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1

The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

2001-01-01

2

The effect of educational intervention on girl's behavior regarding nutrition: Applying the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) Model on the nutritional behavior among second-grade, middle school, female students in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 72 students. The samples were randomly divided in two groups (36 in the intervention group and 36 in the control group). The data collection tools were validated and had reliable questionnaires. For the intervention group, a 75-minute educational session was held thrice. The control group had no education. The BASNEF model constructs guided the development of the questionnaires and content of the educational sessions. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: According to the results, the mean scores of knowledge and model variables (Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors) had a significant difference in the two groups after intervention (P < 0.001). On the basis of the findings, after educational intervention, 36.1% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior. In the control group, 88.9% of the students had unfavorable nutritional behavior, before and one month after intervention. Conclusion: The present study showed that nutrition education intervention based on the BASNEF model could promote the nutritional behavior in girl students. PMID:25250345

Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Hazavei, Mohammad Mehdi; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

2014-01-01

3

Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

4

Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

2011-01-01

5

Toward a two-child norm: Changing family planning attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered a questionnaire to 267 unmarried students, stratified for race and sex, to assess attitudes toward population control. Results indicate that Ss (a) desired 2.6 children in contrast to the previous norm of 3; (b) generally favored the birth control pill and, if infertile, were willing to adopt children; (c) supported voluntary limitation of family size (including a small but

Robert Buckhout

1972-01-01

6

Rational Norm Creation Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems, Part 2  

E-print Network

Rational Norm Creation Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems, Part 2 Guido Boella, bribing the system, et cetera. Consequently, to reason about the creation of norms, we need a model creation? 2. How can we formalize norm creation using the attri- bution of mental attitudes to normative

van der Torre, Leon

7

Saving, Reusing, and Remixing Web Video: Using Attitudes and Practices to Reveal Social Norms  

E-print Network

matters, social media sites like Facebook and Twitter make it easy to repost videos to reach new audiencesSaving, Reusing, and Remixing Web Video: Using Attitudes and Practices to Reveal Social Norms content, social norms about ownership have evolved accordingly, spelling out what people think

Marshall, Cathy

8

Setting an Egalitarian Social Norm in the Classroom: Improving Attitudes towards Diversity among Male Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effect of a message describing a social norm of egalitarian attitudes and behaviors in an engineering college on male students' attitudes and behavioral intentions surrounding diversity in engineering. Participants were first-semester university students enrolled in four sections of an introductory engineering course in…

Bennett, Jill E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

2014-01-01

9

Parenting, Peers, and Perceived Norms: What Predicts Attitudes toward Sex among Early Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although attitudes strongly predict later sexual behaviors, few studies have investigated the factors that influence early adolescent attitudes toward sex. Using a general population sample of urban seventh-grade students (N = 1,736), we examined how supportive parenting, television viewing, perceived social norms, and having a friend and/or…

Cox, Ronald B., Jr.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Dowdy, Jamie L.

2015-01-01

10

Norms, attitudes, and sex behaviors among women with incarcerated main partners.  

PubMed

Incarceration has been extensively linked with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While a great deal of attention has been given to the risk behaviors of people who have been incarcerated, examination of the behaviors of partners of incarcerated individuals is also needed to understand the direct and indirect links between incarceration and HIV and to identify prevention avenues. In the present study, we hypothesize that incarceration is associated with risk behavior through attitudes and norms. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the attitudes and norms about sexual behaviors that women have when a sexual partner is incarcerated; and (2) to examine the association between attitudes and norms with the behavior of having other sex partners while a main partner is incarcerated. In our sample (n?=?175), 50 % of women reported having other sex partners while their partner was incarcerated. Our findings show that attitudes, descriptive norms (i.e., norms about what other people do), and injunctive norms (i.e., norms about what others think is appropriate) were associated with having other partners. Interventions designed for couples at pre- and post-release from prison are needed to develop risk reduction plans and encourage HIV/STI testing prior to their reunion. PMID:22872432

Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Villarroel, Maria A; Grieb, Suzanne D; Latkin, Carl A

2013-12-01

11

Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men  

PubMed Central

Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

2014-01-01

12

A novel tool to assess community norms and attitudes to multiple and concurrent sexual partnering in rural Zimbabwe: participatory attitudinal ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent sexual partnerships are important in understanding the evolution and maintenance of the HIV heterosexual epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. While it is possible to measure individual attitudes around sensitive behaviours through questionnaire surveys, studies suggest that responses may be subject to social desirability bias and may not reflect community norms. This study used a novel tool to collect data on

Webster Mavhu; Lisa Langhaug; Sophie Pascoe; Jeffrey Dirawo; Graham Hart; Frances Cowan

2011-01-01

13

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2005-01-01

14

Predicting healthcare employees' participation in an office redesign program: Attitudes, norms and behavioral control  

PubMed Central

Background The study examined the extent to which components based on a modified version of the theory of planned behavior explained employee participation in a new clinical office program designed to reduce patient waiting times in primary care clinics. Methods We regressed extent of employee participation on attitudes about the program, group norms, and perceived behavioral control along with individual and clinic characteristics using a hierarchical linear mixed model. Results Perceived group norms were one of the best predictors of employee participation. Attitudes about the program were also significant, but to a lesser degree. Behavioral control, however, was not a significant predictor. Respondents with at least one year of clinic tenure, or who were team leaders, first line supervisor, or managers had greater participation rates. Analysis at the clinic level indicated clinics with scores in the highest quartile clinic scores on group norms, attitudes, and behavioral control scores were significantly higher on levels of overall participation than clinics in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Findings suggest that establishing strong norms and values may influence employee participation in a change program in a group setting. Supervisory level was also significant with greater responsibility being associated with greater participation. PMID:18976505

Mohr, David C; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen; Meterko, Mark

2008-01-01

15

Injury and the orchestral environment: part II. Organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes to injury.  

PubMed

The organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes of a workplace have a profound influence on levels of injury and illness amongst its workers. While this is well established in Work Health and Safety literature, very little research has attempted to understand the influence of organisational culture on injury risk in the orchestral profession. To address this, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of organisational culture on injury outcomes for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case study methodology, in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 freelance and 8 fulltime members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a themes-based "analysis of narrative" approach. The findings indicate that an orchestral culture exists in which musicians see injury as a sign of weakness, failure, and poor musicianship. Such negative perceptions of injury influence musicians to play through considerable levels of pain and continue performing with injuries. Because of perceived judgment from the orchestral group, musicians were found to conceal injuries from colleagues and management staff. Freelance musicians felt that disclosing injuries may lead to decreased work opportunities, and both full-time and casual musicians felt that "opening up" about injury may subject them to group judgment about their technique or musicianship. The study suggests education measures which may be effective at influencing individual behaviours and attitudes as well as cultural change initiatives which could lead to long-term positive health outcomes in the orchestral workplace. PMID:24925177

Rickert, Dale Ll; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

2014-06-01

16

Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

2013-04-01

17

Psychometric Properties and United States National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

PubMed Central

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Comprised of four subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) and a total scale score, preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure and policies, organizational culture and climate, and first-level leadership. EBPAS scores are also related to service provider characteristics including age, education level, and level of professional development. The present study examined the factor structure, reliability, and norms of EBPAS scores in a sample of 1089 mental health service providers from a nationwide sample drawn from 100 service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study also examines associations of provider demographic characteristics with EBPAS subscale and total scores. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a second-order factor model, and reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged from .91-.67 (total scale = .74). The study establishes national norms for the EBPAS so that comparisons can be drawn for United States local and international studies of attitudes toward evidence-based practices. The results suggest that the factor structure and reliability are likely generalizable to a variety of service provider contexts and different service settings and that EBPAS scales are associated with provider characteristics. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20528063

Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelley; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2013-01-01

18

Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

2004-01-01

19

Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China  

PubMed Central

This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié ŕ stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé ŕ un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, ŕ la discrimination perçue au nivea

Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

2009-01-01

20

Gender differences in IS career choice: examine the role of attitudes and social norms in selecting IS profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed research will systematically assess the causes of gender-related differences in attraction to information systems (IS) as a career. We propose a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)—based model of intention to pursue an IS career which incorporates work value congruence, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy. Undergraduate students in an introductory IS course, which for many will be their first introduction

Kshiti D. Joshi; Kristine M. Kuhn

2001-01-01

21

Subjective well-being among Episcopal priests: predictors and comparisons to non-clinical norms.  

PubMed

Few studies of the clergy have examined emotional well-being using normed measures. This study examined subjective well-being among 1,581 non-retired Episcopal priests. Subjective well-being was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Predictors of subjective well-being were measured with the Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and scales of personal practices, social support, congregational dynamics, fit, and economic satisfaction. Participants reported more positive affect (Hedges's g = 1.19), more negative affect (Hedges's g = 0.61) and more satisfaction with life (Hedges's g = 0.73) than nonclinical norms. Hope agency was the strongest predictor for positive affect and satisfaction with life; stress was the strongest predictor for negative affect and partially mediated the effect of congregational dynamics and fit on this outcome. Results suggest that prevention programs must focus on all aspects of subjective well-being and consider the direct effects of different levels of the ecosystem to be effective. PMID:22694156

Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A

2012-01-01

22

Psychometric properties and U.S. National norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS).  

PubMed

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure and policies, organizational culture and climate, and first-level leadership. EBPAS scores are also related to service provider characteristics, including age, education level, and level of professional development. The present study examined the factor structure, reliability, and norms of EBPAS scores in a sample of 1,089 mental health service providers from a nationwide sample drawn from 100 service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study also examined associations of provider demographic characteristics with EBPAS subscale and total scores. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a second-order factor model, and reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged from .91 to .67 (total scale = .74). The study establishes national norms for the EBPAS so that comparisons can be drawn for U.S. local as well as international studies of attitudes toward evidence-based practices. The results suggest that the factor structure and reliability are likely generalizable to a variety of service provider contexts and different service settings and that the EBPAS subscales are associated with provider characteristics. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20528063

Aarons, Gregory A; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2010-06-01

23

The Longitudinal Relationships Among Injunctive Norms and Hooking Up Attitudes and Behaviors in College Students.  

PubMed

Limited research has explored the influence of perceived injunctive norms for distal (e.g., typical student) and proximal (e.g., close friend and parents) referents on hooking up. The current study examined the longitudinal relationships among perceived injunctive norms, personal approval, and hooking up behavior, and the moderating effects of gender in a sample of heavy-drinking college students. At Time 1, participants completed Web-based assessments of personal approval of hooking up and perceptions of close friend, parent, and typical student approval. Three months later, participants reported on whether they had hooked up. The results of a path analysis indicated that greater perceived friend and parent approval predicted greater personal approval. Further, greater perceived approval by close friends and parents indirectly contributed to hooking up behavior as mediated by participants' own approval. Multigroup analyses indicated that close friend injunctive norms were a stronger predictor of student approval for men as compared to women. While previous research has often failed to find an association between perceived injunctive norms and hooking up, the current findings suggest that this may reflect the use of distal referents. The findings underscore that perceptions of close friend and family approval may be useful predictors of hooking up behavior. PMID:25255916

Napper, Lucy E; Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W

2014-09-25

24

Subjective Proximity to Crime or Social Representations? Explaining Sentencing Attitudes in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lay sentencing attitudes are considered in the light of two theoretical perspectives. The first perspective views sentencing\\u000a attitudes as parts of broader sets of social representations anchored in one’s position in the social structure. The second\\u000a perspective explains sentencing attitudes by their subjective experiences of crime. This paper tests both theories by performing\\u000a a series of multiple regressions on two

Raphaël Hammer; Eric D. Widmer; Christian-Nils Robert

2009-01-01

25

The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes Toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14–20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant analysis are used to explore relations of a

Elisabeth Gotschi; Stefan Vogel; Thomas Lindenthal; Manuela Larcher

2009-01-01

26

The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

2010-01-01

27

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

Lee, Kaman

2011-01-01

28

Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

2009-01-01

29

Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

2010-01-01

30

Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia  

SciTech Connect

How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

2008-06-05

31

Attitudes of Sudanese researchers on obtaining informed consent from study subjects involved in health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 153 Sudanese researchers was invited to participate in this study to explore their knowledge and attitudes towards informed consent in health research involving human subjects. Only 95 were interviewed, with a response rate of 62%. Forty seven (49.5%) of the surveyed researchers reported that they obtain informed consent from study subjects whenever they conduct a research study.

Dya Eldin; Mohammed Elsayed; Nancy E. Kass

32

Teacher Attitudes toward Subject-Specific Acceleration: Instrument Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the research supporting acceleration, some teachers are still hesitant to recommend acceleration for advanced students. The Teacher Attitudes Toward Subject-Specific Acceleration (TATSSA) instrument was designed to uncover the factors that influence teacher decisions to recommend students for subject-specific acceleration. First, we…

Rambo, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2012-01-01

33

The Impact of Hispanic and White Group Cues on Attitudes Towards the Violation of Generic Norms  

PubMed Central

While much work in political science has examined the impact of racial cues on individual perceptions, we know little about how individuals evaluate members of minority outgroups on issues that are not linked to stereotypes. We measure the impacts of Hispanic and White cues on individual assessments related to a stereotype-independent norm violation: alcoholism. We test three competing theories – cognition, intergroup emotions, and social identity – using a population-based vignette experiment included in the General Social Survey. Our results contradict much of the literature, but keep with social identity theory's predictions. Hispanic alcoholics, when Hispanics constitute the outgroup, are assessed less negatively than White alcoholics in the ingroup, the latter experiencing what is called the black sheep effect. The black sheep effect occurs when ingroup members are more punitive towards members of the ingroup than the outgroup. However, the black sheep effect does not extend to measures that are more consistent with outgroup stereotypes, such as violence or money mismanagement; Hispanic alcoholics are evaluated more negatively than Whites on these measures. The implication is that the effect of racial cues depends strongly on issue linkages to group stereotypes. PMID:24386153

Cranmer, Mirjam; Cranmer, Skyler J.

2013-01-01

34

Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

2007-01-01

35

The influence of subjective norm on intention to use of learning management system among Malaysian higher education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of learning management system by universities has been increasingly growing. However, the results of several studies have revealed that students do not fully use the information systems. The present study proposes a model which investigates the influence of three constructs of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and subjective norm on behavior intention to use of learning management system. The sample size was 216 Malaysian undergraduate students. The results of the study revealed that the proposed model accounts for 31.1 % variance of behavior intention to use.

Baleghi-Zadeh, Sousan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

2014-12-01

36

Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure…

Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2010-01-01

37

The attitude toward xenocorneal transplantation in wait-listed subjects for corneal transplantation in Korea.  

PubMed

Shortage of donor cornea is a significant problem in Asia, and xenocorneal transplantation is being actively studied to alleviate this problem. However, the attitudes of subjects who await corneal transplants toward xenocorneal transplantation are not known at all. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the attitudes of subjects on the waiting lists for corneal transplants, toward corneal xenotransplantation. A telephone questionnaire survey comprising six items was conducted in 132 subjects among the wait-listed individuals (n = 590) who were awaiting corneal transplantation or had undergone corneal transplantation at Seoul National University Hospital from July, 2003 to August, 2012. Among six inquiries, four questions were used to analyze attitudes toward corneal xenotransplantation. Each question pertained to (1) the acceptance of xenocorneal transplantation, (2) willingness to participate in clinical trials, (3) worries in xenocorneal transplantation, and (4) the concern of self-identity or social life after xenocorneal transplantation. To analyze demographic factors influencing the question, the subjects were arbitrarily divided into two groups: the young (age < 60 yr, n = 58) and the elderly (age ? 60 yr, n = 74) or the less-educated (n = 53) and the well-educated with high school diploma, college graduation, or higher education (n = 79). Collected demographic data were analyzed as influencing factors on each question using a chi-square and logistic regression tests. In this study, 42.4% of the subjects (n = 56) expressed favorable views on xenocorneal transplantation using porcine corneas to cure visual loss from corneal blindness. Among those subjects expressing favorable views (n = 56), the willingness to participate in clinical trials, knowing they and their spouses must undergo long-term surveillance, was 62.5% (n = 35). There were 76.5% of subjects (n = 101) expressing worries regarding xenocorneal transplantation, while 28.8% of subjects (n = 38) expressed their concerns about self-identity or social life after xenotransplantation. Younger subjects expressed more worry about xenotransplantation than elderly subjects. The well-educated expressed less concern over self-identity and social life than the less-educated. This survey among subjects who are wait-listed for corneal transplant or who have received a corneal transplant demonstrates that there is an interest in xenocorneal transplantation as an alternate procedure, although there are worries about the procedure that should be further explored in educational campaigns and future studies of the general population. PMID:24164549

Lee, Jong Joo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jang, Young Eun; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

2014-01-01

38

Attribution of blame in rape cases: The impact of norm violation, gender, and sex-role attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the importance of the characteristics of the rape victims to the characteristics of observers in the attribution of blame in rape cases. Both blame of the victim and blame of the rapist are considered, along with seriousness of the crime, perceived norm violation, respectability, behavioral intentions toward the victim, and behavioral intentions toward the rapist. A

Alan C. Acock; Nancy K. Ireland

1983-01-01

39

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

40

Health Care Utilisation and Attitudes towards Health Care in Subjects Reporting Environmental Annoyance from Electricity and Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group. PMID:19936124

Eek, Frida; Merlo, Juan; Gerdtham, Ulf; Lithman, Thor

2009-01-01

41

Reconstructing Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

2005-01-01

42

Attitude, Desire, and Frequency of Extra-Marital involvement as Correlated with Subject Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of desire for, frequency of, and attitudes towards extramarital involvement (EMI) was conducted, using 100 male and female college students ranging in age from 19 to 55. Predictive factors other than desire, frequency, and attitude were number of marriages, and the social desirability scale. (Author)

Andrus, Sharon; And Others

1977-01-01

43

Adaptation and perceptual norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

2007-02-01

44

A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

2011-01-01

45

Cognition is only minimally impaired in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14): a neuropsychological study of ten Norwegian subjects compared to intrafamilial controls and population norm  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing awareness of the role of the cerebellum not only in motor, but also in cognitive and emotional functions. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia characterized by a relatively pure cerebellar phenotype. Cognitive impairment has been reported in studies with phenotype descriptions of SCA14, but previous studies have been small without control groups, and no homogeneous and systematic test panel has been used. The objective of this study was to thoroughly characterize the neuropsychological profile in ten Norwegian SCA14 subjects compared to unaffected family members and population norm data. Methods Ten SCA14 subjects and ten intrafamilial unaffected age- and education-matched controls from two Norwegian families were included. The unaffected intrafamilial controls included six first degree relatives, two second degree relatives, and two spouses. General intellectual ability, memory, visuoperceptive skills, psychomotor speed, executive functions, depression and anxiety were examined using internationally standardized tests, with minimal need for manual response to avoid motor bias. Results No significant cognitive deficit was found in SCA14 subjects compared to intrafamilial controls. Verbal IQ, verbal executive function and psychomotor speed tended to be reduced in affected subjects, but previously reported non-verbal executive dysfunction was not confirmed in this study. Conclusion Only subtle cognitive impairment was found in SCA14 affected subjects. The current findings do not confirm earlier reports of cognitive dysfunction in SCA14, but does shows a mild impairment in specific verbal executive functions. Genotypic differences may partly account for this discrepancy, and further studies on larger materials are needed to verify the findings. PMID:24289098

2013-01-01

46

Norms and correlates of bioimpedance phase angle in healthy human subjects, hospitalized patients, and patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This study investigates whether bioimpedance indexes rather than derived body compartments would be adequate for nutritional\\u000a assessment. Evidence is provided that the phase angle as determined by conventional tetrapolar whole body bioelectrical impedance\\u000a analysis at 50 kHz (1) was largely determined by the arms and legs and not the trunk, (2) was higher in control subjects than\\u000a in hospitalized patients

Oliver Selberg; Daniela Selberg

2002-01-01

47

Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed. PMID:25154118

Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

2014-01-01

48

Development and validation of an eating norms inventory. Americans' lay-beliefs about appropriate eating.  

PubMed

What do American adults believe about what, where, when, how much, and how often it is appropriate to eat? Such normative beliefs originate from family and friends through socialization processes, but they are also influenced by governments, educational institutions, and businesses. Norms therefore provide an important link between the social environment and individual attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on five studies that identify, develop, and validate measures of normative beliefs about eating. In study 1 we use an inductive method to identify what American adults believe are appropriate or desirable eating behaviors. Studies 2 and 3 are used to purify and assess the discriminant and nomological validity of the proposed set of 18 unidimensional eating norms. Study 4 assesses predictive validity and finds that acting in a norm-consistent fashion is associated with lower Body Mass Index (BMI), and greater body satisfaction and subjective health. Study 5 assesses the underlying social desirability and perceived healthiness of the norms. PMID:21621572

Fisher, Robert J; Dubé, Laurette

2011-10-01

49

Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

2011-01-01

50

Low-income women describe fertility-related expectations: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and behavior.  

PubMed

Social norms surrounding sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing may help guide women's health-related behaviors. In this study, we explore low-income women's perceptions of fertility-related norms by allowing women to describe their experiences with normative expectations. Semistructured interviews (n = 30) suggested that women in low-income subject positions articulate descriptive norms that generally correspond with mainstream descriptive norms, identify two major sources of injunctive norms concerning fertility and sexuality- authoritative and peer-oriented-and often align their behaviors according to subgroup expectations communicated in the form of peer-oriented injunctive norms. We discuss these results in light of the extant literature on social norms. PMID:21153984

Bute, Jennifer J; Jensen, Robin E

2010-12-01

51

The Effects of Project-Based Learning on Students' Academic Achievement, Attitude, and Retention of Knowledge: The Subject of "Electricity in Our Lives"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of project-based learning on students' academic achievement, attitude, and retention of knowledge in relation to the subject of "Electricity in Our Lives" in a fourth-grade science course. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental design as a "pre-test, post-test with…

Karaçalli, Saide; Korur, Fikret

2014-01-01

52

Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

53

Drug dealing and attitudes and norms about drug dealing among young adults and their peers in a high-risk community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the extent of drug dealing and of non-hostile views towards drug dealing among young adults and their peers in an impoverished minority community with considerable drug dealing and use. Methods: A population-representative sample of three hundred and sixty-three 18–24 year olds was interviewed in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn, NY. Questions asked about drug dealing, attitudes to

Samuel R Friedman; Peter L Flom; Benny J Kottiri; Alan Neaigus; Milagros Sandoval; Richard Curtis; Bruce D Johnson; Don C Des Jarlais

2003-01-01

54

Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

2011-01-01

55

Nephrologists' subjective attitudes towards end-of-life issues and the conduct of terminal care.  

PubMed

Decisions which determine the duration and outcome of terminal care should be influenced by patient autonomy. Studies suggest, however, that end-of-life decision-making is more complex than a single principle and that physicians may be responsible for selected aspects of terminal care independent of patient choice. To study how nephrologists' perceptions toward end-of-life issues may affect decision-making, we anonymously surveyed 125 of them. The study employed the straightforward terminology of "hastening death" rather than adopting the ambiguous term "euthanasia" or the narrow term "assisted suicide." Subjective physician profiles demonstrated that nephrologists who are less comfortable with dying patients were significantly less likely to report that they omitted life-prolonging measures (p = 0.02) and more likely to report that they would not initiate measures in order to hasten death even were it legal (p = 0.04). Ninety-eight percent of nephrologists reported omissions in terminal care with patient knowledge and 80% without patient knowledge. In contrast, forty-three percent of the nephrologists said that were it to become legal to initiate measures in order to hasten death, they would "never" do so. The ethical framework utilized for discontinuation of dialysis decisions incorporated medical benefit (cancer as criterion, 48%; multisystem complications, 84%; dementia 79%) and quality of life criteria. Twenty-five percent of nephrologists admitted difficulty with advance directives if the directives clashed with heir beliefs. ESRD end-of-life decision-making in the USA may be altered by the subjective characteristics of nephrologists. In particular, nephrologists' level of discomfort with patient mortality is linked with their reported management of terminal patients. PMID:9342489

Rutecki, G W; Cugino, A; Jarjoura, D; Kilner, J F; Whittier, F C

1997-09-01

56

Values, attitudes and perceptions of managers as predictors of corporate environmental responsiveness.  

