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1

The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

2014-01-01

2

Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

3

Toward a two-child norm: Changing family planning attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a questionnaire to 267 unmarried students, stratified for race and sex, to assess attitudes toward population control. Results indicate that Ss (a) desired 2.6 children in contrast to the previous norm of 3; (b) generally favored the birth control pill and, if infertile, were willing to adopt children; (c) supported voluntary limitation of family size (including a small but

Robert Buckhout

1972-01-01

4

Attitude Ambivalence, Friend Norms, and Adolescent Drug Use  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the moderating effects of attitudinal ambivalence on adolescent marijuana use in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). With data from the National Survey of Parents and Youth (N=1,604), two hierarchical multiple regression models were developed to examine the association of ambivalent attitudes, intentions, and later marijuana use. The first model explored the moderating effect of ambivalence on intentions to use marijuana; the second tested the moderation of ambivalence on actual marijuana use 1 year later. Results across both analyses suggest that ambivalence moderated the association of friend norms and subsequent adolescent marijuana use: friend norms were better predictors of marijuana intentions (?=0.151, t=2.29, p=0.02) and subsequent use when adolescents were attitudinally ambivalent about marijuana use (?=0.071, t=2.76, p= 0.006). These results suggest that preventive programs that affect the certainty with which adolescents holds pro- or antimarijuana attitudes may influence the likelihood of their resistance to, initiation, or continuance of marijuana use. PMID:23404670

Hohman, Zachary P.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

2013-01-01

5

Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

2009-01-01

6

The Role of Group Orientation and Descriptive Norms on Water Conservation Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms have been shown to impact behaviors, but with mixed results. The theory of normative social behavior delineates factors that moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors, and it addresses the attributes of behaviors that make them susceptible to normative influence. This study tests whether group orientation moderates the impact of descriptive norms on water conservation attitudes and

Maria Knight Lapinski; Rajiv N. Rimal; Rebecca DeVries; Ee Lin Lee

2007-01-01

7

Parenting, Peers, and Perceived Norms: What Predicts Attitudes toward Sex among Early Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although attitudes strongly predict later sexual behaviors, few studies have investigated the factors that influence early adolescent attitudes toward sex. Using a general population sample of urban seventh-grade students (N = 1,736), we examined how supportive parenting, television viewing, perceived social norms, and having a friend and/or…

Cox, Ronald B., Jr.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Dowdy, Jamie L.

2015-01-01

8

Setting an Egalitarian Social Norm in the Classroom: Improving Attitudes towards Diversity among Male Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effect of a message describing a social norm of egalitarian attitudes and behaviors in an engineering college on male students' attitudes and behavioral intentions surrounding diversity in engineering. Participants were first-semester university students enrolled in four sections of an introductory engineering course in…

Bennett, Jill E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

2014-01-01

9

Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men  

PubMed Central

Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

2014-01-01

10

A theory of planned behavior examination of parent\\/adolescent drug prevention: The role that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control play in whether parents engage in drug preventative practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parents do not talk to their children regularly about drugs (see Partnership for a Drug Free America, 2005 and 2006). There is evidence, however, suggesting that parent initiated drug preventative practices such as talking to and\\/or monitoring children may be effective in changing adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors regarding drugs (see Baumrind, 1991 and Booth-Butterfield & Sidelinger, 1998). The question

Julie E Delaney

2009-01-01

11

Individual, Country and Societal Cluster Differences on Measures of Personality, Attitudes, Values, and Social Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains--personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R], N = 1,600) and U.S. college students (N = 429). Total variability of each subscale was…

Stankov, Lazar

2011-01-01

12

Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n?=?500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (??=?0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (??=?0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (??=?0.19); also, both positive (??=?0.13) and negative (??=?-0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

2011-04-01

13

Some New Dimensions of Student Attitudes Toward Basic School Subjects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate whether student attitudes toward basic school subjects were multidimensional, responses of 876 students in grade 6 to a preliminary pool of 72 items from the Survey of School Attitudes (SSA) were factor analyzed. If attitudes are unidimensional, as suggested by the four scores yielded by the SSA (one each for reading/language arts,…

Hogan, Thomas P.

14

Injury and the orchestral environment: part II. Organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes to injury.  

PubMed

The organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes of a workplace have a profound influence on levels of injury and illness amongst its workers. While this is well established in Work Health and Safety literature, very little research has attempted to understand the influence of organisational culture on injury risk in the orchestral profession. To address this, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of organisational culture on injury outcomes for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case study methodology, in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 freelance and 8 fulltime members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a themes-based "analysis of narrative" approach. The findings indicate that an orchestral culture exists in which musicians see injury as a sign of weakness, failure, and poor musicianship. Such negative perceptions of injury influence musicians to play through considerable levels of pain and continue performing with injuries. Because of perceived judgment from the orchestral group, musicians were found to conceal injuries from colleagues and management staff. Freelance musicians felt that disclosing injuries may lead to decreased work opportunities, and both full-time and casual musicians felt that "opening up" about injury may subject them to group judgment about their technique or musicianship. The study suggests education measures which may be effective at influencing individual behaviours and attitudes as well as cultural change initiatives which could lead to long-term positive health outcomes in the orchestral workplace. PMID:24925177

Rickert, Dale Ll; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

2014-06-01

15

Chinese attitudes, norms, behavioral control and gambling involvement in Macao.  

PubMed

This study tested the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on gambling intention and involvement in a representative Chinese sample in Macao, recruited by a random residential number dialing method. We successfully interviewed 685 respondents, with about one-third of them reporting that they had participated in gambling activities during the 12 months prior to the interview. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that favorable attitudes toward superstition and techniques, poor sense of perceived behavioral control over gambling refusal, and high gambling intention increased vulnerability to excessive gambling involvement. These findings generally support the efficacy of the TPB in explaining gambling intention and involvement among both Chinese gamblers and non-gamblers. Some practical implications of the findings are discussed within the Chinese context. PMID:23179299

Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kowk Kit; Tao, Vivienne Y K

2013-12-01

16

Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

2013-04-01

17

Maternal Autonomy and Attitudes Towards Gender Norms: Associations with Childhood Immunization in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives Globally 2.5 million children under-five die from vaccine preventable diseases, and in Nigeria only 23% of children ages 12–23 months are fully immunized. The international community is promoting gender equality as a means to improve the health and well-being of women and their children. This paper looks at whether measures of gender equality, autonomy and individual attitudes towards gender norms, are associated with a child being fully immunized in Nigeria. Methods Data from currently married women with a child 12–23 months from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) were used to study the influence of autonomy and gender attitudes on whether or not a child is fully immunized. Multivariate logistic regression was used and several key socioeconomic variables were controlled for including wealth and education, which are considered key inputs into gender equality. Results Findings indicated that household decision-making and attitudes towards wife beating were significantly associated with a child being fully immunized after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Ethnicity, wealth and education were also significant factors. Conclusions Programmatic and policy implications indicate the potential for the promotion of gender equality as a means to improve child health. Gender equality can be seen as a means to enable women to access life-saving services for their children. PMID:22696106

Singh, Kavita; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort

2014-01-01

18

Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

2004-01-01

19

Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China  

PubMed Central

This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé à un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, à la discrimination perçue au nivea

Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

2009-01-01

20

Differences across Academic Subjects in Teachers' Attitudes about Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey study examined how attitudes about professional development (PD) vary among teachers of different subjects. Elementary teachers were more supportive of PD than health and physical education, social studies, and science teachers; special education teachers were more supportive of PD than social studies and science teachers; and five…

Torff, Bruce; Byrnes, Katherine

2011-01-01

21

Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

Hopp, Toby M.

2013-01-01

22

Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice. PMID:24331890

Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

2013-12-01

23

Antismoking Initiatives: Effects of Analysis Versus Production Media Literacy Interventions on Smoking-Related Attitude, Norm, and Behavioral Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and

Smita C. Banerjee; Kathryn Greene

2007-01-01

24

Gender differences in IS career choice: examine the role of attitudes and social norms in selecting IS profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed research will systematically assess the causes of gender-related differences in attraction to information systems (IS) as a career. We propose a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)—based model of intention to pursue an IS career which incorporates work value congruence, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy. Undergraduate students in an introductory IS course, which for many will be their first introduction

Kshiti D. Joshi; Kristine M. Kuhn

2001-01-01

25

The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are usually neglected in economics, because they are to a large extent enforced through nonmarket interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to work and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people find a new job.

Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

2004-01-01

26

The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are usually neglected in economics because they are to a large extent enforced through non-market interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to live off one’s own income and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people

Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

2001-01-01

27

Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture  

PubMed Central

Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people’s day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists. PMID:19805793

Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

2010-01-01

28

First, Third, and Fifth Grade Children's Attitudes about Gender Norm Violations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire study examined elementary school student's knowledge of a number of gender norms as well as some moral and social norms. Participating in the study were 111 first, third, and fifth graders, the majority of whom were white, with a small number of Hispanic and Asian children. The gender roles related to children's play, hair…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

29

Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: Sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that heterosexual men are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This

Michelle Davies

2004-01-01

30

Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

2009-01-01

31

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents’ Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents’ environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to environment-related media content is positively associated with Hong Kong youngsters’ subjective

Kaman Lee

2011-01-01

32

Educational Climates and Attitudes Toward Dissent: A Study of Political Socialization of Conflict Norms in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of nine San Francisco Bay Area high schools in order to study the nature, intensity, and content of the experience of conflict and dissent in relation to the acquisition of generalized attitudes towards it. Educational climate was identified as a significant independent variable and other sources of…

Grossman, David L.

33

Subjective Proximity to Crime or Social Representations? Explaining Sentencing Attitudes in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lay sentencing attitudes are considered in the light of two theoretical perspectives. The first perspective views sentencing\\u000a attitudes as parts of broader sets of social representations anchored in one’s position in the social structure. The second\\u000a perspective explains sentencing attitudes by their subjective experiences of crime. This paper tests both theories by performing\\u000a a series of multiple regressions on two

Raphaël Hammer; Eric D. Widmer; Christian-Nils Robert

2009-01-01

34

Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia  

SciTech Connect

How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

2008-06-05

35

Attitude and Norm Accessibility Affect Processing of Anti-Smoking Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Anti-smoking PSAs are not always effective in reducing cigarette smoking, and there is a lack of research into mechanisms through which PSAs affect the attitudes and behaviors of viewers. The present research was designed to better understand how smokers and non-smokers process anti-smoking ads. Design: In a repeated measures design, the accessibility of smokers' (N = 70) and non-smokers'

Nancy Rhodes; David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen; Aimee Edison; Mary Beth Bradford

2008-01-01

36

The Impact of Hispanic and White Group Cues on Attitudes Towards the Violation of Generic Norms  

PubMed Central

While much work in political science has examined the impact of racial cues on individual perceptions, we know little about how individuals evaluate members of minority outgroups on issues that are not linked to stereotypes. We measure the impacts of Hispanic and White cues on individual assessments related to a stereotype-independent norm violation: alcoholism. We test three competing theories – cognition, intergroup emotions, and social identity – using a population-based vignette experiment included in the General Social Survey. Our results contradict much of the literature, but keep with social identity theory's predictions. Hispanic alcoholics, when Hispanics constitute the outgroup, are assessed less negatively than White alcoholics in the ingroup, the latter experiencing what is called the black sheep effect. The black sheep effect occurs when ingroup members are more punitive towards members of the ingroup than the outgroup. However, the black sheep effect does not extend to measures that are more consistent with outgroup stereotypes, such as violence or money mismanagement; Hispanic alcoholics are evaluated more negatively than Whites on these measures. The implication is that the effect of racial cues depends strongly on issue linkages to group stereotypes. PMID:24386153

Cranmer, Mirjam; Cranmer, Skyler J.

2013-01-01

37

The influence of subjective norm on intention to use of learning management system among Malaysian higher education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of learning management system by universities has been increasingly growing. However, the results of several studies have revealed that students do not fully use the information systems. The present study proposes a model which investigates the influence of three constructs of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and subjective norm on behavior intention to use of learning management system. The sample size was 216 Malaysian undergraduate students. The results of the study revealed that the proposed model accounts for 31.1 % variance of behavior intention to use.

Baleghi-Zadeh, Sousan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

2014-12-01

38

Fully magnetic attitude control for spacecraft subject to gravity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents stability and control analysis of a satellite on a near polar orbit subject to the gravity torque. The satellite is actuated by a set of mutually perpendicular coils. The concept is that interaction between the Earth's magnetic \\

Mogens Blanke; Fredrik Bajers Vej

1999-01-01

39

Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct  

PubMed Central

This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

2010-01-01

40

A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students.  

PubMed

The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use. PMID:24611821

Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick

2014-06-01

41

Attitude stability of artificial satellites subject to gravity gradient torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of the rotational motion of artificial satellites is analyzed considering perturbations due to the gravity gradient torque, using a canonical formulation, and Andoyer’s variables to describe the rotational motion. The stability criteria employed requires the reduction of the Hamiltonian to a normal form around the stable equilibrium points. These points are determined through a numerical study of the Hamilton’s equations of motion and linear study of their stability. Subsequently a canonical linear transformation is used to diagonalize the matrix associated to the linear part of the system resulting in a normalized quadratic Hamiltonian. A semi-analytic process of normalization based on Lie-Hori algorithm is applied to obtain the Hamiltonian normalized up to the fourth order. Lyapunov stability of the equilibrium point is performed using Kovalev and Savchenko’s theorem. This semi-analytical approach was applied considering some data sets of hypothetical satellites, and only a few cases of stable motion were observed. This work can directly be useful for the satellite maintenance under the attitude stability requirements scenario.

de Moraes, Rodolpho Vilhena; Cabette, Regina Elaine Santos; Zanardi, Maria Cecília; Stuchi, Teresinha J.; Formiga, Jorge Kennety

2009-08-01

42

Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

2007-01-01

43

Prejudice as Social Norms  

E-print Network

, identification, and continuous interaction. Once groups are formed, group members learn the appropriate attitudes about their and other groups from the other group members. Group members pressure each other to conform to group norms and standards... is an important dimension of intergroup prejudice, stating that: “Much prejudiced behavior does not stem from prejudiced attitudes or motives, nor even from faulty information, but rather from the need to conform to prevailing social norms or from simple...

Sechrist, Gretchen B.; Stangor, Charles

2005-01-01

44

The Neurotechnological Cerebral Subject: Persistence of Implicit and Explicit Gender Norms in a Network of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural\\u000a interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time\\u000a the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies.\\u000a This

Sigrid Schmitz

45

An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach  

PubMed Central

Background Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 adult male and female respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age (?35 years and >35 years), and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not indicate their sex. The majority of women (77%) and men (74%) agreed “a man needs other women, even if things with his wife are fine”. Respondents who reported no education (60%) were more likely than those who reported any education (45%) to agree “if a woman is married, she should have sex with her husband whenever he wants to, even if she doesn’t want to” (p?=?0.002). The majority of women (74%) and men (73%) agreed “it is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant”. Respondents who reported no education (81%) were more likely than those who reported any education (72%) to agree with this statement (p?=?0.04). When asked about condom use, the majority of respondents, across both sexes and both age groups, agreed “it would be outrageous for a wife to ask her husband to use a condom” and “women who carry condoms are easy”. There were no statistically significant differences between the two age groups for any of the assessed gender inequitable norms. Conclusion The study reveals differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms among those surveyed in South Sudan when stratified by sex and education. As a new nation seeks to strengthen its health system, these data can inform sexual and reproductive health policies and programming in South Sudan. PMID:24209789

2013-01-01

46

Aging Attitudes Moderate the Effect of Subjective Age on Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a 10Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older subjective age is often associated with lower psychological well-being among middle-aged and older adults. We hypothesize that attitudes toward aging moderate this relationship; specifically, feeling older will predict lower well-being among those with less favorable attitudes toward aging but not those with more favorable aging attitudes. We tested this with longitudinal data from the National Survey of Midlife Development

Steven E. Mock; Richard P. Eibach

2011-01-01

47

Cultural attitudes to corruption : a perspective on the interplay between cultural and legal norms for Western businesses operating in China  

E-print Network

Corruption is an important challenge facing those who wish to do business in China. Beyond the commercial context, corruption and attitudes towards it are also more broadly relevant to politics, political economics and ...

Winters, Timothy (Timothy Mark)

2013-01-01

48

Attribution of blame in rape cases: The impact of norm violation, gender, and sex-role attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the importance of the characteristics of the rape victims to the characteristics of observers in the attribution of blame in rape cases. Both blame of the victim and blame of the rapist are considered, along with seriousness of the crime, perceived norm violation, respectability, behavioral intentions toward the victim, and behavioral intentions toward the rapist. A

Alan C. Acock; Nancy K. Ireland

1983-01-01

49

Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…

Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.

2007-01-01

50

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

51

Sorting Through Chickens and Eggs: A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations Between Attitudes, Norms, and Sexual Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health behavior theories posit that health-relevant attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral skills drive subsequent actions people take to protect themselves from health threats. Within the realm of HIV-related sexual risk behavior, much of the research in support of this notion is cross-sectional, rather than longitudinal, particularly in studies of gay and bisexual men. Other psychological theories (e.g., self-perception or cognitive

David M. Huebner; Torsten B. Neilands; Gregory M. Rebchook; Susan M. Kegeles

2011-01-01

52

Knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking in subjects of lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world since 1988, both in terms of incidence and mortality among both men and women. Approximately half of the cases of lung cancer now occur in developing countries compared to 1980. Tobacco smoking is by far the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. A knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking among 132 cases of lung cancer in this study was undertaken. Amongst 113 ever smokers, out of 132 cases, 91.18% of males and 36.36% of female subjects continued smoking despite knowing the harmful effects of tobacco, displayed over the cigarette or bidi packets. In these group squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type followed by adenocarcinoma. Among the never smokers adenocarcinoma was the commonest type, females accounting for 75% of the cases, though a good number was observed among male ever smokers, signifying the changing histological types of lung cancer today. PMID:23936950

Dey, Subir Kumar; Jha, Sumanta; Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Das, Abhradip; Gangopadhyay, Subir

2012-12-01

53

Reconstructing Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

2005-01-01

54

Exploring stakeholders’ attitudes and beliefs regarding behaviors that prevent the spread of invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists’ attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six belief barriers to changing leisure behaviors. These are the attitudes

Gwenn Prinbeck; Denise Lach; Samuel Chan

2011-01-01

55

How International Students Select Offshore Programs: The Influence of Image, Attitude, Subject Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research studies identified country image as an important variable in international students' selection of onshore programs, and it is often perceived that there is little difference between onshore and offshore program selection. Looking at a sample of high school students in China and their selections of offshore programs (from a…

Li, Jianyao; Liu, Fang; Rojas-Méndez, José I.

2013-01-01

56

Patients’ and clinicians’ attitude towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with a first episode of psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The acceptance and use of long-acting depot antipsychotics has been shown to be influenced by the attitudes of patients and clinicians. Depot treatment rates are low across countries and especially patients with first-episode psychosis are rarely treated with depot medication. The aim of this article was to review the literature on patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotic in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Results: Six studies out of a total of 503 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four studies conveyed a negative and two a positive opinion of clinicians toward depot medication. No systematic study directly addressed the attitude of patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatrists frequently presume that patients with first-episode psychosis would not accept depot medication and that depots are mostly eligible for chronic patients. Conclusions: Full information of all patients especially those with first episode psychosis in a therapeutic relationship that includes shared decision-making processes could reduce the negative image and stigmatization attached to depots. PMID:24167680

Theodoridou, Anastasia; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kaiser, Stefan; Jäger, Matthias

2013-01-01

57

Stability of dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas: A 9-year follow-up study of clinically depressed subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) have been suggested as relatively stable vulnerability markers for depression and entrenched psychological disorders, respectively. One-hundred-and-forty-nine clinically depressed (CDs), previously depressed (PDs) and never-depressed subjects (NDs) completed the DAS, the YSQ and the Beck Depression Inventory in the index study and were followed-up nine years later. Results showed: (1)

Catharina E. A. Wang; Marianne Halvorsen; Martin Eisemann; Knut Waterloo

2010-01-01

58

Cognition is only minimally impaired in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14): a neuropsychological study of ten Norwegian subjects compared to intrafamilial controls and population norm  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing awareness of the role of the cerebellum not only in motor, but also in cognitive and emotional functions. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia characterized by a relatively pure cerebellar phenotype. Cognitive impairment has been reported in studies with phenotype descriptions of SCA14, but previous studies have been small without control groups, and no homogeneous and systematic test panel has been used. The objective of this study was to thoroughly characterize the neuropsychological profile in ten Norwegian SCA14 subjects compared to unaffected family members and population norm data. Methods Ten SCA14 subjects and ten intrafamilial unaffected age- and education-matched controls from two Norwegian families were included. The unaffected intrafamilial controls included six first degree relatives, two second degree relatives, and two spouses. General intellectual ability, memory, visuoperceptive skills, psychomotor speed, executive functions, depression and anxiety were examined using internationally standardized tests, with minimal need for manual response to avoid motor bias. Results No significant cognitive deficit was found in SCA14 subjects compared to intrafamilial controls. Verbal IQ, verbal executive function and psychomotor speed tended to be reduced in affected subjects, but previously reported non-verbal executive dysfunction was not confirmed in this study. Conclusion Only subtle cognitive impairment was found in SCA14 affected subjects. The current findings do not confirm earlier reports of cognitive dysfunction in SCA14, but does shows a mild impairment in specific verbal executive functions. Genotypic differences may partly account for this discrepancy, and further studies on larger materials are needed to verify the findings. PMID:24289098

2013-01-01

59

A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

2011-01-01

60

Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed. PMID:25154118

Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

2014-01-01

61

Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

2011-01-01

62

Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (?=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (?=1.3, P<0.001) and greater perceived benefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (?=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (?=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (?=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (?=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. PMID:21972843

Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

2012-10-01

63

The influence of subjective and objective knowledge on attitude, motivations and consumption of organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Although the organic market has expanded in recent years, it remains small. Some researchers argue that consumers' lack of knowledge concerning organic food is an important factor slowing down growth. This paper aims to focus on the factors influencing objective and subjective knowledge with regard to organic food production and the relationship between both types of knowledge and

Joris Aertsens; Koen Mondelaers; Wim Verbeke; Jeroen Buysse; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2011-01-01

64

Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

2011-01-01

65

Attitudes Towards End-of-Life Decisions and the Subjective Concepts of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background People have fought for their civil rights, primarily the right to live in dignity. At present, the development of technology in medicine and healthcare led to an apparent paradox: many people are fighting for the right to die. This study was aimed at testing whether different moral principles are associated with different attitudes towards end-of-life decisions for patients with a severe brain damage. Methodology We focused on the ethical decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in patients with severe brain damage. 202 undergraduate students at the University of Padova were given one description drawn from four profiles describing different pathological states: the permanent vegetative state, the minimally conscious state, the locked-in syndrome, and the terminal illness. Participants were asked to evaluate how dead or how alive the patient was, and how appropriate it was to satisfy the patient's desire. Principal Findings We found that the moral principles in which people believe affect not only people's judgments concerning the appropriateness of the withdrawal of life support, but also the perception of the death status of patients with severe brain injury. In particular, we found that the supporters of the Free Choice (FC) principle perceived the death status of the patients with different pathologies differently: the more people believe in the FC, the more they perceived patients as dead in pathologies where conscious awareness is severely impaired. By contrast, participants who agree with the Sanctity of Life (SL) principle did not show differences across pathologies. Conclusions These results may shed light on the complex aspects of moral consensus for supporting or rejecting end-of-life decisions. PMID:22355392

Lotto, Lorella; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rigoni, Davide; Rumiati, Rino; Sartori, Giuseppe; Birbaumer, Niels

2012-01-01

66

Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

2011-01-01

67

Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

2011-01-01

68

Perceived norms for thinness and muscularity among college students: What do men and women really want?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPerceived norms are related to health-related attitudes and behaviors, including body image. The current study examined body dissatisfaction and perceived norms for thinness and muscularity among male and female college students.

