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1

The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

2001-01-01

2

Motivating Salespeople to Sell New Products:The Relative Influence of Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and  

E-print Network

This research explores the relative influence of salespeople’s attitudes toward selling a new product, perceptions of subjective norms, and self-efficacy on the development of selling intentions and, ultimately, the success of a new product launch. The longitudinal study employs a nonlinear growth curve model that leverages survey data from industrial salespeople and objective performance records of their daily sales during the first several months in the market of two new products: a new-to-market product and a line extension. By examining salesperson-level variance on new product performance, the authors suggest that managers should focus on increasing salesperson self-efficacy and positive attitudes toward selling the product to build selling intentions and quickly grow new product performance. They also suggest that sales managers should resist the temptation to rely on normative pressure during a new product introduction. Not only are subjective norms less effective in building selling intentions, but they also diminish the positive impact of attitudes and self-efficacy on salesperson intentions and constrain the positive relationships between intentions and performance and self-efficacy and performance.

Frank Q. Fu; Keith A. Richards; Douglas E. Hughes; Eli Jones

3

Japanese American response to psychological disorder: Referral patterns, attitudes, and subjective norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underutilization of services by Japanese Americans has raised questions as to the Variables that account for this phenomenon. The present study examined the referral patterns and their bases using the Fishbein-Ajzen model of attitude-behavior relationships. Vignettes describing disorders were each responded to by 106 Japanese Americans. Results indicated that self resources were the most commonly mentioned referral across disorders

Jay M. Uomoto; Richard L. Gorsuch

1984-01-01

4

Decisions to donate bone marrow: The role of attitudes and subjective norms across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a field investigation of the determinants of decisions to donate bone marrow. Predictions are made on the basis of a modification of the theory of reasoned action wherein attitudes are operational-ized in separate affective and evaluative components. Boundary conditions of the theory of reasoned action are further explored by examining the effects of culture

Richard P. Bagozzi; Kam-Hon Lee; M. Frances Van Loo

2001-01-01

5

The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24099704

Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

2014-01-01

6

Factors related to condom use behavior among club-working women in South Korea: importance of subjective norms and customer-related attitudes.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to understand factors associated with condom use behavior among club-working women and identify the most influential factors to be addressed in future health programs. A total of 158 club-working women were surveyed from 3 midsize cities in South Korea from July to September 2004. Survey questionnaires were developed based on the theory of planned behavior. A total of 7 distinct themes emerged: Health aspects, Customer related, Pleasure related, Finance related, Societal norm, Occupational norm, and Perceived control. The results indicated that the Customer-related theme, Societal norm, and Occupational norm were statistically significant factors affecting condom use. On the other hand, self-related factors such as health, pleasure, and finance are not significantly related to the condom use behavior of club-working women in South Korea, suggesting that the currently used knowledge-focused education programs may not be sufficient for this population. PMID:22345303

Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Ja-young

2014-03-01

7

Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.  

PubMed

This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed. PMID:24354888

Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

2014-01-01

8

Using Subjective Norms To Predict Teachers' Computer Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined how elementary teachers' personal variables predicted their classroom computer use. Teachers completed questionnaires that assessed level of computer use, subjective norms, innovativeness, perceived relevance of computers to teaching, and self-competence in using computers. Many teachers did not use computers for teaching.…

Marcinkiewicz, Henryk R.; Regstad, Neil G.

1996-01-01

9

Social Norms and Self-Presentation: Children's Implicit and Explicit Intergroup Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined whether social norms and children's concern for self-presentation affect their intergroup attitudes. Study 1 examined racial intergroup attitudes and normative beliefs among children aged 6 to 16 years (n=155). Accountability (i.e., public self-focus) was experimentally manipulated, and intergroup attitudes were assessed using…

Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Milne, Alan; McGeorge, Peter

2005-01-01

10

Re-Examining the Norm Concept in Cephalometrics: Associations Between Subjective Assessments and Deviations from Cephalometric Norms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of agreement between deviations from cephalometric norms and clinicians' subjective assessments of treatment difficulty and success. Six orthodontists subjectively assessed and ranked complete pre- a...

J. Y. De Jesus

2000-01-01

11

Setting an Egalitarian Social Norm in the Classroom: Improving Attitudes towards Diversity among Male Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the effect of a message describing a social norm of egalitarian attitudes and behaviors in an engineering college on male students' attitudes and behavioral intentions surrounding diversity in engineering. Participants were first-semester university students enrolled in four sections of an introductory engineering course in…

Bennett, Jill E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

2014-01-01

12

Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention.  