PubMed

We examine whether managers' values, attitudes, and perceptions influence the greening of organizations. To that purpose, we specify and test a model of corporate environmental responsiveness (CER), drawing upon a modified version of the theory of planned behavior and the value-belief-norm theory. Based on survey data from 142 Greek companies, we find that top managers' personal values influence responses indirectly, through shaping their environmental attitudes, while direct relationship is not significant. Subjective norms, expressing stakeholder expectations, do affect CER, with their effect being stronger than that of attitudes. Managers' perceived ability to handle environmental issues also appears to influence responses. Results have theoretical implications, indicating the significant role of managers' values, attitudes and perceptions in a firm's environmental response. Practical implications are discussed in relation to selection of managers and training. PMID:22361109

Papagiannakis, Giorgos; Lioukas, Spyros

2012-06-15

57

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions toward Nuclear Energy before and after Chernobyl in a Longitudinal within-subjects Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward nuclear energy in the Netherlands were investigated within a sample of Dutch citizens two months before the Chernobyl accident, one month after the accident, six months after the accident, and one year and seven months after the accident. One month after the accident, analyses revealed more unfavorable attitudes which became less antinuclear five months

Bas Verplanken

1989-01-01

58

Influence of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration branch on medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the introduction of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and founding of The Cochrane Collaboration branch at the University of Split School of Medicine influenced students’ knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM), including the use of research literature. Methods We used a 26-item questionnaire on EBM knowledge and attitudes to survey 1232 medical students of all study years in 3 medical schools in Croatia (Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and the Croatian-speaking medical school in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Results Students from the University of Split School of Medicine who had been exposed to the vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration at the school had better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward EBM. In general, students rarely searched for evidence; 28% of students searched for evidence more than once a month and 96% of students used only textbooks in Croatian and teachers’ handouts, even though 74% of students agreed that articles from scholarly journals were an important supplement for textbooks. Conclusion Building up an environment that fosters EBM may be beneficial for students’ knowledge and attitudes toward EBM. Teachers should encourage and require using evidence during all the courses in medical school. PMID:22911530

Balaji?, Karolina; Barac-Latas, Vesna; Drenjan?evi?, Ines; Ostoji?, Marko; Fabijani?, Damir; Puljak, Livia

2012-01-01

59

Attitude Similarity and Attraction: The Predictability of a Stranger's Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribution theory raises the possibility that findings of a direct linear relationship between attitude similarity and interpersonal attraction are mediated by the predictability of the other's attitudes and behaviors. In a nonexperimental study, 288 subjects predicted the attitudes of a stranger and compared his attitudes to their own. Findings showed that attitude similarity was directly related to attraction only when

John C. Touhey

1973-01-01

60

The Male Role: An Investigation of Contemporary Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed Male Role Norms Inventory. Data from 287 respondents revealed 3 factors. Factor 1 consisted of five subscales (Avoidance of Femininity, Homophobia, Achievement/Status, Attitudes toward Sex, and Restrictive Emotionality), and seemed to tap changing aspects of male role norms. Factors 2 (Self-Reliance) and 3 (Aggression) seemed to tap…

Levant, Ronald F.; And Others

1992-01-01

61

Pakistani English: Acceptability and the Norm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the language attitudes of Pakistani journalists, teachers, and university students between 1987 and 1992, finding that although the British model of English still has considerable influence in the former colony, a Pakistani norm is beginning to emerge and become more acceptable. (22 references) (MDM)

Baumgardner, Robert J.

1995-01-01

62

Do Perceptions of Discrepancy Between Self and Group Norms Contribute to Peer Harassment at School?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which adolescents systematically perceive a discrepancy between private and group norms about the acceptability of bullying and examined the association between norm estimation and actual bystander behavior. Ninety-one 8th graders (42 male and 49 female) described their personal attitudes about bullies and victims as well as their perceptions of their classmates' attitudes. Teachers rated

Marlene J. Sandstrom; Maria Bartini

2010-01-01

63

Disentangling the relationships among self-reflection, insight, and subjective well-being: the role of dysfunctional attitudes and core self-evaluations.  

PubMed

Central to many psychological schools of thought is the notion that self-reflection leads to self-insight which, in turn, leads to enhanced well-being. However, empirical research has found that although self-insight is typically associated with well-being, self-reflection is frequently not associated with self-insight or well-being. Past attempts to understand this conundrum have tended to focus on the role of ruminative self-refection. Using a different approach this study investigates the roles of dysfunctional attitudes and positive core self-evaluations. Using data from 227 participants, two key findings are reported: first, dysfunctional attitudes suppress the relationship between self-reflection and self-insight; and second, positive core self-evaluations mediate the relationship between self-insight and subjective well-being. These two findings imply that a path exists from self-reflection to subjective well-being through self-insight and positive core self-evaluations. This path model was found to be a good fit. Implications for future research and positive psychological practice are discussed. PMID:25087316

Stein, Daniel; Grant, Anthony M

2014-01-01

64

Actual and subjective age-related differences in women's attitudes toward their bodies across the life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined actual and subjective age-related variations in women's perceptions of their weight, sexual attractiveness,\\u000a physical condition, and overall body satisfaction. To this end, 265 women between the ages of 17 and 85 years completed the\\u000a Body Esteem Scale (Franzio & Shields, 1984), the subjective age scales of the Subjective Age and Gender Scale (Montepare,\\u000a 1996), and the

Joann M. Montepare

1996-01-01

65

Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.  

PubMed

Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

66

A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.  

PubMed

Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

2014-01-01

67

Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364

Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

2010-01-01

68

Storage of household firearms: an examination of the attitudes and beliefs of married women with children  

PubMed Central

Although safe firearm storage is a promising injury prevention strategy, many parents do not keep their firearms unloaded and locked up. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examines factors associated with safe storage among married women with children and who have firearms in their homes. Data come from a national telephone survey (n?=?185). We examined beliefs about defensive firearm use, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and firearm storage practices. A Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was conducted to assess associations between psychosocial factors and firearm storage practices. Women were highly motivated to keep firearms stored safely. Those reporting safe storage practices had more favorable attitudes, more supportive subjective norms and higher perceptions of behavioral control than those without safe storage. One-fourth believed a firearm would prevent a family member from being hurt in case of a break-in, 58% believed a firearm could scare off a burglar. Some 63% said they leave decisions about firearm storage to their husbands. Women were highly motivated to store firearms safely as evidenced by favorable attitudes, supportive subjective norms and high perceptions of behavioral control. This was especially true for those reporting safer storage practices. PMID:17890758

Johnson, R. M.; Runyan, C. W.; Coyne-Beasley, T.; Lewis, M. A.; Bowling, J. M.

2008-01-01

69

Measuring fertility norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that social norms must be measured at the group level of analysis, allow for a range of acceptable behaviors, and be linked to the individual level of analysis to explain social behavior. From a survey of young adults in Wisconsin (1973), we generated measures of family size norms from sibship experience and friends' expected family size. These measures

Elizabeth Thomson; Paula Goldman

1987-01-01

70

On the automatic activation of attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that attitudes characterized by a strong association between the attitude object and an evaluation of that object are capable of being activated from memory automatically upon mere presentation of the attitude object. We used a priming procedure to examine the extent to which the mere presentation of an attitude object would facilitate the latency with which subjects could

Russell H. Fazio; David M. Sanbonmatsu; Martha C. Powell; Frank R. Kardes

1986-01-01

71

Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

2014-01-01

72

Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding  

PubMed Central

This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

2014-01-01

73

Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as an evaluative norm. (Contains 1…

Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; De Vries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

2010-01-01

74

Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research  

PubMed Central

This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

2010-01-01

75

Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents. PMID:23955132

Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

2013-01-01

76

The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

1981-01-01

77

Serotonin and Social Norms  

PubMed Central

How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

2014-01-01

78

NATIONAL TYPING TEST NORMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE (USES), IN COOPERATION WITH 18 STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES, CONDUCTED A STUDY TO DEVELOP NATIONAL TYPING TEST NORMS FOR USE IN INTERPRETING TEST SCORES ON TYPING TESTS. ONLY EMPLOYED WORKERS REQUIRED TO USE A TYPEWRITER AN AVERAGE OF AT LEAST 1 HOUR PER DAY WERE INCLUDED IN THE SAMPLE. THE TEST ADMINISTERED WAS ONE OF THE…

DROEGE, ROBERT C.

79

A Social Norms Approach to Drug Prevention in Schools in Ireland: Results from a Pre Development Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that social norms interventions, which aim to educate individuals and groups on their actual attitudinal and behavioural norms relating to alcohol, cigarette and drug use,incur some success in reducing positive attitudes to substance use and rates of substance use. The research aimed to investigate the extent of misperceptions…

Culleton, Leigheann Ryan; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Foley, Michelle

2013-01-01

80

Social norms and human cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of social norms is one of the big unsolved problems in social cognitive science. Although no other concept is invoked more frequently in the social sciences, we still know little about how social norms are formed, the forces determining their content, and the cognitive and emotional requirements that enable a species to establish and enforce social norms. In

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

81

Crime, punishment and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the interplay between economic incentives and social norms when individuals decide whether or not to engage in criminal activity. More specifically, we assume that there is a social norm against criminal activity and that deviations from the norm result in feelings of guilt or shame. The intensity of these feelings is here endogenous in the sense that they

Jörgen W. Weibull; Edgar Villa

2005-01-01

82

Biological Foundations of Moral Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

All people acquire beliefs about how they should and should not behave. When such beliefs are adopted by most members of a culture, they constitute moral norms. How do moral norms originate and spread? Why do people preach them and behave in accordance with them? Why are some moral norms universal, and others relative to particular cultures? In this chapter

Dennis Krebs; Maria Janicki

83

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

84

Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and in-group norms.  

PubMed

The present research investigated three approaches to the role of norms in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Two studies examined the proposed predictors of intentions to engage in household recycling (Studies 1 and 2) and reported recycling behaviour (Study 1). Study 1 tested the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms (personal and social) and the moderating role of self-monitoring on norm-intention relations. Study 2 examined the role of group norms and group identification and the moderating role of collective self on norm-intention relations. Both studies demonstrated support for the TPB and the inclusion of additional normative variables: attitudes; perceived behavioural control; descriptive; and personal injunctive norms (but not social injunctive norm) emerged as significant independent predictors of intentions. There was no evidence that the impact of norms on intentions varied as a function of the dispositional variables of self-monitoring (Study 1) or the collective self (Study 2). There was support, however, for the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations in that group norms predicted recycling intentions, particularly for individuals who identified strongly with the group. The results of these two studies highlight the critical role of social influence processes within the TPB and the attitude-behaviour context. PMID:18435863

White, Katherine M; Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Greenslade, Jaimi H; McKimmie, Blake M

2009-03-01

85

Effects of norm referent salience on young people's dietary orientation.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. PMID:25447012

Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi

2015-02-01

86

Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables.…

Aydin, Selami

2007-01-01

87

A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between Three Types of Peer Norms and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.  

PubMed

The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed = .40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed = .22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed = .10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed = .11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363

van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Dekovi?, Maja

2014-09-12

88

Prosocial norms and degree heterogeneity in social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide empirical evidence to support the claims that social diversity promotes prosocial behavior. We elicit a real-life social network and its members' adherence to a social norm, namely inequity aversion. The data reveal a positive relationship between subjects' prosociality and several measures of centrality. This result is in line with the theoretical literature that relates the evolution of social norms to the structure of social interactions and argues that central individuals are crucial for the emergence of prosocial behavior.

Ková?ík, Jaromír; Brańas-Garza, Pablo; Cobo-Reyes, Ramón; Espinosa, María Paz; Jiménez, Natalia; Ponti, Giovanni

2012-02-01

89

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

90

Descriptive and injunctive social norms' interactive role in gambling behavior.  

PubMed

Social norms have a fundamental impact on behavior, yet little research has examined social norms regarding gambling and no research has examined possible interaction effects. The current study examined the interaction between perceived approval of gambling by others (i.e., injunctive norms) and perceived prevalence of gambling by others (i.e., descriptive norms) on the respondent's gambling frequency and problems, in a sample of relatively frequent gamblers. The current study examined 2 distinct reference groups: 1 close in proximity (i.e., family and friends) and 1 distally located (i.e., other students). The sample consisted of 252 undergraduates who gambled at least twice a month. Two interactions were observed on gambling frequency based on the proximity of the reference groups; however, only descriptive norms significantly predicted gambling problems. When the reference group was closer in proximity, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the individual's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. When the reference group was distally located, differences in respondents' gambling frequency emerged only in contexts in which they perceived other students to gamble infrequently. Specifically, when respondents perceived that other students gambled infrequently and disapproved of gambling, respondents gambled the most frequently. The results suggest that individuals are influenced by their perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors, regardless of proximity, and that these perceptions of others' behavior are strongly associated with gambling problems. PMID:24955677

Meisel, Matthew K; Goodie, Adam S

2014-06-01

91

Students' Perceived Sociomathematical Norms: The Missing Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes a framework for research which takes into account three aspects of sociomathematical norms: teachers' endorsed norms, teachers' and students' enacted norms, and students' perceived norms. We investigate these aspects of sociomathematical norms in two elementary school classrooms in relation to mathematically based and…

Levenson, Esther; Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia

2009-01-01

92

The Attitudes of Teachers in One County in Kansas Toward Their School Improvement Plan Assessments  

E-print Network

regarding their attitudes toward seven types of assessments used in school improvement plans: standardized norm-referenced tests, criterion-referenced tests, the Kansas Reading Assessment, portfolio assessment, the Kansas Writing Assessment, publishers...

Ubel, Renita Kathleen Pohl

1998-03-01

93

Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

All known human societies have maintained social order by enforcing compliance with social norms. The biological mechanisms underlying norm compliance are, however, hardly understood. We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance. Brain stimulation had a particularly strong effect on compliance in the context of socially constituted sanctions, whereas it left beliefs about what the norm prescribes and about subjectively expected sanctions unaffected. Our findings suggest that rLPFC activity is a key biological prerequisite for an evolutionarily and socially important aspect of human behavior. PMID:24091703

Ruff, C C; Ugazio, G; Fehr, E

2013-10-25

94

Intoeing: a developmental norm.  

PubMed

Intoeing, often referred to as pigeon-toes, is a frequent reason for referral to the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon's practice. Parents and grandparents are concerned about the appearance of the legs and a history of frequent tripping and falling. Many of the "abnormalities" that these children present with are variations of normal development of the lower extremities and include flat footedness, and torsional or angular "deformity." The approach of the specialist team is to identify the source of the intoeing, to rule out neuromuscular dysfunction or other serious conditions, and to counsel the family on anticipatory guidance of the natural history of intoeing. The focus of this article is intoeing, associated examination techniques, and nursing considerations of education and treatment. An understanding of musculoskeletal developmental norms, the clinical examination for intoeing, and the current recommendations for treatment will enable the provider to educate and accurately inform families. PMID:12024629

Ryan, D J

2001-01-01

95

The Haskell norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

Advocate, Dev L.

96

Attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

1973-01-01

97

Uniqueness of translation invariant norms Krzysztof Jarosz  

E-print Network

Uniqueness of translation invariant norms Krzysztof, the Lp-norm is the only one that makes all translations continuous, while I for A = C (G), A = L1 translation continuou* *s. Key Words: automatic continuity, uniqueness of norm, translation invariant

Jarosz, Krzysztof

98

Social context of bullying: Do misperceptions of group norms influence children's responses to witnessed episodes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the association between norm misperception and behavioral responses to witnessed bullying episodes. We hypothesized that pluralistic ignorance (PI) could explain individual differences in behavioral responses. According to PI theory, children who believe that victims deserve protection may inhibit defending behavior if they assume their attitudes are out of step with their peers. A total of 446 fourth

Marlene Sandstrom; Heather Makover; Maria Bartini

2012-01-01

99

1 DAVIDSON ON EPISTEMIC NORMS  

E-print Network

Davidson’s philosophy can, in an important sense, be characterised as a form of normativism, the view that the mind has essential normative properties. But what is exactly the form of normativism that Davidson defends? In the first place, the norms of the mental, which are the norms of rationality in interpretation, do not have any normative force: they do not have any power of prescribing us how we ought to act or to believe. In the second place they lack specificity: they do not allow us to make the distinctions that we need. I try to suggest a stronger and more fine grained conception of epistemic norms.

Pascal Engel

100

The attitudes toward transgendered individuals scale: psychometric properties.  

PubMed

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals are sexual and gender minorities subject to stigma in a heteronormative culture with binary gender role norms. Although much research has examined sexual stigma in the form of homophobia, or negative attitudes and reactions to homosexuals and homosexuality, little is known about the stigma experienced by transgendered individuals. Transgendered people are those whose gender identity (sense of oneself as a man or a woman) or gender expression (expression of oneself as a man or a woman in behavior, manner, and/or dress) differ from conventional expectations for their physical sex. Although a scale exists to measure transphobia or negative attitudes and reactions to transgendered individuals, it includes items tapping into overt behavioral expression of this stigma, or gender-bashing, and fails to identify or define transgendered persons as the attitudinal target of the items. A new scale was developed and evaluated in an effort to assess transgender-related stigma, separately from discrimination and violence, among members of the general population. Using two separate samples of college students ranging in age from 18-64 years, exploratory (N = 134) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 237) were performed. The resulting 20-item, self-report measure demonstrated a single-factor structure, high internal consistency reliability, and evidence of convergent and discriminant construct validity. PMID:22810996

Walch, Susan E; Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Francisco, Jacquelyn; Stitt, Rashunda L; Shingler, Kimberly A

2012-10-01

101

Autonomous agents and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present concepts and their relations that are necessary for mod-\\u000aeling autonomous agents in an environment that is governed by some (social) norms.\\u000aWe divide the norms over three levels: the private level the contract level and the\\u000aconvention level. We show how deontic logic can be used to model the concepts and\\u000ahow the theory

F. P. M. Dignum

1996-01-01

102

The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing  

PubMed Central

This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the “new paradigm” of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply. PMID:25368590

Achourioti, Theodora; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stenning, Keith

2014-01-01

103

Third-party punishment and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the characteristics and relative strength of third-party sanctions in a series of experiments. We hypothesize that egalitarian distribution norms and cooperation norms apply in our experiments, and that third parties, whose economic payoff is unaffected by the norm violation, may be willing to enforce these norms although the enforcement is costly for them. Almost two-thirds of the third

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

104

Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

Robbins, Janet L.

105

Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective reactions to language (language attitudes, beliefs, values, etc.) are the focus of this monograph. Chapters include: (1) "Sociolinguistic Correlates of Speech Style in Quebec" by Alison d'Anglejan and G. Richard Tucker; (2) "Some 'Unexpected' Reactions to Various American-English Dialects" by Bruce Fraser; (3) "Attitudes and Learning a…

Shuy, Roger W., Ed.; Fasold, Ralph W., Ed.

106

Attitudes of registered nurses toward euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify variables that contribute to euthanasia attitude and behavior, including demographics, death fears, experience with death, attitudes toward patient autonomy, and level of moral development.Subjects were 137 registered nurses from the southeastern United States representing 13 clinical nursing areas. Principal components analysis identified four factors that together explained 62.9% of total variance. These factors were belief in

Carolyn R. Shuman; Glenn P. Fournet; Paul F. Zelhart; Billy C. Roland; Robert E. Estes

1992-01-01

107

Ethnocultural variables and attitudes toward cultural socialization of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural socialization is the transmission of cultural values and norms to one's children. The current study presents a new scale to assess parental socialization attitudes to both the U.S. American culture and the Latino culture. The scale is based on a social cognitive model of cultural socialization and cultural values of independence and interdependence. It was hypothesized that individuals who

Andrea J. Romero; Israel Cuéllar; Robert E. Roberts

2000-01-01

108

Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

Rubin, Roger H.

1981-01-01

109

Birth cohort effects on adolescent alcohol use: The influence of social norms from 1976-2007  

PubMed Central

Context The substantial changes adolescent alcohol use prevalence over time suggests that population-level environmental factors are important determinants of use, yet the potential influence of such environmental factors is inadequately understood. Objective The present study investigated whether adolescents in birth cohorts and/or time periods characterized by restrictive social norms towards alcohol were at decreased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking, controlling for individual attitudes (disapproval) towards use. Design Aggregated data from thirty-two annual national surveys of U.S. high school students. Participants A total of 1,032,052 students contributed data from 1976 through 2007. Exposure The social norm was measured by creating scores for each time period and birth cohort indicating the proportion disapproving of weekend binge drinking. Outcomes Frequency of past-year alcohol use and any instance of binge drinking (5+ drinks) in the past two-weeks, analyzed using multi-level models clustering individuals within time periods and birth cohorts. Period- and cohort-specific social norm scores were modeled as predictors, controlling for individual attitudes and demographics. Results Individuals who matured in birth cohorts with more restrictive social norms were less likely to use alcohol compared to individuals who matured in cohorts with more permissive norms; each 5% increase in the cohort-specific disapproval was associated with a 12% decrease in the odds of past-year alcohol use (OR=0.88, 99% C.I. 0.87-0.89). The effects of cohort-specific disapproval were notably stronger among White than non-White adolescents. Conclusions The present study documents the importance of considering time-varying population-level risk factors in the study of adolescent alcohol use, and indicates that even after an individual’s personal attitudes are accounted for, risk is shaped by cohort effects whereby the norms within the cohort contribute to the risk of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:22868751

Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

2012-01-01

110

Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students  

PubMed Central

Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-01-01

111

03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Norm Pattiz

2010-09-01

112

Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

2011-01-01

113

Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries  

E-print Network

Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

Ni, Yi

2010-01-01

114

Pew Global Attitudes Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

115

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

116

Girls' Attitudes Toward Violence as Related to TV Exposure , Family Attitudes, and Social Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…

Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

117

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design…

Fabiano, Patricia M.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan; Linkenbach, Jeff; Stark, Christopher

2003-01-01

118

Attitudes in a Web-Supported Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to investigate the possible effect of web-supported teaching on students' attitudes on Human Rights, Democracy and Citizenship Education and technology (HRDCE). To examine weather web-supported instruction would make a difference in attitude levels of the subjects, a quasi-experimental design was employed. Subjects of…

Acun, Ismail

2013-01-01

119

Transnational Norms and Military Development:Constructing Ireland's Professional Army  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of transnational norms on military development. In so doing, it combines constructivism's study of systemic norms with culturalist work on unit-level norms. I focus on two transnational normsnorms of conventional warfare and norms of civilian supremacy — and show how they shape military development through a case study of post-revolutionary Ireland. I draw

THEO FARRELL

2001-01-01

120

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores using a gravity gradiometer to measure the attitude of a satellite, given that the gravity field is accurately known. Since gradiometers actually measure a combination of the gradient and attitude rate and acceleration terms, the answer is far from obvious. The paper demonstrates that it can be done and at microradian accuracy. The technique employed is dynamic estimation, based on the momentum biased Euler equations. The satellite is assumed nominally planet pointed, and subject to control, gravity gradient, and partly radom drag torques. The attitude estimator is unusual. While the standard method of feeding back measurement residuals is used, the feedback gain matrix isn't derived from Kalman theory. instead, it's chosen to minimize a measure of the terminal covariance of the error in the estimate. This depends on the gain matrix and the power spectra of all the process and measurement noises. An integration is required over multiple solutions of Lyapunov equations.

Sonnabend, David; Gardner, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

121

A Model for Optimal Reaction Norms: The Case of the Pregnant Garter Snake and Her Temperature?Sensitive Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model to test Osgood's (1978) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature- sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or U-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by

Stevan J. Arnold; Charles R. Peterson

2002-01-01

122

Urbanization and Changing Rural Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicators of normative traditionalism were derived from 1947 and 1970 attitude surveys of adolescents from 68 Pennsylvania high schools. Rural-urban character of the areas was indexed by 1950 and 1970 census materials. Although 1970 normative climates were more permissive, findings suggest continuing utility of rural-urban distinction in dealing…

Chou, Bih-Er; And Others

1982-01-01

123

Scientific Attitudes: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the following areas: the nature of scientific attitudes, the development of scientific attitudes as an educational objective, instruments for measuring scientific attitudes, and research concerning relationships between scientific attitudes and other variables; and makes recommendations for changes in research into scientific…

Gauld, C. F.; Hukins, A. A.

1980-01-01

124

The false enforcement of unpopular norms.  

PubMed

Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

2009-09-01

125

Attitudes toward lesbians and gays among american and dutch adolescents.  

PubMed

Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the United States. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

Collier, Kate L; Horn, Stacey S; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

2015-02-01

126

Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales  

PubMed Central

Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2014-01-01

127

How intergenerational interaction affects attitude-behavior inconsistency.  