Joel R. Grossbard; Clayton Neighbors; Mary E. Larimer

2011-01-01

69

[Study of cognitive evoked potentials as a function of the affective value and significance of stimuli in anhedonic healthy subjects with dysfunctional attitudes].  

PubMed

In depression studies, it is important to consider healthy subjects with characteristics which may be predictive of depression. Such are anhedonia and some "dysfunctional" attitudes. For this reason, subjects with or without these characteristics were submitted to an experimental paradigm allowing an analysis of their electroencephalographical (CNV and P300) reactivity according to affective value and meaning of stimuli, and according to the probability of occurrence of these stimuli. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their scores on two scales: the Physical Anhedonia Scale of Chapman et al. and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale of Weissman and Beck. Several results enabled to differentiate the two groups. Anhedonic and depressogenic subjects were characterized mainly by a particular type of processing for failure situations and for the stimulus which were associated with those situations. PMID:2387243

Pierson, A; Loas, G; Lesevre, N

1990-01-01

70

Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

71

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions toward Nuclear Energy before and after Chernobyl in a Longitudinal within-subjects Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward nuclear energy in the Netherlands were investigated within a sample of Dutch citizens two months before the Chernobyl accident, one month after the accident, six months after the accident, and one year and seven months after the accident. One month after the accident, analyses revealed more unfavorable attitudes which became less antinuclear five months

Bas Verplanken

1989-01-01

72

Zero tolerance against patriarchal norms? A cross-sectional study of Swedish physicians' attitudes towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration.  

PubMed

Many countries, Sweden among them, lack professional guidelines and established procedures for responding to young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration due to honour-related threats. The purpose of the present survey study was to further examine the attitudes of the Swedish healthcare professionals concerned towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restorations. The study indicates that a small majority of Swedish general practitioners and gynaecologists would accommodate these patients, at least given certain circumstances. But a large minority of physicians would under no circumstances help the young females, regardless of speciality, years of practice within medicine, gender, or experience of the phenomenon. Their responses are similar to other areas where it has been claimed that society should adopt a zero tolerance policy against certain phenomena, for instance drug policy, where it has also been argued that society should never act in ways that express support for the practice in question. However, this argument is questionable. A more pragmatic approach would also allow for follow-ups and evaluation of virginity certificates and hymen restorations, as is demonstrated by the Dutch policy. Hence, there are some obvious advantages to this pragmatic approach compared to the restrictive one espoused by a large minority of Swedish physicians and Swedish policy-makers in this area. PMID:24574429

Juth, Niklas; Lynöe, Niels

2015-03-01

73

Development, social norms, and assignment to task  

PubMed Central

Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

Fafchamps, Marcel

2011-01-01

74

Vector norms, convex bodies and subordinate matrix norms  

E-print Network

VDCTOR ?014IS, CO:lVEX BODJRS AFD SURORDIX&'ATR vlATR Z h'ORl! A Thesis by Joe Harvey Dean Subr!itted to the Dragon te College of Texas AQI Univer ity in iol fulfillment of. the requires!ent for the Degree of %%STER Ol' SCIH1CH Nay 1971... Hajor Subject: lla!hematrcs VECTOR NORMS, CONVEX BODIES AND SUBORDINATE MATRIX NORMS O i C Z A Thesis by Joe Harvey Dean IZI O C m m C+) 0 g 0 Approved as to style and content by: ( a rman o Committee) / (. (Head of Department) (Member...

Dean, Joe Harvey

1971-01-01

75

Association of gender norms, relationship and intrapersonal variables, and acculturation with sexual communication among young adult latinos.  

PubMed

Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648718

Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia

2015-04-01

76

Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm

Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

2013-01-01

77

Subjective and Objective Measures of Attractiveness and Their Relation to Sexual Behavior and Sexual Attitudes in University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined both self-rated and objectively measured attractiveness in relation to sexual behaviors and attitudes\\u000a in an undergraduate sample (N=456). About a quarter of the variance in self-ratings of attractiveness was predicted from combining standard objective measures\\u000a of attractiveness, including face photo ratings, body mass index, and chest-to-waist ratio for men, and face photo ratings,\\u000a body mass index, and

Jason Weeden; John Sabini

2007-01-01

78

Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: the role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

This study examined the usefulness of integrating measures of affective and moral attitudes into the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-model in predicting purchase intentions of organic foods. Moral attitude was operationalised as positive self-rewarding feelings of doing the right thing. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Italy (N=202), Finland (N=270) and UK (N=200) in March 2004. Questions focussed on intentions to purchase organic apples and organic ready-to-cook pizza instead of their conventional alternatives. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling by simultaneous multi-group analysis of the three countries. Along with attitudes, moral attitude and subjective norms explained considerable shares of variances in intentions. The relative influences of these variables varied between the countries, such that in the UK and Italy moral attitude rather than subjective norms had stronger explanatory power. In Finland it was other way around. Inclusion of moral attitude improved the model fit and predictive ability of the model, although only marginally in Finland. Thus the results partially support the usefulness of incorporating moral measures as well as affective items for attitude into the framework of TPB. PMID:18036702

Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Dean, M; Lampila, P; Saba, A; Lähteenmäki, L; Shepherd, R

2008-01-01

79

EVOLUTION OF MORAL NORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral norms are the rules of morality, those that people actually follow, and those that we feel people ought to follow, even when they don't. Historically, the social sciences have been primarily concerned with describing the many forms that moral norms take in various cultures, with the emerging implication that moral norms are mere arbitrary products of culture. Philosophers, on

William Harms; Brian Skyrms

80

Why are religious people happy? The effect of the social norm of religiosity across countries.  

PubMed

Drawing on social norms theories, we suggest that religiosity substantially increases subjective well-being if it is considered normative in a certain national context. In Study 1, we test this hypothesis using an indicator of a country's social norm of religiosity that includes both the national level of religiosity and the social desirability of religion. The results of a multilevel regression analysis suggest that religious individuals are on average happier and more satisfied with life than non-religious individuals. This effect is stronger in religious countries with dominant negative attitudes towards non-believers. In Study 2, we further examine whether the differences in social recognition of religious and non-religious individuals in countries where religiosity is normative account for this finding. The results of a moderated mediation analysis indicate that in religious countries, religious people report being treated with more respect, which partially explains their higher levels of happiness and life satisfaction. PMID:23146600

Stavrova, Olga; Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Schlösser, Thomas

2013-01-01

81

Attitudes toward older people and coworkers' intention to work with older employees: a Taiwanese study.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N= 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived subjective norm, and traditional Chinese cultural values were all related to stronger intentions to work with older employees; (2) the model derived from the theory of reasoned action emerged the best model accounting for behavioral intention among competing structural models. The associations of positive attitudes and subjective norm with intention were found after controlling for demographics, cultural values, and personal contact experiences with older people. Our results highlight the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform public and organizational policies to better promote and manage the careers of older employees in an aging, economically developing society. PMID:21261137

Lu, Luo

2010-01-01

82

Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.  

PubMed

Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

83

The influence of the International Baccalaureate experimental science program format on classroom learning environment and student attitudes toward the subject of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the classroom learning environments and science attitudes of students in three IB Higher Level science classrooms. The study sample consisted of 82 twelfth grade IB science students and three IB Higher Level science teachers. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to generate assertions toward the development of a grounded theory on accelerated curriculum effects on the classroom learning environment. The four research questions that guided this investigation are: (1) What are the shared characteristics of IB Higher Level experimental science instructors? (2) What instructional methods do instructors use to implement the IB Higher Level experimental science program and why do the instructors use these methods? (3) What are the students' perceptions about the classroom learning environment in IB Higher Level experimental science courses? (4) Does a relationship exist between student perceptions of the classroom learning environment and student attitudes toward the subject of science in IB Higher Level experimental science courses? The qualitative data sources were field notes from classroom observations, teacher interview transcripts, and relevant documents. These data sources were analyzed by constant comparison analysis. Assertions were generated about the educational and professional qualifications of the Higher Level science instructors and the teaching methods used to implement the IB science curriculum. Quantitative data sources consisted of student responses to the Preferred and Actual Forms of the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Attitude Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA). Student responses to the Preferred and Actual Forms of the ICEQ were analyzed with paired t-tests and one way analyses of variance to determine the students' perceptions about the science classroom environment. Correlation tests were used to examine the relationship between learning environment dimensions and student science attitudes. The significant findings of this study were the Higher Level science teachers were supportive facilitators with strong educational backgrounds. However, the science teachers demonstrated teaching behaviors associated with teaching to the IB science exit examinations. The ICEQ findings revealed the IB science students preferred more personalized teacher-student interactions. The correlation results suggested more positive science attitudes may result in greater participation in IB Higher Level physics classes.

Raiford, Lisa Renee

84

Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.  

PubMed

Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency. PMID:23373978

Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

2014-01-01

85

A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems  

PubMed Central

Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

2014-01-01

86

A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.  

PubMed

Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

2014-01-01

87

Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

88

Differential effects of exposure to social norms campaigns: a cause for concern.  

PubMed

College students' processing of alcohol social norms messages, related effects on normative judgments, attitudes toward their own behaviors, and perception of undergraduate attitudes were examined using expectancy violation theories and social norms marketing. Data were collected from 2 universities (N = 393). Following message exposure, the majority moved their normative judgments toward the statistic provided in the message. Slight attitude change occurred but not always in the desired direction. Those most likely to develop unhealthier attitudes drank more than those who developed healthier attitudes, consistent with psychological reactance to the messages. Therefore, the effects of social norms campaigns on those at greatest risk for primary and secondary alcohol effects due to their increased alcohol consumption could lead to increased risk for those participants, indicating that the widespread use of social norms campaigns needs to be scrutinized. PMID:16719724

Campo, Shelly; Cameron, Kenzie A

2006-01-01

89

Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364

Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

2010-01-01

90

Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

91

Attitudes and attitude change.  

PubMed

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791

Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

2011-01-01

92

Middle school students’ attitudes toward physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students’ attitudes toward physical education using an attitude instrument grounded in attitude theory. In addition, this investigation also sought to ascertain if gender and grade level influence student attitudes toward the subject matter. Participants for this study were 995 students from grades 6 to 8. A previously validated attitude instrument

Prithwi Raj Subramaniam; Stephen Silverman

2007-01-01

93

Profile of Masculine Norms and Help-Seeking Stigma in College Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents an interdisciplinary endeavor between the fields of sport psychology and the psychological study of men and masculinity. The purpose of this study was to provide a greater understanding of the relationship between traditional masculine norms and help-seeking attitudes within the unique context of football. We examined conformity to masculine norms and help-seeking stigma within a sample of

Jesse A. Steinfeldt; Matthew Clint Steinfeldt

2012-01-01

94

An Exploratory Study of the Relationships Between Televised Sports Viewing Habits and Conformity to Masculine Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this exploratory study the relationships between televised sports viewing habits and conformity to masculine norms were examined through a single panel survey. The amount and types of sports programming an individual watches in a usual week were assessed, along with attitudes about masculinity as measured by the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. A group of 183 U.S. college students

Thomas C. Johnson; Edward Schiappa

2010-01-01

95

Adolescent Alcohol-Related Risk Cognitions: The Roles of Social Norms and Social Networking Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not.

Dana M. Litt; Michelle L. Stock

2011-01-01

96

Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research  

PubMed Central

This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

2010-01-01

97

Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding  

PubMed Central

This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

2014-01-01

98

Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

2014-01-01

99

Nerds and Freaks: A Theory of Student Culture and Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the relationship between the study behavior and academic engagement of individual students, the norms and attitudes of close friends, and the peer culture of school. The authors are particularly interested in how the academic orientation of a student and his or her close friends invites or protects him or her from harassment by…

Bishop, John H.; Bishop, Matthew; Gelbwasser, Lara; Green, Shanna; Zuckerman, Andrew

2003-01-01

100

Norms and comprehension times for 305 French idiomatic expressions.  

PubMed

We report psycholinguistic norms for 305 French idiomatic expressions (Study 1). For each of the idiomatic expressions, the following variables are reported: knowledge, predictability, literality, compositionality, subjective and objective frequency, familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), and length. In addition, we have collected comprehension times for each idiom (Study 2). The psycholinguistic relevance of the collected norms is explained, and different analyses (descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses) performed on the norms are reported and discussed. The entire set of norms and reading times are provided as supplemental material. PMID:23468183

Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Bugaiska, Aurelia

2013-12-01

101

Teacher Candidates' Attitudes and Beliefs of Subject Matter and Pedagogy Measured throughout Their Reform-Based Mathematics and Science Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the use of a valid and reliable instrument, "Attitudes and Beliefs About the Nature of and the Teaching of Mathematics and Science," to measure teacher candidates' attitudes and beliefs about the nature of mathematics and science teaching. This paper examines how teacher candidates felt over 3 years. Teacher candidates were from…

McGinnis, J. Randy; Parker, Carolyn

102

Modeling resident attitudes toward tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous analyses have been performed to identify resident attitudes toward tourism. This article extends the subject by introducing a broad, synthetic conceptual model of attitudes. Using data from a survey, two sets of specific models derived from this general one are evaluated using structural equation modeling (e.g., LISREL). The value-attitude models indicate that the strength of resident values regarding economic

Rebecca L. Johnson

1997-01-01

103

Serotonin and Social Norms  

PubMed Central

How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

2014-01-01

104

The price of sin: The effects of social norms on markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence for the effects of social norms on markets by studying ''sin'' stocks—publicly traded companies involved in producing alcohol, tobacco, and gaming. We hypothesize that there is a societal norm against funding operations that promote vice and that some investors, particularly institutions subject to norms, pay a financial cost in abstaining from these stocks. Consistent with this hypothesis,

Harrison Hong; Marcin Kacperczyk

2006-01-01

105

Sustainable Food Consumption: Exploring the Consumer “Attitude – Behavioral Intention” Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioral patterns are not\\u000a univocally consistent with attitudes. This study investigates the presumed gap between favorable attitude towards sustainable\\u000a behavior and behavioral intention to purchase sustainable food products. The impact of involvement, perceived availability,\\u000a certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE), values, and social norms on consumers’ attitudes and intentions

Iris Vermeir; Wim Verbeke

2006-01-01

106

Middle School Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine middle school students' attitudes toward physical education using an attitude instrument grounded in attitude theory. In addition, this investigation also sought to ascertain if gender and grade level influence student attitudes toward the subject matter. Participants for this study were 995 students from…

Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj; Silverman, Stephen

2007-01-01

107

Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

Johnson, Mark B.

2012-01-01

108

Graph-Based Norm Explanation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Norms impose obligations, permissions and prohibitions on individual agents operating as part of an organisation. Typically, the purpose of such norms is to ensure that an organisation acts in some socially (or mutually) beneficial manner, possibly at the expense of individual agent utility. In this context, agents are normaware if they are able to reason about which norms are applicable to them, and to decide whether to comply with or ignore them. While much work has focused on the creation of norm-aware agents, much less has been concerned with aiding system designers in understanding the effects of norms on a system. The ability to understand such norm effects can aid the designer in avoiding incorrect norm specification, eliminating redundant norms and reducing normative conflict. In this paper, we address the problem of norm understanding by providing explanations as to why a norm is applicable, violated, or in some other state. We make use of conceptual graph based semantics to provide a graphical representation of the norms within a system. Given knowledge of the current and historical state of the system, such a representation allows for explanation of the state of norms, showing for example why they may have been activated or violated.

Croitoru, Madalina; Oren, Nir; Miles, Simon; Luck, Michael

109

NORM survey in Argentina.  

PubMed

A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested. PMID:23089035

Canoba, A C

2012-01-01

110

Norms and Mathematical Proficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 8-page article (PDF) Kastberg and Frye explain how sociomathematical norms can improve students' mathematical proficiency. The article focuses on a 6th grade class working through a ratio comparison problem. In this classroom students had been encouraged to question and challenge their own solutions as well as peer's solutions, leading to deeper mathematical understanding through valuing the differences in problem solving and reasoning.

Signe E. Kastberg

111

Bad Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative attitudes students bring to class can obstruct teaching and learning. These attitudes can be traced to ideas of selfism advanced by modern philosophers. Discusses why students are not learning, examining sources of opposing values and how to recognize obstructive attitudes. Presents suggestions for handling negative attitudes that…

Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan

2000-01-01

112

Words with attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional notion of word meaning used in natural language processing is literal or lexical meaning as used in dictionaries and lexicons. This relatively objective notion of lexical meaning is different from more subjective notions of emotive or affective meaning. Our aim is to come to grips with subjective aspects of meaning expressed in written texts, such as the attitudes

Jaap Kamps; Maarten Marx

2002-01-01

113

Effects of norm referent salience on young people's dietary orientation.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. PMID:25447012

Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi

2015-02-01

114

Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health – a Swedish questionnaire study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the

Lars Axelsson; Ingemar Andersson; Anders Håkansson; Göran Ejlertsson

2005-01-01

115

A Walk from 2Norm SVM to 1Norm SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how useful the standard 2-norm regularized SVM is in approximating the 1-norm SVM problem. To this end, we examine a general method that is based on iteratively re-weighting the features and solving a 2-norm optimization problem. The convergence rate of this method is unknown. Previous work indicates that it might require an excessive number of iterations. We

Jussi Kujala; Timo Aho; Tapio Elomaa

2009-01-01

116

An implementable proximal point algorithmic framework for nuclear norm minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear norm minimization problem is to find a matrix with the minimum nuclear norm subject to linear and second order\\u000a cone constraints. Such a problem often arises from the convex relaxation of a rank minimization problem with noisy data, and\\u000a arises in many fields of engineering and science. In this paper, we study inexact proximal point algorithms in the

Yong-Jin Liu; Defeng Sun; Kim-Chuan Toh

117

Prosocial norms and degree heterogeneity in social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide empirical evidence to support the claims that social diversity promotes prosocial behavior. We elicit a real-life social network and its members' adherence to a social norm, namely inequity aversion. The data reveal a positive relationship between subjects' prosociality and several measures of centrality. This result is in line with the theoretical literature that relates the evolution of social norms to the structure of social interactions and argues that central individuals are crucial for the emergence of prosocial behavior.

Ková?ík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Cobo-Reyes, Ramón; Espinosa, María Paz; Jiménez, Natalia; Ponti, Giovanni

2012-02-01

118

Are Traditional Gender Role Attitudes Associated With Risky Sexual Behavior and Condom-related Beliefs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional gender role attitudes, which emphasize an unequal distribution of power in the family and stereotypical norms about masculinity, may be associated with unsafe sexual behavior and beliefs in young men and women. This study was designed to examine associations between gender role attitudes including gender-based family role attitudes and masculinity ideology, sexual behaviors, and condom-related beliefs in a sample

Cindy L. Shearer; Shelley J. Hosterman; Meghan M. Gillen; Eva S. Lefkowitz

2005-01-01

119

Descriptive and injunctive social norms' interactive role in gambling behavior.  

