarization. Embeddedness, the linkage of the attitude to one's self-concept, value system, and knowledge structure, was associated with decreased selective elaboration and increased information seeking and selective memory. PMID:7562388

  7. On euthanasia: exploring psychological meaning and attitudes in a sample of Mexican physicians and medical students.

    PubMed

    del Río, Asunción Álvarez; Marván, Ma Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Euthanasia has become the subject of ethical and political debate in many countries including Mexico. Since many physicians are deeply concerned about euthanasia, due to their crucial participation in its decision and implementation, it is important to know the psychological meaning that the term 'euthanasia' has for them, as well as their attitudes toward this practice. This study explores psychological meaning and attitudes toward euthanasia in 546 Mexican subjects, either medical students or physicians, who were divided into three groups: a) beginning students, b) advanced students, and c) physicians. We used the semantic networks technique, which analyzed the words the participants associated with the term 'euthanasia'. Positive psychological meaning, as well as positive attitudes, prevailed among advanced students and physicians when defining euthanasia, whereas both positive and negative psychological meaning together with more ambivalent attitudes toward euthanasia predominated in beginning students. The findings are discussed in the context of a current debate on a bill proposing active euthanasia in Mexico City. PMID:22103638

  8. SCKF for MAV attitude estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Li; Quan-Bo Ge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel quaternion-based attitude estimation algorithm with the square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) is proposed to improve the attitude estimation performance for micro air vehicle (MAV). The SCKF is a kind of new effective method to solve nonlinear state estimation, it can directly deal with nonlinear systems, and the QR decomposition in SCKF avoids the square-root operation

  9. ASCAL: Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

  10. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics for "hard" reasons ranges from about 80-88%. Abortion for social reasons such as poverty or not wanting additional children ranges from 35-50%. Catholic support for abortion also varies by geographical region, community type, and ethnic group. Support tends to be strongest in the Northeast, in large cities, and among descendants of immigrants from Italy, Eastern Europe, and France. Support is weakest among Catholics in the Southwest, in small towns or rural areas, and among the Irish and Hispanics, especially Mexican-Americans. Among Catholics, many factors cause opinion to deviate from the national average. A 2nd major political implication is the comparative dedication or commitment of supporters and opponents. Analysis of election returns in 1978 in particular failed to demonstrate any measurable anti-abortion vote, but this does not mean that in a particular constituency it could not be made a serious issue. PMID:12178931

  11. Citizen's Attitudes About Privacy: Results Citizen's Attitudes about Privacy While Accessing Government Websites

    E-print Network

    Yang, Junfeng

    Citizen's Attitudes About Privacy: Results 1 Citizen's Attitudes about Privacy While Accessing 10027 March 3, 2003 Abstract This paper reports the results of an investigation on citizens' attitudes Private Portal that protects citizen's personally identifying information when accessing government

  12. Secondary Counselors and Vocational Directors: Sex-Role Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Teenage Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Daisy L.; Burge, Penny L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the attitudes of secondary counselors and vocational directors toward teenage parenthood and sex roles. A positive relationship was found between the sample's attitudes toward adolescent parents and their sex role attitudes. (JOW)

  13. Sex-Role Identity, Sex-Role Attitudes, and Women's Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sheryl F.

    Results from comparable studies on the experimental arousal of achievement motivation with female subjects are often inconsistent and contradictory with the findings for males. The sex-role identity, sex-role attitudes, and experimental arousal of achievement motivation were investigated for 180 female undergraduate subjects. Experimental and…

  14. The Recalled Quality of Childhood Relationships as Related to Parenting Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Melissa M.; Sawyers, Janet K.

    This study investigated links between recalled attachment to parents and current parenting attitudes of 126 parents of elementary school children. Mean age of subjects was 36.3 years; average length of marriage was 13 years. The majority of subjects had not experienced disruption in early attachment relationships or parental marital disharmony.…

  15. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…

  16. A Comparison of Sexual Attitudes and Practices of Black Junior College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Susann

    The attitudes of community college students toward premarital sexual relationships were investigated. Subjects were 83 Black college men and women. A 30-item questionnaire was administered to each subject. Results indicated that: (1) females reported less frequent occurrence of sexual relations than males; (2) neither sex reported a high incidence…

  17. Effects of knowledge and persuasion on high-school students' attitudes toward nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

    Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;

  18. Norms of Modes and Quasi-modes revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Toth; Steve Zelditch

    2002-01-01

    This is a partly expository, partly new paper on sup norm estimates of eigenfunctions. The focus is on the quantum completely integrable case. We give a new proof of the main result of our paper ``Riemannian manifolds with uniformly bounded eigenfunctions' (Duke Math J. 111 (2002), 97-132), based on the analysis of quasi-modes and Birkhoff normal forms. We also discuss

  19. On the spectrum of projective norm-graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibor Szabó

    2003-01-01

    We show that the projective norm-graphs of Alon et al. [J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 76 (1999) 280-290] are pseudorandom in the sense that their second eigenvalue is as small as the square root of the degree. Our approach is simple, it only uses the evaluation of Gaussian sums and determines the complete spectrum exactly.