PubMed

Social norms play an important role in maintaining social order, but at the same time, they can act as a constraint that compels people to take specific actions which run contrary to their attitudes. This paper treats the latter case: we investigate conditions in which attitude-behavior inconsistency persists, constructing mathematical models combining evolutionary games and cultural transmissions. In particular, we focus on the effect of intergenerational interactions. Our models show that both information about others' attitude (e.g., through social surveys) and the combination of intra- and inter-generational interactions are key factors to generate the situation where all people adopt the same behavior but different people have different attitudes. PMID:24389394

Sekiguchi, Takuya; Nakamaru, Mayuko

2014-04-01

128

Career identification and women's attitudes toward retirement.  

PubMed

This study seeks to heighten understanding of the retirement process as experienced by women through an examination of working women's attitudes toward retirement. The subjects for this study were 201 female teachers employed in the public school system in a central Oklahoma district. The survey instrument used was a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and work-related variables. The findings indicate that overall, females with stronger work identities have significantly more negative attitudes toward retirement than those with weaker work identities; this difference remains significant when controls are introduced for years of teaching experience, expected age of retirement, and attitude toward work. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2318540

Erdner, R A; Guy, R F

1990-01-01

129

The impact of social norm change strategies on smokers' quitting behaviours  

PubMed Central

Objective Using a social norm change paradigm model that reflects the California Tobacco Control Program's (CTCP) priorities, we compare the strength of the relationship of the social norm constructs to key smoking behavioural outcomes. Methods Social norm constructs that correspond to CTCP's priority areas were created from selected California Adult Tobacco Survey knowledge, attitude and belief questions using confirmatory factor analysis. We then examined the relationship between these constructs and quitting behaviours using logistic regression. Results The secondhand smoke (SHS) and countering pro-tobacco influences'(CPTI) constructs followed a dose-response curve with quitting behaviours. Respondents who rated high on the SHS construct were about 70% more likely to have made a recent quit attempt in the last 12?months and about 100% more likely to intend to quit in the next 6?months than respondents who rated low on the SHS construct. For CPTI, respondents who rated high on this construct were 67% more likely to have made a recent quit attempt in the last 12?months and 62% more likely to have intentions to quit in the next 6?months than respondents who rated low on the CPTI construct. Conclusion Social norm change constructs represent CTCP's priorities and are strongly related to desired individual behaviour outcomes. This analysis provides strong support for the framework underlying CTCP—namely, that changing social norms affects behaviour change at the individual level through changing population-level smoking-related behaviours. PMID:20382651

Cowling, David W; Tang, Hao

2010-01-01

130

Concave 1-norm group selection.  

PubMed

Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. PMID:25417206

Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

2014-11-21

131

The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

Bray, Nathaniel J.

2010-01-01

132

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

133

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

Bruhn, C.M.M.

1986-01-01

134

Manners of expressing negative and sympathetic attitudes towards the unemployed.  

PubMed

Social psychologists have examined ways in which indirectness and discursive techniques allow the communication of prejudice while not breaching the tolerance norm. The role these techniques play in the expression of other kinds of attitude, however, is as yet unknown. The present study examined the discursive techniques used by 67 employed individuals to express negative and sympathetic attitudes towards the unemployed. A style of directness was used significantly more frequently to express sympathetic attitudes than negative attitudes. Conversely, credibility techniques were used significantly more frequently to express negative attitudes than sympathetic attitudes. These credibility techniques were used in conjunction with either directness or indirectness. However, against hypothesis, indirectness alone was not used more frequently to express negative than sympathetic attitudes; in fact, one type of indirectness was associated to a greater extent with the expression of sympathy than with negativity. It was predicted that professionally employed individuals would tend to use different discursive techniques than non-professionally employed individuals. This prediction, while supported by a difference on a composite measure of the manners of expression, was not confirmed for any of the styles considered separately. PMID:7551774

McFadyen, R G; Gray, C D

1995-09-01

135

First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2012-01-01

136

What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

Priest, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

137

Parameterized Norm Form Equations with Arithmetic progressions  

E-print Network

Parameterized Norm Form Equations with Arithmetic progressions A. B´erczes a,1 A. Petho b,2 V all algebraic numbers µ = x0 +x1+x22 Z[], such that x0, x1, x2 Z forms an arithmetic progression a family of Thue equations and solve this family completely. Key words: Arithmetic progressions, norm form

Pethõ, Attila

138

NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

2008-08-01

139

Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

Speer, Rita D.

140

Disturbance energy norms: A critical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of which norm should be used to characterize the fluctuating disturbance energy in studies on thermoacoustic instabilities remains a topic of continued debate. In this paper we formulate a strategy for developing mathematically consistent norms that do not support spurious growth of disturbance energy in the absence of 'physical' sources of energy. A critical analysis of various disturbance energy norms existing in literature is conducted and important conclusions regarding positive definitiveness and susceptibility to exhibiting unphysical growth are drawn. It is shown that the energy norm proposed by Cantrell and Hart [Interaction between sound and flow in acoustic cavities: mass, momentum and energy considerations, Journal of Acoustical Society of America 36 (1964) 697-706] and Myers' first order disturbance energy norm [Transport of energy by disturbances in arbitrary steady flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 226 (1991) 383-400] are positive definite if M0<1 and M0<1/?{?}, respectively, where M0 is the magnitude of the local mean flow Mach number, ? is the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume and the stipulated conditions should be met at every point in the flow domain. Our analysis shows that the disturbance energy norm proposed by Chu [On the energy transfer to small disturbances in fluid flow (part I), Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 215-234] does not exhibit unphysical growth. It is also shown that this property is not unique to Chu's disturbance energy norm and there exists a family of norms which satisfy this requirement. The analysis also leads to an interesting interpretation of the acoustic energy conservation principle of Cantrell and Hart. The potential held by various disturbance energy norms for exhibiting fictitious growth is quantified using tools from nonmodal stability theory. It is concluded that if the mean flow Mach number is small, Myers' norm is a suitable measure of the disturbance energy.

George, K. Joseph; Sujith, R. I.

2012-03-01

141

Improving Elementary School Students' Attitudes toward Voluntary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined a program for improving attitudes toward reading. Subjects were 19 kindergarten, 39 first-grade, 17 second-grade, and 29 sixth-grade students in a middle class southwestern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. Reading attitude problems were documented through parent/student surveys and observations. Students' reading was prioritized in…

Haverty, Lisa; And Others

142

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

143

Refinement of a Chemistry Attitude Measure for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work presents the evaluation and refinement of a chemistry attitude measure, Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI), for college students. The original 20-item and revised 8-item versions of ASCI (V1 and V2) were administered to different samples. The evaluation for ASCI had two main foci: reliability and validity. This…

Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

144

Attitudes toward Online Communications in Open and Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students' attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students' gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and "Online…

Erdem Aydin, Irem

2012-01-01

145

AIDS Education: Does It Change Attitudes toward Gay Men?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine how attitudes toward homosexual men might affect reactions to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts, or how those attitudes might be changed by those efforts. The first study involved 69 male and 75 female subjects, randomly assigned to four conditions receiving different information…

Slusher, Morgan P.; Anderson, Craig A.

146

Attitudes to and use of baby walkers in Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The

M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall

1995-01-01

147

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

148

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

149

Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

150

The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects

Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

151

Measurement of attitudes of trainee professionals to people with disabilities.  

PubMed

The importance of measuring attitudes of trainee professionals to people with disabilities was addressed. A questionnaire which included the Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons (SADP) and the Intellectual Disability Misconceptions Scale (IDMS) was completed by first and final year tertiary students enrolled in a 3-year course on intellectual disability. The attitude measures did not discriminate between the two groups of students, psychometric properties were poor and the factor structure of the SADP did not replicate previous findings. As expected, there was some convergence between the two attitude measures, and relationships to subject variables were consistent with previous research. Recommendations for subsequent research were discussed. PMID:7579983

Beckwith, J B; Matthews, J M

1995-08-01

152

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories—social norms, health consequences, or tobacco industry manipulation. Methods: An independent samples t test was used to test for

Rebecca Murphy-Hoefer; Andrew Hyland; Cheryl Rivard

2010-01-01

153

Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

2014-01-01

154

Nurses’ and physicians’ attitudes about women abuse: The effects of gender and professional role  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apathy encountered by battered women when they seek help from medical and other professions has been attributed to patriarchal norms and victim?blaming. Because of their place in the medical hierarchy this study hypothesized that: a) nurses would have more sympathetic attitudes toward battered women than physicians; and b) professional roles and not gender would explain the differences. The findings

Karla Rose; Daniel G. Saunders

1986-01-01

155

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

2010-01-01

156

Significance of norms and completeness in variational based methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By means of a simple structural problem, an important requirement often overlooked in practice on the basis functions used in Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin type methods is brought into focus. The problem of the static deformation of a uniformly loaded beam is solved variationally by expanding the beam displacement in a Fourier Cosine series. The potential energy functional is rendered stationary subject to the geometric boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the variational approach does not converge to the true solution. The object is to resolve this paradox, and in so doing, indicate the practical implications of norms and completeness in an appropriate inner product space.

Storch, Joel A.

1989-01-01

157

Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours.  

PubMed

Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. PMID:25451578

Higgs, Suzanne

2014-10-22

158

A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

2002-05-01

159

Teachers' Attitudes toward School Based Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers in 12 Kentucky schools were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward school based decision making (SBDM). The 228 subjects included teachers at SBDM schools as well as non-SBDM schools. A Likert scale survey instrument, designed to solicit information specific to the adopted Kentucky SBDM legislation, was administered to teachers in…

Daniel, Richard W.; Shay, Phil

160

Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to

William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw

1984-01-01

161

Students' Attitudes toward Introductory Physics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem examined in this study deals with students' attitude toward physics among the freshmen and sophomore students who were taking first introductory physics course. In the study there were 176 students, and they were chosen sample of convenience from Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida. 125 subjects were male students, and…

Demirci, Neset

2004-01-01

162

Personality and attitudes towards marginal social groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the hypothesis that high scorers on the EPQ extraversion scale express more tolerant and humanitarian attitudes towards marginal social groups whereas the high scorers on psychoticism take a more repressive position. The data collected among 249 Polish subjects by means of Eysenck and Eysenck's (Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 1975) EPQ questionnaire and the scale measuring

Zbigniew Zaleski; Sybil Eysenck; Hans Eysenck

1995-01-01

163

Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

Lester, Jaime

2011-01-01

164

A Normed Study of Face Recognition in Autism and Related Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a well-normed task of face recognition with 102 young children with autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) not otherwise specified, and non-PDD disorders (mental retardation and language disorders) matched for chronological age and either verbal or nonverbal mental age. Autistic subjects exhibited pronounced deficits in…

Klin, Ami; Sparrow, Sara S.; de Bildt, Annelies; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Cohen, Donald J.; Volkmar, Fred R.

1999-01-01

165

Expanding the Psychosocial Work Environment: Workplace Norms and Work-Family Conflict as Correlates of Stress and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms

Tove Helland Hammer; Per Řystein Saksvik; Kjell Nytrř; Hans Torvatn; Mahmut Bayazit

2004-01-01

166

Soft Tissue Esthetic Norms for Mahabubnagar Population of Southern India  

PubMed Central

Aims: The Aim of the study was to establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for skeletal and dental relationships amongst the Mahabubnagar adult population. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (30 Males & 30 Females) subjects from different part of Mahabubnagar in the age group 18-25 Years (Mean age 21.3 Years) were selected at random for the study and lateral cephalograms were taken. All the cephalograms were traced by two operators using conventional hand tracing. The parameters used in the study were taken from Arnett and Bergman soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA). Overall 46 measurements including 40 linear, 6 angular parameters were used. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated. The difference between males and females were evaluated using student t-test. Results: The values obtained from the study showed significant difference in most of the parameters from that of Arnett et al., norms and between males and females within Mahabubnagar population. Conclusion: Males had thicker soft tissue structures, acute nasolabial angle, increased facial lengths and heights, increased midface deficiency, recessive lower face, more convex profile and less upright mandibular incisors than females within Mahabubnagar population. PMID:24596789

Sinojiya, Jay; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Pyata, Jaipal Reddy; Mallikarjun, Vankre; Reddy, C. Manjunatha

2014-01-01

167

Adolescents' attitudes toward tourism impacts.  

E-print Network

??Tourism scholars have long recognized the importance of understanding residents’ attitudes toward tourism impacts. Most of their research, however, has addressed adult residents’ attitudes, with… (more)

Koerte, Tammy

2013-01-01

168

Subjective status shapes political preferences.  

PubMed

Economic inequality in America is at historically high levels. Although most Americans indicate that they would prefer greater equality, redistributive policies aimed at reducing inequality are frequently unpopular. Traditional accounts posit that attitudes toward redistribution are driven by economic self-interest or ideological principles. From a social psychological perspective, however, we expected that subjective comparisons with other people may be a more relevant basis for self-interest than is material wealth. We hypothesized that participants would support redistribution more when they felt low than when they felt high in subjective status, even when actual resources and self-interest were held constant. Moreover, we predicted that people would legitimize these shifts in policy attitudes by appealing selectively to ideological principles concerning fairness. In four studies, we found correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Studies 2-4) evidence that subjective status motivates shifts in support for redistributive policies along with the ideological principles that justify them. PMID:25416138

Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; Kay, Aaron C; Payne, B Keith

2015-01-01

169

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

170

Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

2008-01-01

171

Reaction norms with bifurcations shaped by evolution.  

PubMed

Two versions of a model for the evolution of seasonal polyphenism investigate the evolution of reaction norm bifurcation and branching. The first version is without a specific submodel for morphological development and the second has an explicit developmental map. Version 1 is evolutionarily relatively unconstrained: (i) reaction norms are specified by matrices containing the probabilities of occurrence of environment-phenotype combinations, (ii) all conceivable reaction norm matrices are reachable through a sequence of mutations, and (iii) small as well as large mutational effects occur. This version is used to find the evolutionarily stable strategy favoured by the population ecology that is characterized by stabilizing viability selection with a cyclically fluctuating selection optimum. When the strength of selection is large and when the lag between initiation of development and selection on mature phenotype is not a multiple of half the period of the environmental cycle, a branching reaction norm evolves. In the second model version, branching reaction norms occur for certain parameter combinations of the developmental submodel, but the evolution of this pattern is often constrained. The evolutionary trajectory becomes trapped in a local selective optimum for the parameters of the developmental system. Substantial developmental noise evolves, but mutations that produce a selectively advantageous branching pattern do not occur from there. PMID:11217899

van Dooren, T J

2001-02-01

172

Promoting Attitude Change toward Native Indians through a Graduate Course in Adolescent Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixteen Canadian graduate students in educational psychology interviewed 2 Indian subjects each using Kohlberg moral dilemmas and Gilligan real-life problems. Student attitudes toward Indians were positively affected by subject self-disclosure. Attitude change was not related to student cognitive complexity. Contains 11 references. (SV)

Webster, Janet B.; Garrod, Andrew

1990-01-01

173

New wave or second stage? Attitudes of college women toward feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of female subjects toward gender roles, gender inequality, and the women's movement were measured using a 24-item attitudinal inventory. Subjects tended to hold nontraditional but only moderately feminist attitudes toward gender roles. They were, however, highly aware of gender inequality and supportive of the women's movement, although they were also reluctant to identify themselves as feminists. T tests

Claire M. Renzetti

1987-01-01

174

Influence of Attitudes, Significant Others, and Aspirations on How Adolescents Intend to Resolve a Premarital Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how sexually active adolescent women intended to deal with premarital pregnancy and what influenced intentions. Subjects holding positive general attitudes toward abortion showed stronger intentions toward terminating unwanted pregnancy. Abortion attitudes of significant others influenced intentions. More career-oriented subjects

Brazzell, Jan F.; Acock, Alan C.

1988-01-01

175

Aerobic fitness norms for males and females aged 6 to 75 years: a review.  

PubMed

An extensive literature review was performed of studies where VO2max was measured directly in healthy, untrained subjects in the USA, Canada and 7 European countries to establish absolute (L/min) and relative (ml.kg-1.min-1) VO2max norms in males and females aged 6-75 years. Mean norms (L/min) in males show an increase from 1.0 L/min at age 6 years, to 2.0 and 3.4 L/min at ages 12 and 18 years, respectively, after which they decline with age to 3.2, 2.7, and 1.6 L/min for ages 30, 50, and 75 years, respectively. The corresponding values for females aged 6, 12, 18, 30, 50, and 75 years are 0.9, 1.8, 2.2, 1.8, and 1.1 L/min, respectively. Sex differences in relative VO2max are smaller than the above. Mean values for males for the above age groups are 47.5, 50, 48, 35, and 25 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, with corresponding values for females of 42.5, 44, 41, 28, and 17.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. These norms (L/min) are slightly lower than Robinson's 1938 data on males; they are only 1.5% lower compared with Astrand's adult males norms; but 2.5 to 10% lower than Astrand's norms for adult females. Present norms (ml.kg-1.min-1) for middle aged and older women are 25% lower than the corresponding Astrand's norms. PMID:2405832

Shvartz, E; Reibold, R C

1990-01-01

176

Optimized norm-conserving Vanderbilt pseudopotentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully nonlocal two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotentials are shown to be compatible with a systematic approach to the optimization of convergence with the size of the plane-wave basis. A reformulation of the optimization is developed, including the ability to apply it to positive-energy atomic scattering states and to enforce greater continuity in the pseudopotential. The generalization of norm conservation to multiple projectors is reviewed and recast for the present purposes. Comparisons among the results of all-electron and one- and two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotential calculations of lattice constants and bulk moduli are made for a group of solids chosen to represent a variety of types of bonding and a sampling of the periodic table.

Hamann, D. R.

2013-08-01

177

Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the quaternion estimate was normalized, the estimate converged faster and to a lower error than with tuning only. In last years, symposium we presented three new AEKF normalization techniques and we compared them to the brute force method presented in the literature. The present paper presents the issue of normalization of the MEKF and examines several MEKF normalization techniques.

Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

1993-01-01

178

On the complexity of approximating the diamond norm  

E-print Network

The diamond norm is a norm defined over the space of quantum transformations. This norm has a natural operational interpretation: it measures how well one can distinguish between two transformations by applying them to a state of arbitrarily large dimension. This interpretation makes this norm useful in the study of quantum interactive proof systems. In this note we exhibit an efficient algorithm for computing this norm using convex programming. Independently of us, Watrous recently showed a different algorithm to compute this norm. An immediate corollary of this algorithm is a slight simplification of the argument of Kitaev and Watrous [STOC 2000] that QIP is contained in EXP.

Avraham Ben-Aroya; Amnon Ta-Shma

2009-09-08

179

Panoramic attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

Meek, I. C.

1976-01-01

180

Skylab attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude stabilization and control system for Skylab evolved from an analog controller into a fully digital processing system. Features of this system include a software-determined attitude reference to provide general maneuvering ability, an in-orbit programming capability, the use of large control moment gyros for attitude control, and the use of vehicle maneuvers to desaturate gyro momentum. The objectives, requirements, and implementations of the control system software are described, along with the rationales for certain design decisions and discussion of some system dynamics and actual performance.

Coon, T. R.; Irby, J. E.

1976-01-01

181

Assessment of Attitudes Regarding Tobacco-Free Campus Policy and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among College Students, Faculty, and Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recently there has been a push to implement tobacco-free policies on college campuses. Policies creating tobacco-free college campuses have increased with changes in social norms. The campus environment provides a setting for individuals to express their attitudes regarding tobacco use. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess…

Hall, Michael E.; Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Hunt, Barry

2015-01-01

182

Norms And Completeness In Variational Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper discusses significance of norms and completeness in analyses based on variational principle of mechanics. Such analyses conducted to determine static deflections and/or vibrations of structures, including complicated ones like spacecraft. Illustrates by example that such casual approaches lead to erroneous results.

Storch, Joel A.

1991-01-01

183

Toleration and the Design of Norms.  

PubMed

One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us. PMID:25287376

Floridi, Luciano

2014-10-01

184

Bioimpedance norms for the hemodialysis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioimpedance norms for the hemodialysis population. More than 3,000 hemodialysis patients were examined with single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Distributions of resistance, reactance, phase angle (PA), and estimates of total body water (TBW) and body cell mass (BCM) by BIA were determined, and compared with traditional laboratory markers of nutritional status. Bioimpedance parameters and body composition estimates differed significantly by

Glenn M Chertow; J Michael Lazarus; Nancy L Lew; Lihong Ma; Edmund G Lowrie

1997-01-01

185

Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

2002-01-01

186

Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

187

Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

Randall, Robert S.

188

Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

2013-01-01

189

A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode since rest to rest case is not adequate to truly represent an on orbit failure of a single wheel. The study is intended to facilitate the ACS community to further develop a more practical under-actuated control law and present a path to extend these current thinking to address a more realistic reconfigurable ACS subject to a dynamic transition from a 3 RWs mode to 2 RWs mode.

Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

2014-12-01

190

Attitude profile design program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

1991-01-01

191

Spacecraft Attitude Representations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

192

History, Expectations, and Leadership in the Evolution of Social Norms  

E-print Network

We study the evolution of a social norm of “cooperation” in a dynamic environment. Each agent lives for two periods and interacts with agents from the previous and next generations via a coordination game. Social norms ...

Acemoglu, Daron

2013-05-12

193

Sustainable Tourism and the emergence of new Environmental Norms  

E-print Network

Sustainable Tourism and the emergence of new Environmental Norms Malgorzata OGONOWSKA Dominique tourism. Consequently a new segment of demand desiring sustainable tourism products have appeared how environmental quality standards can become general norms in tourism industry. By analyzing a case

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

2000-01-01

195

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

196

Micro- and Macrosocial Conditions of Adolescents' Aggressiveness and Antiforeigner Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the social factors that influence adolescent aggression and antiforeigner sentiment. Subjects were 158 East German and 138 West German youths. Found that for subjects from both regions, aggressive and antiforeigner attitudes are linked to stressful experiences in school and family but also to societal conditions as perceived by the…

Klien-Allerman, Elke; And Others

1995-01-01

197

Attitudes Towards Modifications in the Orthographic Representation of Modern Greek.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey investigated the attitudes of educated Greeks about possible modifications in the orthographic representation of written Greek. Subjects were 82 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts program in English Language and Literature offered at the University of Cyprus. The subjects were administered a 20-item Likert-type questionnaire…

Papapavlou, Andreas N.

198

Group Beneficial Norms Can Spread Rapidly in a Structured Population  

E-print Network

Group Beneficial Norms Can Spread Rapidly in a Structured Population Robert Boyd Department beneficial norms can spread rapidly under plausible conditions. We also show that this mechanism allows). The persistence of group beneficial norms is easily explained. When people interact repeatedly, behavior can

Richerson, Peter J.

199

A Call for a New National Norming Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues related to achieving adequate national norms are reviewed, and a new methodology is proposed that would work to provide a true measure of national achievement levels on an annual basis and would enable reporting results in current-year norms. Statistical methodology and technology could combine to create a national norming process that…

Ligon, Glynn; Mangino, Evangelina

200

Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

Baumgartner, Ted A.

2009-01-01

201

Content and Construct Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic skills tests in which measurement of growth is defined in the context of national norms are discussed. An integral part of the construction of norms is the production of a trait or ability score which is normed. Test publishers define a multidimensional trait by including items which measure it. The trait as a construct is a distinct…

Green, Donald Ross; Yen, Wendy M.

202

An analysis of norm processes in tax compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research has consistently found evidence for the impact of taxpayers’ personal norms (individual ethics and morality of tax paying) on levels of tax compliance, findings for the role of social norms (ethics and morality attributed to other taxpayers) on tax compliance have been more ambiguous. The present paper argues for a theoretically more refined analysis of norm processes, based

Michael Wenzel

2004-01-01

203

Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato in Fisica  

E-print Network

1 Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato in Fisica Approvate dal Consiglio di Dipartimento di Fisica il 19 aprile 2004 e modificato nelle sedute del 9 maggio 2006, del 13 febbraio 2007 e del 29 maggio 2008 #12;Norme Attuative della Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca in Fisica 1 INDICE Art. 1 - Norme

204

Ultrasonic range resolution enhancement using L1 norm deconvolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deconvolution techniques have been widely used to improve resolution and quality of ultrasonic images One of the optimality criteria is minimizing the Lp norm of the estimation error. It has been shown that the L1 norm deconvolution is more robust than the L2 norm. Linear programming and iterative reweighted least squares (IRLS) algorithms have been implemented in L1 deconvolution. Because

Jianqiang Xin; Nihat M. Bilgutay

1993-01-01

205

Radiological criteria for unrestricted use of sites containing norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural occurring radioactive materia (NORM) is redistributed in the environment as a result of many mineral recovery and processing industries. There are not federal regulations specifying criteria for NORM contaminated sites; however, several states have promulgated regulations. The regulations promulgated by the states generally focus on NORM from oil and gas production, the primary focus of the assessments for this

D. E. Bernhardt; V. C. Rogers; K. K. Nielson

1996-01-01

206

Preferences don't have to be personal: expanding attitude theorizing with a cross-cultural perspective.  