PubMed

Social norms have a fundamental impact on behavior, yet little research has examined social norms regarding gambling and no research has examined possible interaction effects. The current study examined the interaction between perceived approval of gambling by others (i.e., injunctive norms) and perceived prevalence of gambling by others (i.e., descriptive norms) on the respondent's gambling frequency and problems, in a sample of relatively frequent gamblers. The current study examined 2 distinct reference groups: 1 close in proximity (i.e., family and friends) and 1 distally located (i.e., other students). The sample consisted of 252 undergraduates who gambled at least twice a month. Two interactions were observed on gambling frequency based on the proximity of the reference groups; however, only descriptive norms significantly predicted gambling problems. When the reference group was closer in proximity, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the individual's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. When the reference group was distally located, differences in respondents' gambling frequency emerged only in contexts in which they perceived other students to gamble infrequently. Specifically, when respondents perceived that other students gambled infrequently and disapproved of gambling, respondents gambled the most frequently. The results suggest that individuals are influenced by their perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors, regardless of proximity, and that these perceptions of others' behavior are strongly associated with gambling problems. PMID:24955677

Meisel, Matthew K; Goodie, Adam S

2014-06-01

120

Gender-Role Variables and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationships of gender-role variables to attitudes toward homosexuality. Study 1, a meta-analysis, found that endorsement of traditional gender-role beliefs, modern sexism, and hypermasculinity were related to attitudes, but that gender-role self-concept was not. Study 2 examined the relationships of endorsement of male role norms, attitudes toward women, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, modern sexism, hypermasculinity, and hyperfemininity

Bernard E. Whitley

2001-01-01

121

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

122

Gender and attitudes toward work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some differences between men and women regarding their attitudes to work and the implications of those attitudes regarding counselling. The subjects were 300 Polish students (150 men and 150 women) and 306 German students. The study is part of a larger collaborative research program conducted in 43 countries by Lynn (1991). The results are presented against the

Alicja Maurer; Barbara Oszustowicz; Ryszard Stocki

1994-01-01

123

Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

All known human societies have maintained social order by enforcing compliance with social norms. The biological mechanisms underlying norm compliance are, however, hardly understood. We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance. Brain stimulation had a particularly strong effect on compliance in the context of socially constituted sanctions, whereas it left beliefs about what the norm prescribes and about subjectively expected sanctions unaffected. Our findings suggest that rLPFC activity is a key biological prerequisite for an evolutionarily and socially important aspect of human behavior. PMID:24091703

Ruff, C C; Ugazio, G; Fehr, E

2013-10-25

124

Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables.…

Aydin, Selami

2007-01-01

125

Some Correlates of Attitudes toward Homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the relationship between attitudes toward homosexuality and attitudes toward certain aspects of heterosexual sexuality and to personal sex guilt and sex stereotyping. One hundred twenty-six Canadian male students completed a series of specially devised attitude scales pertaining to these areas. On the basis of their responses to the anti-homosexual scale, subjects were divided into

John Dunbar; Marvin Brown; Donald M. Amoroso

1973-01-01

126

The Relationship Between Subjects' Predominant Sensory Predicate Use, Their Preferred Representational System And Self-Reported Attitudes Towards Similar Versus Different Therapist-Patient Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study addresses several issues raised by Neurolinguistic Programming's (NLP) conceptualizations of the function of individual differences in preferred sensory predicate usage.One hundred twenty-four (124) subjects completed the necessary procedures for inclusion in the present study. A language sample was obtained for each subject. This language sample was transcribed and coded with regard to the number and type (auditory,

Hilda Maria Pantin

1982-01-01

127

Job attitudes.  

PubMed

Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

2012-01-01

128

Effects of Peer Group Rejection, Group Membership, and Group Norms, on Children's Outgroup Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects on 6- and 8-year old children (n = 160) of rejection versus acceptance by an initial group, the reason for the rejection or acceptance (personal versus category-based), and the norms (inclusion versus exclusion) of a new group to which the children were assigned, on their negative affect and attitudes towards the…

Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith; Ekberg, Andreas

2007-01-01

129

Using social norms to reduce bullying: A research intervention among adolescents in five middle schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of peers were assessed in a case study experiment employing a social norms intervention in five diverse public middle schools in the State of New Jersey (Grades 6 to 8). Data were collected using an anonymous online survey (baseline n = 2,589; postintervention n = 3,024). In the baseline survey, students substantially misperceived peer

H. Wesley Perkins; David W. Craig; Jessica M. Perkins

2011-01-01

130

Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries  

PubMed Central

Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

2010-01-01

131

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

132

A Test of Turk's Theory of Norm Resistance Using Observational Data on Police-Suspect Encounters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turk's theory of norm resistance explains how authority-subject relations can be structured in manners that have different probabilities of overt conflict (norm resistance). Building on previous research by Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf, this study uses data collected as part of an observational study of the police in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St.…

Weidner, Robert R.; Terrill, William

2005-01-01

133

Third-party punishment and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the characteristics and relative strength of third-party sanctions in a series of experiments. We hypothesize that egalitarian distribution norms and cooperation norms apply in our experiments, and that third parties, whose economic payoff is unaffected by the norm violation, may be willing to enforce these norms although the enforcement is costly for them. Almost two-thirds of the third

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

134

The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing  

PubMed Central

This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the “new paradigm” of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply. PMID:25368590

Achourioti, Theodora; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stenning, Keith

2014-01-01

135

Language Attitudes and Sociolinguistic Behaviour: Exploring Attitude-Behaviour Relations in Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the relationship between attitude and behavior in language. Adolescent male and female subjects were recorded, and index-scores of their linguistic behavior were compared to their assessment of in-group members in a verbal-guise attitude experiment and to their attitudes concerning language usage in a questionnaire. (Author/VWL)

Ladegaard, Hans J.

2000-01-01

136

Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

Robbins, Janet L.

137

Models, Norms and Sharing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

Harris, Mary B.

138

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

139

Dysfunctional attitudes and stressful life events: An interactive model of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this research was the proposal that depressive symptomatology results from the interaction of an individual's dysfunctional attitudes with stressful life events that impinge on those attitudes. In Study 1, subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale-Contractual Conditions (DAS-CC). The DAS measures dysfunctional attitudes presumed to be characteristic

L. Joan Olinger; Nicholas A. Kuiper; Brian F. Shaw

1987-01-01

140

College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

141

Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

2011-01-01

142

Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries  

E-print Network

Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

Ni, Yi

2010-01-01

143

03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Norm Pattiz

2010-09-01

144

Attitudes Towards the Role of Women in Cuban Women Attending a Community College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number

Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner

1982-01-01

145

A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

1971-01-01

146

Preconditions of Voluntary Tax Compliance: Knowledge and Evaluation of Taxation, Norms, Fairness, and Motivation to Cooperate  

PubMed Central

Taxpayers' willingness to cooperate with the state and its institutions in general, and their willingness to pay taxes in particular, depend on a variety of variables. While economists stress the relevance of external variables such as tax rate, income and probability of audits and severity of fines, psychological research shows that internal variables are of similar importance. We present a comprehensive review on the relevance of citizens' knowledge of tax law, their attitudes towards the government and taxation, personal norms, perceived social norms and fairness, as well as motivational tendencies to comply, and discuss possibilities for strategic intervention to increase tax compliance. PMID:22428111

Hofmann, Eva; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

2010-01-01

147

Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students  

PubMed Central

Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-01-01

148

Social Norms Research in College Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social norms strategies in examining college health behavior have become popular and well-accepted. There is substantial variation in the understanding, application, and nature of social norms approaches. This paper introduces four articles on social norms research in college health that address: binge drinking prevalence; substance abuse…

Keeling, Richard P.

2000-01-01

149

Conflicts and Changes in Textual Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of "textual norms" refers to sociocultural conventions that define the "well-formedness" of a text. Because well-formedness in texts is characterized by convention, different conventions may exist in a community and lead to norm conflicts when used in actual text generation. In this article, two types of norm conflict are described. In…

Berge, Kjell Lars

150

Autonomous Agents with Norms Frank Dignum  

E-print Network

in an environment that is governed by some (social) norms. We divide the norms over three levels: the private level the contract level and the convention level. We show how deontic logic can be used to model the concepts and how the theory of speech acts can be used to model the generation of (some of) the norms. Finally we

Dignum, Frank

151

L1-norm-based 2DPCA.  

PubMed

In this paper, we first present a simple but effective L1-norm-based two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA). Traditional L2-norm-based least squares criterion is sensitive to outliers, while the newly proposed L1-norm 2DPCA is robust. Experimental results demonstrate its advantages. PMID:20083461

Li, Xuelong; Pang, Yanwei; Yuan, Yuan

2010-08-01

152

Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime was examined in three studies. In Study 1,73 items about guns were administered to subjects to determine if the construct “Gun Attitudes” contained sub-constructs, possibly causing the confusion in the literature on gun attitudes and fear of crime. Nine factors were revealed, which were grouped into Socio-cultural and Personal Indices.

Linda Heath; Marie Mackay Murphy

1997-01-01

153

What are other parents saying? Perceived parental communication norms and the relationship between alcohol-specific parental communication and college student drinking  

PubMed Central

This study examined parents’ normative perceptions of other college parents’ alcohol-specific communication, and how parents’ perceived communication norms and alcohol-specific communication relate to student drinking outcomes. A sample of 457 student-parent dyads were recruited from a mid-size university. Students completed web-based assessments of alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors. Parents completed alcohol-specific measures of communication norms and parent-child communication, including communication content (i.e., targeted communication) and frequency of communication. Results indicated that parents overestimated how much other parents talked to their college students about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, but underestimated how often parents initiated conversations about alcohol. In a path model, perceived communication norms positively predicted both targeted communication and frequency of communication. Perceived communication norms and targeted communication negatively predicted students’ attitude toward alcohol use. In contrast, more frequent communication predicted students holding more approving attitudes toward alcohol. The relationship between parents’ perceived communication norms and students’ drinking behaviors was mediated by the parental communication variables and student attitudes. Tests of indirect effects were undertaken to examine meditational processes. The findings underscore relations involving parental perceived communication norms and parents’ own alcohol communication and their children’s drinking outcomes. The complex relationships of different types of parental communication and student outcomes warrant further research. PMID:24128293

Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.

2013-01-01

154

Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

Markley, F. Landis

2003-01-01

155

A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

This paper responds to the call for culturally relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low income community in Mumbai, India (2008–2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities. PMID:21524835

Schensul, Stephen L.; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

2011-01-01

156

Client and counselor attitudes toward the use of medications for treatment of opioid dependence.  

PubMed

Attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1,083 clients from outpatient, methadone, and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms, and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, whereas their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence. PMID:17306729

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Thomas, Cindy P; McCarty, Dennis

2007-03-01

157

Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

Rubin, Roger H.

1981-01-01

158

Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

2004-01-01

159

Measures of condom and safer sex social norms and stigma towards HIV/AIDS among Beijing MSM.  

PubMed

Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior. PMID:24057931

Hu, Yifei; Lu, Hongyan; Raymond, H Fisher; Sun, Yanming; Sun, Jiangping; Jia, Yujiang; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; Xiao, Yan; McFarland, Willi; Ruan, Yuhua

2014-06-01

160

Attitudes of registered nurses toward euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify variables that contribute to euthanasia attitude and behavior, including demographics, death fears, experience with death, attitudes toward patient autonomy, and level of moral development.Subjects were 137 registered nurses from the southeastern United States representing 13 clinical nursing areas. Principal components analysis identified four factors that together explained 62.9% of total variance. These factors were belief in

Carolyn R. Shuman; Glenn P. Fournet; Paul F. Zelhart; Billy C. Roland; Robert E. Estes

1992-01-01

161

Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective reactions to language (language attitudes, beliefs, values, etc.) are the focus of this monograph. Chapters include: (1) "Sociolinguistic Correlates of Speech Style in Quebec" by Alison d'Anglejan and G. Richard Tucker; (2) "Some 'Unexpected' Reactions to Various American-English Dialects" by Bruce Fraser; (3) "Attitudes and Learning a…

Shuy, Roger W., Ed.; Fasold, Ralph W., Ed.

162

The Impact of Religio-cultural Norms and Values on the Education of Young South Asian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a discussion of how the educational attitudes, perspectives and experiences of young South Asian women in schools and colleges in the city of Birmingham, UK, are affected by domestic religio-cultural norms and values. Taking into consideration social class and the different types of schools they attend, young South Asian women were interviewed and surveyed to ascertain the

Tahir Abbas

2003-01-01

163

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design…

Fabiano, Patricia M.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan; Linkenbach, Jeff; Stark, Christopher

2003-01-01

164

Norm stability in Jirisan National Park: effects of time, existing conditions, and background characteristics.  

PubMed

Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for "quiet time" and "seeing others littering" were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for "number of other tents." There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users' demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed. PMID:18214588

Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

2008-04-01

165

A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

2009-01-01

166

A Model for Optimal Reaction Norms: The Case of the Pregnant Garter Snake and Her Temperature?Sensitive Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model to test Osgood's (1978) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature- sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or U-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by

Stevan J. Arnold; Charles R. Peterson

2002-01-01

167

Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales  

PubMed Central

Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2014-01-01

168

Concave 1-norm group selection.  

PubMed

Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. PMID:25417206

Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

2015-04-01

169

Pew Global Attitudes Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

170

Efficient Norm Emergence through Experiential Dynamic Punishment  

E-print Network

Efficient Norm Emergence through Experiential Dynamic Punishment Samhar Mahmoud and Nathan Griffiths and Jeroen Keppens and Michael Luck 1 Abstract. Peer punishment has been an effective means to en approaches to establishing norms have only considered static punishments, which do not vary

Luck, Michael

171

Statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 2006;27:331–44] has recently introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy normed space. In this paper, we study the concept of statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Then we give a useful characterization for statistically convergent sequences. Furthermore, we display an example such that our method of convergence is stronger

S. Karakus; K. Demirci; O. Duman

2008-01-01

172

NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

2008-08-01

173

Sex-specific norms code face identity.  

PubMed

Face identity aftereffects suggest that an average face, which is continuously updated by experience, functions as a norm for coding identity. Sex-contingent figural face aftereffects indicate that different norms are maintained for male and female faces but do not directly implicate them in coding identity. Here, we investigated whether sex-specific norms are used to code the identities of male and female faces or whether a generic, androgynous norm is used for all faces. We measured identity aftereffects for adapt-test pairs that were opposite relative to a sex-specific average and pairs that were opposite relative to an androgynous average. Identity aftereffects are generally larger for adapt-test pairs that lie opposite an average face, which functions as a norm for coding identity, than those that do not. Therefore, we reasoned that whichever average gives the larger aftereffect would be closer to the true psychological norm. Aftereffects were substantially and significantly larger for pairs that lie opposite a sex-specific than an androgynous average. This difference remained significant after correcting for differences in test trajectory length. These results indicate that, despite the common structure shared by all faces, identity is coded using sex-specific norms. We suggest that the use of category-specific norms may increase coding efficiency and help us discriminate thousands of faces despite their similarity as patterns. PMID:21199895

Rhodes, Gillian; Jaquet, Emma; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Keane, Jill; Calder, Andrew J

2011-01-01

174

Counseling Pretreatment and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of the application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to a counseling context revealed that more favorable attitudes toward counseling occurred as subjects' ego involvement increased and as intervention quality improved. Counselor credibility affected the degree to which subjects' attitudes reflected argument quality differences.…

Heesacker, Martin

1986-01-01

175

Attitudes in a Web-Supported Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to investigate the possible effect of web-supported teaching on students' attitudes on Human Rights, Democracy and Citizenship Education and technology (HRDCE). To examine weather web-supported instruction would make a difference in attitude levels of the subjects, a quasi-experimental design was employed. Subjects of…

Acun, Ismail

2013-01-01

176

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores using a gravity gradiometer to measure the attitude of a satellite, given that the gravity field is accurately known. Since gradiometers actually measure a combination of the gradient and attitude rate and acceleration terms, the answer is far from obvious. The paper demonstrates that it can be done and at microradian accuracy. The technique employed is dynamic estimation, based on the momentum biased Euler equations. The satellite is assumed nominally planet pointed, and subject to control, gravity gradient, and partly radom drag torques. The attitude estimator is unusual. While the standard method of feeding back measurement residuals is used, the feedback gain matrix isn't derived from Kalman theory. instead, it's chosen to minimize a measure of the terminal covariance of the error in the estimate. This depends on the gain matrix and the power spectra of all the process and measurement noises. An integration is required over multiple solutions of Lyapunov equations.

Sonnabend, David; Gardner, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

177

Social norms and prejudice against homosexuals.  

PubMed

Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable. PMID:19899658

Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio

2009-11-01

178

The Role of Prior Expectancy and Group Discussion in the Attribution of Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to understand conditions under which group discussion enhances and weakens individual bias in the attribution of attitudes. Subjects were given congruent, incongruent, or irrelevant prior expectancy information about the attitude of an essay writer who was assigned to either support or oppose legalizing marijuana. Subjects estimated the essay writer?s actual attitude on legalized marijuana before and after

Gwen M. Wittenbaum; Garold Stasser

1995-01-01

179

Attitudes toward lesbians and gays among American and Dutch adolescents.  

PubMed

Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the United States. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

Collier, Kate L; Horn, Stacey S; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

2015-01-01

180

Censorship and the ecclesiastic hierarchy's attitude towards educated culture and uneducated culture  

E-print Network

Censorship and the ecclesiastic hierarchy's attitude towards educated culture to reconsider the subject of censorship starting from the different attitude adopted in terms of political censorship by Rome. The hypothesis that will be tested

Qian, Ning

181

Authoritarianism, Dogmatism and Coercion in Child Caring Institutions: A Study of Staff Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the attitudes of child care institution staff members on dimensions of authoritarianism, dogmatism, and coercion, and related attitudes to type of institution in which subject was employed and position held in the institution. (DP)

Krause, Kenneth

1974-01-01

182

Significance of norms and completeness in variational based methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By means of a simple structural problem, an important requirement often overlooked in practice on the basis functions used in Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin type methods is brought into focus. The problem of the static deformation of a uniformly loaded beam is solved variationally by expanding the beam displacement in a Fourier Cosine series. The potential energy functional is rendered stationary subject to the geometric boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the variational approach does not converge to the true solution. The object is to resolve this paradox, and in so doing, indicate the practical implications of norms and completeness in an appropriate inner product space.

Storch, Joel A.

1989-01-01

183

The impact of initial and recurrent cockpit resource management training on attitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is noted that previous analyses of the boomerang effect (attitude change as a result of training in the direction opposite of that intended) in aviation training environments were limited in that each subscale of the cockpit management attitudes questionnaire (CMAQ) was examined independently. This study develops and utilizes a new algorithm for grouping subjects such that a global attitude change score is derived from the attitude change scores on each CMAQ subscale. By evaluating global attitude change in addition to the more specific attitude change on each subscale, it might be possible to better comprehend the effects of crew resource management training on pilot attitudes.

Irwin, Cheryl M.

1991-01-01

184

Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

1984-01-01

185

Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?  

PubMed

Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

2015-01-01

186

Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?  

PubMed Central

Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

2015-01-01

187

First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2012-01-01

188

Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

Lester, Jaime

2011-01-01

189

1-norm support vector novelty detection and its sparseness.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a 1-norm support vector novelty detection (SVND) method and discusses its sparseness. 1-norm SVND is formulated as a linear programming problem and uses two techniques for inducing sparseness, or the 1-norm regularization and the hinge loss function. We also find two upper bounds on the sparseness of 1-norm SVND, or exact support vector (ESV) and kernel Gram matrix rank bounds. The ESV bound indicates that 1-norm SVND has a sparser representation model than SVND. The kernel Gram matrix rank bound can loosely estimate the sparseness of 1-norm SVND. Experimental results show that 1-norm SVND is feasible and effective. PMID:23994511

Zhang, Li; Zhou, WeiDa

2013-12-01

190

Attitudes about Food  

E-print Network

Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

Baker, Nicole Alexis

2012-10-19

191

Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

2011-01-01

192

Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

Bartram, Dave

2008-01-01

193

Splines minimizing rotation-invariant semi-norms in Sobolev spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a family of semi-norms ???m,s=(??\\u000a n???2s?? Dmu(?)?2 d?)1\\/2 Minimizing such semi-norms, subject to some interpolating conditions, leads to functions of very simple forms, providing\\u000a interpolation methods that: 1°) preserve polynomials of degree?m?1; 2°) commute with similarities as well as translations\\u000a and rotations of ?n; and 3°) converge in Sobolev spaces Hm+s(?).\\u000a \\u000a Typical examples of such splines are: \\

Jean Duchon

1976-01-01

194

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

2010-01-01

195

Nurses’ and physicians’ attitudes about women abuse: The effects of gender and professional role  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apathy encountered by battered women when they seek help from medical and other professions has been attributed to patriarchal norms and victim?blaming. Because of their place in the medical hierarchy this study hypothesized that: a) nurses would have more sympathetic attitudes toward battered women than physicians; and b) professional roles and not gender would explain the differences. The findings

Karla Rose; Daniel G. Saunders

1986-01-01

196

Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

2014-01-01

197

An examination of recreational divers' underwater behaviour by attitude–behaviour theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for dive tourism activities has resulted in concerns over scuba divers' incremental impacts on the underwater marine environment. Hence, there is a need to better understand the antecedents of scuba divers' underwater behaviour. This study applied theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and norm activation theory (NAT) of altruistic behaviour in examining the relationship between diving attitude, perceived

Tah Fatt Ong; Ghazali Musa

2011-01-01

198

Factorial Validity of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factorial validity of four of the nine Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (FSMASs) was examined for use in measuring fifth graders' interaction with a subject. The following four scales were assessed: (1) the Confidence in Learning Mathematics Scale; (2) the Attitude Toward Success in Mathematics Scale (ATSMS); (3) the Mathematics…

O'Neal, Marcia R.; And Others

199

Attitudes toward Online Communications in Open and Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students' attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students' gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and "Online…

Erdem Aydin, Irem

2012-01-01

200

Attitudes to and use of baby walkers in Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The

M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall

1995-01-01

201

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

2004-01-01

202

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

203

Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

2006-01-01

204

Optimized norm-conserving Vanderbilt pseudopotentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully nonlocal two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotentials are shown to be compatible with a systematic approach to the optimization of convergence with the size of the plane-wave basis. A reformulation of the optimization is developed, including the ability to apply it to positive-energy atomic scattering states and to enforce greater continuity in the pseudopotential. The generalization of norm conservation to multiple projectors is reviewed and recast for the present purposes. Comparisons among the results of all-electron and one- and two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotential calculations of lattice constants and bulk moduli are made for a group of solids chosen to represent a variety of types of bonding and a sampling of the periodic table.