  20. Norm-Based Trade Union Membership: Evidence for Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Goerke; Markus Pannenberg

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of closed shops and discriminatory wage policies, union membership can be explained by the existence of social norms. We describe a model, incorporating institutional features of the German labour market, which explicitly allows for social custom effects in the determination of union membership. Using panel data for Germany, we find evidence for according effects which restrict free-riding.

  1. Norm-Based Trade Union Membership: Evidence for Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Goerke; Markus Pannenberg

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of closed-shops and discriminatory wage policies, union membership can be explained by the existence of social norms. We describe a model, incorporating institutional features of the German labour market, which explicitly allows for social custom effects in the determination of union membership. Using panel data for Germany, we find evidence for according effects which restrict freeriding. The

  2. Automated Norm Synthesis in an Agent-based Planning Environment

    E-print Network

    Rovatsos, Michael

    of Informatics The University of Edinburgh Edinburgh EH8 9AB, United Kingdom george.christelis@ed.ac.uk Michael Rovatsos School of Informatics The University of Edinburgh Edinburgh EH8 9AB, United Kingdom michael.rovatsos@ed.ac.uk ABSTRACT Norms and social laws are one of the key mechanisms used to facilitate coordination in multiagent

  3. SCHATTEN MATRIX NORM BASED POLARIMETRIC SAR DATA REGULARIZATION.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SCHATTEN MATRIX NORM BASED POLARIMETRIC SAR DATA REGULARIZATION. APPLICATION OVER CHAMONIX MONT-trang.le/abdourrahmane.atto/emmanuel.trouve}@univ-savoie.fr Abstract The paper addresses the filtering of Polarimetry Syn- thetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images scattering and coherency matrices on RADARSAT-2 PolSAR images over the Chamonix Mont- Blanc site. Several p

  4. Norming Clinical Questionnaires with Multiple Regression: The Pain Cognition List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2005-01-01

    Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article…

  5. Social norms and helping in a community of limited liability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon T. Schreiber; John C. Glidewell

    1978-01-01

    The social norms constraining interpersonal helping (formal and informal) were studied by the analysis of interviews of 348 persons in the Chicago area. The findings showed that only half the respondents who received help from family and friends believed that they had a right to such help. Three-fourths of those persons receiving help from professional practitioners believed they had a

  6. Norm Consistency in Electronic Institutions , W. Vasconcelos2

    E-print Network

    Vasconcelos, Wamberto

    Norm Consistency in Electronic Institutions M. Esteva1 , W. Vasconcelos2 , C. Sierra1 , J. A. Rodr, Aberdeen, United Kingdom wvasconc@csd.abdn.ac.uk Abstract. Electronic institutions are a formalism. In this paper we elaborate on the verification of properties of electronic institutions based on the dialogues

  7. Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

  8. Communiquer dans un monde de normes l 235 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Communiquer dans un monde de normes l 235 Introduction The uses of social media are still in their early developmental stages at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Social media, which includes of social media use literally challenged the ways journalists produce news stories. Early in the morning

  9. MELTING OF NORM - CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT OF AN OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sappok; U. Quade; T. Kluth

    About 6000 offshore plants for oil and natural gas exploration are world wide in operation. 640 are located in the North Sea and North Atlantic area, 60 of which have been shut down so far. The contamination of these installations with heavy metals e. g. mercury and NORM requires an ecologically disposal concept. The Continental Netherlands Oil Company B. V.

  10. Inducible defenses: continuous reaction norms or threshold traits?

    PubMed

    Svennungsen, Thomas Owens; Holen, Øistein Haugsten; Leimar, Olof

    2011-09-01

    Phenotypically plastic traits can be expressed as continuous reaction norms or as threshold traits, but little is known about the selective conditions that favor one over the other. We study this question using a model of prey defenses in which prey can induce any level of defense conditional on cues that are informative of local predator density. The model incorporates a trade-off between defense expression and fecundity and feedback between the defense level of prey and predator attack rates. Both continuous reaction norms and threshold traits can emerge as evolutionarily stable solutions of defense induction, and we show that the shape of the trade-off curve plays a key role in determining the outcome. Threshold traits are favored when selection is disruptive. Ecological conditions that favor defense dimorphisms in the absence of cues will favor threshold traits in the presence of slightly informative cues. We caution that continuous reaction norms and threshold traits may result in similar patterns of defense expression at the population level, and we discuss potential pitfalls of inferring reaction norm type from observational data. PMID:21828995

  11. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  12. Developmental norms for the wisconsin card sorting test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon J. Chelune; Ruth A. Baer