PubMed

Attitudes, theorized as behavioral guides, have long been a central focus of research in the social sciences. However, this theorizing reflects primarily Western philosophical views and empirical findings emphasizing the centrality of personal preferences. As a result, the prevalent psychological model of attitudes is a person-centric one. We suggest that incorporating research insights from non-Western sociocultural contexts can significantly enhance attitude theorizing. To this end, we propose an additional model-a normative-contextual model of attitudes. The currently dominant person-centric model emphasizes the centrality of personal preferences, their stability and internal consistency, and their possible interaction with externally imposed norms. In contrast, the normative-contextual model emphasizes that attitudes are always context-contingent and incorporate the views of others and the norms of the situation. In this model, adjustment to norms does not involve an effortful struggle between the authentic self and exogenous forces. Rather, it is the ongoing and reassuring integration of others' views into one's attitudes. According to the normative-contextual model, likely to be a good fit in contexts that foster interdependence and holistic thinking, attitudes need not be personal or necessarily stable and internally consistent and are only functional to the extent that they help one to adjust automatically to different contexts. The fundamental shift in focus offered by the normative-contextual model generates novel hypotheses and highlights new measurement criteria for studying attitudes in non-Western sociocultural contexts. We discuss these theoretical and measurement implications as well as practical implications for health and well-being, habits and behavior change, and global marketing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347311

Riemer, Hila; Shavitt, Sharon; Koo, Minkyung; Markus, Hazel Rose

2014-10-01

207

An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2011-01-01

208

Attitudes Toward Mentally Retarded Persons: Effects of Attitude Referent Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study involving 75 female undergraduate education majors, attitudes toward a "mentally retarded person" referent were compared with attitudes toward mentally retarded referents who were described in more specific terms (retardation severity and chronological age). (Author/CL)

Gottlieb, Jay; Siperstein, Gary N.

1976-01-01

209

Singular Vectors for Moisture-Measuring Norms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In dynamic meteorology, singular vectors (SVs) are the structures that maximize a given norm of a forecast perturbation given a tangent linear model and a quadratic constraint on the initial perturbation. That constraint is a prescription of the value of either the same or a different norm applied to the initial perturbations. In the sense that SVs maximize the forecast perturbations according to a specified measure, they may be considered as optimal perturbations. SVs are used to characterize predictability, to identify and correct possible initial errors given forecast errors, to create a set of significant perturbations for ensemble forecasting, or to determine locations for observation targeting. They are a specific application of generally defined singular vectors in mathematics.

Errico, Ronald M.; Raeder, Kevin; Ehrendorfer, Martin

2002-01-01

210

SCHWARZ'S LEMMA IN NORMED LINEAR SPACES*  

PubMed Central

In this paper we show that any Fréchet holomorphic function mapping the open unit ball of one normed linear space into the closed unit ball of another must be a linear mapping if the Fréchet derivative of the function at zero is a surjective isometry. From this fact we deduce a Banach-Stone theorem for operator algebras which generalizes that of R. V. Kadison. PMID:16591741

Harris, Lawrence A.

1969-01-01

211

Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms  

PubMed Central

Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

2014-01-01

212

Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911

Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

2014-11-11

213

The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for European Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999a) for European Portuguese (EP). The EP adaptation of the ANEW was based on the affective ratings made by 958 college students\\u000a who were EP native speakers. Subjects assessed about 60 words by considering the affective dimensions of valence, arousal,\\u000a and dominance, using the

Ana Paula Soares; Montserrat Comesańa; Ana P. Pinheiro; Alberto Simőes; Carla Sofia Frade

214

of Public Attitudes Energy & Environment  

E-print Network

.............................................................. 2 4. Public Attitudes toward Global Warming. Willingness to Pay to Solve Global Warming............................................................... 15 9 concerns.1 Goals of the surveys included collecting information about attitudes toward global warming

215

The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian.  

PubMed

We developed affective norms for 1,121 Italian words in order to provide researchers with a highly controlled tool for the study of verbal processing. This database was developed from translations of the 1,034 English words present in the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999) and from words taken from Italian semantic norms (Montefinese, Ambrosini, Fairfield, & Mammarella, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 440-461, 2013). Participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a Web survey procedure. Participants also provided evaluations of three subjective psycholinguistic indexes (familiarity, imageability, and concreteness), and five objective psycholinguistic indexes (e.g., word frequency) were also included in the resulting database in order to further characterize the Italian words. We obtained a typical quadratic relation between valence and arousal, in line with previous findings. We also tested the reliability of the present ANEW adaptation for Italian by comparing it to previous affective databases and performing split-half correlations for each variable. We found high split-half correlations within our sample and high correlations between our ratings and those of previous studies, confirming the validity of the adaptation of ANEW for Italian. This database of affective norms provides a tool for future research about the effects of emotion on human cognition. PMID:24150921

Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

2014-09-01

216

Low cost spacecraft attitude sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing interest in small satellites there is a growing requirement for low cost attitude sensing and control systems. The development of such a low cost attitude sensing system, suitable for spinning spacecraft is described. The attitude sensor system uses fan beam Sun and Earth albedo sensors based on those used successfully on the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Explorer

M. R. Leese; A. K. Ward; S. Paice; S. Heyhoe

1991-01-01

217

Who owns implicit attitudes? Testing a metacognitive perspective.  

PubMed

Metacognitive inferences about ownership for one's implicit attitudes have the power to turn implicit bias into explicit prejudice. In Study 1, participants were assigned to construe their implicit attitudes toward gay men as belonging to themselves (owned) or as unrelated to the self (disowned). Construing one's implicit responses as owned led to greater implicit-explicit attitude correspondence. In Study 2, we measured ownership for implicit attitudes as well as self-esteem. We predicted that ownership inferences would dictate explicit attitudes to the degree that people had positive views of the self. Indeed, higher ownership for implicit bias was associated with greater implicit-explicit attitude correspondence, and this effect was driven by participants high in self-esteem. Finally, in Study 3, we manipulated inferences of ownership and measured self-esteem. Metacognitions of ownership affected implicit-explicit attitude correspondence but only among those with relatively high self-esteem. We conclude that subjective inferences about implicit bias affect explicit prejudice. PMID:25422315

Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith; Loersch, Chris; Lei, Ryan

2015-01-01

218

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

219

Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety.  

PubMed

The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise. PMID:9316712

Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D

1997-09-01

220

The Illness Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) were developed by Robert Kellner as a clinimetric index for measuring hypochondriacal fears and beliefs (worry about illness, concerns about pain, health habits, hypochondriacal beliefs, thanatophobia, disease phobia, bodily preoccupations, treatment experience and effects of symptoms). The IAS have been extensively used in the past two decades, but there has been no comprehensive review

Laura Sirri; Silvana Grandi; Giovanni A. Fava

2008-01-01

221

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

222

Age and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses age differences in public attitudes toward public schools from recent Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll. For example, the biggest problem facing schools identified by those 50 and older is discipline, whereas those between 18 and 29 identified finance. Both age groups strongly support public schools. (PKP)

Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

2003-01-01

223

Thoughts on Attitude Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

Reid, Norman

2006-01-01

224

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Tracy Dietz

225

Attitudes toward Child Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has shown that parents of children who commit suicide receive reduced emotional support from their community. More research in the area of attitudes toward child suicide may aid professionals in helping grieving friends and families and help pinpoint areas where more education may be needed. This study examined the differences…

Ellis, Jon B.; Lane, Debra

226

Attitudes towards Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike in many other countries, physics in secondary education in Scotland is highly popular, with large numbers opting for study at the Higher Grade from which entry to higher education is possible. This paper reports a project which explored attitudes towards physics in Scotland, looking at students aged from about 10 to 20 years old. Overall, over 850 school pupils were surveyed along with 208 level 1 and 2 university physics students. The work was carried out mainly by use of questionnaires and interviewing. The approach allowed the development of 'snap shots' of attitudes held by pupils simultaneously at various stages of education. These attitudes can be compared at the different stages, although care must be taken in such comparison to allow for varying degrees of self-selection. The main factors attracting school pupils into a study of physics are described, together with the pattern of attitude changes which take place with age. From the picture obtained, it is possible to determine areas of the curriculum where there are difficulties. The enormous success of the applications-led course for Standard Grade is apparent in attracting and retaining pupils within physics, including girls. The outcomes suggest some ways by which physics curriculum planners can develop courses in physics which will prove attractive and robust.

Reid, Norman; Skryabina, Elena A.

2002-01-01

227

Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

Walker, Albert, Comp.

228

Affective Guide with Attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aective Guide System is a mobile context-aware and spatial-aware system, oering the user with an aective multimodal in- teraction interface. The system takes advantage of the current mobile and wireless technologies. It includes an 'aective guide with attitude' that links its memories and visitor's interest to the spatial location so that stories are relevant to what can be immediately

Mei Yii Lim; Ruth Aylett; Christian Martyn Jones

2005-01-01

229

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

230

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

231

Safety: An Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

Smith, Harry T.

1978-01-01

232

Improving Attitudes Toward Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving students' attitudes toward reading. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a growing middle class community. The problem of the lack of interest in reading and the poor quality of classroom work were evident in parent and student surveys, and teacher observations.…

Dean, Stephanie J.; Trent, Jane A.

233

Academics, Activities, Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Oklahoma high school is striving to integrate activities, attitudes, and academics. The school broadens curriculum by involving students in its performance, governance, service, and instruction via sports activities, job-related organizations, course-related clubs, membership groups, and school-service and government clubs open to all students.…

Lannert, Grace

2000-01-01

234

Effects of Attitudes toward Women and Women in Management on Perceived Communication Competencies of Women Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationship among attitudes toward women in general, attitudes toward women as managers, and perceptions of the communication competencies of women managers. Subjects, 178 employees from various types of organizations, completed the Positive Regard Scale (PRS), the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS), and the Communication…

Berryman-Fink, Cynthia; Wheeless, Virginia Eman

235

Sociodemographic factors and patient perceptions are associated with attitudes to kidney transplantation among haemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Treatment decisions made by patients with chronic kidney disease are crucial in the renal transplanta- tion process. These decisions are influenced, amongst other factors, by attitudes towards different treatment options, which are modulated by knowledge and perceptions about the disease and its treatment and many other subjective fac- tors. Here we study the attitude of dialysis patients to renal

Eszter Panna Vamos; Gabor Csepanyi; Monika Zambo; Miklos Zsolt Molnar; Janos Rethelyi; Agnes Kovacs; Adrienn Marton; Zsofia Nemeth; M arta Novak; Istvan Mucsi

2009-01-01

236

The Effect of a Student-Designed Data Collection: Project on Attitudes toward Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often enter an introductory statistics class with less than positive attitudes about the subject. They tend to believe statistics is difficult and irrelevant to their lives. Observational evidence from previous studies suggests including projects in a statistics course may enhance students' attitudes toward statistics. This study examines…

Carnell, Lisa J.

2008-01-01

237

Nurses' Attitudes Toward the Use of the Bar-coding Medication Administration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determines nurses' attitudes toward bar-coding medication administration system use. Some of the factors underlying the successful use of bar-coding medication administration systems that are viewed as a connotative indicator of users' attitudes were used to gather data that describe the attitudinal basis for system adoption and use decisions in terms of subjective satisfaction. Only 67 nurses in the

SANA DAYA MARINI; ARIE HASMAN; HUDA ABU-SAAD HUIJER; HANI DIMASSI

2010-01-01

238

Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

1981-01-01

239

Norms for word lists that create false memories.  

PubMed

Roediger and McDermott (1995) induced false recall and false recognition for words that were not presented in lists. They had subjects study 24 lists of 15 words that were associates of a common word (called the critical target or critical lure) that was not presented in the list. False recall and false recognition of the critical target occurred frequently in response to these lists. The purpose of the current work was to provide a set of normative data for the lists Roediger and McDermott used and for 12 others developed more recently. We tested false recall and false recognition for critical targets from 36 lists. Despite the fact that all lists were constructed to produce false remembering, the diversity in their effectiveness was large--60% or more of subjects falsely recalled window and sleep following the appropriate lists, and false recognition for these items was greater than 80%. However, the list generated from king led to 10% false recall and 27% false recognition. Possible reasons for these wide differences in effectiveness of the lists are discussed. These norms serve as a useful benchmark for designing experiments about false recall and false recognition in this paradigm. PMID:10355238

Stadler, M A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B

1999-05-01

240

Subjective Well-Being among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

2006-01-01

241

Towering Waves May Be Norm for Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard to measure big waves at sea because the waves can smash scientific instruments to bits. But this radio broadcast reports on sensors sitting on the bottom of the sea 75 miles off the coast of Mississippi that survived Hurricane Ivan in September, 2004 and measured waves over 90 feet high. These are perhaps the tallest, most extreme waves ever recorded with modern instruments. This study suggests that big waves may be the norm for hurricanes rather than freak, rogue events. The clip is 3 minutes and 50 seconds in length.

2007-12-12

242

Alchemists’ Visions: Cultural Norms in Eliciting and Analyzing Life History Narratives  

PubMed Central

Comparative study within a group of systematically elicited life narratives revealed key variations in narrative sequencing and conceptual templates. These dimensions are associated with significant differences in subjective meaning, frames for interpreting experience, and personal adjustment. This paper describes the study methods and results, and proposes that life histories be studied in the context of other similarly collected narratives, instead of one at a time. It outlines limitations of current methods of eliciting, analyzing, and writing up texts which may systematically obscure important dimensions of subjectivity and of cultural norms.

LUBORSKY, MARK R.

2014-01-01

243

Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.  

PubMed

Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:23234099

Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

2012-10-01

244

Geometric quantum discord through the Schatten 1-norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been pointed out that the geometric quantum discord, as defined by the Hilbert-Schmidt norm (2-norm), is not a good measure of quantum correlations, since it may increase under local reversible operations on the unmeasured subsystem. Here, we revisit the geometric discord by considering general Schatten p-norms, explicitly showing that the 1-norm is the only p-norm able to define a consistent quantum correlation measure. In addition, by restricting the optimization to the tetrahedron of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states, we provide an analytical expression for the 1-norm geometric discord, which turns out to be equivalent to the negativity of quantumness. We illustrate the measure by analyzing its monotonicity properties.

Paula, F. M.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, M. S.

2013-06-01

245

Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

2004-01-01

246

Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revised push-up test for college students was presented in 2002. The purpose of this study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test when it is used with college students. Revised push-up scores collected on 177 male and 274 female college students were used to develop percentile norms. The norms for the men have a different…

Baumgartner, Ted A.; Hales, Derek; Chung, Hyuk; Oh, Suhak; Wood, Heather M.

2004-01-01

247

Relations between convergence rates in Schatten p-norms  

SciTech Connect

In quantum estimation theory and quantum tomography, the quantum state obtained by sampling converges to the ''true'' unknown density matrix under topologies that are different from the natural notion of distance in the space of quantum states, i.e., the trace class norm. In this paper, we address such problem, finding relations between the rates of convergence in the Schatten p-norms and in the trace class norm.

Albini, Paolo; Toigo, Alessandro; Umanita, Veronica [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica 'F. Brioschi', Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

2008-01-15

248

The Effects of Anti-Black Attitudes and Fear of Rape on Accuracy for the Recognition of Black and White Faces: Another Step Beyond the Layperson's Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that young white women who held antiblack attitudes and who were most fearful of being raped would be less accurate in recognizing photographs of black faces than of white faces, in comparison with young white women without these attitudes and fears. Subjects completed a racial attitude scale and a question measuring their fear…

Mack, David B.; And Others

249

Selection of Reference Group. Perceived Reference Group Permissiveness, and Personal Permissiveness Attitudes and Behavior: A Study of Two Consecutive Panels (1967-1971; 1970-1974)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement was made (Both longitudinally and cross-sectionally) of reference group selection with regard to sexual standards, perceived reference group norms with respect to premarital sexual permissiveness and the relationship of these variables to premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Results are discussed. (Author)

Walsh, Robert H.; And Others

1976-01-01

250

Randomizing quantum states in Shatten $p$-norms  

E-print Network

In this paper, we formularize a method for randomizing quantum states with respect to the Schatten $p$-norm ($p\\ge1$). Our theorem includes the Lemma 2.2 of Hayden and Winter [Commun. Math. Phys. {\\bf 284}, 263--280 (2008)] for the norm case of $p>1$. We exploit the methods of a net construction on the unit sphere and McDiard's inequality in probability theory, and then we prove certain general cases (all $p$) of randomization tool for quantum states, which includes the operator norm and trace norm simultaneously in a single statement.

Kabgyun Jeong

2014-12-12

251

NORM management in the oil and gas industry.  

PubMed

It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. PMID:23089032

Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

2012-01-01

252

Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels  

SciTech Connect

We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

Jen?ová, A. [Mathematical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 49, Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Mathematical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 49, Bratislava (Slovakia)

2014-02-15

253

The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

2000-11-08

254

A model for optimal reaction norms: the case of the pregnant garter snake and her temperature-sensitive embryos.  

PubMed

We present a model to test Osgood's ( 1978 ) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature-sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or [Formula: see text]-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by maintaining 67 female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) at eight different constant temperatures (21 degrees -33 degrees C) during pregnancy and making a series of scale counts on their newborn offspring (n = 491). To insure that the experimental temperatures were ecologically relevant, we used automated radiotelemetry to record the body temperature of pregnant, free-ranging females. The resulting temperature data allowed us to test the prediction that the inflection points of reaction norms would correspond to the average temperature experienced by embryos in the field. In line with predictions of the Osgood model, reaction norms were flat or U-shaped. In the case of U-shaped reaction norms, the inflection point of the curves corresponded to the average temperature imposed on embryos by free-ranging females. In contrast to some past studies, none of the standard scale scores (ones commonly used in systematics) showed significant temperature effects in either sex. Reaction norms were flat. In contrast, incidences of various abnormalities showed U-shaped reaction norms. Temperature effects were more pronounced in males than in females. The results have implications for systematics and for the evolution of canalization and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:18707441

Arnold, Stevan J; Peterson, Charles R

2002-09-01

255

What Is High School Economics? Posttest Knowledge, Attitudes, and Course Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study designed to measure the effectiveness of teaching and learning major economic concepts and concept clusters in high school. Includes findings on student attitudes toward the subject of economics and toward economic issues. (BSR)

Soper, John C.; Walstad, William B.

1988-01-01

256

Inferring attitudes from mindwandering.  

PubMed

Self-perception theory posits that people understand their own attitudes and preferences much as they understand others', by interpreting the meaning of their behavior in light of the context in which it occurs. Four studies tested whether people also rely on unobservable "behavior," their mindwandering, when making such inferences. It is proposed here that people rely on the content of their mindwandering to decide whether it reflects boredom with an ongoing task or a reverie's irresistible pull. Having the mind wander to positive events, to concurrent as opposed to past activities, and to many events rather than just one tends to be attributed to boredom and therefore leads to perceived dissatisfaction with an ongoing task. Participants appeared to rely spontaneously on the content of their wandering minds as a cue to their attitudes, but not when an alternative cause for their mindwandering was made salient. PMID:20625177

Critcher, Clayton R; Gilovich, Thomas

2010-09-01

257

Does Individualism Help Explain Differences in Employers' Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Disability Across Chinese and American Cities?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. PMID:21171794

Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2011-01-01

258

Measuring the scientific attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific attitude as analyzed and described includes the following habits of thinking: habit of accuracy in all operations, including accuracy in calculation, observation and report; habit of intellectual honesty; habit of open-mindedness; habit of suspended judgment; habit of looking for true cause-and-effect relationships; and habit of criticalness, including that of self-criticism. An example of the types of items devised

V. H. Noll

1935-01-01

259

The Pet Attitude Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It was the intention of the authors that this chapter be a resource of test and measures for the reader. The name of the Pet\\u000a Attitude Scale (PAS) (Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin, & Veleber, 1981), apparently the first published scale that measures\\u000a human–animal bonding, reflects the fact that it was developed three decades ago. If it were constructed today, it

Donald I. Templer; Hiroko Arikawa

260

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

1993-01-01

261

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

262

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

263

Changing Embedded Student Attitudes within a Mathematical Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students see mathematics as a required, but unpleasant subject. They perceive mathematics as isolated, having no relationship to life, no relationship to future career needs, and no connections to other college courses. Student attitudes and beliefs in mathematics quite often block the knowledge that we as instructors want them to obtain.…

Collins, Ruth; Winnington, Darlene

2010-01-01

264

Premarital Sexual Guilt and Contraceptive Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the relationship between premarital sexual guilt and contraceptive attitudes and behavior among young single women. High-guilt subjects were significantly more embarrassed about coming to the birth control clinics and were more likely to believe that it was difficult to obtain birth control. (Author)

Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

1981-01-01

265

Ethnicity Knowledge and Attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…

Goh, David S.

266

Faculty Attitudes at Indiana University School of Dentistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental educators' attitudes toward academic life are examined through structured, in-depth interviews with 122 full- and part-time faculty at Indiana University School of Dentistry. Results showed that the major reasons for choosing an academic career were influence of a faculty member or dean, interest in the subject matter, economics, and a…

Sorcinelli, Mary Deane

267

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

268

Racial Attitudes Among White Kindergarten Children From Three Different Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was initiated to determine whether the extent of a white child's first-hand contacts with black peers would influence his attitudes toward blacks. The subjects, 49 white, middle to upper class kindergarten children, all from two-parent homes with mothers who did not work outside the home, were divided into three groups: (A) children…

Orost, Jean H.

269

Can Gender-Adapted Instruction Improve Mathematics Performance and Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether adapting instruction to gender-type preferences can improve the attitudes of students, especially female students, and their performance in mathematics. Subjects were 69 young adult college students in a remedial mathematics program whose interest in gender-type activities was determined. Students were randomly…

Leonard, Mary J.; Derry, Sharon J.

270

Contemporary Nutritional Attitudes and Practices: A Factor Analysis Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results reported here are based upon a survey of the nutritional attitudes and practices of a sample of adults aged between 18 and 74 years. The scaled responses to two inventories of statements were subjected to a factor analysis in order to assess the extent to which it is possible to identify a set of coherent dimensions which underly

A. BEARDSWORTH; C. HASLAM; T. KEIL; J. GOODE; E. SHERRATT

1999-01-01

271

Measuring Attitudes toward Acceptable and Unacceptable Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high…

Budd, Karen S.; Behling, Steven; Li, Yan; Parikshak, Sangeeta; Gershenson, Rachel A.; Feuer, Rachel; Danko, Christina M.

2012-01-01

272

Hospital Social Workers' Attitudes Toward Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia and assisted suicide are the subjects of increasing controversy in the health care setting. In this study of 122 hospital social workers' attitudes toward euthanasia and assisted suicide, many respondents reported agreement that both practices may be ethical, should be legal in some situations, and that they would be willing to participate in the practices. Almost one-fourth of the

Ellen L. Csikai

2000-01-01

273

The relative importance of gender role attitudes to male and female attitudes toward lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were

Bernie S. Newman

1989-01-01

274

A Return Potential Measure of Setting Norms for Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested a classroom-level measure of norms based on J. Jackson's (1966) Return Potential Model. “Return potential” refers to the probability of approval of aggression in a given setting or group, and the return potential model allows quantification of different aspects of a setting's norms. Return potential measures were computed for unprovoked and provoked aggression. A pilot sample of

David B. Henry; Jennifer Cartland; Holly Ruchross; Kathleen Monahan

2004-01-01

275

Norm inflation for generalized magneto-hydrodynamic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the incompressible magneto-hydrodynamic system with fractional powers of the Laplacian in the three-dimensional case. We discover a wide range of spaces where the norm inflation occurs and hence small initial data results are out of reach. The norm inflation occurs not only in scaling invariant (critical) spaces, but also in supercritical and, surprisingly, subcritical ones.