Hamann, D. R.

2013-08-01

205

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

206

On the complexity of approximating the diamond norm  

E-print Network

The diamond norm is a norm defined over the space of quantum transformations. This norm has a natural operational interpretation: it measures how well one can distinguish between two transformations by applying them to a state of arbitrarily large dimension. This interpretation makes this norm useful in the study of quantum interactive proof systems. In this note we exhibit an efficient algorithm for computing this norm using convex programming. Independently of us, Watrous recently showed a different algorithm to compute this norm. An immediate corollary of this algorithm is a slight simplification of the argument of Kitaev and Watrous [STOC 2000] that QIP is contained in EXP.

Avraham Ben-Aroya; Amnon Ta-Shma

2009-09-08

207

Youth Leadership Program for Changing Self-Image and Attitude Toward People With Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society has a negative attitude toward people with intellectual disabilities or psychiatric disabilities. It is well documented that they are subjected to prejudice, stigma, and negative attitudes (Di Giulio, 2003; Finger, 1994). Professional literature indicates that information about disabilities and encounters with persons with disabilities can change negative attitudes (Carter, Hughes, Copeland, & Breen, 2001; Krajewski & Flaherty, 2000). This

Ronen Cohen; Dana Roth; Alan York; Shimshon Neikrug

2012-01-01

208

A Comparison of Upper Elementary School Children's Attitudes toward Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to compare upper elementary school children's attitudes toward physical activity, by grade level and gender across six attitude scale subdomains in order to assist physical education teachers in planning programs designed to foster positive attitudes toward physical activity. Subjects (N=429) were 243 girls and 186 boys in…

Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.

209

Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

210

Attitudes of Hispanic, Black, and Caucasion University Students Toward Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of 309 Anglo, Spanish American, and Black American subjects toward mental illness were investigated. Both the Black and Hispanic college students had significantly higher Authoritarianism scores and Blacks had higher Social Restrictiveness scores on the Opinions about Mental Illness Scale, indicating more negative attitudes toward mental patients. Benevolence scores, indicating a paternalistic attitude toward the mentally ill, were

Rosario Silva de Crane; Charles D. Spielberger

1981-01-01

211

Cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery in North Indian population using Nemoceph software  

PubMed Central

Background Cephalometric norms, useful in providing guidance to orthodontist during diagnosis and treatment planning are subjected to variability in morphologic characteristics in different ethnic and racial groups, hence norms established for one population group are not applicable for all. Aims and objectives To compare and correlate the established hard tissue cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery (COGS analysis) given by Legan and Burstone with norms obtained for North Indian population. Methods Pre-treatment digital lateral cephalograms of 100 orthodontically untreated subjects having pleasing profile and normal occlusion in the age range of 18–25 yrs (mean age of 21 ± 2.62 years) were selected. 16 linear and 6 angular hard tissue parameters of COGS analysis were analyzed using nemoceph software for the males and females separately. The data obtained were compared with previously established norms for Orthognathic Surgery using SPSS Version 15.0. Results North Indian males and females had smaller anterior cranial base length with prognathic maxilla and mandible, protrusive chin with poor chin form, decreased facial height, decreased posterior maxillary height with anticlockwise rotation of mandible, increased anterior and posterior maxillary dental heights, decreased ramal and corpus length, clockwise rotation of occlusal plane, presence of sagittal discrepancy between maxillary and mandibular denture bases in comparison to Caucasian males and females respectively. North Indian females had more proclination of mandibular incisors than Caucasian females. Sexual dimorphism was also evident in the present study with males exhibiting significantly larger cranial base length, greater middle third facial height and posterior maxillary height, counterclockwise rotation of mandibular plane, greater anterior and posterior mandibular dental heights and longer ramal and corpus length in comparison to females. Conclusion North Indian population showed significant differences in facial morphology as compared to Caucasians population. Sexual dimorphism was also evident in North Indian populations. Thus the need to develop separate Orthognathic Surgical norms for better treatment planning of North Indian population is justified. PMID:25737925

Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, Rana Pratap; Verma, Sneh Lata; Srivastava, Kamna; Kadu, Mangesh

2014-01-01

212

A moist "available enthalpy" norm: definition and comparison with existing "energy" norms  

E-print Network

Moist-air norms and inner-products are currently used in atmospheric science for computing dry or moist singular vectors and for determining forecast errors or sensitivity to observations based on tangent linear and adjoint models. A new moist-air norm is defined starting from old results published in Marquet (QJRMS 1993) and based on the "Available Enthalpy" approach, namely one of the Exergy function defined in general thermodynamics. Some interesting and promising impacts of this new "Available Enthalpy" norm are described in this brief version of a paper to be submitted to the QJRMS.

Marquet, Pascal

2015-01-01

213

The Attitude-Behavior Discrepancy in Medical Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Background: In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. Objectives: This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. Patients and Methods: A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). Results: A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P < 0.01) yet if the survival rate was described, there was no such preference (t = -1.48, P > 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P < .05). Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P < 0.01?t attitude to surgery = 4.08?P < 0.01?t attitude to radiation = -2.15?P < 0.05). Conclusions: A discrepancy of attitude-behavior does exist in medical situations. The framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.

He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

2014-01-01

214

Norms and reading times for acronyms in French.  

PubMed

We collected subjective frequency, age-of-acquisition, and imageability norms for 319 acronyms from French adults. Objective printed frequency, bigram frequency, and lengths in letters, phonemes, and syllables, as well as orthographic neighbors, were computed. The time taken to read acronyms aloud was also recorded. Correlational analyses indicated that the relations between the psycholinguistic variables were similar to those usually found for common words (e.g., highly imageable acronyms were more frequent and learned earlier in life than less imageable acronyms), but were generally weaker in the former than in the latter. Linear mixed-model analyses performed on the reading latencies revealed that the main determinants were the voicing feature of initial phonemes, the type of pronunciation of the acronyms (ambiguous vs. unambiguous, typical vs. atypical characteristics), length (number of letters and number of syllables), together with bigram frequency, printed frequency, and imageability. Both objective frequency and imageability interacted reliably with the ambiguous typical and ambiguous atypical properties. Accuracy was predicted by the number of letters and by imageability factors: More errors occurred on longer than on shorter acronyms, and also more errors on less imageable than on more imageable acronyms. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for the understanding of acronym reading are discussed. The entire set of norms and the acronym reading times (and accuracy scores), together with the acronym definitions, are provided as supplemental materials. PMID:24763943

Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Millotte, Séverine; Bugaiska, Aurélia

2015-03-01

215

Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

216

Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

2002-01-01

217

Voting Motives, Group Identity, and Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional rational voter model has problems explaining why people vote, since the costs typically exceed the expected benefits. This paper presents Swedish survey evidence suggesting that people vote based on a combination of instrumental and expressive motives, and that people are strongly influenced by a social norm saying that it is an obligation to vote. Women and older individuals

Fredrik Carlsson; Olof Johansson-Stenman

2009-01-01

218

A guide to norms, ratings, and lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalog of 119 studies, mostly post-1960 except for a few important and well-controlled earlier ones, is listed. The studies\\u000a provide norms, scales, ratings, or lists of verbal material for use in experiments investigating aspects of cognitive psychology,\\u000a memory, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, etc. The catalog is preceded by an outline index.

John L. Bradshaw

1984-01-01

219

Contractive intertwining dilations and norm approximation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results in labelling all contractive intertwining dilations and in studying connections between labellings are presented. These facts are used to describe the general solution of the Carathéodory-Fejér extrapolation problem. This turns out to be useful for some numerical problems such as: computation of the norm of an analytic Toeplitz matrix, an algorithm for detecting reflection coefficients in seismic exploration,

Gr. Arsene; Zoia Ceau?escu

1982-01-01

220

Economic Approaches to Understanding Scientific Norms  

E-print Network

Economic Approaches to Understanding Scientific Norms Michael Strevens To appear in Episteme of formal methods, proponents of the economic approach offer what are in substantive terms profoundly invokes a special scientific method for truth-finding--in its most austere form, noth- ing more than

Strevens, Michael

221

Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

Randall, Robert S.

222

Embodying the Chimera: Biotechnology and Subjectivity  

E-print Network

3 Embodying the Chimera: Biotechnology and Subjectivity Bernard Andrieu ``Chacun d'eux portait sur son dos une e´norme Chime`re'' [Each one of them carried on his back an enormous Chimera] --Baudelaire. On the other hand, the chimera is born with a triple animal body, a sort of multiform and polycephalous beast

Boyer, Edmond

223

Subjective status shapes political preferences.  

PubMed

Economic inequality in America is at historically high levels. Although most Americans indicate that they would prefer greater equality, redistributive policies aimed at reducing inequality are frequently unpopular. Traditional accounts posit that attitudes toward redistribution are driven by economic self-interest or ideological principles. From a social psychological perspective, however, we expected that subjective comparisons with other people may be a more relevant basis for self-interest than is material wealth. We hypothesized that participants would support redistribution more when they felt low than when they felt high in subjective status, even when actual resources and self-interest were held constant. Moreover, we predicted that people would legitimize these shifts in policy attitudes by appealing selectively to ideological principles concerning fairness. In four studies, we found correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Studies 2-4) evidence that subjective status motivates shifts in support for redistributive policies along with the ideological principles that justify them. PMID:25416138

Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; Kay, Aaron C; Payne, B Keith

2015-01-01

224

Validity of regression-based norms: an empirical test of the comprehensive norms with older adults.  

PubMed

This study empirically tested Fastenau and Adams' (1996) concerns about using regression-based norms (RBN) to statistically correct for demographic influences. A widely used RBN system (Heaton, Grant, & Matthews, 1991) was applied to scores from 63 healthy older adults for the Trail Making Test, Boston Naming Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Age influences on all tests were virtually eliminated by the RBNs, whereas education influences were created by the RBN (better educated older adults penalized by the norms). Using RBNs from the Revised WCST Manual also created distortions, far overcorrecting for age. These findings cast considerable suspicion on norms that are generated by statistical regression when there are not adequate numbers of people supporting each demographic cell. Clinically, these norms can lead to higher rates of false negatives (or missed diagnoses) in older adults, especially those with less education and especially women in their 60s. PMID:10484701

Fastenau, P S

1998-12-01

225

Attitudes of therapists toward holocaust survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined current feelings and attitudes toward Holocaust survivors in a sample of 205 Israeli mental health professionals. Subjects were asked to read two vignettes each describing an aged trauma victim who has recently applied for treatment. The first vignette presented a Holocaust survivor and the second a war veteran. The two “patients” were otherwise similar in background and

Irit Ofri; Zahava Solomon; Haim Dasberg

1995-01-01

226

Personality and attitudes towards marginal social groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the hypothesis that high scorers on the EPQ extraversion scale express more tolerant and humanitarian attitudes towards marginal social groups whereas the high scorers on psychoticism take a more repressive position. The data collected among 249 Polish subjects by means of Eysenck and Eysenck's (Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 1975) EPQ questionnaire and the scale measuring

Zbigniew Zaleski; Sybil Eysenck; Hans Eysenck

1995-01-01

227

Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to

William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw

1984-01-01

228

Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instruction in Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were obtained from 311 teachers in order to sample a wide domain of attitudes toward writing instruction and writing anxiety. The subjects' responses were organized along four attitudinal dimensions: (1) the importance of standard English in writing instruction (SE), (2) the importance of defining and evaluating writing tasks (DE), (3) the…

Gere, Anne Ruggles; And Others

229

Students' Attitudes toward Introductory Physics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem examined in this study deals with students' attitude toward physics among the freshmen and sophomore students who were taking first introductory physics course. In the study there were 176 students, and they were chosen sample of convenience from Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida. 125 subjects were male students, and…

Demirci, Neset

2004-01-01

230

The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

231

History, Expectations, and Leadership in the Evolution of Social Norms  

E-print Network

We study the evolution of the social norm of “cooperation” in a dynamic environment. Each agent lives for two periods and interacts with agents from the previous and next generations via a coordination game. Social norms ...

Acemoglu, Daron

2011-11-05

232

A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

2000-01-01

233

History, Expectations, and Leadership in the Evolution of Social Norms  

E-print Network

We study the evolution of a social norm of “cooperation” in a dynamic environment. Each agent lives for two periods and interacts with agents from the previous and next generations via a coordination game. Social norms ...

Acemoglu, Daron

2013-05-12

234

Exceptional boards: Environmental experience and positive deviance from institutional norms  

E-print Network

Exceptional boards: Environmental experience and positive deviance from institutional norms JUDITH deviance from institutional norms by establishing practices that protect or enhance the natural environment. Seeking to explain why some organizations practice positive environmental deviance while others do not, we

Hoffman, Andrew J.

235

Norms Regulating Self-Disclosure Among Polish University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first study reported most American norms governing reactions to self-disclosure to friends and strangers were replicated. In the second study American norms governing self-disclosure to males and females were not replicated. (Author/AM)

Derlega, Valerian J.; Stepien, Ewa Gurnik

1977-01-01

236

Learning to Be Thoughtless: Social Norms and Individual Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the literature on the evolution of norms with an agent-based model capturing a phenomenon that has been essentially ignored, namely that individual thought--or computing--is often inversely related to the strength of a social norm. Once a norm is entrenched, we conform thoughtlessly. In this model, agents learn how to behave (what norm to adopt), but--under a strategy

Joshua M. Epstein

2001-01-01

237

Cockpit management attitudes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

Helmreich, R. L.

1984-01-01

238

Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

Baumgartner, Ted A.

2009-01-01

239

NATO's out-of-area norm from Suez to Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of NATO's out-of-area missions are defined not just by the treaty norms encoded in Articles 4 and 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, but also by a social norm entrenched during the Suez crisis. The evolution of the social norm defining the responsibilities allies have to each other in NATO missions, together with changing definitions of security and

Veronica M. Kitchen

2010-01-01

240

Social Norms Among Peers and Social Norms Among Friends and Their Influences on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk Perceptions  

E-print Network

was to investigate differences between social norms among friends and social norms among peers and determine if differences influence adolescents’ sexual risk perceptions. As a secondary data analysis of the 2006 Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors Survey data...

Diep, Cassandra Somadevi

2012-02-14

241

An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2011-01-01

242

The Complex Angle in Normed Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a generalized angle in complex normed vector spaces. Its definition corresponds to the definition of the well known Euclidean angle in real inner product spaces. Not surprisingly it yields complex values as 'angles'. This 'angle' has some simple properties, which are known from the usual angle in real inner product spaces. But to do ordinary Euclidean geometry real angles are necessary. We show that even in a complex normed space there are many pure real valued 'angles'. The situation improves yet in inner product spaces. There we can use the known theory of orthogonal systems to find many pairs of vectors with real angles, and to do geometry which is based on the Greeks 2000 years ago.

Thürey, Volker

2014-03-01

243

Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

2008-10-01

244

Professional Attitudes and Behaviors: The \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although professionalism is an elusive concept, it is defined by sets of attitudes and behaviors specific to professions. Further defining and describing these professional attitudes and behaviors - the \\

Dana Purkerson Hammer

245

Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms  

PubMed Central

Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

2014-01-01

246

Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms.  

PubMed

Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

Raihani, Nichola J; McAuliffe, Katherine

2014-01-01

247

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

248

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

249

Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

1980-01-01

250

New wave or second stage? Attitudes of college women toward feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of female subjects toward gender roles, gender inequality, and the women's movement were measured using a 24-item attitudinal inventory. Subjects tended to hold nontraditional but only moderately feminist attitudes toward gender roles. They were, however, highly aware of gender inequality and supportive of the women's movement, although they were also reluctant to identify themselves as feminists. T tests

Claire M. Renzetti

1987-01-01

251

Attitudes towards organic foods and risk\\/benefit perception associated with pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 947 subjects completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and beliefs towards the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. A section of the questionnaire was aimed at assessing the role of trust on perception of risks and benefits associated with pesticides on foods. The subjects tended to hold positive attitudes towards eating fruits and vegetables produced by organic agriculture.

Anna Saba; Federico Messina

2003-01-01

252

Assessment of Attitudes Regarding Tobacco-Free Campus Policy and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among College Students, Faculty, and Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recently there has been a push to implement tobacco-free policies on college campuses. Policies creating tobacco-free college campuses have increased with changes in social norms. The campus environment provides a setting for individuals to express their attitudes regarding tobacco use. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess…

Hall, Michael E.; Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Hunt, Barry

2015-01-01

253

Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; König, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

254

A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode since rest to rest case is not adequate to truly represent an on orbit failure of a single wheel. The study is intended to facilitate the ACS community to further develop a more practical under-actuated control law and present a path to extend these current thinking to address a more realistic reconfigurable ACS subject to a dynamic transition from a 3 RWs mode to 2 RWs mode.

Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

2014-12-01

255

Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.  

PubMed

This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage. PMID:25587802

Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

2015-06-01

256

The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian.  

PubMed

We developed affective norms for 1,121 Italian words in order to provide researchers with a highly controlled tool for the study of verbal processing. This database was developed from translations of the 1,034 English words present in the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999) and from words taken from Italian semantic norms (Montefinese, Ambrosini, Fairfield, & Mammarella, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 440-461, 2013). Participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a Web survey procedure. Participants also provided evaluations of three subjective psycholinguistic indexes (familiarity, imageability, and concreteness), and five objective psycholinguistic indexes (e.g., word frequency) were also included in the resulting database in order to further characterize the Italian words. We obtained a typical quadratic relation between valence and arousal, in line with previous findings. We also tested the reliability of the present ANEW adaptation for Italian by comparing it to previous affective databases and performing split-half correlations for each variable. We found high split-half correlations within our sample and high correlations between our ratings and those of previous studies, confirming the validity of the adaptation of ANEW for Italian. This database of affective norms provides a tool for future research about the effects of emotion on human cognition. PMID:24150921

Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

2014-09-01

257

Sexual Partner Accumulation From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood: The Role of Family, Peer, and School Social Norms  

PubMed Central

Purpose An early age of sexual initiation and sexual activity with multiple partners are risk factors for an array of detrimental outcomes. Drawing on social norms theory, this study assessed the role of subjective and descriptive social norms from parents, peers, and schoolmates on trajectories of sexual partner accumulation from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the in-home survey sample of Add Health, following 14,797 youth from adolescence through early adulthood. Social norms data were drawn from youth, parent, schoolmate, and school administrator reports. Multi-level growth models assess how parent, peer, and school social norms predicted initial levels and growth in sexual partner accumulation. Results Parent and peer approval of youth sexual behavior, as well as lower perceived negative repercussions of pregnancy, predicted greater initial levels and greater growth over time in the accumulation of sexual partners. Similarly, youth attending schools with a greater proportion of sexually experienced schoolmates reported higher initial levels of sexual partners. In contrast, greater parental warnings regarding negative consequences of sex predicted heightened sexual partner accumulation. Some moderation by youth gender and age emerged as well. Conclusions Results highlight the role of both subjective and descriptive social norms, suggesting the importance of understanding and seeking to influence the social beliefs and expectations of youth and their families. PMID:23528837

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Mahalik, James R.; Sims, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

258

Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.  

PubMed

Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality. PMID:20480684

Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

2010-05-01

259

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

260

Panoramic attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

Meek, I. C.

1976-01-01

261

Attitudes and Health Behavior in Diverse Populations: Drunk Driving, Alcohol Use, Binge Eating, Marijuana Use, and Cigarette Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different health behaviors (cigarette use, alcohol use, binge eating, illicit drug use, and drunk driving) were studied prospectively in 5 different groups of subjects. Associations between attitudes toward these behaviors and the behaviors themselves were investigated over at least 2 waves of measurement. Findings revealed that attitudes predicted behavior nonspuriously in 2 instances: alcohol use and marijuana use. Attitudes

Alan W. Stacy; Peter M. Bentler; Brian R. Flay

1994-01-01

262

Towering Waves May Be Norm for Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard to measure big waves at sea because the waves can smash scientific instruments to bits. But this radio broadcast reports on sensors sitting on the bottom of the sea 75 miles off the coast of Mississippi that survived Hurricane Ivan in September, 2004 and measured waves over 90 feet high. These are perhaps the tallest, most extreme waves ever recorded with modern instruments. This study suggests that big waves may be the norm for hurricanes rather than freak, rogue events. The clip is 3 minutes and 50 seconds in length.

2007-12-12

263

Viability of sharing MEG data using minimum-norm imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cortical activation maps estimated from MEG data fall prey to variability across subjects, trials, runs and potentially MEG centers. To combine MEG results across sites, we must demonstrate that inter-site variability in activation maps is not considerably higher than other sources of variability. By demonstrating relatively low inter-site variability with respect to inter-run variability, we establish a statistical foundation for sharing MEG data across sites for more powerful group studies or clinical trials of pathology. In this work, we analyze whether pooling MEG data across sites is more variable than aggregating MEG data across runs when estimating significant cortical activity. We use data from left median nerve stimulation experiments on four subjects at each of three sites on two runs occurring on consecutive days for each site. We estimate cortical current densities via minimum-norm imaging. We then compare maps across machines and across runs using two metrics: the Simpson coefficient, which admits equality if one map is equal in location to the other, and the Dice coefficient, which admits equality if one map is equal in location and size to the other. We find that sharing MEG data across sites does not noticeably affect group localization accuracy unless one set of data has abnormally low signal power.

Ashrafulla, Syed; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Mosher, John; Hämäläinen, Matti; Liu, Brent; Leahy, Richard M.