    1986-01-01

    While the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been used widely among adult populations to evaluate the effects of frontal-lobe lesions, no comparable work has been done among younger populations due, in part, to the lack of an adequate normative base. This study presents developmental norms by age for the WCST for 105 school-age children. The data indicate that, by

  13. Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

  14. BESOV NORMS IN TERMS OF THE CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM.

    E-print Network

    Guerrini, Carla

    BESOV NORMS IN TERMS OF THE CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM. APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS VAL Paris cedex 05 FRANCE perrier@math.univ­paris13.fr The continuous wavelet transform is extended to L p in Meyer's book 14 . The characterization of Besov spaces by the mean of the continuous wavelet transform

  15. SCUBA Diver Specialization and Behavior Norms at Coral Reefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura E. Anderson; David K. Loomis

    2011-01-01

    SCUBA diving is an increasingly popular activity that provides a number of benefits to coastal communities. However, the sustainability of recreational diving on coral reefs is largely dependent on the health of reef ecosystems. Divers can minimize their impacts to coral reefs through responsible diving behaviors, which are in part guided by social norms. The behavioral obligation and sanction components

  16. Reducing Intergang Violence: Norms from the Interstate System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Errol Henderson; Russell J. Leng

    1999-01-01

    We maintain that the norms guiding interstate behavior offer a point of departure for the reduction of violence among territorial urban youth gangs. Gangs have been a part of the American urban landscape far too long to assume that they can be eradicated simply by arresting and incarcerating more youths (although this function remains important) without addressing the larger issues

  17. Regularized super-resolution image reconstruction employing robust error norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulou, Antigoni; Anastassopoulos, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    A high-resolution image is reconstructed from a sequence of subpixel shifted, aliased low-resolution frames, by means of stochastic regularized super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction. The Tukey (T), Lorentzian (L), and Huber (H) cost functions are employed for the data-fidelity term. The performance of the particular error norms, in SR image reconstruction, is presented. Actually, their employment in SR reconstruction is preceded by dilating and scaling their influence functions to make them as similar as possible. Thus, the direct comparison of these norms in rejecting outliers takes place. The bilateral total variation (BTV) regularization is incorporated as a priori knowledge about the solution. The outliers effect is significantly reduced, and the high-frequency edge structures of the reconstructed image are preserved. The proposed TTV, LTV, and HTV methods are directly compared with a former SR method that employs the L1-norm in the data-fidelity term for synthesized and real sequences of frames. In the simulated experiments, noiseless frames as well as frames corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise are employed. Experimental results verify the robust statistics theory. Thus, the Tukey method performs best, while the L1-norm technique performs inferiorly to the proposed techniques.

  18. Implementing Social Norms using Policies Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Kremer, Rob

    , avoids restricting the inter- or intra-agent architecture or the agent interaction paradigm. This paperImplementing Social Norms using Policies Rob Kremer Department of Computer Science University infrastructure, and while it is not tied to FIPA standards, it is quite prescriptive in both its inter- agent

  19. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S.; Raihani, Nichola J.

    2014-01-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

  20. COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCES ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC

    E-print Network

    Pethõ, Attila

    COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCES ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS +· · ·+xn-1n-1 ) = 1 in x0, . . . , xn-1 Z, such that x0, . . . , xn-1 is an arithmetic progression, where form equations with solutions whose coordinates form an arithmetic progression. There we proved

  1. ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS

    E-print Network

    Pethõ, Attila

    ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS ATTILA B´ERCZES AND ATTILA such that the coordinates form an arithmetic progression. In this note we generalize (1.1) in three directions: first, we.1) is not restricted to 1, and finally it is allowed that the solutions form only nearly an arithmetic progression. 2

  2. Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules

    SciTech Connect

    Helemskii, A Ya [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l{sub 1}(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l{sub 1}{sup 0}(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  3. Comparing Data Streams Using Hamming Norms (How to Zero In)

    E-print Network

    Cormode, Graham

    Comparing Data Streams Using Hamming Norms (How to Zero In) Graham Cormode, Mayur Datar, Piotr Indyk, and S. Muthukrishnan Abstract--Massive data streams are now fundamental to many data processing applications. For example, Internet routers produce large scale diagnostic data streams. Such streams

  4. Comparing Data Streams Using Hamming Norms (How to Zero In)

    E-print Network

    Cormode, Graham

    Comparing Data Streams Using Hamming Norms (How to Zero In) Graham Cormode csrcp@research.att.com Abstract Massive data streams are now fundamental to many data processing applications. For exam- ple, Internet routers produce large scale diagnostic data streams. Such streams are rarely stored in tra

  5. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Thøgersen

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis, that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas, is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual

  6. Ratio and Proportion: Cognitive Foundations in Unitizing and Norming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamon, Susan J.