Cheskidov, Alexey; Dai, Mimi

2015-01-01

276

Food Safety, Liability and Collective Norms Eric Giraud-Hraud  

E-print Network

Food Safety, Liability and Collective Norms Eric Giraud-HĂ©raud Hakim Hammoudi Louis-Georges Soler:lyza.racon@shs.poly.polytechnique.fr hal-00243034,version1-6Feb2008 #12;Food Safety, Liability and Collective Norms* Eric Giraud-HĂ©raud1 food safety and reduce the risks related to microbial contamination and pesticide residues

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Continuous Norming: Implications for the WAIS-R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates a method for generating continuously adjusted age norms using the normative data for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Specific procedures for calculating age-adjusted Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores also are demonstrated, with a worked example. Comparisons show continuous norming scores are more…

Zachary, Robert A.; Gorsuch, Richard L.

1985-01-01

278

Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

2011-01-01

279

Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2014-01-01

280

easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

2014-01-01

281

Social Norms and Governance: The Behavioral Response to Female Leadership  

E-print Network

Social Norms and Governance: The Behavioral Response to Female Leadership Lata Gangadharan , Tarun leaders to mens perception? Second, to what extent is behavior towards leaders influenced by experience suggest that resistance to women leaders is due to violation of social norms. We also find that increased

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

282

What will the neighbors think? Cultural norms and ecological design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural norms for landscape appearance may affect preferences for and adoption of ecological design in exurban residential landscapes, a rapidly growing land use that covers a larger area than all other urban land uses in America combined. We conducted an image-based web survey of 494 southeast Michigan exurban homeowners to investigate the influence of implicit neighborhood norms as well as

Joan Iverson Nassauer; Zhifang Wang; Erik Dayrell

2009-01-01

283

About Norms and Causes Daniel Kayser, Farid Nouioua  

E-print Network

logic can be said to be the norm of human reasoning; the other is more related to the notion of common in Natural Language (NL) understanding. Truth-based vs. Norm-based inferences in Natural Language Traditional with actual data is a difficult task (e.g. the CYC project, Lenat & Guha 1990). The data from which one can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Development of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the construction of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), which was designed to assess women’s conformity to an array of feminine norms found in the dominant culture in the United States. In addition, we present four studies in which the psychometric properties of the CFNI were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis indicated that the CFNI

James R. Mahalik; Elisabeth B. Morray; Aimée Coonerty-Femiano; Larry H. Ludlow; Suzanne M. Slattery; Andrew Smiler

2005-01-01

285

EMOTIONS AND ACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NORM-BREAKING EVENTS  

E-print Network

conflicts in otherwise symmetrical contest situations; (2) sex differences exist in re- sponse to norm received December 16, 2002. Address all correspondence to D. S. Wilson, Departments of Biology/12/03 13:39 Page 277 #12;KEY WORDS: Emotions; Evolutionary psychology; Fictional scenarios; Social norms

Wilson, David. S.

286

Cultural Norms and Risk: Lessons Learned from HIV in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural sensitivity has been identified as an important component of assessment and intervention for HIV risk. Recognizing cultural norms is important for selecting methods for assessment and intervention. The behavioral HIV literature in Thailand is reviewed to illustrate the importance of the localization of cultural norms and practices, the often fragmented or mediated character of broad social dynamics, and subtleties

Richard A. Jenkins; Bryan Kim

2004-01-01

287

Finite data performance of MUSIC and minimum norm methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation problem, we encounter both finite data and insufficient knowledge of array characterization. It is therefore important to study how subspace-based methods perform in such conditions. We analyze the finite data performance of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and minimum norm (min. norm) methods in the presence of sensor gain and phase errors, and

K. R. Srinivas; V. U. Reddy

1994-01-01

288

Nursing students' attitudes toward science in the nursing curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.

Maroo, Jill Deanne

289

COBE ground segment attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was launched in November 1989 by NASA to survey the sky for primordial radiation left from the Big Bang explosion. The success of the mission requires an accurate determination of the spacecraft attitude. While the accuracy of the attitude obtained from the attitude sensors is adequate for two of the experiments, the higher accuracy required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is obtained by using the DIRBE instrument as a special type of star sensor. Presented here is an overview of the attitude processing algorithms used at the Cosmology Data Analysis Center (CDAC) and the results obtained from the flight data.

Kumar, V. K.; Freedman, I.; Wright, E. L.; Patt, F. S.

1991-01-01

290

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

PubMed

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

2005-04-01

291

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation  

E-print Network

Introduction into quaternions for spacecraft attitude representation Dipl. -Ing. Karsten-forward and practical introduction to quaternion operation and calculation for rigid-body attitude representation other attitude representation parameters are summarized. The quaternion computation rules are supported

Berlin,Technische Universität

292

NORMED LINEAR SPACES AND BANACH SPACES DEFINITION A Banach space is a real normed linear space that is a  

E-print Network

. Two normed linear spaces X and Y are isometrically isomorphic if there exists a linear isomorphism T : X Y which is an isometry of X onto Y. In this case, T is called an isometric isomorphism. If X1 in the topology defined by the norm. Q.E.D. EXERCISE 4.1. (a) (Characterization of Banach Spaces) Let X

Baggett, Lawrence W.

293

Predicting Student Attitudes and Grades from Perceptions of Instructors' Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological availability to students defines immediacy, a concept traditionally measured using ratings of instructor behaviors. However, students' perceptions of their professor's attitude toward them may serve as a more parsimonious measure of psychological availability. In fact, ratings of a professor's attitude toward students are positively…

Wilson, Janie H.

2006-01-01

294

The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

2011-01-01

295

School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in Russia: Educational Relevant Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with some aspects of studying Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part of the "third dimension" of the Darmstadt model (they are also projected on the other two dimensions of this model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards, the learning…

Khenner, Evgeniy; Semakin, Igor

2014-01-01

296

On the Propositional Attitudes  

E-print Network

of the particular attitude. Syntactically, any such sentence can be constructed from a singular term, a proposing phrase, and a sentence.2 Where 'R' represents a proposing phrase and a is any term and p is any sentence, we have raRp~} as the apparent form...' to refer to the second sentence, which appears after the 'that' merely to provide the content to what is referred to by the 'that'. The entire construction reports the content of what someone has said, regardless of how they said it or in what language...

Coleman, Keith

297

Osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female collegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Female athletes often engage in harmful dietary and weight control practices that can impair bone health and hinder performance. To promote related positive health behavior practices, nutrition educators may be more effective if they understand the osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female athletes. A questionnaire including items related to osteoporosis and dietary calcium knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral practices was administered to 114 female collegiate athletes (19.6+/-1.4 years). Self-reported intakes of dairy product consumption were also obtained; subjects were asked how many times per week they drank milk and ate cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. The mean score for osteoporosis knowledge was 7.1+/-1.9 (out of 10 items). The mean score for favorable responses to attitude items was 2.1+/-0.8 (out of 3 items). Correct responses to dietary calcium knowledge items were 2.2+/-0.7 (out of 3 items). On average, subjects consumed 2.4+/-1.6 servings of dairy products per day; 31% of subjects consumed the recommended 3 or more servings per day. Osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis attitudes, and dietary calcium knowledge were not correlated (p > .05) with dairy product intake. Because of the importance of achieving a high peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis, our data suggest that further research is needed regarding other factors that might influence dairy product intake among female athletes. PMID:11915782

Turner, L W; Bass, M A

2001-12-01

298

Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate-elementary education majors at a small, rural south-central U.S. university toward gifted students. Gagne's and Nadeau's (Gagne, 1991) opinions about the gifted and their education was used. The respondents held…

Troxclair, Debra A.

2013-01-01

299

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

300

Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earlier version of the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM I) had been found to be a useful measure in attitude development and modification studies of young children. This paper describes the lengthened and otherwise revised version of this procedure -- PRAM II. Standardization data are reported for 252 Caucasian and 140 Negro children,…

Williams, John E.; And Others

301

Mothers' attitudes to preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers' attitudes to their preterm and term children were examined and compared using the Semantic-Differential and an interview related to the experiences of mothers during pregnancy and after birth. It was postulated that mothers would show more concern for their preterm infant than their term infant, but this hypothesis was not supported by the results. The attitudes of mothers were

R. T. Bidder; E. A. Crowe; O. P. Gray

1974-01-01

302

Measurement of Attitude to Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides definitions of "attitudes" and discusses these attitude measures: (1) Thurstone (equal-appearing) scales; (2) Likert scales; (3) (Osgood's) semantic differential scale; (4) inventories and checklists; (5) preference rankings; (6) projective techniques; (7) enrollments; (8) clinical and anthropological observations; and (9) psychological…

Leder, Gilah C.

1985-01-01

303

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

1999-10-26

304

The worldwide NORM production and a fully automated gamma-ray spectrometer for their characterization  

E-print Network

Materials containing radionuclides of natural origin, which is modified by human made processes and being subject to regulation because of their radioactivity are known as NORM. We present a brief review of the main categories of non-nuclear industries together with the levels of activity concentration in feed raw materials, products and waste, including mechanisms of radioisotope enrichments. The global management of NORM shows a high level of complexity, mainly due to different degrees of radioactivity enhancement and the huge amount of worldwide waste production. The future tendency of guidelines concerning environmental protection will require both a systematic monitoring based on the ever-increasing sampling and high performance of gamma ray spectroscopy. On the ground of these requirements a new low background fully automated high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer MCA_Rad has been developed. The design of Pb and Cu shielding allowed to reach a background reduction of two order of magnitude with respect to laboratory radioactivity. A severe lowering of manpower cost is obtained through a fully automation system, which enables up to 24 samples to be measured without any human attendance. Two coupled HPGe detectors increase the detection efficiency, performing accurate measurements on sample volume (180 cc) with a reduction of sample transport cost of material. Details of the instrument calibration method are presented. MCA_Rad system can measure in less than one hour a typical NORM sample enriched in U and Th with some hundreds of Bq/kg, with an overall uncertainty less than 5%. Quality control of this method has been tested. Measurements of certified reference materials RGK-1, RGU-2 and RGTh-1 containing concentrations of K, U and Th comparable to NORM have been performed, resulting an overall relative discrepancy of 5% among central values within the reported uncertainty.

G. Xhixha; GP. Bezzon; C. Broggini; GP. Buso; A. Caciolli; I. Callegari; S. De Bianchi; G. Fiorentini; E. Guastaldi; M. Kaçeli Xhixha; F. Mantovani; G. Massa; R. Menegazzo; L. Mou; A. Pasquini; C. Rossi Alvarez; M. Shyti

2012-04-24

305

Studies in Reaction to Disability. XII: Structure of Attitudes toward the Physically Disabled; Disability Factor Scales--Amputation, Blindness, Cosmetic Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe and to develop instruments to measure attitudes toward amputees, the blind, and those with cosmetic conditions, three groups of subjects responded to one of three large pools of items tapping attitudes toward the three disability conditions. Three new groups of about 500 subjects of diverse demographic characteristics were given one of…

Siller, Jerome; And Others

306

NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice  

PubMed Central

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses’ attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses’ attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But “as much as possible” is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses’ ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

Kymre, Ingjerd G.

2014-01-01

307

NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice.  

PubMed

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses' attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses' attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But "as much as possible" is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. PMID:24559549

Kymre, Ingjerd G

2014-01-01

308

Is The Skeptical Attitude the Attitude of the Skeptic?  

E-print Network

-sense position (of the Moorean type, for instance), the last-with a thorough-going skeptical stance, and the second—with a "scientific" attitude. If that is correct, as we shall attempt to show in the course of this essay, then the conclusion that suggests.... The term 'scientific attitude' is supposed to mean 'the (impersonal, "objective") attitude exhibited in, or presupposed by, or ' G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), trans. A.V. Miller, p. 125. 2 L...

Paprzycka, Katarzyna

309

The effect of family climate on risky driving of young novices: The moderating role of attitude and locus of control.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the relative importance of young novice drivers' family climate on their driving behavior. A sample of young novice drivers (N=171) between the age of 17 and 24, who held their permanent (or temporary) driver's license for no longer than one year, participated. The questionnaire included items related to the participants' family climate, 3 socio-cognitive determinants (i.e., attitude, locus of control and social norm), and risky driving behaviors. We expected both family climate and the socio-cognitive determinants to exert a direct effect on risky driving. Furthermore we hypothesized that the socio-cognitive determinants would moderate the impact of family climate on risky driving. The results showed that the effect of family climate on risky driving only originated from one single factor (i.e., noncommitment). Besides that, the results confirmed the importance of the three socio-cognitive determinants to the degree that attitude, locus of control, and social norm significantly predicted the self-reported risky driving. In line of what we hypothesized, attitude moderated the relationship between noncommitment and risky driving. Lastly, we found an unexpected three-way interaction which indicated that locus of control moderated the relation between noncommitment and risky driving only when young drivers' attitude was risk-supportive. We recommend scholars and practitioners to take into account the interaction between external sources of influence (such as an individual's family climate) and more personally oriented dispositions (such as an individual's attitude, social norm and locus of control) when trying to explain and change young novices' risky driving. PMID:25173998

Carpentier, Aline; Brijs, Kris; Declercq, Katrien; Brijs, Tom; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert

2014-12-01

310

Student Attitudes toward Science Learning: A Cross-National Study of American and Chinese Secondary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates and compares American and Chinese secondary students' science achievement, their attitudes toward science, and other factors influencing science learning. The subjects, in Grades 7-12, include Chinese students (N=495) and American students (N=469). A survey of attitudes towards science developed by the authors was employed…

Ye, Renmin; Wells, Raymond R.; Talkmitt, Susan; Ren, Hanxia

311

The impact of children's affective reactions elicited by commercials on attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the impact of children's affective reactions elicited by TV ads on two essential indicators of advertising effectiveness: the attitude toward the ad (Aad) and post exposure brand attitude (Abp). Working with children as subjects, minimizing forced exposure and using a real program in which real commercials were embedded, were the authors' methodological choices. This offered a setting

Christian Derbaix; Joël Bree

1997-01-01

312

Diagnosing Changes in Attitude in First-Year College Chemistry Students with a Shortened Version of Bauer's Semantic Differential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this quantitative study, a shortened version of the Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI) created by Bauer (2008) was used to identify the chemistry attitudes of two populations of general chemistry students at two universities. The ASCIv2 contained just two factors from the original instrument. These factors measured…

Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Xu, Xiaoying; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

313

The moderating effect of conformism values on the relations between other personal values, social norms, moral obligation, and single altruistic behaviours.  

PubMed

Three studies predicted and found that the individual's conformism values are one determinant of whether behaviour is guided by other personal values or by social norms. In Study 1 (N=50), pro-gay law reform participants were told they were either in a minority or a majority in terms of their attitude towards the law reform. Only participants who were high in conformism values conformed to the group norm on public behaviour intentions. In studies 2 (N=42) and 3 (N=734), participants played multiple choice prisoner's dilemma games with monetary incentives. Only participants who considered conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed the expected connections between universalism values and altruistic behaviour. Study 3 also established that the moderating effect of conformism values on the relation between universalism values and altruistic behaviour was mediated through experienced sense of moral obligation. PMID:19012811

Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Walkowitz, Gari; Wichardt, Philipp; Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

2009-09-01

314

94 5 Metrics on Normed Structures lp-metric  

E-print Network

system by the formula x, y = n i=1 xiyi. In a standard coordinate system #12;5 Metrics on Normed . The last two constructions can be used for any Ptolemaic space (V, ||.||). · Unitary metric The unitary

Fitelson, Branden

315

Commercial Norms, Commercial Codes, and International Commercial Arbitration  

E-print Network

The article defends the incorporation of commercial norms into commercial codes, through provisions such as statute 1-205 of the Uniform Commercial Code. It finds significant reliance on trade usages in international ...

Drahozal, Christopher R.

2000-01-01

316

Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

2009-01-01

317

On the Attitude of Secondary 1 Students towards Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of students' attitude towards science will give a sense of direction when designing pedagogical approaches and lesson packages so that reasons for not liking science is arrested and eventually the nation's need for science oriented workforce is addressed in the future. This study is part of a 3-year research project entitled PbI1@School: A large scale study on the effect of "Physics by Inquiry" pedagogy on Secondary One students' attitude and aptitude in science, involving school, National Institute of Education (NIE) Singapore, University of Washington at Seattle and the Ministry of Education (MOE) of Singapore. The results from a survey conducted on a sample size of 215 secondary 1 students indicate that fun in studying science is a major reason for their interest towards the subject. Those who do not like science dislike the idea of surface learning such as memorizing facts and information. Besides, all these students in our sample appear to be inquisitive. We believe that the teaching and learning system needs to be modified to increase or at least sustain the students' interest in science and capitalize on students' inquisitiveness. Although the results obtained are interesting and give an insight on secondary 1 students' attitude towards science, we intend to carry out a more rigorous study to identify correlations between students' responses for different attitude questions to understand deeply their attitude towards science.

Kuppan, L.; Munirah, S. K.; Foong, S. K.; Yeung, A. S.

2010-07-01

318

Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

2013-08-01

319

Improving facilities, transforming attitudes.  

PubMed

Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-04-01

320

Gender, Internet and computer attitudes and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that participation by females on the Internet is hampered by their attitudes towards computers, which in turn is reflective of their attitudes towards new technology. Research generally supports that females have less overall experience with computers and are more likely than males to have negative attitudes towards computers. Although limited, research on Internet experiences and attitudes

P. Schumacher; J. Morahan-Martin

2001-01-01

321

Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

2006-01-01

322

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

323

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

324

Information systems research with an attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes have been uniquely defined by each discipline that uses them and information systems (IS) research is no exception. While traditional IS research looks at attitudes toward a behavior, consumer research pursues attitudes towards objects. This study applies concepts from marketing to formalize and operationalize Attitude consistent with the marketing perspective as involvement, including both cognitive and emotional evaluations. This

Bonnie C. Glassberg; Varun Grover; James T. C. Teng

2006-01-01

325

Upgrading Technology towards the Status of a High School Matriculation Subject: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 43 Israeli students investigated their attitudes toward technology education as a high school subject. It was attractive as an elective course for its contribution to creative, hands-on, and practical thinking skills. The course changed student attitudes toward technology. (SK)

Verner, Igor M.; Waks, Shlomo; Kolberg, Eli

1997-01-01

326

c-means clustering with the ll and l? norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extension of the hard and fuzzy c-means (HCM\\/FCM) clustering algorithms is described. Specifically, these models are extended to admit the case where the (dis)similarity measure on pairs of numerical vectors includes two members of the Minkowski or p-norm family, viz., the p=1 and p=? norms. In the absence of theoretically necessary conditions to guide a numerical solution of the

Leon Bobrowski; James C. Bezdek

1991-01-01

327

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static attitude estimation and dynamic attitude estimation are used to describe a gradiometer composed of a number of accelerometers that are used to measure a combination of the local gravity gradient and instrument rotation effects. After a series of measures to isolate the gradient, a global mesh of measurements can be obtained that determine the planetary external gravity potential. Orbital and spacecraft models are developed to determine if, when the gravity potential is known, the same measurements, unsupported by any other information can be used to infer the spacecraft attitude.

Sonnabend, David; Born, George H.

1994-01-01

328

Modular design attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

Chichester, F. D.

1982-01-01

329

ANGST: Affective norms for German sentiment terms, derived from the affective norms for English words.  

PubMed

We present the German adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang in Technical Report No. C-1. Gainsville: University of Florida, Center for Research in Psychophysiology). A total of 1,003 Words-German translations of the ANEW material-were rated on a total of six dimensions: The classic ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance (as in the ANEW corpus) were extended with additional arousal ratings using a slightly different scale (see BAWL: Vő et al. in Behavior Research Methods 41: 531-538, 2009; Vő, Jacobs, & Conrad in Behavior Research Methods 38: 606-609, 2006), along with ratings of imageability and potency. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables (different types of word frequency counts, grammatical class, number of letters, number of syllables, and number of orthographic neighbors) for the words were also added, so as to further facilitate the use of this new database in psycholinguistic research. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials with this article. PMID:24415407

Schmidtke, David S; Schröder, Tobias; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

2014-12-01

330

Social Norms Among Peers and Social Norms Among Friends and Their Influences on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk Perceptions  

E-print Network

The influence of peers and peer norms is a significant health determinant of adolescent sexual activity, yet little is known in health education about differences between peer pressure and friend pressure on adolescents. The objective of this study...

Diep, Cassandra Somadevi

2012-02-14

331

Closed-loop caloric, harmonic acceleration and active head rotation tests: norms and reliability.  

PubMed

Norms and test-retest data from 20 persons with normal hearing and balance function were obtained for bithermal caloric (BC) using a closed-loop irrigator, sinusoidal harmonic acceleration (SHA) and active head rotation (AHR) tests. Each subject was tested twice with each test, with at least 24 hours between retest. Results of BC testing indicate that a unilateral weakness of 30% should be present to confidently identify a significant inter-ear difference when using a closed-loop irrigator for stimulus. Test-retest correlations of unilateral weakness were extremely poor, reflecting the potential for considerable variability with this test. With the exception of asymmetry measures at 0.01 and 0.02 Hz, SHA gain, phase, and asymmetry are very similar to previously published norms. Test-retest correlations were generally better than BC correlations, with phase measures having the highest test-retest correlations. AHR norms were obtained in three conditions, with eyes open and starting at a stationary target (AHR-EO), with eyes closed (AHR-EC), and with eyes open and fixated on a target moving synchronously with the head (AHR-FX). AHR-EO mean gain and phase were slightly less than that reported by other researchers, possibly as a result of differences in analysis algorithms, and had the poorest test-retest correlations. AHR-EC gain and phase were much more variable than AHR-EO between subjects, but showed very high test-retest correlations. AHR-FX gain, phase, and asymmetry are similar to those reported previously and have slightly better test-retest correlations than AHR-EO. PMID:8265197

Henry, D F; DiBartolomeo, J D

1993-12-01

332

Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

1974-01-01

333

Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

Marshall, Eliot

1979-01-01

334

Videomicroscopy and Improved Student Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The improvement in student attitudes as the result of the use of videomicroscopy in the science classroom at the elementary, secondary, and college levels is discussed. The results of published research studies are reviewed. (CW)

Fedak, John; And Others

1990-01-01

335

Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…

Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer

2011-01-01

336

Attitudes towards computer science-computing experiences as a starting point and barrier to computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In which way do computing experiences shape attitudes towards computer science? Why do they foster some students' commitment to the subject while they deter others? By using a qualitative research approach we observed that computing experiences have impacts on several dimensions: They affect the self-image with regard to computing, the world-image with regard to conceptions of the subject, and habits

Carsten Schulte; Maria Knobelsdorf

2007-01-01

337

Effects of a Workshop on Mental Health Practitioners' Attitudes toward Homosexuality and Counseling Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared effects of a training workshop on mental health professionals' (N=21) attitudes toward homosexuality and counseling behavior with effects of no intervention on comparison counselor trainee college students (N=31). Found treated subjects improved significantly more than comparison subjects on all measures of homosexual/lesbian counseling…

Rudolph, James

1989-01-01

338

Bureaucratic Ethics: IRBs and the Legal Regulation of Human Subjects Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature on human subject regulation asserts that Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) have failed at the task of regulating human subjects research. These critiques of IRB law can be grouped into three loose categories: critiques of IRB law as law, critiques of IRBs as regulation, and critiques of IRBs as a system of norm creation. Moving beyond critique,

Carol A. Heimer; JuLeigh Petty

2010-01-01

339

Bureaucratic Ethics: IRBs and the Legal Regulation of Human Subjects Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature on human subject regulation asserts that Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) have failed at the task of regulating human subjects research. These critiques of IRB law can be grouped into three loose categories: critiques of IRB law as law, critiques of IRBs as regulation, and critiques of IRBs as a system of norm creation. Moving beyond critique,

Carol A. Heimer; JuLeigh Petty

340

Low cost spacecraft attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing interest in small satellites there is a growing requirement for low cost attitude sensing and control systems. The development of such a low cost attitude sensing system, suitable for spinning spacecraft is described. The attitude sensor system uses fan beam Sun and Earth albedo sensors based on those used successfully on the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) mission. The sensors interface to an electronics module which records the timing of the triggers on the Sun and Earth, which data can then be processed for attitude determination. The system is to be flown on the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) currently under development. STRV-1 is to be launched in early 1993 into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). The sensors and electronics module are designed to withstand the GTO high radiation environment whilst minimizing the power requirements. The electronics module are designed to withstand the GTO high radiation environment whilst minimizing the power requirements. The electronics module employs Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices which are inherently radiation hard. The way in which attitude reconstruction is performed by software running on the onboard computer or by ground based software is described. Further development of attitude sensing and control systems, including a low cost digital Sun sensor suitable for three axis stabilized spacecraft, is described.