2011-03-01

264

Changes in Attitudes toward Education during Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted with 125 female student teachers in Israel, attempted to determine if one year of teacher training altered subjects' attitudes toward traditionalism/progressivism in education and if this change was influenced by the subjects' initial open or closed belief system, as measured by Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale. (SJL)

Kremer, Liya; Moore, Michael

1978-01-01

265

Spacecraft Attitude Representations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

266

Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

267

Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

2004-01-01

268

Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency of occurrence is an important attribute of lexical units, and one that is widely used in psychological research\\u000a and theorization. Although printed frequency norms have long been available for Spanish, and subtitle-based norms have more\\u000a recently been published, oral frequency norms have not been systematically compiled for a representative set of words. In\\u000a this study, a corpus of over

María Angeles Alonso; Angel Fernandez; Emiliano Díez

2011-01-01

269

Mobility norms, risk aversion, and career satisfaction of Chinese employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on Turner’s (American Sociological Review, 25:855–867, 1960) framework of contest and sponsored mobility norms, this study investigated factors that affect employees’ career satisfaction\\u000a in the Chinese setting. Using two organization-referenced variables, procedural justice and perceived organizational support\\u000a (POS), to represent contest mobility norm and sponsored mobility norm, we evaluated their effects on career satisfaction.\\u000a We also explored the moderating

Raymond Loi; Hang-Yue Ngo

2010-01-01

270

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

271

Rural environmental attitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.

1994-05-01

272

NORM management in the oil and gas industry.  

PubMed

It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. PMID:23089032

Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

2012-01-01

273

Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

2012-02-01

274

Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A completely new set of formulas, based on matrix algebra, has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms. The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme. The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs. Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO; corrected formula weights for apatite, pyrite and fluorite; and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals. Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Verma et al (2002, 2003), the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text, but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition

Pruseth, Kamal L.

2009-02-01

275

The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

2000-11-08

276

Predictors of non-condom use intentions by university students in Britain and Greece: The impact of attitudes, time perspective, relationship status, and habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the impact of socio-cognitive factors (attitudes and norms), time perspective (TP), relationship status (RS), and past sexual behaviour on intended non-condom use in 104 Greek and 93 British university undergraduates.Method: Data were obtained by a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis included correlation, regression and ANOVA procedures.Results: Attitudes were the strongest predictors of non-condom use intentions for participants

Cleo Protogerou; Julie Turner-Cobb

2011-01-01

277

A model for optimal reaction norms: the case of the pregnant garter snake and her temperature-sensitive embryos.  

PubMed

We present a model to test Osgood's ( 1978 ) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature-sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or [Formula: see text]-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by maintaining 67 female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) at eight different constant temperatures (21 degrees -33 degrees C) during pregnancy and making a series of scale counts on their newborn offspring (n = 491). To insure that the experimental temperatures were ecologically relevant, we used automated radiotelemetry to record the body temperature of pregnant, free-ranging females. The resulting temperature data allowed us to test the prediction that the inflection points of reaction norms would correspond to the average temperature experienced by embryos in the field. In line with predictions of the Osgood model, reaction norms were flat or U-shaped. In the case of U-shaped reaction norms, the inflection point of the curves corresponded to the average temperature imposed on embryos by free-ranging females. In contrast to some past studies, none of the standard scale scores (ones commonly used in systematics) showed significant temperature effects in either sex. Reaction norms were flat. In contrast, incidences of various abnormalities showed U-shaped reaction norms. Temperature effects were more pronounced in males than in females. The results have implications for systematics and for the evolution of canalization and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:18707441

Arnold, Stevan J; Peterson, Charles R

2002-09-01

278

The worldwide NORM production and a fully automated gamma-ray spectrometer for their characterization  

E-print Network

Materials containing radionuclides of natural origin, which is modified by human made processes and being subject to regulation because of their radioactivity are known as NORM. We present a brief review of the main categories of non-nuclear industries together with the levels of activity concentration in feed raw materials, products and waste, including mechanisms of radioisotope enrichments. The global management of NORM shows a high level of complexity, mainly due to different degrees of radioactivity enhancement and the huge amount of worldwide waste production. The future tendency of guidelines concerning environmental protection will require both a systematic monitoring based on the ever-increasing sampling and high performance of gamma ray spectroscopy. On the ground of these requirements a new low background fully automated high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer MCA_Rad has been developed. The design of Pb and Cu shielding allowed to reach a background reduction of two order of magnitude with respect ...

Xhixha, G; Broggini, C; Buso, GP; Caciolli, A; Callegari, I; De Bianchi, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Xhixha, M Kaçeli; Mantovani, F; Massa, G; Menegazzo, R; Mou, L; Pasquini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Shyti, M

2012-01-01

279

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Young African-American Men: Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions  

E-print Network

and Research (CSCAR) at the University of Michigan who provided assistance with my data analysis as a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)/New Connections sponsored scholar. I also want to extend my gratitude to the Transdisciplinary Center for Health...

Rogers, Charles Ray

2013-12-05

280

Professional judgment in non-industrial private forestry: Forester attitudes and social norms influencing biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of conservation into management of non-industrial private forests rests with professional foresters. This paper empirically examines the intentions of foresters to conserve habitats beyond what is the minimum legally defined requirement when planning forestry operations: either by delineating particular habitats defined in the Finnish Forest Act completely outside the operation, despite this not being the obligation, or by

Eeva Primmer; Heimo Karppinen

2010-01-01

281

Towards a novel safety norm for domestic robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety is a critical success factor for consumer acceptance of domestic robotic products. Some researchers have adopted the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) as absolute safety norm. However, this norm covers only part of the safety risk. In many cases skin damage (e.g. cuts, wounds, etc) can be a more serious risk. This article shows how to work towards a novel

Martin Wassink; Stefano Stramigioli

2007-01-01

282

NORM Management in the Oil and Gas Industry  

SciTech Connect

It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat [Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

2008-08-07

283

easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

2014-01-01

284

Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms  

PubMed Central

Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

2015-01-01

285

Changing norms about gender inequality in education : evidence from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a recent household survey for two cohorts of married women, this paper examines norms about gender equality in education for children and adults. Among the main findings are that gender education gap norms have changed: younger generations of women are more positive about female vs. male education, both as pertaining to child and adult education outcomes. Perhaps the strongest

Maitreyi Bordia Das; Niels-Hugo Blunch

2007-01-01

286

Generalized Dantzig Selector: Application to the k-support norm  

E-print Network

of the GDS. For the L1-norm Dantzig selector, [5] proposed a primal-dual interior point method since the optimization is a linear program. DASSO and its generalization proposed in [10, 9] focused on homotopy methods applied to the L1-norm Dantzig selection problem [12, 21], and the linearized version in [21] proved

Banerjee, Arindam

287

Social norms, cognitive dissonance and the timing of marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of courtship in which the timing of marriage is affected by the cognitive dissonance between perceived norms and personal aims. We argue that as long as the family has been the main provider of social protection, marriage has been favoured by strongly felt social norms, and thus people accepted less-than-ideal partners early on in their search

Alessandro Balestrino; Cinzia Ciardi

2008-01-01

288

Social Norms, Cognitive Dissonance and the Timing of Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of courtship in which the timing of marriage is affected by the cognitive dissonance between perceived norms and personal aims. We argue that as long as the family has been the main provider of social protection, marriage has been favoured by strongly felt social norms, and thus people accepted less-than-ideal partners early on in their search

Alessandro Balestrino; Cinzia Ciardi

2007-01-01

289

Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored

Alison M. Buttenheim; Jenna Nobles

2009-01-01

290

Norm inflation for generalized magneto-hydrodynamic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the incompressible magneto-hydrodynamic system with fractional powers of the Laplacian in the three-dimensional case. We discover a wide range of spaces where the norm inflation occurs and hence small initial data results are out of reach. The norm inflation occurs not only in scaling invariant (critical) spaces, but also in supercritical and, surprisingly, subcritical ones.

Cheskidov, Alexey; Dai, Mimi

2015-01-01

291

Campus sexual norms and dating relationships: A trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here examines changes in sexual norms reported by students at the same university on three occasions over a 15?year time period: 1963, 1971, and 1978. It was hypothesized that the “sexual revolution” underway in American society during this period would be reflected in the emergence of more liberal campus sexual norms. Information collected from respondents (1963, n

Robert Sherwin; Sherry Corbett

1985-01-01

292

Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

2008-01-01

293

Gender Inequality, Endogenous Cultural Norms and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more

Victor Hiller

2008-01-01

294

Schooling and the Norming of Intelligence Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of schooling on the development of intelligence in children and how the amount of schooling should be considered when developing norms for turning intelligence test performance into IQ scores. Suggests that because of differences in schooling among same-age children, use of age-based norms results in biased deviation IQS.…

Cahan, Sorel

2000-01-01

295

Development of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the construction of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), which was designed to assess women’s conformity to an array of feminine norms found in the dominant culture in the United States. In addition, we present four studies in which the psychometric properties of the CFNI were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis indicated that the CFNI

James R. Mahalik; Elisabeth B. Morray; Aimée Coonerty-Femiano; Larry H. Ludlow; Suzanne M. Slattery; Andrew Smiler

2005-01-01

296

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions  

E-print Network

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions Davide Grossi and Frank Dignum Utrecht accounts for how (abstract) norms can be incorporated in the (concrete) procedures constituting. This abstract is organized as follows. In Section 2 we make the problem we are focusing on concrete by means

Dignum, Frank

297

ECART D'ACQUISITION ET NORMES IAS/IFRS  

E-print Network

ECART D'ACQUISITION ET NORMES IAS/IFRS UNE ETUDE EMPIRIQUE DES PRATIQUES DES ENTREPRISES FRANCAISES comptable de l'écart d'acquisition à la veille de l'application des nouvelles normes internationales en se grande hétérogénéité dans le traitement comptable actuel de l'écart d'acquisition, les résultats obtenus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

2011-01-01

299

An Investigation of Two Procedures for Smoothing Test Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several techniques have been developed for creating continuous smooth distributions of test norms. This paper describes two studies that explore the behavior of cubic splines in order to determine their appropriateness for use in test norming. The first study uses data from the Curriculum Referenced Tests of Mastery (CRTM) and employs two…

Jones, Patricia B.; Sabers, Darrell L.

300

The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

301

Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

2015-02-01

302

Subjective Well-Being among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

2006-01-01

303

Dissociative Mothers' Subjective Experience of Parenting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 54 mothers with a dissociative disorder, 20 mothers with other mental problems, and 20 normal mothers investigated what effect, if any, dissociation had on parenting. When tested on the Subjective Experiences of Parenting Scale, mothers with dissociation presented significantly more negative parenting behavior and attitudes. (CR)

Benjamin, Lynn R.; And Others

1996-01-01

304

Privacy, technology, and norms: The case of Smart Meters.  

PubMed

Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

2015-05-01

305

Sports Ideology, Attitudes toward Women, and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)

Harry, Joseph

1995-01-01

306

Differences between Gender Role Identity and Sexual Attitude among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare and examine gender role identity and sexual attitude according to sex among college students. Met hod: The subjects consisted of 1,118 college students. The tool for gender role identity and sexual attitude was the Korea Gender Role Identity Inventory(KGRII) of Lee, Kim and Koh(2002) and the Sexual Attitude Scale of Koh,

Hyo Jung; Eun Ju

2007-01-01

307

Attitude estimation using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validity of an algorithm using GPS carrier Doppler phase measurements for determining the attitude in three dimensions (heading, pitch, and roll) of a space platform that also is undergoing attitude variation is assessed via a simulation. The space platform is taken to revolve in a circular orbit appropriate for the Space Station and Shuttle. It is shown that the multipath effects are potentially the dominant source of error in carrier Doppler phase measurements. A model for the multipath phase errors is presented, and ways to reduce the effects are studied. Preliminary 1-sigma error in heading, pitch, and roll using a 5-meter antenna separation is indicated to be 0.015 deg, which compares favorably with the performance of earth sensors currently used for spacecraft attitude measurements.

Rath, J.; Ward, P.

308

Familial transmission of alcohol use norms and expectancies and reported alcohol use.  

PubMed

Members of 183 families (biological parents and one adult offspring) completed questionnaires on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, what they would consider a "normal" quantity-frequency of alcohol use, "problem" quantity-frequency of use, flushing after alcohol use, and other expected physiological and subjective responses to alcohol. Within individuals, own quantity-frequency of alcohol use was moderately negatively correlated with flushing after one drink or less ("fast flushing"), but more highly positively correlated with judged normal alcohol use and with expected subjective effects. Spouse resemblances were low for quantity-frequency of alcohol use and flushing, but high for alcohol use norms and expected physiological and subjective responses. Parent-offspring resemblances were low to moderate for own alcohol use and flushing, but moderate to high for expected physiological and subjective effects. These results were discussed in terms of the effects of genetically transmitted flushing after alcohol use and culturally transmitted alcohol norms and expectations on alcohol use. PMID:2190488

Johnson, R C; Nagoshi, C T; Danko, G P; Honbo, K A; Chau, L L

1990-04-01

309

Developmental Reaction Norms for Water Stressed Seedlings of Succulent Cacti  

PubMed Central

Succulent cacti are remarkable plants with capabilities to withstand long periods of drought. However, their adult success is contingent on the early seedling stages, when plants are highly susceptible to the environment. To better understand their early coping strategies in a challenging environment, two developmental aspects (anatomy and morphology) in Polaskia chichipe and Echinocactus platyacanthus were studied in the context of developmental reaction norms under drought conditions. The morphology was evaluated using landmark based morphometrics and Principal Component Analysis, which gave three main trends of the variation in each species. The anatomy was quantified as number and area of xylem vessels. The quantitative relationship between morphology and anatomy in early stages of development, as a response to drought was revealed in these two species. Qualitatively, collapsible cells and collapsible parenchyma tissue were observed in seedlings of both species, more often in those subjected to water stress. These tissues were located inside the epidermis, resembling a web of collapsible-cell groups surrounding turgid cells, vascular bundles, and spanned across the pith. Occasionally the groups formed a continuum stretching from the epidermis towards the vasculature. Integrating the morphology and the anatomy in a developmental context as a response to environmental conditions provides a better understanding of the organism's dynamics, adaptation, and plasticity. PMID:22479481

Rosas, Ulises; Zhou, Royce W.; Castillo, Guillermo; Collazo-Ortega, Margarita

2012-01-01

310

Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Conformity to the Norms of Science: Are Norms Compensatory Integrating Mechanisms for Professional Fragmentation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The norms of science define appropriate and inappropriate scholarly or research role performance. The four norms described in this study are (1) universalism: research is assessed on its merit, not particularistic criteria; (2) commonality: research must be made public and shared with the research community; (3) disinterestedness: research is…

Coopersmith, Georgia A.; Braxton, John M.

311

Got an Attitude Problem?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

1999-01-01

312

Pre-service education and attitudes towards inclusion: the role of the teacher educator within a permeated teaching model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers' attitudes towards special educational needs (SEN) and inclusion. A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive education. Interviews conducted with the subject teacher educators examined their beliefs

Jackie Lambe

2011-01-01

313

Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.  

PubMed

According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. PMID:24131397

Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

2014-12-01

314

Predictors of Attitudes toward Childlessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…

Spreadbury, Connie

315

Marital Attitude Trajectories across Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…

Willoughby, Brian J.

2010-01-01

316

Slovakian Students' Attitudes toward Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' attitudes toward science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification and influence of attitudes became to be an essential part of educational research. This study has been initiated by the idea that; research in students' attitudes toward science often involves science in general, but particular disciplines like biology or chemistry have been overlooked. Thus, this study is about

Pavol Prokop; Gaye Tuncer

2007-01-01

317

Attitude Assessment in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes construction of an attitude scale and its use in assessing attitudes of college students in relation to the discovery method of teaching. Study revealed that attitudes can be changed by training which involves working with children in real classrooms. (PS)

Bollen, F. A.

1972-01-01

318

Love Attitudes and Relationship Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships,

Georgina Hammock; Deborah South Richardson

2011-01-01

319

Correctional Officers' Attitudes Toward AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who

KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS

1995-01-01

320

Attitude estimation and maneuvering for autonomous obstacle avoidance by miniature air vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the Euler-Rodrigues symmetric parameters (attitude quaternion) to describe vehicle orientation, we develop a multiplicative, nonlinear (extended) variation of the Kalman filter (MEKF) to fuse data from low-cost sensors. The sensor suite is comprised of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and a GPS receiver. In contrast to the common approach of using the complete vehicle attitude as the quantities to be estimated, our filter states consist of the three components of an attitude error vector. In parallel with the time update of the attitude error estimate, we utilize the gyroscope measurements for the time propagation of the attitude quaternion. The accelerometer and the GPS sensors are used independently for the measurement update portion of the Kalman filter. For both sensors, a vector arithmetic approach is used to determine the attitude error vector. Following each measurement update, a multiplicative reset operation moves the attitude error information from the filter state into the attitude estimate. This reset operation utilizes quaternion algebra to implicitly maintain the unity-norm constraint. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our attitude estimation algorithm through flight simulations and flight tests of aggressive maneuvers such as loops and small-radius circles. We implement an approach to acrobatic maneuvering for miniature air vehicles (MAVs) using time-parameterized attitude trajectory generation and an associated attitude tracking control law. We designed two methodologies, polynomial and trigonometric, for creating functions that specify pitch and roll angles as a function of time. For both approaches, the functions are constrained by the maneuver boundary conditions of aircraft position and velocity. We construct a trajectory tracking feedback control law to regulate aircraft orientation throughout the maneuvers. The trajectory generation algorithm was used to construct several maneuvers and trajectory tracking control law successfully executed the maneuvers in the flight simulator. In addition to the simulation results, MAV flight tests verified the performance of the maneuver generation and control. To achieve obstacle avoidance maneuvering, the time parameterized trajectories were converted to spatially parameterized paths, which allowed for inertial reference frame position error to be included in the control law feedback loop. We develop a novel method to achieve the spatial parameterization using a prediction and correction approach. Additionally, the first derivative of position of the desired path is modified using a corrective parameter scheme prior to being used in the control. Using the path position error and the corrected derivative, we utilize a unit-norm quaternion framework to implement a proportional-derivative (PD) control law. This control law was demonstrated in simulation and hardware on maneuvers designed specifically to avoid obstacles, namely the Immelmann and the Close-Q, as well as a basic loop.

Hall, James K.

321

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

1999-10-26

322

Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.  

SciTech Connect

Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

323

[Subjective glance in ethics and attitudes in psychiatric nursing].  

PubMed

Patients with psychiatric problems have the right to receive qualified and humane psychiatric nursing. To meet these requirements nurses should reflect on their daily practice and whether they support clients in respect of autonomy, empowerment and recovery or only meet the requirements of the institution and well-worn routines. The Code of Ethics for Nurses (International Council of Nurses [ICN] and the four principles of Beauchamp and Childress [respect of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice]) help nurses to decide in their daily work on the narrow line between autonomy and treating the patient like a child. Emphasis is laid on the nurses' duty to influence the political development in health services. PMID:24983569

Schädle-Deininger, Hilde

2014-07-01

324

Impact of Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity Courses on the Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the impact of health, fitness, and physical activity courses on attitudes and behaviors of college students the entire accessible population of subjects (n = 286) were surveyed during the first and the last week of regularly scheduled health classes. The results showed different course effects were found for many behaviors and attitudes with 66% of all participants making

Dale DeVoe; Cathy Kennedy; Lynda Ransdell; Brigitte Pirson; Wendy DeYoung; Karen Casey

1998-01-01

325

Changing the Sexual Aggression-Supportive Attitudes of Men: A Psychoeducational Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed psychoeducational intervention designed to change attitudes of men found to be associated with sexual aggression toward women. College men receiving elaboration likelihood model-based intervention showed significantly more attitude change than did control group. One month later, in unrelated naturalistic context, intervention subjects

Gilbert, Barbara J.; And Others

1991-01-01

326

Attitudes Toward Punishment in Relation to Beliefs in Free Will and Determinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate attitudes toward punishment in relation to beliefs in free will and determinism. College students responded to two questionnaires; one designed to assess attitudes toward punishment and one designed to assess strength of belief in free will or determinism. It was found that subjects who scored higher in belief in determinism recommended more punitive measures

Wayne Viney; David A. Waldman; Jacqueline Barchilon

1982-01-01

327

Attitudes to new technology and experiential dimensions of two different digital games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the effect of attitudes to new technology on user experience in two different digital games. User experience is measured by using a framework which includes perceptual-attentive, cognitive-emotional and motivational constructs. They form four experiential dimensions; Physical presence, Emotional involvement, Situational involvement and Performance competence. Attitudes to new technology were measured by asking from the subjects how interested

Heikki Särkelä; Jari Takatalo; Jeppe Komulainen; Göte Nyman; Jukka Häkkinen

1999-01-01

328

An Analysis of Attitudes toward Statistics: Gender Differences among Advertising Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study measures advertising students' attitudes toward statistics. Subjects, 275 undergraduate advertising students from two southwestern United States universities, completed a questionnaire used to gauge students' attitudes toward statistics by measuring 6 underlying factors: (1) students' interest and future applicability; (2) relationship…

Fullerton, Jami A.; Umphrey, Don

329

Students' Attitudes toward School Chemistry: The Effect of Interaction between Gender and Grade Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of interaction between gender and grade level on secondary school students' attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The sample is composed of 197 students across Grades 9 to 11. The Attitude Scale Toward Chemistry, developed by Geban & Ertepinar (1994), is used to collect data.…

Belge Can, Hatice

2012-01-01

330

Gender Differences on Attitudes, Computer Use and Physical Activity among Greek University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to discover any possible relation(s) between the subject of computer, the involvement in physical activity examine and the attitudes of Greek Physical Education students, divided by gender. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen students, 93 males and 72 females. They completed: a) the "Computer Attitude Scale"…

Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis

2009-01-01

331

The Effect of a Student-Designed Data Collection: Project on Attitudes toward Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often enter an introductory statistics class with less than positive attitudes about the subject. They tend to believe statistics is difficult and irrelevant to their lives. Observational evidence from previous studies suggests including projects in a statistics course may enhance students' attitudes toward statistics. This study examines…

Carnell, Lisa J.