    This paper examines sixth-grade children's thinking related to solving ratio and proportion problems before these children had received any instruction in the domain. It explores unitizing and norming, one of the processes identified by both content analyses (Behr, Harel, Post, & Lesh, 1990); Harel, Behr, Post & Lesh, 1990) and research in…

  7. Optimal Disturbances in Compressible Boundary Layers Complete Energy Norm Analysis

    E-print Network

    Zuccher, Simone

    Optimal Disturbances in Compressible Boundary Layers ­ Complete Energy Norm Analysis Simone Zuccher for the sphere, in the range of parameters that are relevant to wind tunnel testing or flight conditions density Subscripts ad adiabatic conditions e edge of the boundary layer in inlet conditions out outlet

  8. Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helemskii, A. Ya

    2013-07-01

    In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l_1(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l_1^0(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  9. Approximate structured singular value computation via Frobenius norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Manning; S. S. Banda

    1989-01-01

    Two algorithms are presented to aid in the approximation of the structured singular value through minimization of the Frobenius norm. The first algorithm allows the uncertain terms to be complex. The second algorithm considers only real variations for real uncertain terms. An example problem is included, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  10. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  11. A Case-Based Reasoning Approach for Norm Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Jordi; López-Sánchez, Maite; Esteva, Marc

    Existing organisational centred multi-agent systems regulate agents' activities. However, population/environmental changes may lead to a poor fulfilment of system's goals, and therefore, adapting the whole organisation becomes key. In this paper, we propose to use Case-Based Reasoning learning to adapt norms that regulate agents' behaviour. Moreover, we empirically evaluate this approach in a P2P scenario.

  12. Norm-based agency for designing collaborative information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kecheng Liu; Lily Sun; Mohan Narasipuram

    2001-01-01

    Information systems are organizations in which signs are created, processed and consumed. In order to fulfil the organizational goals and objec- tives, its members must understand their responsibilities and authorities, and must act co-operatively. The key to this organization and co-ordination lies in norms, which define responsibilities and authorities for each human agent, and estab- lish regularities of behaviour. In

  13. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  14. Evolving Norms at the Intersection of Health and Trade

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policymaking as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them – particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance – the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly 25 years. Our analytic framework particularly focuses on the actors that advance, defend and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively in their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

  15. Management by objectives in interpretive services: a comparative study of its effects on employee attitudes

    E-print Network

    Carney, Chere Amie

    1979-01-01

    MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES IN INTERPRETIVE SERVICES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES A Thesis by CHERE AMIE CARNEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES IN INTERPRETIVE SERVICES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES A Thesis by CHERE AMIE CARNEY Approved...

  16. Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality: A Likert?type scale and construct validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knud S. Larsen; Michael Reed; Susan Hoffman

    1980-01-01

    This article reports on three phases of the development of a Likert?type scale measuring heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuality. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Item analysis yielded 20 statements with item?total correlations ranging from .57 to .74. In Phase 2 the 20?item Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (HATH) Scale was administered to 82 subjects. Analysis yielded a corrected split?half

  17. Children's achievement goals, attitudes, and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program 

    E-print Network

    Agbuga, Bulent

    2007-09-17

    CHILDREN’S ACHIEVEMENT GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN AN AFTER­SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM A Dissertation by BULENT AGBUGA Submitted to... the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May207 Major Subject: Kinesiology CHILDREN’S ACHIEVEMENT GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN AN AFTER­SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM A Dissertation by BULENT AGBUGA Submitted to...

  18. A study of the attitudes of Arkansas school superintendents concerning sex education classes 

    E-print Network

    Fields, Tina Taylor

    1974-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF ARKANSAS SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS CONCERNING SEX EDUCATION CLASSES A Thesis by TINA TAYLOR FIELDS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Ma]or Subject: Health and Physical Education A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF ARKANSAS SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS CONCERNING SEX EDUCATION CLASSES A Thesis by TINA TAYLOR FIELDS Approved as to style d content by: (Chairman...

  19. Public perceptions of, and attitudes toward, crime in the parks of a major metropolitan area

    E-print Network

    Conway, Kenneth Lee

    1980-01-01

    PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF& AND ATTITUDES TOWARD, CRIME IN THE PARKS OF A MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREA A Thesis by KENNETH LEE CONWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF & AND ATTITUDES TOWARD & CRIME IN THE PARKS OF A MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREA A Thesis by KENNETH LEE CONWAY Approved as to style and content by...

  20. The Relationship Between a Specific Stress Management Program and the Reading Attitudes of First Grade Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Bower

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Kiddie QR stress management technique would affect the reading attitude of first grade students. It was also the intent of the investigation to examine whether the subjects of the treatment group, identified as least stressed and most stressed, would make gains in reading attitude.\\u000aStatistical analysis of pre and post