Leese, M. R.; Ward, A. K.; Paice, S.; Heyhoe, S.

1991-12-01

341

The effects of controversy, concurrence seeking, and individualistic learning on achievement and attitude change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of cooperative-controversy, cooperative-concurrence seeking, and individualistic learning were compared on motivation, achievement, and attitudes toward the science subject being studied. Eighty-four fifth-grade students were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for sex and reading ability. In all three conditions students studied whether wolves should or should not be a protected species. The results indicate that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn more about wolves, more positive attitudes toward the wolf, and more positive attitudes toward controversy.

Johnson, Roger; Brooker, Charlotte; Stutzman, James; Hultman, Donald; Johnson, David W.

342

Asylum blues: staff attitudes towards psychiatric nursing in Sarawak, East Malaysia.  

PubMed

This paper draws upon findings from an ethnographic study of psychiatric service users in a psychiatric institution in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Findings focus primarily on the accounts of nursing staff in relation to attitudes towards psychiatric work and patients. These indicate that despite a rhetoric of decentralized services, a custodial 'asylum' model continues to influence the care of patients at many levels. Negative professional attitudes towards patients lead to issues of both moral and physical containment. However, an associated attitude of stigma and prejudice towards mental illness impacts upon how attractive a career in psychiatric nursing is perceived to be by respondents, subject to gender differentials. PMID:15005485

Ashencaen Crabtree, S

2003-12-01

343

The attitudes of Texas food producers toward foreign food aid issues and international food trade policies  

E-print Network

THE ATTITUDES OF TEXAS POOD PRODUCERS TOWARD FOREIGN POOD AID ISSUES AND INTERNATIONAL FOOD TRADE POLICIES A Thesis by JAMES LEE PULCIPHER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in par ial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFNCE May, l983 Major Subject: Sociclogy THE ATTITUDES OF TEXAS FOOD PRODUCERS TOWARD FOREIGN FOOD AID ISSUES AND INTERNATIONAL FOOD TRADE POLICIES A Thesis by JAMES LEE PULCIPHER Approved as ro style and content by...

Pulcipher, James Lee

1983-01-01

344

Seroprevalence, risk factors and attitude to HIV1 in a representative sample of lesbians in Turin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate the HIV-1 seroprevalence, behavioural risks and attitude to HIV-1 infection among lesbians. SETTING--Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Italy. SUBJECTS--From March 1992 to May 1993, 181 lesbians were tested for HIV-1 and included in the study. METHODS--Sociodemographic details, nonsexual risks for HIV-1, sexual behaviour, STD history and attitude to HIV-1 were obtained from an anonymous, standardised, self-administered,

R Raiteri; R Fora; P Gioannini; R Russo; A Lucchini; M G Terzi; D Giacobbi; A Sinicco

1994-01-01

345

Texas Latino knowledge and attitudes toward natural resources and the environment  

E-print Network

TEXAS LATINO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by ANGELICA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Agricultural Education TEXAS LATINO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by ANGELICA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office...

Lopez, Angelica

2006-04-12

346

A study of the attitudes of Arkansas school superintendents concerning sex education classes  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF ARKANSAS SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS CONCERNING SEX EDUCATION CLASSES A Thesis by TINA TAYLOR FIELDS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Ma]or Subject: Health and Physical Education A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF ARKANSAS SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS CONCERNING SEX EDUCATION CLASSES A Thesis by TINA TAYLOR FIELDS Approved as to style d content by: (Chairman...

Fields, Tina Taylor

2012-06-07

347

On the same team? a qualitative study of female sportswriters' attitudes on covering women's athletics  

E-print Network

ON THE SAME TEAM? A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF FEMALE SPORTSWRITERS’ ATTITUDES ON COVERING WOMEN’S ATHLETICS A Dissertation by BRYAN CHRISTOPHER BUTLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Kinesiology ON THE SAME TEAM? A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF FEMALE SPORTSWRITERS’ ATTITUDES ON COVERING WOMEN’S ATHLETICS A Dissertation by BRYAN CHRISTOPHER BUTLER Submitted to the Office...

Butler, Bryan Christopher

2008-10-10

348

Visitors' attitudes toward the maintenance, preservation and development of Ichkeul National Park, Tunisia  

E-print Network

VISITORS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MAINTENANCE, PRESERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ICHKEUL NATIONAL PARK, TUNISIA A Thesis by ALANNA LEE NELSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Recreation and Resource Development VISITORS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MAINTENANCE, PRESERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ICHKEUL NATIONAL PARK, TUNISIA A Thesis by ALANNA LEE NELSON...

Nelson, Alanna Lee

1990-01-01

349

Visitors to Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia--their characteristics, attitudes, satisfactions and preferences  

E-print Network

VISITORS TO OKEFENOKEE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE& GEORGIA? THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, ATTITUDES, SATISFACTIONS AND PREFERENCES A Thesis by RONALD LYNN FOWLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development VISITORS TO OKEFENOKEE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, GEORGIA? THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, ATTITUDES, SATISFACTIONS AND PREFERENCES A Thesis...

Fowler, Ronald Lynn

1972-01-01

350

Extending the Implicit Association Test (IAT): Assessing Consumer Attitudes Based on MultiDimensional Implicit Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT; [1]) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe–unsafe; young–old; innovative–conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good–bad).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the

Valentin Gattol; Maria Sääksjärvi; Claus-Christian Carbon; Susanne Hempel

2011-01-01

351

Association of Cancer Prevention-Related Nutrition Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes to Cancer Prevention Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate

LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND

1997-01-01

352

Public perceptions of, and attitudes toward, crime in the parks of a major metropolitan area  

E-print Network

PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF& AND ATTITUDES TOWARD, CRIME IN THE PARKS OF A MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREA A Thesis by KENNETH LEE CONWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF & AND ATTITUDES TOWARD & CRIME IN THE PARKS OF A MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREA A Thesis by KENNETH LEE CONWAY Approved as to style and content by...

Conway, Kenneth Lee

1980-01-01

353

The Effectiveness of Various Attitude Indicator Display Sizes and Extended Horizon Lines On Attitude Maintenance in a Part-Task Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatial disorientation (SD) is a constant contributing factor to the rate of fatal aviation accidents. SD occurs as a result of perceptual errors that can be attributed in part to the inefficient presentation of synthetic orientation cues via the attitude indicator when external visual conditions are poor. Improvements in the design of the attitude indicator may help to eliminate instrumentation as a factor in the onset of SD. The goal of the present study was to explore several display concepts that may contribute to an improved attitude display. Specifically, the effectiveness of various display sizes, some that are used in current and some that are anticipated in future attitude displays that may incorporate Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) concepts, was assessed. In addition, a concept known as an extended horizon line or Malcolm Horizon (MH) was applied and evaluated. Paired with the MH, the novel concept of a fixed reference line representing the central horizontal plane of the aircraft was also tested. Subjects performance on an attitude control task and secondary math workload task was measured across the various display sizes and conditions. The results, with regard to display size, confirmed the bigger is better concept, yielding better performance with the larger display sizes. A clear and significant improvement in attitude task performance was found with the addition of the extended horizon line. The extended or MH seemed to equalize attitude performance across display sizes, even for a central or foveal display as small as three inches in width.

Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Jones, Leslie C.; Pope, Alan T.

2003-01-01

354

Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

2000-02-01

355

Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

Guerin, Bernard

1994-01-01

356

Assessing college students' attitudes toward responsible drinking messages to identify promising binge drinking intervention strategies.  

PubMed

Health communication appeals were utilized through a Web site simulation to evaluate the potential effectiveness of 3 intervention approaches to promote responsible drinking among college students. Within the Web site simulation, participants were exposed to a persuasive message designed to represent either the generalized social norms advertising approach (based on others' behavior), the personalized behavioral feedback approach (tailored to the individual's behavior), or the schema-based approach (tailored to the individual's self-schema, or personality). A control group was exposed to a message that was designed to be neutral (it was designed to discourage heavy drinking, but it did not represent any of the previously mentioned approaches). It was hypothesized that the more personalized the message was to the individual, the more favorable college students' attitudes would be toward the responsible drinking message. Participants receiving the more personalized messages did report more favorable attitudes toward the responsible drinking message. PMID:17967148

Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A

2007-01-01

357

Research and Teaching: Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Science and Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interest in science and technology is essential to good citizenship. By adapting items from other scales and writing new items, the authors developed the Attitudes Toward Science and Technology scale, containing 30 items. The norm group consisted of incoming freshman (N = 535) at a large four-year institution; a pilot study was conducted the previous year. Validity and reliability of the scale were examined using semantic analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analyses. The overall reliability was high (0.806), and five factors emerged: (1) interest in gaining science and technology knowledge, (2) concern that science and technology are dangerous to humankind, (3) science and technology are beneficial to humankind, (4) appropriateness of science and technology for females, and (5) males and females have equal opportunity in science and technology. This scale may be used for the 17-21 age group to determine their attitudes toward science and technology.

Gokhale, Anu; Machina, Kenton; Brauchle, Paul

2009-05-01

358

Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

2006-09-01

359

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

360

Fast and accurate matrix completion via truncated nuclear norm regularization.  

PubMed

Recovering a large matrix from a small subset of its entries is a challenging problem arising in many real applications, such as image inpainting and recommender systems. Many existing approaches formulate this problem as a general low-rank matrix approximation problem. Since the rank operator is nonconvex and discontinuous, most of the recent theoretical studies use the nuclear norm as a convex relaxation. One major limitation of the existing approaches based on nuclear norm minimization is that all the singular values are simultaneously minimized, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practice. In this paper, we propose to achieve a better approximation to the rank of matrix by truncated nuclear norm, which is given by the nuclear norm subtracted by the sum of the largest few singular values. In addition, we develop a novel matrix completion algorithm by minimizing the Truncated Nuclear Norm. We further develop three efficient iterative procedures, TNNR-ADMM, TNNR-APGL, and TNNR-ADMMAP, to solve the optimization problem. TNNR-ADMM utilizes the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), while TNNR-AGPL applies the accelerated proximal gradient line search method (APGL) for the final optimization. For TNNR-ADMMAP, we make use of an adaptive penalty according to a novel update rule for ADMM to achieve a faster convergence rate. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithms in comparison to the state-of-the-art matrix completion algorithms on both synthetic and real visual datasets. PMID:23868774

Hu, Yao; Zhang, Debing; Ye, Jieping; Li, Xuelong; He, Xiaofei

2013-09-01

361

Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry  

PubMed Central

Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

2012-01-01

362

Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

2012-03-01

363

Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words.  

PubMed

Frequency of occurrence is an important attribute of lexical units, and one that is widely used in psychological research and theorization. Although printed frequency norms have long been available for Spanish, and subtitle-based norms have more recently been published, oral frequency norms have not been systematically compiled for a representative set of words. In this study, a corpus of over three million units, representing present-day use of the language in Spain, was used to derive a frequency count of spoken words. The corpus consisted of 913 separate documents that contained transcriptions of oral recordings obtained in a wide variety of situations, mostly radio and television programs. The resulting database, containing absolute and relative frequency values for 67,979 orally produced words, is presented. Validity analyses showed significant correlations of oral frequency with other frequency measures and suggest that oral frequency can predict some types of lexical processing with the same or higher levels of precision, when contrasted with text- or subtitle-based frequencies. In conclusion, we discuss ways in which these oral frequency norms can be put to use. The norms can be downloaded from www.springerlink.com. PMID:21416306

Alonso, María Angeles; Fernandez, Angel; Díez, Emiliano

2011-06-01

364

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

2004-01-01

365

Community Norms, Enforcement Of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws, Personal Beliefs And Underage Drinking: An Explanatory Model  

PubMed Central

Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents’ perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents’ alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents’ personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults’ attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves. PMID:20135210

Grube, Joel W.; Paschall, Mallie J.

2009-01-01

366

Conventional And Robust Quantitative Gait Norms In Community Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives While gait is widely used to assess health status in older adults, normative data is lacking. Our objective was to develop and compare norms for widely used gait parameters in adults age 70 and older using cross-sectional (conventional) and longitudinal (robust) approaches accounting for important confounders such as disease effects on gait. Design Cohort study Setting General community Participants Community-dwelling older adults (age>70, N=824) without dementia or disability Measurements Eight quantitative gait parameters measured using an instrumented walkway. Results Of the 824 subjects (conventional normal; CN sample), 304 were included in a ‘robust normal’ (RN) sample after excluding those with either prevalent or incident clinical gait abnormalities developing within one year of the baseline assessment to account for disease effects on gait performance. Descriptively, the RN sample showed better performance on all selected gait variables compared to the CN sample. For instance, mean gait velocity (± standard deviation) was 105.9±17.9 cm/sec in the RN sample compared to 93.3±23.2 cm/sec in the overall CN sample. Applying a one standard deviation below the mean (70.1 cm/sec) derived from CN sample to define slow gait, 15.9% (131) in overall cohort were classified as abnormal whereas the RN cut-off (88.0 cm/sec) classified 39.7% (327) in the overall cohort as abnormal. Conclusion Our findings suggest that cross-sectional conventional norms may under-estimate gait performance in aging. Longitudinal robust norms provide more accurate estimates of normal gait performance and thus may improve early detection of gait disorders in older adults. PMID:20646103

Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Holtzer, Roee; Xue, Xiaonan; Verghese, Joe

2010-01-01

367

Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine Japanese cephalometric norms in the antero-posterior and vertical dimension, and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Japanese and Caucasian norms. Radiographs were obtained from 25 healthy Japanese males (aged 25.1 +/- 2.7 years) and 24 healthy Japanese females (aged 23.6 +/- 1.3 years). Inclusion criteria were an ANB angle between 2 and 5 degrees, a normal occlusion with minor or no crowding, all teeth present except third molars, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Two angular and five linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal hard tissue analysis, one angular and six linear measurements for the dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for the soft tissue analysis. The mean and standard deviations for the hard and soft tissue measurements were determined for each gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine the mean differences for each cephalometric measurement between the Japanese and the Caucasians. In the antero-posterior dimension, the Japanese subjects had a significantly more retruded chin position (P < 0.001), typically protruding mandibular incisors, and protruded lip positions compared with the Caucasian norms. In the vertical dimension, the Japanese had a significantly steeper mandibular plane (P < 0.01). The Japanese females had a significantly larger lower face height and increased dental height (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that these cephalometric measurements might be helpful to formulate treatment plans for Japanese patients. PMID:17974539

Ioi, Hideki; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko; Counts, Amy L

2007-10-01

368

Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems  

E-print Network

This paper communicates recent results in theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schr\\"odinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schr\\"odinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schr\\"odinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances.

Emil Prodan; Stephan R. Garcia; Mihai Putinar

2005-10-24

369

Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms  

SciTech Connect

Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

White, G.B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

370

An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students  

PubMed Central

Aims This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Methods Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n?=?3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. Results A response rate of 15% (n?=?554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Conclusions Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384 PMID:23594918

2013-01-01

371

Fostering a positive attitude towards science through college courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For non-science majors, a general education course in college is often the last science course they will ever take. General education courses are often regarded by students as a right of passage in which they have no interest. Thus strict coursework might aggravate students against the matter taught, and decrease their general interest in the subject. To test whether general education courses killed the students' interest in science, we administered a science attitude inventory at the beginning and at the end of an introductory astronomy course. We compared the gain/loss in science attitude with that experienced by students of a writing course as a baseline. Finally, we evaluated the gain/loss in science attitude for students enrolled in a general education course on science and society, where no formal science knowledge was taught, but where the students discussed the different aspects of the relation between science and society.This study (once tested on a larger scale) could serve as a guideline for educational policies aiming to foster a positive attitude in the population of college graduates.

Flohic, Helene

2015-01-01

372

Flight Test of Attitude Determination System using Multiple GPS Antennae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or inexpensive airplanes, such as a Cessna single engine aircraft, require a navigation system with a cheap, compact and precise sensor. Over the past ten years, GPS receivers have begun to be used as primary or alternative navigation sensors, because their use can significantly reduce the overall system cost. This paper describes a navigation system incorporating a velocity-based attitude estimation system with an attitude determination system using multiple antennae, which was implemented and tested using a UAV. The main objective was to obtain precise attitude information using low cost GPS OEM boards and antennae. Attitude boundaries are derived from the relationship between the body frame and the wind coordinates, which are used to validate the resolved cycle ambiguity in an Euler angle domain. Angular rate based on Doppler measurements was used to exclude the degenerate pseudo-roll angle information during severe uncoordinated flight. Searching for cycle ambiguity at every epoch of the flight showed that the developed system gave reliable cycle integer solutions, although the carrier phase measurement was subject to additional errors, such as multipath, external interference, and phase centre variation. A flight test was performed using a 1/4-scale Piper J3 Cub model, CMC Allstar OEM boards, OEM AT575-70 antennae, and 700 MHz PC104 board.

Jang, Jaegyu; Kee, Changdon

2006-01-01

373

Attitude Determination Improvements for GOES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a summary of the basic simulation parameters and results of a new study for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is shown. The study for GOES involves the simulation of minor modifications to the current spacecraft, so that the relative performance of these modifications can be analyzed. The first modification studies requires the placement of a baseline inertial reference unit, such as the Dry Rotor Inertial Reference Unit or the Hemispherical Resonator Gyro onto the spacecraft. The imager/sounder assembly is currently used to obtain landmark and/or star observations in order to compensate for spacecraft motion and external disturbances through ground processing. The study uses the imager/sounder assembly as another attitude sensor for on-board attitude determination. Also the addition of star trackers is used to provide precise attitude knowledge.

Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Kyle, Arthur M.; Kull, Kathie

1996-01-01

374

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

2013-04-01

375

Understanding Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Food: The Role of Values and Attitude Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsř responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when

Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken

2004-01-01

376

Attitudes in social context: A social identity perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on attitudes and attitude phenomena occupies a central place in social psychology, but tends to focus mainly on cognitive, intra-individual, and interpersonal dimensions. The normative, group membership, and identity dimensions of attitudes tend to attract less attention. This article approaches attitudes from the perspective of research on group processes, intergroup relations, and social identity, and conceptualises attitudes and attitude

Michael A. Hogg; Joanne R. Smith

2007-01-01

377

Attitude sensing of APPLE spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of attitude sensors have been used in the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite's control system. Sensor tasks encompass satellite attitude determination after separation from launch vehicle, spin axis orientation for apogee boost motor firing and satellite spin-up, satellite despin and sunward pointing on reaching geosynchronous orbit, three-axis stabilization, and yaw axis control during stationkeeping. Attention is given to problems encountered during APPLE deployment, of which the most serious was the failure of one of the solar panels to deploy. Pitch rotation was used to keep earth sensor temperature below operating maximum range.

Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.; Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Kanakaraju, K.; Kamalakar, J. A.

1983-11-01

378

Attitude measurement by artificial vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitude measurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuring attitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical algorithm allowing these measurements to be performed in real time is described. An implementation in a CMOS retina circuit is also presented. These points are illustrated by experiments confirming the feasibility of the device.

Truchetet, F.; Aubreton, O.; Gorria, P.; Laligant, O.

2006-01-01

379

Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

2006-01-01

380

What Predicts Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Gifted?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores teachers' attitudes toward the gifted and gifted education. Specifically, the authors examine whether teachers tailor their responses about attitudes toward the gifted to fit the perceived interests of the researcher. In addition, the authors examine several potential predictors of attitudes toward the gifted: training…

McCoach, D. Betsy; Siegle, Del

2007-01-01

381

CONTINGENCY DESIGNS FOR ATTITUDE DETERMINATION OF TRMM  

E-print Network

, a contingency mode is used to allow for the continuation of the scientific mission. Attitude determination1 CONTINGENCY DESIGNS FOR ATTITUDE DETERMINATION OF TRMM John L. Crassidis, Stephen F. Andrews, F Corporation Greenbelt, MD 20770 Abstract In this paper, several attitude estimation designs are developed

Crassidis, John L.

382

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

383

Disordered eating attitudes among elementary school population.  

PubMed

Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors among elementary school children were evaluated using the Children's Eating Attitude Test. Our findings demonstrate that students in early adolescence have disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. We recommend screening for eating disorders in this group in order to provide primary and secondary prevention. PMID:16635782

Knez, Rajna; Munjas, Radenka; Petrovecki, Mladen; Pauci?-Kirinci?, Ela; Persi?, Mladen

2006-05-01

384

Attitudes toward wolves in southeastern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some Norwegian regions conflicts between sheep farmers and wildlife managers have increased considerably in frequency and intensity. In order to gain more insight into the inhabitants’ attitudes toward one carnivore species, opinions about the preferred size of the wolf population, attitudes and knowledge about wolves, and experience with animal?related activities were surveyed in southeastern Norway. The attitude typology identified

Tore Bjerke; Ole Reitan; Stephen R. Kellert

1998-01-01

385

Attitude of Student Teachers towards Teaching Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect…

Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.

2014-01-01

386

Intergroup Attitudes in Multi-Ethnic Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines racial attitudes of students in multi-ethnic schools by means of a tridimensional intergroup attitude scale. The purpose of the study was to measure attitudes with a scale which does not contain a built-in ethnic bias. (DB)

D'Souza, Mathew B.

1978-01-01

387

College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

2009-01-01

388

Young Children's Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games include felt board construction, a board game, and an

Gary W. Evans; Gernot Brauchle; Aliya Haq; Rachel Stecker; Kimberly Wong; Elan Shapiro

2007-01-01

389

Young Children's Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games…

Evans, Gary W.; Brauchle, Gernot; Haq, Aliya; Stecker, Rachel; Wong, Kimberly; Shapiro, Elan

2007-01-01

390

Police Recruits‘ Attitudes toward the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of police toward capital punishment help to shape public opinion regarding the death penalty. Prior research has not consistently identified the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of officers regarding capital punishment. This article examines that relationship, as well as the role of background factors and other attitudes.Survey questionnaires were given in 1995 to Boston area

Sylvia I. Mignon; William M. Holmes

1999-01-01

391

Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from academia. This study identified a range of factors influencing the decision-making process for disease control by pig farmers. In addition, it highlighted the lack of awareness and difficult access of producers to current scientific research outputs. The factors identified should be considered when developing communication strategies to disseminate research findings and advice for disease control. PMID:24016600

Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris

2014-10-01

392

Attitudes and exercise adherence: test of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

Three studies of exercise adherence and attitudes are reported that tested the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In a prospective study of adherence to a private fitness club, structural equation modelling path analysis showed that attitudinal and social normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action accounted for 13.1% of the variance in adherence 4 months later, although only social norm significantly predicted intention. In a second study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to predict both physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Path analyses showed that attitude and perceived control, but not social norm, predicted total physical activity. Physical activity was predicted from intentions and control over sedentary behaviour. Finally, an intervention study with previously sedentary adults showed that intentions to be active measured at the start and end of a 10-week intervention were associated with the planned behaviour variables. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant multivariate effects for time on the planned behaviour variables measured before and after intervention. Qualitative data provided evidence that participants had a positive experience on the intervention programme and supported the role of social normative factors in the adherence process. PMID:10373037

Smith, R A; Biddle, S J

1999-04-01

393

Appropriately Upset? Emotion Norms and Perceptions of Crime Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victims who express less emotion in response to a crime are perceived as less deserving, less sympathetic, and they have less punishment assigned to the offender who committed the crime. This study considers the extent to which emotion norms underlie perceptions of victims who testify. Two studies investigate the circumstances in which emotional reactions to a crime are seen as

Mary R. Rose; Janice Nadler; Jim Clark

2006-01-01

394

COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCES ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC  

E-print Network

COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCES ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS +· · ·+xn-1n-1 ) = 1 in x0, . . . , xn-1 Z, such that x0, . . . , xn-1 is an arithmetic progression, where form equations with solutions whose coordinates form an arithmetic progression. There we proved

Pethõ, Attila

395

ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS  

E-print Network

ON NORM FORM EQUATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS FORMING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS ATTILA B´ERCZES AND ATTILA such that the coordinates form an arithmetic progression. In this note we generalize (1.1) in three directions: first, we.1) is not restricted to 1, and finally it is allowed that the solutions form only nearly an arithmetic progression. 2

Pethõ, Attila

396

Vertical Jump and Leg Power Norms for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical students and their spouses (N = 724) served as participants to create norm-referenced vertical jump values for active, healthy people ages 21-30. All tests were conducted and measured by the same individual during a campus fitness evaluation using a Vertec[TM] apparatus. Jump height was measured to the nearest 0.5 in. Mean jump height was…

Patterson, David D.; Peterson, D. Fred

2004-01-01

397

Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for “green” electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person.