2008-01-01

332

How kids view cops The nature of juvenile attitudes toward the police  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades there has been increasing interest in the attitudes of adults toward the police. There has only been limited interest in the attitudes of juveniles, even though they comprise a significant proportion of the population subject to police contact and arrests. The present study, using data collected through a survey administered to a sample of urban

Yolander. G. Hurst; James Frank

2000-01-01

333

The Effect of Language Attitudes on Kenyan Stakeholder Involvement in Mother Tongue Policy Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the relationship between language attitudes and the involvement of Sabaot stakeholders in the implementation of the Kenyan language-in-education policy (mother tongue [MT] as subject). Attitudes were vitally important for how the policy was interpreted, the extent to which stakeholders invested their time and the way in which…

Jones, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

334

Adolescents' attitudes towards organic food: a survey of 15- to 16-year old school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16 years was conducted. Four main groups of questions were used: adolescents' knowledge of organic food, attitudes, whether

Derk Jan Stobbelaar; Gerda Casimir; Josine Borghuis; Inge Marks; Laurens Meijer; Simone Zebeda

2006-01-01

335

An Exploration Into Teacher and Student Arithmetic Attitude at Grades 3, 5, and 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a research study comparing the relationship between the attitudes toward arithmetic of students and their teachers in grades 3, 5, and 6. The subjects were 1022 students and 39 teachers in a middle-class area in the northeastern section of Cleveland, Ohio. The students and their teachers were given a 28 item attitude toward arithmetic…

Anttonen, Ralph G.; Deighan, William

336

An Analysis of Changes in Attitudes of Participants in Selected Clergy Economic Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An assessment was made of clergymen's attitude changes toward American agriculture, business, and labor as a result of participation in educational programs sponsored by the Clergy Economic Education Foundation. Differences in pretest attitudes toward these institutions were also evaluated. Subjects (87 participants from Florida, Kentucky, and…

Reinbold, John Clifford

337

The Impact of Sports Sponsorship on Consumers' Brand Attitudes and Recall: The Case of NASCAR Fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A television clip of a NASCAR race, complete with commercials, was used to assess the impact of brand sponsorship on consumer attitude and recall. Attitudes towards the brands that appeared as logos on cars were higher for those who watched the video than for those who did not, but only for subjects scoring high in involvement. When equated for total

Aron M. Levin; Chris Joiner; Gary Cameron

2001-01-01

338

Secondary Teacher Attitudes Toward Including English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have given limited attention to teacher attitudes toward inclusion of English-language learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms. The author explored 4 categories within secondary teacher attitudes toward ELL inclusion: (a) ELL inclusion, (b) coursework modification for ELLS, (c) professional development for working with ELLs, and (d) perceptions of language and language learning. Findings from a survey of 279 subject-area high

Jenelle R. Reeves

2006-01-01

339

A "Frightening" Public Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews conclusions about public attitudes toward science and technology drawn by the director of the National Science Foundation, John B. Slaughter, from a recent survey conducted by the National Science Foundation. Slaughter's comments about the United States' slowing rate of investment in research and development are also included. (SR)

USA Today, 1982

1982-01-01

340

Parental Attitudes and Poverty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the Parental Attitudes Research Instrument and on Rotter's Internality-Externality Scale were compared for 28 lower class black mothers of high risk infants and 34 mothers of same-age infants from the general population of a Southern University town. (GO)

Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

1976-01-01

341

Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

342

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Tracy Dietz

343

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

344

Attitudes, Behavior, and Employability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of three studies related to the effects of schooling on the employability development of youth. The first two studies described investigate determinants of attitudes and misbehavior in high school that are presumed to affect labor market outcomes later. The third study is presented as a complement to the first…

Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Dorsten, Linda Eberst

345

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

346

Academics, Activities, Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Oklahoma high school is striving to integrate activities, attitudes, and academics. The school broadens curriculum by involving students in its performance, governance, service, and instruction via sports activities, job-related organizations, course-related clubs, membership groups, and school-service and government clubs open to all students.…

Lannert, Grace

2000-01-01

347

Attitudes towards Gypsy Travellers.  

PubMed

Gypsy Travellers often experience wide-ranging inequalities, associated with poor access to health services and education, discrimination, and health professionals' lack of understanding of the cultural identity and health needs of their community. This article explores nurses' attitudes to Gypsy Travellers, and discusses how overcoming bias and negativity can help address the health needs of this community. PMID:22046670

Francis, Gill

348

Attitudes Toward Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the turbulence of the late sixties, attitudes of white Americans towards desegregation continued to change almost as though nothing was happening. Even though there is some evidence in the National Opinion Research Center data of a negative reaction to black militancy, this negative reaction has not impeded the increase in proportion of…

Greeley, Andrew M.; Sheatsley, Paul B.

349

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

350

The Illness Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) were developed by Robert Kellner as a clinimetric index for measuring hypochondriacal fears and beliefs (worry about illness, concerns about pain, health habits, hypochondriacal beliefs, thanatophobia, disease phobia, bodily preoccupations, treatment experience and effects of symptoms). The IAS have been extensively used in the past two decades, but there has been no comprehensive review

Laura Sirri; Silvana Grandi; Giovanni A. Fava

2008-01-01

351

Science Center and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya

2013-01-01

352

[Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behavior among young people in Germany. Results of repeated, representative surveys by the BZgA].  

PubMed

Following an increase in tobacco consumption among 12 to 17 year olds between 1993 and 1997, a policy mix comprising various structural and behavioral prevention measures was implemented in Germany. One element of this policy mix is the "rauchfrei" ("smoke-free") youth campaign of the BZgA (Federal Centre for Health Education), a combination of media that reaches a large number of youth, personal communication, and setting-based interventions. The aim is to prevent young people from starting to smoke and to promote the cessation of smoking at an early stage. Based on a multistage intervention model, wide coverage of the measures should be achieved among young people, as well as changes in knowledge, attitudes, social norms, and behavioral intentions. Based on the intervention model, repeated, representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted to examine the development of these indicators and of tobacco consumption. Five studies were conducted during the period from 2003 to 2008, each comprising between 1,220 and 2,780 computer-assisted telephone interviews with randomly selected young people between the ages of 12 and 17. The percentage of young people reached by information offered on the subject of not smoking rose between 2003 and 2008. Participation in school-based prevention measures also rose. There was an increase in knowledge regarding the harmful substances contained in cigarette smoke, and in the percentage of young people who rated active and passive smoking as being harmful to health. In addition, the attitude towards smoking of young people who have never smoked became more critical, as did that perceived in the social environment. The proportion of young people who smoke declined substantially, from 27.5% (2001) to 15.4% (2008), and there was been a major rise in the number who have never smoked, from 40.5% (2001) to 60.6% (2008). The change in knowledge-based risk assessments, attitudes, and social norms should be further promoted by mass media and personal communication measures, as well as by setting-based and behavioral prevention measures. In order to encourage them to quit smoking, young smokers must be motivated and convinced by means of suitable behavioral prevention interventions. PMID:20098974

Orth, B; Töppich, J

2010-02-01

353

Rebranding Russia: Norms, Politics and Power  

E-print Network

This working paper argues that Russia is in the process of re-branding itself internationally, with a variety of normative arguments increasingly creeping into its wider international discourse. By appealing to norms, Russia tries to reformulate the key messages it sends to the world and implant the concept of its power worldwide. Yet given that Russia’s normative messages are often met with scarce enthusiasm in Europe, it is of utmost importance to uncover how the normative segment in Russian foreign policy is perceived, evaluated and debated both inside Russia and elsewhere. Within this framework, this paper focuses on a set of case studies highlighting the normative and non-normative dimensions of Russian foreign policy. These include Russia-EU transborder cooperation, Moscow’s policies towards Estonia, Poland, Ukraine/Georgia and the UK, Russian strategies in the ‘war on terror ’ and energy issues. CEPS Working Documents are intended to give an indication of work being conducted within CEPS research programmes and to stimulate reactions from other experts in the field. Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed are

Andrey S. Makarychev

354

The worldwide NORM production and a fully automated gamma-ray spectrometer for their characterization  

E-print Network

Materials containing radionuclides of natural origin, which is modified by human made processes and being subject to regulation because of their radioactivity are known as NORM. We present a brief review of the main categories of non-nuclear industries together with the levels of activity concentration in feed raw materials, products and waste, including mechanisms of radioisotope enrichments. The global management of NORM shows a high level of complexity, mainly due to different degrees of radioactivity enhancement and the huge amount of worldwide waste production. The future tendency of guidelines concerning environmental protection will require both a systematic monitoring based on the ever-increasing sampling and high performance of gamma ray spectroscopy. On the ground of these requirements a new low background fully automated high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer MCA_Rad has been developed. The design of Pb and Cu shielding allowed to reach a background reduction of two order of magnitude with respect to laboratory radioactivity. A severe lowering of manpower cost is obtained through a fully automation system, which enables up to 24 samples to be measured without any human attendance. Two coupled HPGe detectors increase the detection efficiency, performing accurate measurements on sample volume (180 cc) with a reduction of sample transport cost of material. Details of the instrument calibration method are presented. MCA_Rad system can measure in less than one hour a typical NORM sample enriched in U and Th with some hundreds of Bq/kg, with an overall uncertainty less than 5%. Quality control of this method has been tested. Measurements of certified reference materials RGK-1, RGU-2 and RGTh-1 containing concentrations of K, U and Th comparable to NORM have been performed, resulting an overall relative discrepancy of 5% among central values within the reported uncertainty.

G. Xhixha; GP. Bezzon; C. Broggini; GP. Buso; A. Caciolli; I. Callegari; S. De Bianchi; G. Fiorentini; E. Guastaldi; M. Kaçeli Xhixha; F. Mantovani; G. Massa; R. Menegazzo; L. Mou; A. Pasquini; C. Rossi Alvarez; M. Shyti

2012-04-24

355

Defining the Subject of Consent in DNA Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of population-specific genomic research has prompted calls for invention of informed consent protocols that would treat entire social groups as research subjects as well as endow such groups with authority as agents of consent. Critics of such an unconventional ethical norm of “group consent” fear the rhetorical effects of approaching social groups with offers to participate in dialogues

Gordon R. Mitchell; Kelly Happe

2001-01-01

356

Does Individualism Help Explain Differences in Employers' Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Disability Across Chinese and American Cities?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. PMID:21171794

Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2011-01-01

357

Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

2014-01-01

358

Estimates for compression norms and additivity violation in quantum information  

E-print Network

The free contraction norm (or the (t)-norm) was introduced by Belinschi, Collins and Nechita as a tool to compute the typical location of the collection of singular values associated to a random subspace of the tensor product of two Hilbert spaces. In turn, it was used in by them in order to obtain sharp bounds for the violation of the additivity of the minimum output entropy for random quantum channels with Bell states. This free contraction norm, however, is difficult to compute explicitly. The purpose of this note is to give a good estimate for this norm. Our technique is based on results of super convergence in the context of free probability theory. As an application, we give a new, simple and conceptual proof of the violation of the additivity of the minimum output entropy.

Benoît Collins; Motohisa Fukuda; Ping Zhong

2014-08-25

359

Commercial Norms, Commercial Codes, and International Commercial Arbitration  

E-print Network

The article defends the incorporation of commercial norms into commercial codes, through provisions such as statute 1-205 of the Uniform Commercial Code. It finds significant reliance on trade usages in international ...

Drahozal, Christopher R.

2000-01-01

360

Chronological Changes in Japanese Physicians' Attitude and Behavior Concerning Relationships with Pharmaceutical Representatives: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent qualitative studies indicated that physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives depending on the relative weight of the benefits to the risks and are also influenced by a variety of experiences and circumstances. However, these studies do not provide enough information about if, when, how and why their attitudes and behaviors change over time. Methods and Findings A qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews was conducted on 9 Japanese physicians who attended a symposium on conflicts of interest held in Tokyo. Interviews were designed to explore chronological changes in individual physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives and factors affecting such changes. Their early interaction with pharmaceutical representatives was passive as physicians were not explicitly aware of the meaning of such interaction. They began to think on their own about how to interact with pharmaceutical representatives as they progressed in their careers. Their attitude toward pharmaceutical representatives changed over time. Factors affecting attitudinal change included work environment (local regulations and job position), role models, views of patients and the public, acquisition of skills in information seeking and evidence-based medicine, and learning about the concepts of professionalism and conflict of interest. However, the change in attitude was not necessarily followed by behavioral change, apparently due to rationalization and conformity to social norms. Conclusions Physicians' attitudes toward relationships with pharmaceutical representatives changed over time and factors affecting such changes were various. Paying attention to these factors and creating new social norms may be both necessary to produce change in behavior consistent with change in attitude. PMID:25238544

Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Miyata, Yasushi

2014-01-01

361

Strongly Lacunary Ward Continuity in 2-Normed Spaces  

PubMed Central

A function f defined on a subset E of a 2-normed space X is strongly lacunary ward continuous if it preserves strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy sequences of points in E; that is, (f(xk)) is a strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy sequence whenever (xk) is strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy. In this paper, not only strongly lacunary ward continuity, but also some other kinds of continuities are investigated in 2-normed spaces. PMID:25050397

Çakalli, Hüseyin; Ersan, Sibel

2014-01-01

362

Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

2013-02-01

363

The Pet Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet\\u000a Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures\\u000a human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it

Donald I. Templer; Hiroko Arikawa

364

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

1993-01-01

365

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

366

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

367

An Analysis of Attitudes toward Computer Networks and Internet Addiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the interplay between young people's attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction. After analyzing questionnaire responses of an initial sample of 615 Taiwanese high school students, 78 subjects, viewed as possible Internet addicts, were selected for further explorations. It was found that…

Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Sunny S. J.

368

Citizen Attitudes Toward the Environment: An Appraisal of the Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the review was to explore the survey literature on the subject of citizen attitudes toward the environment. The researchers note a dearth of knowledge with respect to all aspects of the recycling and water pollution issues and suggest that further research be done in the area of communication between the state and its citizens.…

Langowski, Alan; And Others

369

Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

Randall, Teresa

2011-01-01

370

Attitudes Toward Physical Activity of Champion Women Basketball Players.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine which attitudes were central to the motivation of women involved in championship basketball competition. Seventy-five women members of teams represented in national basketball championships served as subjects for this experiment. In addition, a control group of 212 women was randomly selected from physical…

Corbin, Charles B.

371

Heritability of hostility-related emotions, attitudes, and behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hostility-related variables have been categorized as to kinds of emotions, attitudes, and behaviors. Relatively few studies have explored whether genetic factors contribute to individual differences in these variables. Moreover, the majority of this research has involved male subjects. The present study utilized the twin method to evaluate the influence of genetic factors on hostility-related emotions, namely, trait anger and irritability,

David S. Cates; B. Kent Houston; Christine R. Vavak; Michael H. Crawford; Meredith Uttley

1993-01-01

372

Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

Slegers, Claudia

2010-01-01

373

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

374

Faculty Attitudes at Indiana University School of Dentistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental educators' attitudes toward academic life are examined through structured, in-depth interviews with 122 full- and part-time faculty at Indiana University School of Dentistry. Results showed that the major reasons for choosing an academic career were influence of a faculty member or dean, interest in the subject matter, economics, and a…

Sorcinelli, Mary Deane

375

Sources of Politico-Economic Attitudes: Students' Introspections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim is to shed more light on university students' sources of attitudes towards the market economy, social inequality, and the responsibilities of the state. Analyzing survey data of almost 500 students at a German university, we identify those sources the subjects report to be important in the process of forming their politico-economic…

Lange, Astrid; Pitsoulis, Athanassios

2013-01-01

376

Teacher Attitudes on Portfolio Assessment, Implementation, and Practicability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study consisted of a survey of 31 professional educators to determine their knowledge and attitudes concerning the use of portfolios as an assessment tool. Of the 31 surveys that were mailed to the subjects, 29 were returned, with a response rate of 94 percent. Out of the 29 professionals that were surveyed, only six had implemented the use…

Bushman, Lisa; Schnitker, Brenda

377

Attitudes Toward Risk: Experimental Measurement in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward risk were measures in 240 households using two methods: an interview method eliciting certainty equivalents and an experimental gambling approach with real payoffs which, at their maximum, exceeded monthly incomes of unskilled laborers. The interview method is subject to interviewer bias and its results were totally inconsistent with the experimental measures of risk aversion. Experimental measures indicate that,

Hans P. Binswanger

1980-01-01

378

Influence of Female Role Models on Career-Related Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since women compose nearly half the labor market and are expected to continue to be a major component, the variables which affect women's career choices are of considerable interest. The effect of role models on attitudes related to career aspirations was examined for female college freshmen. Experimental subjects (N=75) were provided with role…

Walker, Alice A.

379

Personal and societal attitudes to disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research addresses theoretical and conceptual frameworks dealing with the formation and change of attitudes, cognitive dissonance, positive and negative prejudice, the concept of “spread”, overt and covert attitudes and their formation, and the nexus between attitudes and behavior toward disability. Two attitude scales—the interaction with disabled persons and the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons—are reviewed and results of

Simon Darcy

2005-01-01

380

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

381

Stochastic optimal control subject to variational norm uncertainty: viscosity subsolution for generalized HJB inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with optimization of stochastic uncertain systems, when systems are described by measures and the pay-off by a linear functional on the space of measure, on general abstract spaces. Robustness is formulated as a minimax game, in which the control seeks to minimize the pay-off over the admissible controls while the measure aims at maximizing the pay-off

Farzad Rezaei; Charalambos D. Charalambous; Nasir Uddin Ahmed

2009-01-01

382

Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback  

PubMed Central

College students have been shown to consistently overestimate the drinking of their peers. As a result, social norms approaches are effective in correcting these misperceived norms to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. In this review of literature, the authors critically evaluated the effectiveness of personalized normative feedback. In addition, the authors reviewed personalized normative feedback interventions and provided suggestions for increasing the efficacy of these interventions by making better use of salient referent group data. PMID:16450845

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

2008-01-01

383

Embodiment, agency, and attitude change.  

PubMed

Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not necessary to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply agency for another person's physical movements. Experiment 3 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not sufficient to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply nonagency for those movements. In all 3 experiments, inferential cues to agency played a more important role in attitude embodiment effects than did actual agency, suggesting that theories of embodiment and attitude embodiment need to consider inferential cues to agency alongside biomechanical mechanisms. PMID:19968412

Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Bond, Charles F

2009-12-01

384

Nursing students' attitudes toward science in the nursing curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.

Maroo, Jill Deanne

385

Class of weak uni-norm operators and aggregation of fuzzy rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that strong uni-norm aggregation operators belong to the class of weak triangular norm operators. The new class of operators called weak uni-norm operators was introduced by relaxing condition of associativity of uni-norm operators. This class includes linear weighted averaging of uni-norm operators. Resulting weights are fixed and, thus, this type of aggregation can be used for constructing

Ronald R. Yager; Alexander Rybalov

2000-01-01

386

Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the implicit association test: a literature review.  

PubMed

Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. PMID:24316588

Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

2014-02-01

387

Attitudes Underlying Corneal Donation in a Group of Trainee Allied Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

Background The focus of this study was to investigate factors that may influence personal willingness to register consent to donate corneal tissue upon death using the theory of planned behaviour in a relatively ethnically homogenous group of trainee allied health professionals. The attainment of this knowledge will be of paramount importance in relation to potential interventions that are designed to change donation-related behaviour. Methods A questionnaire-based study was undertaken with 92 pre-registration nurses (mean age 24.0 years (standard deviation ±5.6 years); female:male ?=?89:3) enrolled at a University in Northern Ireland. Intention to register consent to donate corneal tissue upon death was assessed using both direct and belief-based measures found in the theory of planned behaviour. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographic information, with correlation and regression analyses being used to identify factors influencing intentions. Results The majority of participants were religious (94.6%, n?=?87) and mostly Protestant (58.7%, n?=?54) or Catholic (35.9%, n?=?33). Generally speaking, the theory of planned behaviour accounted for 84% of the variance in intention to register consent. In relation to the constructs found in the theory of planned behaviour, attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of intention to register consent, with subjective norm being the second strongest predictor. Perceived behavioural control did not significantly predict intention to register consent. Conclusions The theory of planned behaviour has allowed an understanding of the factors that influence the personal intentions of a group of future allied health professionals from the same ethnic group to register consent to donate their corneal tissue. PMID:23300937

McGlade, Donal; McClenahan, Carol; Pierscionek, Barbara

2012-01-01

388

Social Norms and the Paradox of Elections’ Turnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

People vote although their marginal gain from voting is zero.We contribute to the resolution of this paradox by presentinga model for equilibrium configuration of attitudes regardingthe decision to vote. Each individual is seen as an element ofa social network, within which pairs of individuals expressideas and attitudes, exerting mutual influence. We model therole of such networks in propagating the mutual

João Amaro de Matos; Pedro P. Barros

2004-01-01

389

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation  

E-print Network

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation Dipl. -Ing. Karsten-forward and practical introduction to quaternion operation and calculation for rigid-body attitude representation other attitude representation parameters are summarized. The quaternion computation rules are supported

Berlin,Technische Universität

390

Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve papers address issues of attitudes towards handicapped persons. The authors were invited to summarize and critically evaluate the literature in their area of expertise, including their own research. Contributions touch on measurement and methodological issues as well as other topics. The following papers are included: "Attitudes and…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

391

Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term word association is used in a very particular sense in the psycholinguistic literature. (Generally speaking, subjects respond quicker than normal to the word nurse if it follows a highly associated word such as doctor. ) We will extend the term to provide the basis for a statistical description of a variety of interesting linguistic phenomena, ranging from semantic relations of the doctor\\/nurse type

Kenneth Ward Church; Patrick Hanks

1990-01-01

392

Sex as a factor in attitudes toward the mentally ill  

E-print Network

SEX AS A FACTOR IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MENTALLY ILL A Thesis by HAL DENNIS WILKERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major... Subject: Psychology SEX AS A FACTOR IN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MENTALLy ILL A Thesis by Hal Dennis Wilkerson Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) Hem'b e r ) May 1976 ABSTHACT Sex As A Factor...