Kristina Ek; Patrik Söderholm

2008-01-01

398

Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

2012-01-01

399

IZA DP No. 2705 Total Work, Gender and Social Norms  

E-print Network

believe that women perform more total work. The facts do not arise from gender differences in the price differences in marital bargaining, as gender equality is not associated with marital status; nor do they stem from family norms, since most of the variance in the gender total work difference is due to within

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TOTAL WORK, GENDER AND SOCIAL NORMS  

E-print Network

of it and instead believe that women perform more total work. The facts do not arise from gender differences differences in marital bargaining, as gender equality is not associated with marital status; nor do they stem from family norms, since most of the variance in the gender total work difference is due to within

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

The Frank t-norm family in fuzzy similarity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of fuzzification schemes is pro- posed that can be used to transform cardinality-based similarity measures for ordinary sets into similarity measures for fuzzy sets in a finite universe. These schemes are based on the Frank t-norm family and preserve transitivity in the fuzzification process.

Bernard De Baets; Hans De Meyer

2001-01-01

402

New Algorithms for Blind Equalization: The Constant Norm Algorithm Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new, efficient class of blind equalization algorithms is proposed for use in high-order, two-dimensional digital communication systems. We have called this family: the Constant Norm Algorithms (CNA). This family is derived in the context of Bussgang techniques. Therefore, the resulting algorithms are very simple. We show that some well-known blind algorithms such as \\

Alban Goupil; Jacques Palicot

2007-01-01

403

An algorithm for finding extremal polytope norms of matrix families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the problem of the computation of the joint spectral radius of a finite set of matrices is considered. We present an algorithm which, under some suitable assumptions, is able to check if a certain product in the multiplicative semigroup is spectrum maximizing. The algorithm proceeds by attempting to construct a suitable extremal norm for the family, namely

Nicola Guglielmi; Marino Zennaro

2008-01-01

404

Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

2010-01-01

405

Trustworthiness is a Social Norm, but Trusting is Not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature has demonstrated the important role that trust plays in developing and maintaining well-functioning societies. However, if we are to learn how to increase levels of trust in society, we must first understand why people choose to trust others. One potential answer to this is that people view trust as normative: there is a social norm for trusting that

Cristina Bicchieri; Erte Xiao; Ryan Muldoon

2011-01-01

406

Norm-of-Reaction: Definition and misinterpretation of animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a phenotype is due to an interaction of the genotype with the environment. Two terms have been used to describe the outcome of this interaction, the norm-of-reaction and the reaction range. The first represents the theoretically limitless distribution of the phenotypes that may be expressed by a given genotype. The reaction range implies an upper and lower

Steve A. Platt; Charles A. Sanislow

1988-01-01

407

MIXED NORM ESTIMATES FOR A RESTRICTED X-RAY TRANSFORM  

E-print Network

MIXED NORM ESTIMATES FOR A RESTRICTED X-RAY TRANSFORM MICHAEL CHRIST AND M. BURAK ERDOGAN In memory for Basic Research in Science. 1 #12;2 MICHAEL CHRIST AND M. BURAK ERDOGAN together with all points (p-1 , q = 3, and by Erdogan [3] for d = 4, 5. The latter analysis suggested that the treatment of higher

Erdogan, Mehmet

408

Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Analysis indicated that in general, school-level disapproval lowered the probability of students' use of these substances. A school environment of disapproval was also found to create a protective environment for…

Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

2002-01-01

409

Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

2012-01-01

410

NORM situation in non-uranium mining in China.  

PubMed

The Ministry of Environmental Protection in China is responsible for regulatory control on radiation protection from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The natural radiation caused by human activities is a major contributor to public and occupational exposure in China. This paper introduces the first national census on pollution sources (target year 2007) in China, and describes NORM sites in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, one of the largest rare earth deposits in China. The ores are rich in radioactive elements, with a concentration of ThO(2) of 0.01-0.05% and concentration of U(3)O(8) of 0.0005-0.002%. The large amount of NORM residues is regulated and controlled. After treatment of the waste water, it is discharged into tailing ponds and then pumped directly to milling plants for re-use. The waste gas after off-dust cleaning is discharged into the environment. A substantial amount of blast furnace iron slag from the waste treatment is transformed into cement, concrete, and bricks, or used directly for highway construction. This raises a serious environmental concern. As a result, environmental radiation monitoring and assessment have been introduced recently. Regulatory control of NORM is very important in order to take effective measures to lower the dose. PMID:23089034

Liu, H; Pan, Z

2012-01-01

411

Sanitation norms in rural areas: a cross-cultural comparison.  

PubMed

Mortality rates have sharply decreased throughout the world in the twentieth century. While the communicable diseases that had been the principal killers of mankind have been largely brought under control, the enteric and other diseases, which are directly related to sanitation practices, have not been affected. Improvement in health status in the developing nations, especially in isolated rural areas, will hinge on changes in sanitation norms. Modification of these norms must be based on an awareness of what they are and of the values that are associated with them. Sanitation norms in rural areas of three countries--in the southeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic--are reviewed on the basis of a study in which essentially the same survey instrument was used in the three samples. Sanitation norms relating to the source of water and storage for household use are compared, as are personal hygiene practices and patterns for the disposal of liquid wastes, garbage, and other solid wastes. Selected attitudinal values are also examined. PMID:667407

Belcher, J C

1978-01-01

412

State Norms for the North Carolina Testing Program. 1998 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a reference for educators and others interested in conducting comparative studies relative to North Carolina tests. It includes norms, tables, and other statistical information for all state-developed tests (state-mandated and local-option tests for which baseline data are available) that were administered during the…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability/Testing.

413

Police perceptions and the norming of institutional corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the phenomenon of corruption in major urban police departments in the United States and explores the tendency in most to tolerate corruption at damaging levels. It presents a model of the “normed corruption” dynamic and posits that corruption much like other organizational problems such as police shootings, auto chases, abuse of sick time, etc., can be controlled

Robert J. McCormack

1996-01-01

414

Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

Lundin, Mattias

2011-01-01

415

Turkish Children's Human Figure Drawings: Can We Borrow Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data on norms for the Human Drawings test for children ages 5-11, in Turkey. Four hundred and thirty children from two different schools, in two different socio-economic levels, were given the Human Figure Drawings. One was a private school in an affluent part of the city, and the other one…

Ozer, Serap

2009-01-01

416

Evolution of discrete phenotypes from continuous norms of reaction.  

PubMed

Discrete phenotypic variation often involves threshold expression of a trait with polygenic inheritance. How such discrete polyphenisms evolve starting from continuously varying phenotypes has received little theoretical attention. We model the evolution of sigmoid norms of reaction in response to variation in an underlying trait or in a continuous environment to identify conditions for the evolution of discontinuity. For traits with expression depending on a randomly varying underlying factor, such as developmental noise, polyphenism is unstable under constant phenotypic selection for two selective peaks, and reaction norm evolution results in a phenotypic distribution concentrated at only one peak. But with frequency-dependent selection between two adaptive peaks, a steep threshold maintaining polyphenism can evolve. For inducible plastic traits with expression conditioned on an environmental variable that also affects phenotypic selection, the steepness of the evolved reaction norm depends both on the differentiation of the environment in time or space and on its predictability between development and selection. Together with recent measurements of genetic variance of threshold steepness, these predictions suggest that quasi-discrete phenotypic variation may often evolve from continuous norms of reactions rather than being an intrinsic property of development. PMID:23778223

Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lande, Russell

2013-07-01

417

Evolving norms at the intersection of health and trade.  

PubMed

There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policy making as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them?--?particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO)?--?have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance?--?the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade?--?we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly twenty-five years. Our analytic framework focuses on the actors that advance, defend, and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively into their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

2014-06-01

418

Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

2010-01-01

419

State Norms for the North Carolina Testing Program. 1999 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a reference for those interested in conducting comparative studies about North Carolina tests. It includes norms tables and other basic statistical information for all state-developed tests (state-mandated and local option tests where baseline data are available) that were administered during the current accountability…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability/Testing.

420

Extending the Implicit Association Test (IAT): Assessing Consumer Attitudes Based on Multi-Dimensional Implicit Associations  

PubMed Central

Background The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT; [1]) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe–unsafe; young–old; innovative–conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good–bad). Methodology/Principal Findings In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Conclusions/Significance This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher [2], [3]. PMID:21246037

Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian

2011-01-01

421

And the truth shall make you free : the international norm of truth-seeking  

E-print Network

The theoretical question this dissertation addresses is how do international norms emerge and spread. The theory I propose focuses on changes in the ideational content of norms and on the international agents who facilitate ...

Ben-Josef Hirsch, Michal

2009-01-01

422

Bounds on the growth of high Sobolev norms of solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger equations  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study the growth of Sobolev norms of global solutions of solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger type equations which we can't bound from above by energy conservation. The growth of such norms gives a ...

Sohinger, Vedran

2011-01-01

423

General population norms about child abuse and neglect and associations with childhood experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences.

Lillian Bensley; Deborah Ruggles; Katrina Wynkoop Simmons; Cynthia Harris; Kathy Williams; Tammy Putvin; Melissa Allen

2004-01-01

424

Dramatic events and attitude change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quasi-experimental field studies tested the potentiality of dramatic events to change the racial attitudes of White Texas adults. Exp I investigated the effects of the 1957 desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas, using data from interviews conducted with 686 and 682 White Texans in August and December 1957, respectively. Some overall change toward greater compliance with desegregation occurred, but

Robert T. Riley; Thomas F. Pettigrew

1976-01-01

425

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

426

Precision tethered satellite attitude control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tethered spacecraft possess unique dynamic characteristics which make them advantageous for certain classes of experiments. One use for which tethers are particularly well suited is to provide an isolated platform for spaceborne observatories. The advantages of tethering a pointing platform 1 or 2 km from a space shuttle or space station are that, compared to placing the observatory on the parent spacecraft, vibrational disturbances are attenuated and contamination is eliminated. In practice, all satellites have some requirement on the attitude control of the spacecraft, and tethered satellites are no exception. It has previously been shown that conventional means of performing attitude control for tethered satellites are insufficient for any mission with pointing requirements more stringent than about 1 deg. This is due mainly to the relatively large force applied by the tether to the spacecraft. A particularly effective method of implementing attitude control for tethered satellites is to use this tether tension force to generate control torques by moving the tether attach point relative to the subsatellite center of mass. A demonstration of this attitude control technique on an astrophysical pointing platform has been proposed for a space shuttle flight test project and is referred to as the Kinetic Isolation Tether Experiment (KITE).

Kline-Schoder, Robert J.

1990-03-01

427

Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

2011-01-01

428

Changing Attitudes Through Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the philosophy and methods used by the staff at the Granite Alternative School in changing student attitudes through behavior modification. The students involved all have a failure syndrome or low self-image, and are dropouts from traditional high schools. Among the techniques used are: (1) reinforcing good behavior (praise…

Whipple, W. Scott

429

Entrepreneurship Education: Attitudes across Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated student and faculty attitudes toward entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education. The authors collected data from 317 students and 87 faculty members at a comprehensive 4-year university to examine students' level of interest in entrepreneurial education, perceptions of motivations and barriers to startup businesses,…

Shinnar, Rachel; Pruett, Mark; Toney, Bryan

2009-01-01

430

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes  

E-print Network

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney to answer these questions and, by doing so, to get to the heart of democratic political culture. They argued power of the ordinary citizen. The Civic Culture represented the best early fruit of a new re- search

Landweber, Laura

431

Attitude Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

1986-01-01

432

Adolescent Attitudes towards Virtual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine adolescents' attitudes towards virtual schooling. Virtual schooling may be defined as any public or private organization that delivers instruction via the Internet. The rationale for this study is based on the increased number of adolescents opting to complete some or all of their secondary education through…

Pleau, Andrea R.

2012-01-01

433

Finding the largest low-rank clusters with Ky Fan 2-k-norm and l1-norm  

E-print Network

We analyze low-rank and sparsity structures of the optimal ... ?Supported in part by the U. S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, a Discovery ... a expression pattern for the given gene-experimental condition bicluster. .... other hand, the square Ky Fan 2-k-norm is considered as a penalty in low-rank regression analysis in.

2014-03-21

434

Adaptive mass expulsion attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system and method operative with a thruster controls the attitude of a vehicle carrying the thruster, wherein the thruster has a valve enabling the formation of pulses of expelled gas from a source of compressed gas. Data of the attitude of the vehicle is gathered, wherein the vehicle is located within a force field tending to orient the vehicle in a first attitude different from a desired attitude. The attitude data is evaluated to determine a pattern of values of attitude of the vehicle in response to the gas pulses of the thruster and in response to the force field. The system and the method maintain the attitude within a predetermined band of values of attitude which includes the desired attitude. Computation circuitry establishes an optimal duration of each of the gas pulses based on the pattern of values of attitude, the optimal duration providing for a minimal number of opening and closure operations of the valve. The thruster is operated to provide gas pulses having the optimal duration.

Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Carrou, Stephane (Inventor)

2001-01-01

435

Noise screen for attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

436

l1-optimal control of multivariable systems with output norm constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the l1-optimal control problem for general rational plants. It is shown that, for plants with no poles or zeros on the unit circle, an optimal compensator exists and that the resulting closed loop transfer function is polynomial whenever there are at least as many controls as regulated outputs and at least as many measurements as exogeneous inputs. Exactly or approximately, optimal rational compensators can be obtained by solving a sequence of finite linear programs for the coefficients of a polynomial closed-loop transfer function. No assumptions on plant poles or zeros are required to obtain at least approximately optimal compensators. It is shown that constrained problems in which a set of outputs is regulated subject to l(infinity)-norm constraints on another set of outputs can be solved using a slight modification of the same algorithm.

Mcdonald, J. S.; Pearson, J. B.

1991-01-01

437

Norms about Nonmarital Pregnancy and Willingness to Provide Resources to Unwed Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contested social norms underlie public concern about adults' and teenagers' nonmarital pregnancy. The original, vignette-based National Pregnancy Norms Survey (N = 812) measures these norms and related sanctions. Descriptive analyses report embarrassment at the prospect of a nonmarital pregnancy by age and gender of hypothetical prospective…

Mollborn, Stefanie

2009-01-01

438

When Social Norms Overpower Competition: Gift Exchange in Experimental Labor Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do competitive markets remove the effect of social norms on market outcomes or are norms capable of exerting a persistent influence? In this article, the authors report the results of a series of competitive market and bilateral bargaining experiments. They indicate that the norm of reciprocity gives rise to wages that are persistently above the competitive level. Moreover, wages under

Erich Kirchler; Andreas Weichbold; Simon Gächter

1998-01-01

439

Professional Norms in School Leadership: Change Efforts in Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies and analyses professional norms as a means of illuminating school cultures and how norms are distributed in the system. Of special interest is the role of school leaders and how they lead, organize and realise school development. The study research question is: What professional norms do school leaders highlight in change…

Leo, Ulf; Wickenberg, Per

2013-01-01

440

Regulation, cross-border trade and practical norms in West Nile, north-western Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article describes how cross-border trade in West Nile, north-western Uganda to a large extent takes place outside of the legal framework. This does not mean that this trade is unregulated. We make use of the concept of 'practical norms' to show the existence of regulation within this trade, which diverges both from official norms and social norms ('moral economy').

Tom de Herdt; Kristof Titeca

2010-01-01

441

Proximal Norms, Selected Sociodemographics, and Drinking Behavior among University Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined social norm theory with subpopulations of college students. In this study, the authors examined the relationships between social norms and student-athlete drinking. Results suggest drinking is a function of proximal norms, particularly related to teammates. Implications for counselor interventions are discussed. (Contains…

Lewis, Todd F.; Paladino, Derrick A.

2008-01-01

442

The Uses of Local Norms: A Question & Answer Overview. Research Brief. Volume 0406  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to promote local norms as a new way of reporting Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) results for Miami-Dade County district. The norms would: (1) show a student's relative standing in the district, and (2) show the student's growth compared to similar students. This paper presents questions about local norms,…

Froman, Terry

2005-01-01

443

Social and Socio-Mathematical Norms in Collaborative Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notions of social and socio-mathematical norms we investigate how these are established during the interactions of pre-service teachers who solve mathematical problems. Norms identified in relevant studies are found in our case too; moreover, we have found norms related to particular aspects of the problems posed. Our results show…

Tatsis, Konstantinos; Koleza, Eugenia

2008-01-01

444

Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

445

Do Descriptive Norms Solve Social Dilemmas? Conformity and Contributions in Collective Action Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective action researchers have focused on injunctive norms that specify approved behavior as a panacea for collective action problems. We investigate whether descriptive norms (similar behavior) can also solve these problems. We argue that descriptive norms generate social identification, which then sustains conformity to expectations.…

Irwin, Kyle; Simpson, Brent

2013-01-01

446

Post-User-Selection Quantization and Estimation of Correlated Frobenius and Spectral Channel Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers quantization and exact min- imum mean square error (MMSE) estimation of the squared Frobenius norm and the squared spectral norm of a Rayleigh fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel with one- sided spatial correlation. The Frobenius and spectral norms are of great importance when describing the achievable capacity of many wireless communication systems; in particularly, they ...

Emil Björnson; Björn E. Ottersten

2008-01-01

447

Averages of norms and behavior of families of projective caps on the sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute the number of summands in q-averages of norms needed to approximate a Euclidean ball. Surprisingly, for a large range of values of q, these numbers depend essentially only on the maximal ratio of the norm and the Euclidean norm. Some properties of a family of projective caps on the sphere are central in this study.

G. Schechtman; Milman G. Schechtman

1997-01-01

448

DIFFERENTIAL INEQUALITY CONDITIONS FOR DOMINANCE BETWEEN CONTINUOUS ARCHIMEDEAN T-NORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominance between triangular norms (t-norms) is a versatile relationship. For con- tinuous Archimedean t-norms, dominance can be verified by checking one of many sufficient conditions derived from a generalization of the Mulholland inequality. These conditions pertain to various convexity properties of compositions of additive generators and their inverses. In this paper, assuming differentiability of these additive generators, we propose equivalent

SUSANNE SAMINGER-PLATZ; ERNARD DE BAETS; HANS DE MEYER

449

An Efficient Algorithm for Computing the ${\\\\cal H}_{\\\\infty}$ Norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note addresses the computation of the norm by directly computing the isolated common zeros of two bivariate polynomials, unlike the iteration algorithm that is currently used to find the norm. The proposed method to norm calculation is com- pared with the existing method (by Bruinsma and Steinbuch (1990)) using numerical experiments on random transfer functions of orders upto

Madhu N. Belur; C. Praagman

2011-01-01

450

Nuclear norm system identification with missing inputs and outputs Zhang Liua,  

E-print Network

Nuclear norm system identification with missing inputs and outputs Zhang Liua, , Anders Hanssonb,1 formulation and uses the nuclear norm heuristic for structured low-rank matrix approximation, with the missing of the alternating direc- tion method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve regularized or non-regularized nuclear norm

Vandenberghe, Lieven

451

Understanding the roles of signs and norms in organizations - a semiotic approach to information systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

To apply semiotics to organisational analysis and information systems design, it is essential to unite two basic concepts: the sign and the norm. A sign is anything that stands for something else for some community. A norm is a generalised disposition to the world shared by members of a community. When its condition is met, a norm generates a propositional

Kecheng Liu; Mark Hafkamp; Yasser Ades

2000-01-01

452

Comparison of attitude information for helmet-mounted displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many potential uses of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). One is to allow aircrew to spend increased time off- boresight scanning the outside world for threats or targets. Another is for acquiring a target and subsequently employing a weapon whilst looking off-boresight. An experiment was conducted to examine the use of HMDs for both these tasks using four different attitude displays: pitch ladder, cylinder, arc segmented attitude reference and roll-pitch. The task involved subjects flying a simulated low-level, high-speed mission which was divided into two phases. Phase one required subjects to scan off-boresight for air threats and acquire them by using the off-boresight capability of the HMD. Phase two required subjects to use the head-down display (HDD) to locate ground targets and use the HMD off- boresight capability to acquire them. Novel objective performance measures, designed specifically to evaluate HMD symbology, were collected. Overall, it was found that performance was superior when using the pitch ladder than other displays. This was supported by the subjective findings that it provided higher situational awareness than other displays. It was concluded that the advantage for the pitch ladder may have been due to having the same symbology on the HUD and HMD, enhancing smooth transitioning between the two displays. The importance of developing operationally relevant tasks and measures for the evaluation of HMDs are discussed and the implications of this research for future work are considered.

Davy, Eleanor C.; Selcon, Stephen J.

1997-02-01

453

[Tools for brief intervention--the national norms charts of alcohol consumption (for adult men and women)--, report No1].  

PubMed

We made out two ranking tables of alcohol consumption norms for Japanese adult men and women based on National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan. 2005. and Nationalwide Survey of Alcohol Drinking and Alcoholism among Japanese adults. From the tables, we drew Ranking Lists, which rank subjects out of 100 Japanese men or women in the frequency and quantity of drinking, and visually indicate heavier drinkers as higher and less degree. In the UK or US, such tables and charts already have been made out from their norms, and carried on the websites and used in the PROJECT MATCH by NIAAA. So we attempt- ed to make them out from Japanese norms, and intend to use these charts for brief intervention at medical examinations in the workplace and at medical institutions, in order to motivate heavy drinkers to receive treatment and modify their drinking behavior according to self-regulation model by Agostinelli, G. et al., as well as to encourage them to recognize their danger of overdrinking objectively. PMID:20387542

Ino, Aro; Okamura, Hiroshi; Sakiyama, Sinobu; Wada, Fumiaki; Higuchi, Susumu; Ozaki, Yoneatsu

2010-02-01

454

Attitude motion of a non-attitude-controlled cylindrical satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1985, two non-attitude-controlled satellites were each placed in a low earth orbit by the Scout Launch Vehicle. The satellites were cylindrical in shape and contained reservoirs of hydrazine fuel. Three-axis magnetometer measurements, telemetered in real time, were used to derive the attitude motion of each satellite. Algorithms are generated to deduce possible orientations (and magnitudes) of each vehicle's angular momentum for each telemetry contact. To resolve ambiguities at each contact, a force model was derived to simulate the significant long-term effects of magnetic, gravity gradient, and aerodynamic torques on the angular momentum of the vehicles. The histories of the orientation and magnitude of the angular momentum are illustrated.

Wilkinson, C. K.

1988-01-01

455

The Influence of Hotel Managers’ Intentions for Green Marketing Practices: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Turkey  

E-print Network

that environmental attitude, attitude toward green marketing, subjective norms and perceived behavior control each significantly predict managers’ intention to practice green marketing. Furthermore, the study found a strong relationship between managers’ intention...

Yilmaz, Nese

2014-08-05

456

Attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS in urban religious congregations: Barriers and opportunities for HIV-related interventions  

PubMed Central

HIV-related stigmas have been seen as a barrier to greater religious congregation involvement in HIV prevention and care in the United States and elsewhere. We explored congregational and community norms and attitudes regarding HIV, sexuality, and drug use through a qualitative case study of 14 diverse religious congregations in Los Angeles County, California between December 2006 and May 2008. Data collected included semi-structured interviews with 57 clergy and lay leaders across the congregations, structured observations of congregational activities, review of archival documents, and a questionnaire on congregational characteristics. Across and within congregations, we found a wide range of views towards HIV, people with HIV, and populations at risk for HIV, from highly judgmental and exclusionary, to “loving the sinner, not the sin,” to accepting and affirming. Attitudes and norms about HIV, homosexuality, and substance abuse appeared to be related to the type and intensity of congregational HIV-related activities. However, even among the higher activity congregations, we found a range of perceptions, including ones that were stigmatizing. Results suggest that affirming norms and attitudes are not a prerequisite for a congregation to initiate HIV activities, a finding relevant for HIV service providers and researchers seeking to engage congregations on this issue. HIV stigma-reduction is not a prerequisite for congregational HIV involvement: both may occur simultaneously, or one before the other, and they dynamically affect each other. Strategies that are congruent with congregations’ current levels of comfort and openness around HIV can themselves facilitate a process of attitudinal and normative change. PMID:22445157

Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Palar, Kartika; Mendel, Peter; Kanouse, David E.; Corbin, Dennis E.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

2012-01-01

457

Jordanian nursing students' attitudes toward the elderly.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards older people and to consider whether the attitudes of the selected sample had any bearing on the care provided for this client group. A descriptive correlational design was employed and Kogan's [Kogan, N., 1961. Attitudes toward old people: the development of a scale and examination of correlates. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 44-54.] attitudes toward older people scale was administered to a convenience sample of 250 nursing students enrolled in the BSN program at a governmental university in the northern region of Jordan. Students' attitudes were identified using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Jordanian nursing students who participated in this study displayed marginally positive attitudes toward older people. Age and the socio-economic status of the students correlated significantly with their attitudes. Senior and male nursing students had more positive attitudes toward this client group than their counterparts. Students who prefer to work with older people following graduation reported more positive attitudes toward older people than students who did not. The results of this study suggest that positive attitudes exist towards older people; despite this, it is clear that efforts are required to enhance them further. In addition, the Jordanian lecturers in schools of nursing should further consider the need to prepare the students for their roles as caregivers for this particular client group. PMID:16115699

Hweidi, Issa M; Al-Obeisat, Salwa M

2006-01-01

458

Reduced rank regression via adaptive nuclear norm penalization  

PubMed Central

Summary We propose an adaptive nuclear norm penalization approach for low-rank matrix approximation, and use it to develop a new reduced rank estimation method for high-dimensional multivariate regression. The adaptive nuclear norm is defined as the weighted sum of the singular values of the matrix, and it is generally non-convex under the natural restriction that the weight decreases with the singular value. However, we show that the proposed non-convex penalized regression method has a global optimal solution obtained from an adaptively soft-thresholded singular value decomposition. The method is computationally efficient, and the resulting solution path is continuous. The rank consistency of and prediction/estimation performance bounds for the estimator are established for a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Simulation studies and an application in genetics demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25045172

Chen, Kun; Dong, Hongbo; Chan, Kung-Sik

2014-01-01

459

Multivariable frequency domain identification via 2-norm minimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author develops a computational approach to multivariable frequency domain identification, based on 2-norm minimization. In particular, a Gauss-Newton (GN) iteration is developed to minimize the 2-norm of the error between frequency domain data and a matrix fraction transfer function estimate. To improve the global performance of the optimization algorithm, the GN iteration is initialized using the solution to a particular sequentially reweighted least squares problem, denoted as the SK iteration. The least squares problems which arise from both the SK and GN iterations are shown to involve sparse matrices with identical block structure. A sparse matrix QR factorization method is developed to exploit the special block structure, and to efficiently compute the least squares solution. A numerical example involving the identification of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) plant having 286 unknown parameters is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Bayard, David S.

1992-01-01

460

Viking orbiter attitude control analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Viking orbiters are currently in Mars orbit. In the nearly two years since they were launched, the orbiters have successfully performed many functions including transportation of the Viking landers to Mars. The orbiters have for the last year provided relay links for lander-earth communications, and they have carried out from orbit their own scientific exploration of the planet. Crucial to the success of the orbiters has been the performance of the on-board attitude control system, which has provided the required orbiter stabilization and orientation throughout the missions. A comprehensive spacecraft and attitude control system dynamic analysis was necessary to certify the control system before launch and to evaluate its flight performance. This paper contains an outline of the analysis and of some of its results.

Rodriguez, G.

1977-01-01

461

Radar Attitude Sensing System (RASS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial design and fabrication efforts for a radar attitude sensing system (RASS) are covered. The design and fabrication of the RASS system is being undertaken in two phases, 1B1 and 1B2. The RASS system as configured under phase 1B1 contains the solid state transmitter and local oscillator, the antenna system, the receiving system, and the altitude electronics. RASS employs a pseudo-random coded cw signal and receiver correlation techniques to measure range. The antenna is a planar, phased array, monopulse type, whose beam is electronically steerable using diode phase shifters. The beam steering computer and attitude sensing circuitry are to be included in Phase 1B2 of the program.

1971-01-01

462

Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

Moynihan, P. I.

1972-01-01

463

Physician Attitudes Toward Distressed Colleagues  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and behaviors of physicians toward their impaired colleagues often affect whether the latter seek treatment. Negative responses include (1) silence, usually based on anxiety, ignorance and pessimism; (2) tentative responses based on stereotyped assumptions or distraction by organic problems; (3) judgmental responses that may result in mutual avoidance, and (4) permissive responses that encourage continued use of alcohol or other drugs. Positive responses include (1) confrontation in a concerned, constructive manner as early as possible; (2) assistance to the impaired colleague in obtaining treatment, and (3) education and information sharing to increase awareness of potential and real problems. Educational programs can help physicians develop more positive attitudes toward both impaired colleagues and impaired patients. The emphasis is on active participation. The goals of these programs should include optimism about therapy, using structured treatment approaches that include paraprofessionals and formerly impaired physicians on the treatment team, and the development of confrontational skills on the part of each physician. PMID:7222667

Chappel, John N.

1981-01-01

464

Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

Abe, Keiko

2004-01-01

465

Analysis of gravity-gradient-perturbed attitude dynamics on a stationary orbit around an asteroid via dynamical systems theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitude dynamics of spacecraft subjected to the gravity gradient torque is a fundamental problem in the space engineering. The interest in asteroid missions for the scientific exploration and near-Earth object (NEO) hazard mitigation has been increasing ever since the last two decades. The studies on attitude dynamics of spacecraft around asteroids are necessary for the design of the attitude control system. In this paper, the full nonlinear attitude dynamics on a stationary orbit around a uniformly-rotating asteroid is analyzed via the canonical Hamiltonian formalism and the dynamical systems theory. The nonlinear equations of attitude motion are obtained by Hamilton's canonical equations, in which the perturbations due to the gravity gradient torque and the precession of the orbital frame are both considered. A numerical method using the Poincaré section is then utilized to investigate the nonlinear equations of attitude motion. The Poincaré section technique is used to trace differences between the torque-free motion and the gravity-gradient-perturbed motion. The effects of the coefficients C20 and C22 are especially concerned. We find that under the perturbation of the gravity gradient torque, the motion is significantly chaotic. We also find that due to the non-spherical shape of the asteroid, the attitude dynamics is modified significantly in comparison with the classical attitude dynamics on a circular orbit in a central gravity field

Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

2012-08-01

466

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SUBJECT INITIALS________ DERMATOLOGY SUBJECT NUMBER________  

E-print Network

________ CHRONIC ITCH BIOBANK PATIENT QUESTIONNAIRE 2 of 4 Do you have kidney disease? No Yes - If yes, do you receive or have you ever received dialysis? No Yes Do you suffer from liver disease? No Yes - If yes, whatWASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SUBJECT INITIALS________ DERMATOLOGY SUBJECT NUMBER________ CHRONIC ITCH

Gereau, Robert W. IV

467

Measuring Police Attitudes Toward Discretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the construction of two scales to measure police attitudes toward the selective enforcement of the law. The Service-Legalistic scale measures police discretion along a flexible-inflexible continuum. Service-oriented police advocate the use of discretion to help solve social problems; legalistic police oppose discretion because it interferes with their duty to enforce the law equitably. The Watchman scale examines

Richard K. Wortley

2003-01-01

468

Ornitopter attitude estimation: ground test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the preliminary study on the ornithopter attitude estimation. An ornithopter platform with the payload affordability up to 60gf was designed and developed. Within the maximum take-off weight of the ornithopter, an ornithopter flight data acquisition system was successfully constructed and it consisted of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyro, magnetometer, hall-effect sensor, low-performance MCU, RF module, and ground station.

Jun-Seong Lee; Dong-Kyu Lee; Jae-Hung Han

2010-01-01

469

Attitudes on DNA ancestry tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA ancestry testing industry is more than a decade old, yet details about it remain a mystery: there remain no reliable,\\u000a empirical data on the number, motivations, and attitudes of customers to date, the number of products available and their\\u000a characteristics, or the industry customs and standard practices that have emerged in the absence of specific governmental\\u000a regulations. Here,

Jennifer K. WagnerKenneth; Kenneth M. Weiss

470

The Fermat–Torricelli Problem in Normed Planes and Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the Fermat–Torricelli problem in d-dimensional real normed spaces or Minkowski spaces, mainly for d=2. Our approach is to study the Fermat–Torricelli locus in a geometric way. We present many new results, as well as give an exposition of known results that are scattered in various sources, with proofs for some of them. Together, these results can be considered

Horst Martini; Konrad J. Swanepoel; Gunter Weiss

2002-01-01

471

The Ptolemy and Zb?ganu constants of normed spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In every inner product space H the Ptolemy inequality holds: the product of the diagonals of a quadrilateral is less than or equal to the sum of the products of the opposite sides. In other words, ?x?y??z?w???x?z??y?w?+?z?y??x?w? for any points w,x,y,z in H. It is known that for each normed space (X,???), there exists a constant C such that for

Enrique Llorens-Fuster; Eva M. Mazcuńán-Navarro; Simeon Reich

2010-01-01

472

Closed Form Solution for Minimum Norm Model-Validating Uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology in which structured uncertainty models are directly constructed from measurement data for use in robust control design of multivariable systems is proposed. The formulation allows a general linear fractional transformation uncertainty structure connections with respect to a given nominal model. Existence conditions are given, and under mild assumptions, a closed-form expression for the smallest norm structured uncertainty that validates the model is given. The uncertainty bound computation is simple and is formulated for both open and closed loop systems.

Lim, Kyong Been

1997-01-01

473

Finding Extremal Complex Polytope Norms for Families of Real Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider finite families F of real n?n-matrices. In particular, we focus on the computation of the joint spectral radiusr(F) via the detection of an extremal normin the class of complex polytope norms, whose unit balls are balanced complex polytopes with a finite essential system of vertices. Such a finiteness property is very useful in view of

N. Guglielmi; M. Zennaro

2009-01-01

474

Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval (disapproval by the student body) and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data came from nationally representative samples of 8th (N = 16,051), 10th (N = 13,251), and 12th (N = 8,797) grade students, attending 150, 140, and 142 schools, respectively. These students participated in the Monitoring

Revathy Kumar; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston; John E. Schulenberg; Jerald G. Bachman

2002-01-01

475

Norm optimal ILC with time-varying weighting matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on improving performance and robustness in precision motion control (PMC) of multi-axis systems through the use of time-varying weighting matrices. A Norm Optimal (N.O.) framework is used to design optimal learning filters based on design objectives. The general N.O. framework is reformatted to include time-varying weighting matrices which enable the controller to take the trajectory,

Kira Barton; Andrew Alleyne

2009-01-01

476

Infinite fuzzy relation equations with continuous t-norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a concept of infinite fuzzy relation equations with a continuous t-norm. It extends the work by Xiong and Wang [Q.Q. Xiong, X.P. Wang, Some properties of sup-min fuzzy relational equations on infinite domains, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 151 (2005) 393–402]. We describe attainable (respectively, unattainable) solutions, which are closely related to minimal solutions to the equations. It

Bih-sheue Shieh

2008-01-01

477

Maximum-norm stability of the finite element Stokes projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove stability of the finite element Stokes projection in the product space W1,?(?)×L?(?), i.e., the maximum norm of the discrete velocity gradient and discrete pressure are bounded by the sum of the corresponding exact counterparts, independently of the mesh-size. The proof relies on weighted L2 estimates for regularized Green's functions associated with the Stokes problem and on a weighted

V. Girault; R. H. Nochetto; R. Scott

2005-01-01

478

L p NORMS, LOGBARRIERS AND CRAMER TRANSFORM IN OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

L p ­NORMS, LOG­BARRIERS AND CRAMER TRANSFORM IN OPTIMIZATION J.B. LASSERRE AND E.S. ZERON Abstract the Cramer transform of the Laplace approximation of g. Finally, this technique permits to sometimes define­Fenchel and Cramer transforms. 1 #12; 2 J.B. LASSERRE AND E.S. ZERON one may deduce � g(y) = (g # ) # (y) = inf

Recanati, Catherine

479

Injunctive Norms and Problem Gambling among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationships among injunctive norms and college student gambling. In study 1 we evaluated the accuracy\\u000a of perceptions of other students’ approval of gambling and the relationship between perceived approval and gambling behavior.\\u000a In study 2 we evaluated gambling behavior as a function of perceptions of approval of other students, friends, and family.\\u000a In study 1, which

Clayton Neighbors; Ty W. Lostutter; Ursula Whiteside; Nicole Fossos; Denise D. Walker; Mary E. Larimer

2007-01-01

480

Minimum Infinity-Norm Inverse Kinematic Solution For Redundant Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redundant manipulators admit infinite solutions to the inverse kinematic problem for given end-effector parameters. The problem of determining a minimum infinity norm solution to the velocity inverse kinematic problem, i.e., computing a joint velocity vector whose maximum absolute value component is minimum among all joint velocity vectors yielding the desired end-effector velocity, is investigated. The proposed method uses duality results

Arati S. Deo; Ian D. Walker

1993-01-01

481

Application of L1-Norm Regularization to Epicardial Potential Solution of the Inverse Electrocardiography Problem  

PubMed Central

The electrocardiographic inverse problem of computing epicardial potentials from multi-electrode body-surface ECG measurements, is an ill-posed problem. Tikhonov regularization is commonly employed, which imposes penalty on the L2-norm of the potentials (zero-order) or their derivatives. Previous work has indicated superior results using L2-norm of the normal derivative of the solution (a first order regularization). However, L2-norm penalty function can cause considerable smoothing of the solution. Here, we use the L1-norm of the normal derivative of the potential as a penalty function. L1-norm solutions were compared to zero-order and first-order L2-norm Tikhonov solutions and to measured gold standards in previous experiments with isolated canine hearts. Solutions with L1-norm penalty function (average relative error [RE] = 0.36) were more accurate than L2-norm (average RE= 0.62). In addition, the L1-norm method localized epicardial pacing sites with better accuracy (3.8±1.5 mm) compared to L2-norm (9.2±2.6 mm) during pacing in five pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. In a pediatric patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the L1-norm method also detected and localized two distinct areas of early activation around the mitral valve annulus, indicating the presence of two left-sided pathways which were not distinguished using L2 regularization. PMID:19266284

Ghosh, Subham; Rudy, Yoram

2010-01-01

482

Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J. A.

1998-09-22

483

Parental Attitudes Toward Child Mental Health Services: The Influence of Ethnicity and Child Characteristics on Help-Seeking Intentions  

E-print Network

PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILD MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES: THE INFLUENCE OF ETHNICITY AND CHILD CHARACTERISTICS ON HELP-SEEKING INTENTIONS A Dissertation by ERLANGER A. TURNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Psychology PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILD MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES: THE INFLUENCE...

Turner, Erlanger A.

2011-02-22

484

Large scale static tests of a tilt-nacelle V/STOL propulsion/attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a combined V/STOL propulsion and aircraft attitude control system was subjected to large scale engine tests. The tilt nacelle/attitude control vane package consisted of the T55 powered Hamilton Standard Q-Fan demonstrator. Vane forces, moments, thermal and acoustic characteristics as well as the effects on propulsion system performance were measured under conditions simulating hover in and out of ground effect.

1978-01-01

485

Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: inter- and intranational differences.  

PubMed

Within- and between-nations differences in norms for experiencing emotions were analyzed in a cross-cultural study with 1,846 respondents from 2 individualistic (United States, Australia) and 2 collectivistic (China, Taiwan) countries. A multigroup latent class analysis revealed that there were both universal and culture-specific types of norms for experiencing emotions. Moreover, strong intranational variability in norms for affect could be detected, particularly for collectivistic nations. Unexpectedly, individualistic nations were most uniform in norms, particularly with regard to pleasant affect. Individualistic and collectivistic nations differed most strongly in norms for self-reflective emotions (e.g., pride and guilt). Norms for emotions were related to emotional experiences within nations. Furthermore, there were strong national differences in reported emotional experiences, even when norms were held constant. PMID:11708563

Eid, M; Diener, E

2001-11-01

486

Attitudes on DNA ancestry tests.  

PubMed

The DNA ancestry testing industry is more than a decade old, yet details about it remain a mystery: there remain no reliable, empirical data on the number, motivations, and attitudes of customers to date, the number of products available and their characteristics, or the industry customs and standard practices that have emerged in the absence of specific governmental regulations. Here, we provide preliminary data collected in 2009 through indirect and direct participant observation, namely blog post analysis, generalized survey analysis, and targeted survey analysis. The attitudes include the first available data on attitudes of those of individuals who have and have not had their own DNA ancestry tested as well as individuals who are members of DNA ancestry-related social networking groups. In a new and fluid landscape, the results highlight the need for empirical data to guide policy discussions and should be interpreted collectively as an invitation for additional investigation of (1) the opinions of individuals purchasing these tests, individuals obtaining these tests through research participation, and individuals not obtaining these tests; (2) the psychosocial and behavioral reactions of individuals obtaining their DNA ancestry information with attention given both to expectations prior to testing and the sociotechnical architecture of the test used; and (3) the applications of DNA ancestry information in varying contexts. PMID:21698460

Wagner, Jennifer K; Weiss, Kenneth M

2012-01-01

487

E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

488

Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking  

PubMed Central

Objective The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods The author conducted linear regression analyses of energy-drink consumption frequencies on sociodemographic characteristics, jock identity, masculine norms, and risk-taking behavior. Results Of participants, 39% consumed an energy drink in the past month, with more frequent use by men (2.49 d/month) than by women (1.22 d/month). Strength of jock identity was positively associated with frequency of energy-drink consumption; this relationship was mediated by both masculine norms and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions Sport-related identity, masculinity, and risk taking are components of the emerging portrait of a toxic jock identity, which may signal an elevated risk for health-compromising behaviors. College undergraduates’ frequent consumption of Red Bull and comparable energy drinks should be recognized as a potential predictor of toxic jock identity. PMID:18400659

Miller, Kathleen E.

2008-01-01

489

Neuropsychological test norms controlled for physical health: Does it matter?  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of physical health on neuropsychological test norms. Medical and neuropsychological data from 118 healthy volunteer controls, aged 26-91 years, were collected during five recruitment occasions. The examinations included a clinical investigation, brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Test-specific statistical regression-weights for age, education and gender were calculated to establish preliminary test norms. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that control in addition for physical health moved best performance from age 60 to 65 for abstraction; replaced a plateau above age 70 for verbal fluency, with a continued rise in performance; eliminated significant negative influences of age on auditory learning, spatial reasoning and complex copying; reduced them on wordlist recall, psychomotor speed, visual scanning and mental shifting; and slightly reduced negative influences of low education on most verbal tests, several memory tests, and psychomotor speed, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.8 SD at age 80 and 0.4 SD at age 60. No differences were found at age 40. Although the sample size is not adequate to be used for normative data, the findings indicate that norms uncontrolled for health overestimate the negative influence of advanced age and low education, implying a risk of drawing false diagnostic conclusions. PMID:25356656

Bergman, Ingvar; Almkvist, Ove

2014-10-30

490

Empathetic responsiveness, group norms, and prosocial affiliations in bullying roles.  

PubMed

In this study, the relationships among gender, empathetic responsiveness, perceived group norms, prosocial affiliations, and bullying roles were examined for 262 fifth- through eighth-grade students (n = 141 males; n = 121 females). According to the Bullying Participant Roles Survey (BPRS), participants were identified as defenders (n = 135; 51.5%), victims (n = 48; 18.3%), bullies (n = 39; 14.9%), and outsiders (n = 26; 9.9%). Results of multinominal logistic regression revealed that empathetic responsiveness was a significant predictor of defending behavior and an inverse predictor of outsider behavior. Gender also predicted defending behavior, with boys being more likely to defend than girls. In addition, participants who indicated that their friends supported bullying were more likely to be involved in bullying perpetration and victimization. An unexpected interaction effect between prosocial affiliations and group norms indicated that girls who reported more probullying group norms but whose friends reported having more prosocial tendencies were more likely to assume roles of bullies and victims than outsiders. Implications for practice are outlined, including recommendations for antibullying initiatives. PMID:24708291

Nickerson, Amanda B; Mele-Taylor, Danielle

2014-03-01

491

Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.

Dolinar, S.

1991-01-01

492

Autoregressive model in the Lp norm space for EEG analysis.  

PubMed

The autoregressive (AR) model is widely used in electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses such as waveform fitting, spectrum estimation, and system identification. In real applications, EEGs are inevitably contaminated with unexpected outlier artifacts, and this must be overcome. However, most of the current AR models are based on the L2 norm structure, which exaggerates the outlier effect due to the square property of the L2 norm. In this paper, a novel AR object function is constructed in the Lp (p?1) norm space with the aim to compress the outlier effects on EEG analysis, and a fast iteration procedure is developed to solve this new AR model. The quantitative evaluation using simulated EEGs with outliers proves that the proposed Lp (p?1) AR can estimate the AR parameters more robustly than the Yule-Walker, Burg and LS methods, under various simulated outlier conditions. The actual application to the resting EEG recording with ocular artifacts also demonstrates that Lp (p?1) AR can effectively address the outliers and recover a resting EEG power spectrum that is more consistent with its physiological basis. PMID:25448380

Li, Peiyang; Wang, Xurui; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Teng; Peng, Yueheng; Lei, Xu; Tian, Yin; Guo, Daqing; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

2015-01-30

493

Cephalometric Norms for Mewari Children using Steiner’s Analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract A thorough background in craniofacial growth and development is necessary for every dentist. An important concept in the study of growth and development is variability. Cephalometrics is an important part of morphological diagnostic procedures to assess craniofacial growth and development. The aim of this study was to obtain cephalometric norms for Mewari children of Rajasthan by Steiner analysis and compare with Caucasian norms. The method involved clinical examination, collection and analysis of 100 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Mewari children (50 males and 50 females, between 11 and 13 years of age). All cephalometric landmarks were located and determined and subsequently tracing was done according to Steiner analysis. The mean value and standard deviation of each measurement were calculated. Statistical comparison was done using Student t-test. The result of this study showed that the Mewari children had retrusion of mandible relative to cranial base, proclined maxillary and mandibular teeth, with greater convexity of face. They also showed anteriorly placed occlusal plane to cranium and Less prominent chin. In conclusion, these ethnic differences should be considered during orthodontic treatment. How to cite this article: Rathore AS, Dhar V, Arora R, Diwanji A. Cephalometric Norms for Mewari Children using Steiner’s Analysis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):173-177. PMID:25206163

Dhar, Vineet; Arora, Ruchi; Diwanji, Amish

2012-01-01

494

The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

495

Teacher Behaviors Associated with Student Change in Attitude Toward a Teacher Education Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between student perception of teacher behaviors and change in students' attitude toward a course in preservice teacher education was studied. The course selected was School and Society, a required course in educational foundations. Subjects included 87 students enrolled in eight sections taught by six instructors. A common…

Pohlmann, Mary M.

496

The Effect of Scientific Process Skills Education on Students' Scientific Creativity, Science Attitudes and Academic Achievements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching scientific process skills education to students to promote their scientific creativity, attitudes towards science, and achievements in science. The research includes a pre-test post-test research model with a control group. The subjects of the research consist of 40 students reading…

Aktamis, Hilal; Ergin, Omer

2008-01-01

497

Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

2006-01-01

498

Exploring Chemistry Teacher Candidates' Profile Characteristics, Teaching Attitudes and Beliefs, and Chemistry Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curricula of teacher education need periodic revisions to respond to the evolution of educational objectives. Teachers' beliefs, as well as their characteristics, teaching attitudes and competency in their subject matter play a decisive role in the success of any reform. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted across years 1-5 of…

Kahveci, Ajda

2009-01-01

499

The Effects of Guilt-Shame Arousing Communications on Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies sought to investigate two levels (high vs. low) of guilt-shame arousing appeals in the areas of adoption and needy children on expressed guilt, attitudes toward the communicator and communication, information retention, and intended and actual commitment to various behaviors. Subjects were 68 adult men and women drawn from Presbyterian…

Dembroski, Theodore M.; Pennebaker, James W.

500

Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their affective orientation toward sexuality (erotophiliaerotophobia) and sex guilt. Subjects were 72 male and 57 female heterosexual college undergraduates. A self-report questionnaire was administered in a health education class and mailed to campus dormitories. The variables were measured by four scales:

William L. Yarber; Bernadette Yee

1983-01-01