Wilkerson, Hal Dennis

1976-01-01

393

Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry  

PubMed Central

Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

2012-01-01

394

A Pure L1-norm Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

The L1 norm has been applied in numerous variations of principal component analysis (PCA). L1-norm PCA is an attractive alternative to traditional L2-based PCA because it can impart robustness in the presence of outliers and is indicated for models where standard Gaussian assumptions about the noise may not apply. Of all the previously-proposed PCA schemes that recast PCA as an optimization problem involving the L1 norm, none provide globally optimal solutions in polynomial time. This paper proposes an L1-norm PCA procedure based on the efficient calculation of the optimal solution of the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem. We present a procedure called L1-PCA* based on the application of this idea that fits data to subspaces of successively smaller dimension. The procedure is implemented and tested on a diverse problem suite. Our tests show that L1-PCA* is the indicated procedure in the presence of unbalanced outlier contamination. PMID:23976807

Brooks, JP; Dulá, JH; Boone, EL

2012-01-01

395

Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender role attitudes were more likely to exercise a double standard with respect to male as opposed to female premarital sex (OR=1.18). This relationship also applied to attitudes of both girls and boys in Taipei (OR=1.20 and OR=1.22, respectively). Conclusions Although with variation across sites, gender differences in premarital sexual permissiveness and attitudes to gender roles among adolescents were very significant in each of the three Asian cities influenced by Confucian-based values. Traditional gender norms may still be deeply rooted in the three cities, especially among females, while it is important to advocate gender equity in adolescent reproductive health programs, the pathway of traditional gender norms in influencing adolescent reproductive health outcomes must be understood, as must differences and similarities across regions. PMID:22340852

Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

2014-01-01

396

Residents' attitudes toward tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, tourism has been playing a more significant role in the economies of several African countries, including Ghana. The purpose of the paper is to examine attitudes of residents of two of its towns toward tourism development. Factor analysis of scaled items measuring their attitudes resulted in seven tourism-related factors: social interaction with tourists, beneficial cultural influences, welfare

Victor Teye; Ercan Sirakaya; Sevil F. Sönmez

2002-01-01

397

Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

398

Serbian Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of 72 Serbian teachers towards the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) in mainstream schools; they were asked to complete "My Thinking About Inclusion Questionnaire" (Stoiber, Goettinger, & Goetz, 1998). It was found that Serbian teachers held overall slightly negative attitudes towards…

Kalyva, Efrosini; Gojkovic, Dina; Tsakiris, Vlastaris

2007-01-01

399

NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice  

PubMed Central

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

Kymre, Ingjerd G.

2014-01-01

400

NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice.  

PubMed

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses' attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses' attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But "as much as possible" is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

Kymre, Ingjerd G

2014-01-01

401

Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

2006-09-01

402

An investigation of nonlinear control of spacecraft attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of controllers subject to the nonlinear H-infinity criterion is explored. The plants to be controlled are the attitude motion of spacecraft, subject to some disturbance torque. Two cases are considered: the regulation about an inertially-fixed direction, and an Earth-pointing spacecraft in a circular orbit, subject to the gravity-gradient torque. The spacecraft attitude is described using the modified Rodrigues parameters. A series of controllers are designed using the nonlinear H-infinity control criterion, and are subsequently generated using a Taylor series expansion to approximate solutions of the relevant Hamilton-Jacobi equations. The controllers are compared, using both input-output and initial condition simulations. A proof is used to demonstrate that the linearized controller solves the H-infinity control problem for the inertial pointing problem when describing the plant using the modified Rodrigues parameters.

Binette, Mark Richard

403

Robust L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose an L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (L1-2DLDA) with robust performance. Different from the conventional two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with L2-norm (L2-2DLDA), where the optimization problem is transferred to a generalized eigenvalue problem, the optimization problem in our L1-2DLDA is solved by a simple justifiable iterative technique, and its convergence is guaranteed. Compared with L2-2DLDA, our L1-2DLDA is more robust to outliers and noises since the L1-norm is used. This is supported by our preliminary experiments on toy example and face datasets, which show the improvement of our L1-2DLDA over L2-2DLDA. PMID:25721558

Li, Chun-Na; Shao, Yuan-Hai; Deng, Nai-Yang

2015-05-01

404

Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience. PMID:21760974

Kwan, Christine M. L.; Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

405

Image reconstruction from few views by l0-norm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the medical computer tomography (CT) field, total variation (TV), which is the l1-norm of the discrete gradient transform (DGT), is widely used as regularization based on the compressive sensing (CS) theory. To overcome the TV model's disadvantageous tendency of uniformly penalizing the image gradient and over smoothing the low-contrast structures, an iterative algorithm based on the l0-norm optimization of the DGT is proposed. In order to rise to the challenges introduced by the l0-norm DGT, the algorithm uses a pseudo-inverse transform of DGT and adapts an iterative hard thresholding (IHT) algorithm, whose convergence and effective efficiency have been theoretically proven. The simulation demonstrates our conclusions and indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper can obviously improve the reconstruction quality.

Sun, Yu-Li; Tao, Jin-Xu

2014-07-01

406

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

2004-01-01

407

Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

Treder, A. J.

1980-01-01

408

Parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide among medical college students in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Suicide is a grave public health issue that is responsible for a high mortality rate among individuals aged 15–44 years. Attitudes toward suicide among medical staff members have been associated with appropriate therapeutic responses to suicidal individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of parental rearing on attitudes toward suicide among Japanese medical college students. Methods We examined the association between parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide in 160 medical college students in Japan. The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess the attitudes and behaviors of parents. The attitudes toward suicide were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire. Results The mean age of the subjects was 25.2±4.0 years old. The majority of the participants in our study agreed that anyone could commit suicide (88.8%) and that suicide is preventable (86.3%). After adjusting for age and sex, multivariate regression analysis revealed that maternal care approached a statistically significant association with the “right to suicide” attitude. Under the same conditions, maternal care was shown to be significantly associated with the “common occurrence” attitude. No other significant relationships were observed between parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide. Conclusion This study suggests that a higher level of maternal care ensures that children think that suicide occurs less commonly. The promotion of best practices for suicide prevention among medical students is needed. Child rearing support might be associated with suicide prevention. PMID:25364256

Hashimoto, Kojiro; Sugawara, Norio; Tanaka, Osamu; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

2014-01-01

409

Studies in Reaction to Disability. XII: Structure of Attitudes toward the Physically Disabled; Disability Factor Scales--Amputation, Blindness, Cosmetic Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe and to develop instruments to measure attitudes toward amputees, the blind, and those with cosmetic conditions, three groups of subjects responded to one of three large pools of items tapping attitudes toward the three disability conditions. Three new groups of about 500 subjects of diverse demographic characteristics were given one of…

Siller, Jerome; And Others

410

Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems  

E-print Network

This paper communicates recent results in theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schr\\"odinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schr\\"odinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schr\\"odinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances.

Emil Prodan; Stephan R. Garcia; Mihai Putinar

2005-10-24

411

[Coping style and cognitive attitude in patients with multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Recent literature revealed the importance of subjective coping strategies in chronic diseases. Due to the unpredictable course of the disease, multiple sclerosis patients have to integrate the illness into their psychosocial context. The present study examines the connection between coping styles, cognitive attitudes ("locus of control") and course in 20 outpatients with multiple sclerosis. Favourable coping strategies correlated with internal locus of control. Unfavourable coping behaviour on the other hand was correlated with external cognitive attitudes and a worse outcome. Moreover, depressive coping styles and psychopathological depression dominate with a worse course of the disease. Thus coping and cognitive attitudes have to be evaluated in order to strengthen personal resources in dealing with multiple sclerosis. PMID:9491539

Lasar, M; Kotterba, S

1997-12-23

412

An investigation of attitudes, anxiety, and achievement of college algebra students using brain-compatible teaching techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated changes in anxiety, attitudes, and achievement of college algebra students using brain-compatible teaching techniques. Gender differences were also investigated. The subjects were 53 community college students enrolled in two college algebra classes. A pretest-posttest control group design was used. Both groups completed the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) and Aiken's Mathematics Attitude Scale (AMAS) the first and

Kimberly S McFadden

2001-01-01

413

Diagnosing Changes in Attitude in First-Year College Chemistry Students with a Shortened Version of Bauer's Semantic Differential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this quantitative study, a shortened version of the Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI) created by Bauer (2008) was used to identify the chemistry attitudes of two populations of general chemistry students at two universities. The ASCIv2 contained just two factors from the original instrument. These factors measured…

Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Xu, Xiaoying; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

414

Similarity-Dissimilarity in Counselor-Counselee Ethnic Match: An Investigation of the Attitudes of Black Counselees Toward White Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes of black counselees toward white counselors were investigated using Rosen's Consequence Model Questionnaire (an adaptation of Edward's decision making paridigm of subjective probability-utility) and Gurin's modification of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Pre-measures revealed an overall favorable attitude toward white…

Harrison, Don K.

415

The Effects of a "Project Learning Tree" Workshop on Pre-service Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if a 7-hour "Project Learning Tree" (PLT) workshop had a positive effect on pre-service teachers' attitudes toward teaching environmental education. The subjects of the study were 140 pre-service teachers enrolled in an elementary science education course in Pennsylvania. Attitude was measured using the…

Kunz, Dorothea E.

416

Dysfunctional Attitudes and Cognitive Schemas in Bipolar Manic and Unipolar Depressed Outpatients: Implications for Cognitively Based Psychotherapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunctional thought patterns are presumed to underlie cognitive biases in mood disorder patients. However, few studies have compared dysfunctional thought patterns in bipolar manic and unipolar depressed patients. Cognitive schemas and dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated using the cognitive checklist for mania and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) in 34 bipolar manic, 35 unipo- lar depressed, and 29 nonpsychiatric control subjects. Unipolar

Joseph F. Goldberg; Rachel K. Gerstein; Susan J. Wenze; Tara M. Welker; Aaron T. Beck

2008-01-01

417

Focus Groups as a Method for Conducting a Needs Analysis: A Case Study for an Employee Attitude Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study used focus groups to examine employee attitudes and concerns. Subjects, about 60 employees and managers of a major university teaching hospital in the southeast, were formed into 4 focus groups to discuss their attitudes. Employees hoped that management would use the information gathered to improve the communication environment and…

Capps, Randall

418

An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students  

PubMed Central

Aims This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Methods Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n?=?3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. Results A response rate of 15% (n?=?554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Conclusions Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384 PMID:23594918

2013-01-01

419

[Speech recognition in the norm and pathology].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to study theoretically and experimentally clinical and electrophysiological correlates of the human abilities to recognize emotions in speech. It was shown that the disorder of the recognition of emotions in speech occurred following the lesion of the right temporal region, however the most serious defect of recognition manifested itself at the frontal temporal localization of the lesion. The comparison of the EEG characteristics between two groups of subjects with high and low indices of recognition of emotions in speech revealed a higher level of activation in the posterior temporal regions of the right hemisphere and in the frontal regions of the left hemisphere in the group with the low index of recognition. Clinical data and findings obtained in electrophysiological studies permitted us to make a conclusion that the recognition of emotions in speech involved not only temporal regions of the right hemisphere, but also speech centers in the left hemisphere. PMID:20297688

Rusalova, M N; Kislova, O O; Sidorova, O A

2010-01-01

420

Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

2013-08-01

421

Attitude scale and general health questionnaire subscales predict depression?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: According to Beck theory, dysfunctional attitude has a central role in emergence of depression. The aim of this study was to determine contributions of dysfunctional attitude and general health index to depression. METHODS: In this case-control study, two groups of subjects participated. The first group consisted of 65 patients with major depression and dysthymic disorder, who were recruited from Noor and Navab Safavi Psychiatry Clinics in Isfahan. The control group was consisted of 65 non-patient individuals who were accompanied or relatives of the patients and was matched with them based on age, sex and education. Both groups completed 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic regression and correlation methods were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that by an increase of one level in categorized DAS-26 scores and one score in the physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression subscales of GHQ-28 the risk of depression increase by 6.8, 1.6, 1.9, 3.7, 4.78 times, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Capability of dysfunctional attitude and general health subscales to predict depression supports the Beck's cognitive diathesis stress theory of depression that dysfunctional attitude may be a predisposing risk factor for depression. PMID:23248655

Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Afshar, Hamid; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Moolavi, Hoseyn

2012-01-01

422

The brief sexual attitudes scale.  

PubMed

The measurement of sexual attitudes is important, and ease of scale usability is one key aspect of measurement. This paper details three studies conducted to develop a briefer and thus more efficient version of the multidimensional Sexual Attitudes Scale (43 items). The first two studies (I and II) employed existing data sets to develop a 23-item version of the Sexual Attitudes Scale, using exploratory factor analysis in Study I and confirmatory factor analysis in Study II. The same four subscales of Permissiveness, Birth Control (formerly called Sexual Practices), Communion, and Instrumentality were retained in the 23-item measure, called the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. Study III was a prospective data collection using only the 23 items composing the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale. The four subscales were hypothesized to correlate with a number of relationship measures in predictable ways. Results indicated that the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid measure of the four sexual attitudes, and has strong psychometric properties. It should be effective and efficient for both research and clinical uses. PMID:16817070

Hendrick, Clyde; Hendrick, Susan S; Reich, Darcy A

2006-02-01

423

Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

2014-01-01

424

Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40–45 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

2013-01-01

425

Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

2006-01-01

426

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

427

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

428

Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

2012-01-01

429

SUBJECT CODES Legacy Abbreviation Subject New Subject Code  

E-print Network

SUBJECT CODES Legacy Abbreviation Subject New Subject Code ACCT Accounting ACCT A S Aerospace A S L American Sign Language ASL AVS Animal and Veterinary Sciences AVS ANTH Anthropology ANTH AP EC FR French FR GEN Genetics GEN GEOG Geography GEOG GEOL Geology GEOL GER German GER G S Graduate

Stuart, Steven J.

430

ATTITUDE FILTERING ON SO(3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is presented for the simultaneous estimation of the attitude of a spacecraft and an N-vector of bias parameters. This method uses a probability distribution function defined on the Cartesian product of SO(3), the group of rotation matrices, and the Euclidean space W N .The Fokker-Planck equation propagates the probability distribution function between measurements, and Bayes s formula incorporates measurement update information. This approach avoids all the issues of singular attitude representations or singular covariance matrices encountered in extended Kalman filters. In addition, the filter has a consistent initialization for a completely unknown initial attitude, owing to the fact that SO(3) is a compact space.

Markley, F. Landis

2005-01-01

431

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static attitude estimation and dynamic attitude estimation are used to describe a gradiometer composed of a number of accelerometers that are used to measure a combination of the local gravity gradient and instrument rotation effects. After a series of measures to isolate the gradient, a global mesh of measurements can be obtained that determine the planetary external gravity potential. Orbital and spacecraft models are developed to determine if, when the gravity potential is known, the same measurements, unsupported by any other information can be used to infer the spacecraft attitude.

Sonnabend, David; Born, George H.

1994-01-01

432

An algorithm for sparse MRI reconstruction by Schatten p-norm minimization.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a concerted effort to reduce the MR scan time. Signal processing research aims at reducing the scan time by acquiring less K-space data. The image is reconstructed from the subsampled K-space data by employing compressed sensing (CS)-based reconstruction techniques. In this article, we propose an alternative approach to CS-based reconstruction. The proposed approach exploits the rank deficiency of the MR images to reconstruct the image. This requires minimizing the rank of the image matrix subject to data constraints, which is unfortunately a nondeterministic polynomial time (NP) hard problem. Therefore we propose to replace the NP hard rank minimization problem by its nonconvex surrogate - Schatten p-norm minimization. The same approach can be used for denoising MR images as well. Since there is no algorithm to solve the Schatten p-norm minimization problem, we derive an efficient first-order algorithm. Experiments on MR brain scans show that the reconstruction and denoising accuracy from our method is at par with that of CS-based methods. Our proposed method is considerably faster than CS-based methods. PMID:20952139

Majumdar, Angshul; Ward, Rabab K

2011-04-01

433

Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules  

SciTech Connect

In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l{sub 1}(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l{sub 1}{sup 0}(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

Helemskii, A Ya [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-31

434

Norm-of-Reaction: Definition and misinterpretation of animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a phenotype is due to an interaction of the genotype with the environment. Two terms have been used to describe the outcome of this interaction, the norm-of-reaction and the reaction range. The first represents the theoretically limitless distribution of the phenotypes that may be expressed by a given genotype. The reaction range implies an upper and lower

Steve A. Platt; Charles A. Sanislow

1988-01-01

435

Turkish Children's Human Figure Drawings: Can We Borrow Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data on norms for the Human Drawings test for children ages 5-11, in Turkey. Four hundred and thirty children from two different schools, in two different socio-economic levels, were given the Human Figure Drawings. One was a private school in an affluent part of the city, and the other one…

Ozer, Serap

2009-01-01

436

Topical Lunch Norm Scott "Building" a Sustainable Community  

E-print Network

Topical Lunch ­ Norm Scott "Building" a Sustainable Community June 28, 2010 12:00 ­ 1:00 PM 300 Rice Hall Attendees: Host ­ Norman Scott, nrs5 Helene Schember, hrs6 David Dieterich, dd355 MarkCobb, dpm9 Mike Walter, mfw2 Al George, arg2 Jonathan Russell-Anelli, jmr5 Pike Oliver, hpo3 Kifle

Angenent, Lars T.

437

Regularized super-resolution image reconstruction employing robust error norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution image is reconstructed from a sequence of subpixel shifted, aliased low-resolution frames, by means of stochastic regularized super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction. The Tukey (T), Lorentzian (L), and Huber (H) cost functions are employed for the data-fidelity term. The performance of the particular error norms, in SR image reconstruction, is presented. Actually, their employment in SR reconstruction is preceded by dilating and scaling their influence functions to make them as similar as possible. Thus, the direct comparison of these norms in rejecting outliers takes place. The bilateral total variation (BTV) regularization is incorporated as a priori knowledge about the solution. The outliers effect is significantly reduced, and the high-frequency edge structures of the reconstructed image are preserved. The proposed TTV, LTV, and HTV methods are directly compared with a former SR method that employs the L1-norm in the data-fidelity term for synthesized and real sequences of frames. In the simulated experiments, noiseless frames as well as frames corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise are employed. Experimental results verify the robust statistics theory. Thus, the Tukey method performs best, while the L1-norm technique performs inferiorly to the proposed techniques.

Panagiotopoulou, Antigoni; Anastassopoulos, Vassilis

2009-11-01

438

Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

Lundin, Mattias

2011-01-01

439

Changing Values and Norms in Portuguese Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this paper is to identify emerging changes in the values and norms related to governance and management in Portuguese higher education and to identify how different kinds of stakeholders perceive these changes. The University Autonomy Act (1988) and the Polytechnics Autonomy Act (1990) by transferring greater responsibility…

Magalhaes, Antonio M.; Amaral, Alberto

2007-01-01

440

MELTING OF NORM - CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT OF AN OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 6000 offshore plants for oil and natural gas exploration are world wide in operation. 640 are located in the North Sea and North Atlantic area, 60 of which have been shut down so far. The contamination of these installations with heavy metals e. g. mercury and NORM requires an ecologically disposal concept. The Continental Netherlands Oil Company B. V.

M. Sappok; U. Quade; T. Kluth

441

Changing College Student Norms on the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated college student scores and reliabilities on Rotter's Incomplete Sentences Blank (ISB) for the years 1965, 1970, and 1977. Results indicated: (1) no significant differences among the three years; (2) significant differences between scores in the present and original ISB norms; and (3) high interscorer reliabilities of rescoring…

Lah, Michael I.; Rotter, Julian B.

1981-01-01

442

Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties  

PubMed Central

Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S.; Raihani, Nichola J.

2014-01-01

443

Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Work Groups: A Group Norms Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the relationship between unit-level organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and unit outcomes has been well established in recent years, the conceptual development of OCB at the unit level of analysis has not been adequately addressed. In an effort to fill this conceptual gap and to spur future research, the authors apply the literature on group norms to the concept of

Mark G. Ehrhart; Stefanie E. Naumann

2004-01-01

444

Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

2010-01-01

445

Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others

1995-01-01

446

Association and Uncertainty: Norms of Association to Ambiguous Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norms of free association to common ambiguous English words are reported. Responses were categorized on the basis of sense relevance. On this basis, the sense dominance of the words was quantified, and the degree of ambiguity associated with each word estimated by the information measure U. This publication will be of interest primarily to…

Perfetti, Charles A.; And Others

447

Communiquer dans un monde de normes l 235 Introduction  

E-print Network

Communiquer dans un monde de normes l 235 Introduction The uses of social media are still of social media use literally challenged the ways journalists produce news stories. Early in the morning of audience participation (Boaden, 2008). Following 7/7, the uses of social media in the production

Boyer, Edmond

448

94 5 Metrics on Normed Structures lp-metric  

E-print Network

are described by the axioms of Euclidean Geometry. · Norm-related metrics on Rn On the vector space Rn called the Euclidean metric. The l2-metric on the set of all sequences {xn}n of real (complex) numbers polygonal unit balls. · Euclidean metric The Euclidean metric (or Pythagorean distance, as

Fitelson, Branden

449

Norms and Performance Standards for Work Sample Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work samples are commonly used to aid in the assessment of a client's potential for functioning in various competitive occupations. To determine an individual's position relative to a particular reference group the most commonly used norms are those based on scores of other clients who have performed a specific work sample, and performance scores…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Dept. of Rehabilitation and Manpower Services. Materials Development Center.

450

NORM situation in non-uranium mining in China.  

PubMed

The Ministry of Environmental Protection in China is responsible for regulatory control on radiation protection from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The natural radiation caused by human activities is a major contributor to public and occupational exposure in China. This paper introduces the first national census on pollution sources (target year 2007) in China, and describes NORM sites in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, one of the largest rare earth deposits in China. The ores are rich in radioactive elements, with a concentration of ThO(2) of 0.01-0.05% and concentration of U(3)O(8) of 0.0005-0.002%. The large amount of NORM residues is regulated and controlled. After treatment of the waste water, it is discharged into tailing ponds and then pumped directly to milling plants for re-use. The waste gas after off-dust cleaning is discharged into the environment. A substantial amount of blast furnace iron slag from the waste treatment is transformed into cement, concrete, and bricks, or used directly for highway construction. This raises a serious environmental concern. As a result, environmental radiation monitoring and assessment have been introduced recently. Regulatory control of NORM is very important in order to take effective measures to lower the dose. PMID:23089034

Liu, H; Pan, Z

2012-01-01

451

Social Norms, Collective Efficacy, and Smoking Cessation in Urban Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the separate and combined relations of neighborhood-level social norms and collective efficacy with individuals’ cigarette smoking cessation. Methods. We modeled the hazard of quitting over a 5-year period among 863 smokers who participated in the 2005 New York Social Environment Study. Results. In adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, prohibitive neighborhood smoking norms were significantly associated with higher rates of smoking cessation (second quartile hazard ratio [HR] = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59, 2.32; third quartile HR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.17, 4.78; fourth quartile HR = 1.80; 95% CI = 0.85, 3.81). We did not find a significant association between neighborhood collective efficacy and cessation or significant evidence of a joint relation of collective efficacy and smoking norms with cessation. Conclusions. Neighborhood social norms may be more relevant than is collective efficacy to smoking cessation. The normative environment may shape health behavior and should be considered as part of public health intervention efforts. PMID:22390449

Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro

2012-01-01

452

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP  

E-print Network

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP Bilan 2011-2012 et Projets 2012-2013 Conseil de labo du 26 juin 2012 Les membres de l'axe NEO-RESSAP ont été très actifs cette année et de

Naud Frédéric

453

Input\\/output norms in general linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper bounds on the induced norm of the input\\/output operators in linear systems with L2 input and output signals, are provided. The main idea is to transform the original problem into a parametized set of indefinite LQ optimization problems. Using the classical maximum principle, the existence of solutions to the latter is equivalent to the solvability of a boundary value

GILEAD TADMOR

1990-01-01

454

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying datetemperature reaction norms  

E-print Network

. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collectedExploring plasticity in the wild: laying date­temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus Jon E. Brommer1,*, Kalev Rattiste2 and Alastair J. Wilson3 1 Bird Ecology Unit, Department

Wilson, Alastair

455

Division of Chemical Education: Condensed Norms: ACS Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Condensed norms are presented for the most recent American Chemical Society examinations. These are the polymer chemistry form 1978, organic chemistry form 1978, physical chemistry form 1976 I, brief qualitative analysis form 1977B, and brief organic chemistry form 1977B examinations. (BB)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

1979-01-01

456

An expansion formula for the norm of a Jordan algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrices of a given size with entries from a field form an associative algebra, and can therefore be considered as a Jordan algebra. From that point of view, the determinant of a matrix is nothing but the reduced generic norm of the Jordan algebra. The basic expansion formulas of matrix determinants along a row or column do not make sense

Erhard Neher

1997-01-01

457

Norm-of-Reaction: Definition and Misinterpretation of Animal Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a phenotype is due to an interaction of the genotype with the environment. Two terms have been used to describe the outcome of this interaction, the norm-of-reaction and the reaction range. The first represents the theoretically limitless distribution of the phenotypes that may be expressed by a given genotype. The reaction range implies an upper and lower

Steve Anderson Platt; Charles A. Sanislow

1988-01-01

458

Characterization of TE-NORM wastes in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in concentrated forms arises both in industry and in nature where natural radioisotopes accumulate at particular sites. Technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TE-NORM) often occurs in an acidic environment where precipitates containing radionuclides plate out onto pipe walls, filters, tank linings, etc. Because of the radionuclides are selectively deposited at these sites, radioactivity concentration is extremely higher than the natural concentration. This paper presents characterization and related considerations of TE-NORM wastes in Turkey. Generally, accumulation conditions tend to favour the build-up of radium. As radium is highly radio-toxic, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of such material requires careful management. Turkey has the only low level waste processing and storage facility (WPSF) in Istanbul. This facility has interim storage buildings and storage area for storage of packaged radioactive waste which are containing artificial radioisotopes, but there is an increasing demand for the storage to accept bulk concentrated TE-NORM wastes from iron-steel and related industries. Most of these wastes generated from scrap metal piles which are imported from other countries. These wastes generally contain radium. (authors)

Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, P.K. 1 Havaalani, Istanbul (Turkey)

2007-07-01

459

Operationalisation of Norms for Usage in Electronic Institutions  

E-print Network

enforcement mechanism might be difficult. In this paper we propose an extension to electronic institutionsOperationalisation of Norms for Usage in Electronic Institutions Huib Aldewereld Frank Dignum {andres, pablo, jar, sierra}@iiia.csic.es ABSTRACT Agent-mediated electronic institutions belong to a new

Dignum, Frank

460

Developmental norms for the wisconsin card sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been used widely among adult populations to evaluate the effects of frontal-lobe lesions, no comparable work has been done among younger populations due, in part, to the lack of an adequate normative base. This study presents developmental norms by age for the WCST for 105 school-age children. The data indicate that, by

Gordon J. Chelune; Ruth A. Baer

1986-01-01

461

Word Association Norms, Mutual Information, and Lexicography Kenneth Ward Church  

E-print Network

computer readable corpora, making it possible to estimate norms for tens of thousands of words. 1. Meaning hand, bank co­occurs with words and expression such as money, notes, loan, account, investment, clerk). What is new is that facilities for the computational storage and analysis of large bodies of natural

Church, Kenneth W.

462

Constitutive Norms in the Design of Normative Multiagent Systems  

E-print Network

instead of houses and fields. This more natural and economical way to model the relation between the commonsense world under legal categories, like contract, money, property, marriage. Regulative norms can refer nature exhibits some basic properties enjoyed by the usual normative links". Thus constitutive

van der Torre, Leon

463

Some classes of t-norms and fuzzy metric spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, V. Gregori, S. Morillas and A. Sapena have discussed [On a class of completable fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (2010), 2193-2205] the so-called strong fuzzy metrics when looking for a class of completable fuzzy metric spaces in the sense of A. George and P. Veeramani and state the question of finding a non-strong fuzzy metric space for a continuous t-norm different from the minimum. Later on, J. Gutiérrez García and S. Romaguera solved this question [Examples of non-strong fuzzy metrics, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 162 (2011) 91-93] by means of two examples for the product and the Lukasiewicz t-norm, respectively. In this direction they posed to find further examples of non-strong fuzzy metrics for continuous t-norm that are greater than the product but different from minimum. In this paper we obtain, among others facts on t-norms and fuzzy metric spaces, an example of this kind.

Castro-Company, Francisco; Tirado, Pedro

2012-09-01

464

Hyperbolic topology of normed linear spaces Yasunao Hattori  

E-print Network

Hyperbolic topology of normed linear spaces Yasunao Hattori and Hideki Tsuiki Dedicated the hyperbolic topol- ogy on a metric space, which is weaker than the metric topology and naturally derived from the Lawson topology on the space of formal balls. In this paper, we characterize spaces Lp(, , µ) on which

Tsuiki, Hideki

465

L1-norm pre-analysis measures for geodetic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several pre-analysis measures which help to expose the behavior of L1 -norm minimization solutions are described. The pre-analysis measures are primarily based on familiar elements of the linear programming solution to L 1-norm minimization, such as slack variables and the reduced-cost vector. By examining certain elements of the linear programming solution in a probabilistic light, it is possible to derive the cumulative distribution function (CDF) associated with univariate L1-norm residuals. Unlike traditional least squares (LS) residual CDFs, it is found that L1-norm residual CDFs fail to follow the normal distribution in general, and instead are characterized by both discrete and continuous (i.e. piecewise) segments. It is also found that an L1 equivalent to LS redundancy numbers exists and that these L1 equivalents are a byproduct of the univariate L1 univariate residual CDF. Probing deeper into the linear programming solution, it is found that certain combinations of observations which are capable of tolerating large-magnitude gross errors can be predicted by comprehensively tabulating the signs of slack variables associated with the L1 residuals. The developed techniques are illustrated on a two-dimensional trilateration network.

Marshall, J.

2002-07-01

466

Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

2012-01-01

467

Theory of the norm-induced metric in atmospheric dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest that some metrics for quantifying distances in phase space are based on linearized flows about unrealistic reference states and hence may not be applicable to atmospheric flows. A new approach of defining a norm-induced metric based on the total energy norm is proposed. The approach is based on the rigorous mathematics of normed vector spaces and the law of energy conservation in physics. It involves the innovative construction of the phase space so that energy (or a certain physical invariant) takes the form of a Euclidean norm. The metric can be applied to both linear and nonlinear flows and for small and large separations in phase space. The new metric is derived for models of various levels of sophistication: the 2-D barotropic model, the shallow-water model and the 3-D dry, compressible atmosphere in different vertical coordinates. Numerical calculations of the new metric are illustrated with analytic dynamical systems as well as with global reanalysis data. The differences from a commonly used metric and the potential for application in ensemble prediction, error growth analysis and predictability studies are discussed.

Koh, T.-Y.; Wan, F.

2015-03-01

468

SCUBA Diver Specialization and Behavior Norms at Coral Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCUBA diving is an increasingly popular activity that provides a number of benefits to coastal communities. However, the sustainability of recreational diving on coral reefs is largely dependent on the health of reef ecosystems. Divers can minimize their impacts to coral reefs through responsible diving behaviors, which are in part guided by social norms. The behavioral obligation and sanction components

Laura E. Anderson; David K. Loomis

2011-01-01

469

Gender politics, women's rights and international norms in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the reasons for the under-representation of women in politics in Lebanon, and the role of international norms of gender equality in bringing about change. For those questions, I examined the particular relevance of confessionalism arguing that a confessional social structure and political system empower patriarchal forms of organization with detrimental effects to

S. G Harb

2010-01-01

470

Norming Clinical Questionnaires with Multiple Regression: The Pain Cognition List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article…

Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

2005-01-01

471

Energy norm a posteriori error estimation for discontinuous Galerkin methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a residual-based a posteriori error estimate of a natural mesh dependent energy norm of the error in a family of discontinuous Galerkin approximations of elliptic problems. The theory is developed for an elliptic model problem in two and three spatial dimensions and general nonconvex polygonal domains are allowed. We also present some illustrating numerical examples.

Roland Becker; Peter Hansbo; Mats G. Larson

2003-01-01

472

Edwards Personal Preference Schedule Norms and College Student Accounting Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) was administered to 247 students majoring in accounting. The 15 EPPS means of the men and women were compared and subsequently compared to those reported for urban college students in 1973 and to the 1959 EPPS Manual norms. The data show that the current manifest needs of the sexes are less different than those

C. D. Stolle; L. L. Bravenec

1984-01-01

473

Load Balancing in the Lp Norm Baruch Awerbuch Yossi Azary  

E-print Network

Load Balancing in the Lp Norm Baruch Awerbuch Yossi Azary Edward F. Grovez Dept. of Computer@cs.duke.edu Abstract In the load balancing problem, there is a set of servers, and jobs arrive sequentially. Each job of jobs to servers is quanti ed by the maximum load assigned to any server. In this measure

Azar, Yossi

474

Racial differences in predictors of college women's body image attitudes.  

PubMed

African-American and Euro-American women from three predominantly Euro-American colleges in the southeast U.S. between 17 and 23 years of age completed instruments assessing body image attitudes, social competence, sex-role attitudes, racial identity, and a measure of family and personal characteristics. Analyses revealed race differences on all body image measures with the exception of appearance evaluation which was influenced by family income and race. Specifically, African-American women reported more satisfaction with and positive feelings towards their bodies and less dissatisfaction than Euro-American women. Unlike Euro-Americans, African-American women attached importance to fitness and health. The relationship between personal/physical factors and body image was stronger for African-American than Euro-American women. Additionally, personal/physical characteristics were the best model of appearance evaluation for African-American women, whereas personal/physical and sociodemographic factors best predicted this measure for Euro-American women. The results are discussed in relation to body image norms and standards of the African-American subculture and middle-class, Euro-American mainstream culture. PMID:7941613

Harris, S M

1994-01-01

475

Sexual harassment: factors affecting attitudes and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The overall findings suggest that while attitudes and perceptions of sexual harassment are related, they also differ, in that\\u000a attitudes require value judgments to be made of behavior. This explains the high relationship between attitudes to sexual\\u000a harassment and attitudes regarding gender role stereotypes. Sexist attitudes are associated with acceptance of sexual harassment.\\u000a The impact of age and occupation on

Danielle Foulis; Marita P. McCabe

1997-01-01

476

And the truth shall make you free : the international norm of truth-seeking  

E-print Network

The theoretical question this dissertation addresses is how do international norms emerge and spread. The theory I propose focuses on changes in the ideational content of norms and on the international agents who facilitate ...

Ben-Josef Hirsch, Michal

2009-01-01

477

Bounds on the growth of high Sobolev norms of solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger equations  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study the growth of Sobolev norms of global solutions of solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger type equations which we can't bound from above by energy conservation. The growth of such norms gives a ...

Sohinger, Vedran

2011-01-01

478

Attitudes towards computer science-computing experiences as a starting point and barrier to computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In which way do computing experiences shape attitudes towards computer science? Why do they foster some students' commitment to the subject while they deter others? By using a qualitative research approach we observed that computing experiences have impacts on several dimensions: They affect the self-image with regard to computing, the world-image with regard to conceptions of the subject, and habits

Carsten Schulte; Maria Knobelsdorf

2007-01-01

479

Influencing Homonegative Attitudes in College Students through an Educational Unit on Homosexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether presenting a unit of study on homosexuality, including positive interaction with a prominent homosexual, would reduce homonegative attitudes in college students. Male and female subjects (N=75) were volunteers from two sections of the upper-level psychology class Psychosexual Adjustment and control subjects (N=32)…

Curtis, Darryl Eugene; Heritage, Jeannette

480

Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

Gross, Janet; And Others

1986-01-01

481

The Body Attitude Test for Patients with an Eating Disorder: Psychometric Characteristics of a New Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Body Attitude Test (BAT) is a new self-report questionnaire developed for female patients suffering from eating disorders. Its psychometric characteristics have been tested in a large number of patients and control subjects (eating disorders, Weight Watchers, and normal subjects). Repeated analyses yielded a stable four factor structure: negative appreciation of body size, lack of familiarity with one's own body,

Michel Probst; Walter Vandereycken; Herman Van Coppenolle; Johan Vanderlinden

1995-01-01

482

Gender role and attitudes toward rape in male and female college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between college students' gender roles and attitudes toward rape. Subjects were 145 male and 374 female college students with a mean age of 20.1 years. The institution has a 12.5% minority population. Subjects received a questionnaire packet containing the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), an acquaintance or stranger rape scenario, a questionnaire designed to assess

Lynda A. Szymanski; Ann Sloan Devlin; Joan C. Chrisler; Stuart A. Vyse

1993-01-01

483

Sexuality Attitudes of Black Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…

Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.

1990-01-01

484

Young people's attitudes about violence   

E-print Network

Men’s violence against women is a global social problem and an enduring human rights issue. Feminist research and activism has maintained that to challenge and prevent men’s violence against women, changing attitudes and behaviour are key...

Lombard, Nancy

485

Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

1982-01-01

486

Scottish Social Attitudes - Survey 2004   

E-print Network

This report sets out the results of questions on family matters in the Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2004. This part of the survey canvassed public views and knowledge on a range of family-related issues including marriage, cohabitation...

Wassoff, Fran; Martin, Claudia

487

Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

Fedak, John; And Others

1990-01-01

488

Space borne attitude measurement units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial and opticoinertial attitude reference units are characterized, and the design and test results of the system being developed for the SPOT spacecraft are presented. The general characteristics of the strapdown gyroscope configuration are reviewed, and the classical gyro packages used in OTS, ECS, TC1, TVSAT, and TDF1 are described. The present SPOT inertial platform, consisting of six gyrometer/thermal regulator/adapter units in a dodecahedral configuration, is shown to provide complete roll, pitch, and yaw information with accuracy sufficient for the short run. The hardware and software of the advanced unit, which uses optical sensors to make absolute attitude corrections for the long run, are discussed. Attitude information from inertial and optical systems is optimally mixed by a microprocessor employing a nonstationary sixth-order Kalman filter. A simulation test using the breadboard prototype indicates the feasibility of the approach and the broad applicability of the attitude-measurement package once it is perfected.

Amieux, J. C.; Muller, G.

489

Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

Marshall, Eliot

1979-01-01

490

College Student Attitudes Toward Marijuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)

Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.

1970-01-01

491

Sex stereotypes, gender identity and subject choice at A?level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported in this paper looks at the relationship between perception of school subjects as masculine or feminine and other attitudes towards sex roles and sex traits, motivation and subject choices at A?level of boys and girls in coeducational comprehensive schools in England and Wales. The pupils’ perceptions of subjects confirmed earlier findings, in that the sciences were seen

Joan M. Whitehead

1996-01-01

492

Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.  

PubMed

Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes. PMID:12379053

Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

2002-01-01

493

Running head: Percentile Norms for Mood Scales Percentile norms and accompanying interval estimates from an Australian general adult population  

E-print Network

data. To rectify this Crawford et al. (2009a) have recently provided percentile norms for a series population. Participants completed a series of self-report mood scales. The resultant normative data were be downloaded at www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/MoodScore_Aus.htm) provides a convenient and reliable means

Crawford, John R.

494

Integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated inertial stellar attitude sensor for an aerospace vehicle includes a star camera system, a gyroscope system, a controller system for synchronously integrating an output of said star camera system and an output of said gyroscope system into a stream of data, and a flight computer responsive to said stream of data for determining from the star camera system output and the gyroscope system output the attitude of the aerospace vehicle.

Brady, Tye M. (Inventor); Kourepenis, Anthony S. (Inventor); Wyman, Jr., William F. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

495

Acculturation and suicide attitudes: a study of perceptions about suicide among a sample of Ghanaian immigrants in the United States.  

PubMed

To investigate whether a relationship exists between acculturation and attitudes about suicide, 81 Ghanaian immigrants living in the U.S. who responded to a mail inquiry were selected to participate in the current study. This particular immigrant sample was chosen because although they represent a rapidly growing group in the U.S., they have been rarely studied. Respondents consisted of 42 women and 36 men (3 did not identify their sex), with a mean age of 29.5 yr. (SD = 10.6). Participants completed measures of acculturation and attitudes about suicide. Results indicated significant correlations between length of residency in the United States and negative suicide attitudes, and also between psychological acculturation and negative suicide attitudes. No significant relationship was found between behavioral acculturation and suicide attitudes. Furthermore, length of residency was a stronger predictor of suicide attitudes than other subjective measures of acculturation. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:17037483

Eshun, Sussie

2006-08-01

496

Texas Latino knowledge and attitudes toward natural resources and the environment  

E-print Network

TEXAS LATINO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by ANGELICA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Agricultural Education TEXAS LATINO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by ANGELICA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office...

Lopez, Angelica

2006-04-12

497

A Kalman filtering technique for spacecraft attitude determination and control using Gibbs vector  

E-print Network

A KALMAN FILTERING TECHNIQUE FOR SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL USING GIBBS VECTOR A Thesis by GREGORY STEPHEN TALLANT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A KALMAN FILTERING TECHNIQUE FOR SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL USING GIBBS VECTOR A Thesis by GREGORY STEPHEN TALLANT Approved as to style and content by...

Tallant, Gregory Stephen

1988-01-01

498

A study of the attitudes of Arkansas school superintendents concerning sex education classes  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF ARKANSAS SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS CONCERNING SEX EDUCATION CLASSES A Thesis by TINA TAYLOR FIELDS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Ma]or Subject: Health and Physical Education A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF ARKANSAS SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS CONCERNING SEX EDUCATION CLASSES A Thesis by TINA TAYLOR FIELDS Approved as to style d content by: (Chairman...

Fields, Tina Taylor

1974-01-01

499

Alcohol Expectancies, Perceived Norms and Drinking Behavior among College Students: Examining the Reciprocal Determinism Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N=557; 67% female) completed online measures of PAEs, norms and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students, and may help to inform norm-based interventions. PMID:23088403

Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.

2012-01-01

500

Arrested Development: The Fight to End Commercial Whaling as a Case of Failed Norm Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Whaling Commission's moratorium on commercial whaling took effect in 1986, seemingly marking the adoption of a new norm, that commercial whaling was no longer acceptable. But this norm has failed to become institutionalized. This article uses the norm life-cycle approach as developed by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) to account for this failure. The effort ran aground because the

Jennifer L. Bailey

2008-01-01