PubMed

This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and a control group were designed as stimulus material in a repeated measure nonequivalent group experimental design. The 2 intervention workshops developed included: analysis + analysis (where participants discussed and analyzed cigarette and antismoking ads) and analysis + production (where participants discussed, analyzed, and then created their own antismoking ads). The analysis + production workshop was generally more successful than the analysis + analysis workshop and control group in changing participants' behavioral intention to smoke and attitude toward smoking but not subjective norms over time. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17617012

Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

2007-01-01

13

A theory of planned behavior examination of parent\\/adolescent drug prevention: The role that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control play in whether parents engage in drug preventative practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parents do not talk to their children regularly about drugs (see Partnership for a Drug Free America, 2005 and 2006). There is evidence, however, suggesting that parent initiated drug preventative practices such as talking to and\\/or monitoring children may be effective in changing adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors regarding drugs (see Baumrind, 1991 and Booth-Butterfield & Sidelinger, 1998). The question

Julie E Delaney

2009-01-01

14

Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been given to measuring symptoms of eating disorders in adolescents, but representative norms for the two widely used measures, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), have not been available. The present study collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in Grades 9–12. Significant sex, but not age, differences were

James C. Rosen; Nancy T. Silberg; Janet Gross

1988-01-01

15

Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n?=?500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (??=?0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (??=?0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (??=?0.19); also, both positive (??=?0.13) and negative (??=?-0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

2011-04-01

16

Injury and the orchestral environment: part II. Organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes to injury.  

PubMed

The organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes of a workplace have a profound influence on levels of injury and illness amongst its workers. While this is well established in Work Health and Safety literature, very little research has attempted to understand the influence of organisational culture on injury risk in the orchestral profession. To address this, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of organisational culture on injury outcomes for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case study methodology, in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 freelance and 8 fulltime members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a themes-based "analysis of narrative" approach. The findings indicate that an orchestral culture exists in which musicians see injury as a sign of weakness, failure, and poor musicianship. Such negative perceptions of injury influence musicians to play through considerable levels of pain and continue performing with injuries. Because of perceived judgment from the orchestral group, musicians were found to conceal injuries from colleagues and management staff. Freelance musicians felt that disclosing injuries may lead to decreased work opportunities, and both full-time and casual musicians felt that "opening up" about injury may subject them to group judgment about their technique or musicianship. The study suggests education measures which may be effective at influencing individual behaviours and attitudes as well as cultural change initiatives which could lead to long-term positive health outcomes in the orchestral workplace. PMID:24925177

Rickert, Dale Ll; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

2014-06-01

17

Affective response to exercise as a component of exercise motivation: Attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and temporal stability of intentions  

PubMed Central

Problem: A positive affective response is associated with increased participation in voluntary exercise, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well known. Consistent with a Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, we tested whether affective response to exercise leads to greater motivation in terms of attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and intentions to exercise. We were also specifically interested in whether a positive affective response leads to more temporally stable intentions. Method: Participants (N = 127) self-reported Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs and exercise behavior at baseline and three months later, and provided reports of exercise-related affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate intensity treadmill exercise at baseline. Results: We show that participants who experience greater improvements in positive affect, negative affect and fatigue during exercise tended to report more positive attitudes, exercise self-efficacy and intentions to exercise three months later. Affective response was not predictive of subjective norms. As hypothesized, positive affective response was associated with more stable intentions over time. Conclusions: We conclude that a positive affective response to acute bouts of exercise can aid in building and sustaining exercise motivation over time. PMID:20161385

Kwan, Bethany M.; Bryan, Angela D.

2009-01-01

18

Community Norms on Toy Guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Toy gun play has been asso- ciated with aggressive behavior, and it has been sug- gested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counsel- ing requires an understanding of norms regarding paren- tal attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both the- ories of,reasoned action and,planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people’s

Malla Rao; Tina L. Cheng; Ruth A. Brenner; Joseph L. Wright; Hari Cheryl Sachs; Patricia Moyer

2010-01-01

19

Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

Hopp, Toby M.

2013-01-01

20

Placing project partakers’ emotions, attitudes and norms in the context of project vision, artifacts, leader values, contextual performance and success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a model suggesting that project leader building activities which support instilling a project vision, artifacts and are guided by this individual's values, affect partakers' emotions, attitudes and behavioral norms that are focused on expected project outcomes, termed project spirit. Furthermore, spirit is proposed to affect partakers' contextual performance and, through contextual performance, to affect project success. The

Zvi H. Aronson; Aaron J. Shenhar; Richard R. Reilly

2008-01-01

21

Sick leave in workers with asthma and COPD: the role of attitudes, perceived social norms and self efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated associations of sick leave in 165 workers with asthma and COPD with three components of the Model of Planned Behavior (MPB): attitudes, social norms towards sick leave, and perceived control over sick leave and over health complaints. All participants underwent lung-function tests and completed questionnaires on sick leave, and on the MPB-components. Differences were calculated between high and

Cécile R. Boot; J. H. M. M. Vercoulen; Joost W. van der Gulden; Karin H. Orbon; Chris van Weel; Hans Th. Folgering

2005-01-01

22

Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

2004-01-01

23

Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China  

PubMed Central

This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé à un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, à la discrimination perçue au nivea

Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

2009-01-01

24

Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice. PMID:24331890

Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

2013-12-01

25

Differences across Academic Subjects in Teachers' Attitudes about Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey study examined how attitudes about professional development (PD) vary among teachers of different subjects. Elementary teachers were more supportive of PD than health and physical education, social studies, and science teachers; special education teachers were more supportive of PD than social studies and science teachers; and five…

Torff, Bruce; Byrnes, Katherine

2011-01-01

26

The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are usually neglected in economics, because they are to a large extent enforced through nonmarket interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to work and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people find a new job.

Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

2004-01-01

27

The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are usually neglected in economics because they are to a large extent enforced through non-market interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to live off one’s own income and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people

Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

2001-01-01

28

Antismoking Initiatives: Effects of Analysis Versus Production Media Literacy Interventions on Smoking-Related Attitude, Norm, and Behavioral Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and

Smita C. Banerjee; Kathryn Greene

2007-01-01

29

Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV\\/AIDS?related stigma among service providers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined HIV\\/AIDS?related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV\\/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV\\/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city\\/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled

Li Li; Chunqing Lin; Zunyou Wu; Yi Wen

2009-01-01

30

Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.  

PubMed

Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p < 0.03) except for forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

2014-01-01

31

First, Third, and Fifth Grade Children's Attitudes about Gender Norm Violations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire study examined elementary school student's knowledge of a number of gender norms as well as some moral and social norms. Participating in the study were 111 first, third, and fifth graders, the majority of whom were white, with a small number of Hispanic and Asian children. The gender roles related to children's play, hair…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

32

Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: Sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that heterosexual men are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This

Michelle Davies

2004-01-01

33

Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia  

SciTech Connect

How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

2008-06-05

34

Gateway to doping? Supplement use in the context of preferred competitive situations, doping attitude, beliefs, and norms.  

PubMed

Nutritional supplement (NS) use is widespread in sport. This study applied an integrated social cognitive approach to examine doping attitudes, beliefs, and self-reported doping use behavior across NS users (n = 96) and nonusers (n = 116). Following ethical approval, 212 competitive athletes (age mean = 21.4, s = 4.5; 137 males) completed self-reported measures of doping-related social cognitions and behaviors, presented in an online format where completion implied consent. Significantly more NS users (22.9%) reported doping compared with nonusers (6.0%; U = 4628.0, P < 0.05). NS users presented significantly more positive attitudes toward doping (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05) and expressed a significantly greater belief that doping is effective (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05). When presented with the scenario that performance-enhancing substances are effective and increase the possibility of winning, NS users were significantly more in favor of competing in situations that allow doping (U = 3504.5, P < 0.05). In sum, doping use is three-and-a-half times more prevalent in NS users compared with nonusers. This finding is accompanied by significant differences in doping attitudes, norms, and beliefs. Thus, this article offers support for the gateway hypothesis; athletes who engage in legal performance enhancement practices appear to embody an "at-risk" group for transition toward doping. Education should be appropriately targeted. PMID:22092778

Backhouse, S H; Whitaker, L; Petróczi, A

2013-03-01

35

Educational Climates and Attitudes Toward Dissent: A Study of Political Socialization of Conflict Norms in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of nine San Francisco Bay Area high schools in order to study the nature, intensity, and content of the experience of conflict and dissent in relation to the acquisition of generalized attitudes towards it. Educational climate was identified as a significant independent variable and other sources of…

Grossman, David L.

36

How Culturally Congruent Mental Health Services Relate to Subjective Norms and Help Seeking Intentions for Latino Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latino older adults under-utilize mental health services. Mental health professionals are encouraged to provide culturally competent treatment for many diverse populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the importance of providing culturally congruent mental health services for older Latino adults. Research suggests that treatment is sought when the treatment fits an individual’s culture based on attitudes, subjective

Debbie Ojeda

2011-01-01

37

Perceived Social Norms, Expectations, and Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment among an Urban Community Sample of Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical\\u000a abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude\\u000a toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing\\u000a use

Catherine A. Taylor; Lauren Hamvas; Janet Rice; Denise L. Newman; William DeJong

2011-01-01

38

Attitudes and practices of Japanese and American music teachers towards integrating music with other subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA obtained higher attitude ratings towards the use

Stephen F. Zdzinski; Masafumi Ogawa; Charlene Dell; Ching Ching Yap; Cedric Adderley; Rosetta Dingle

2007-01-01

39

Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication About Sex on Condom Use  

PubMed Central

Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent–adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

2012-01-01

40

The conflict of social norms may cause the collapse of cooperation: indirect reciprocity with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism.  

PubMed

Indirect reciprocity is a cooperation maintaining mechanism based on the social evaluation of players. Here, we consider the case of a group in which two social norms with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism are mixed. One norm, called Bushido (the way of warriors), regards cooperation with outsiders as betrayal, whereas the second norm, called Shonindo (the way of merchants), regards cooperation with outsiders as desirable. Each member of the group, irrespective of being a Bushido or a Shonindo player, is evaluated in two different ways and assigned two different labels: "ally" or "enemy" according to the Bushido evaluation; "good" or "bad" according to the Shonindo evaluation. These labels change in response to the action taken (cooperation or defection) when acting as a donor, as well as the label attached to the recipient. In addition to Bushido players, who cooperate with an ally and defect from an enemy, and Shonindo players, who cooperate with a good recipient and defect from a bad recipient, the group contains a third kind of players--unconditional defectors. The fractions of the three types of players follow the replicator dynamics. If the probability of interacting with outsiders is small, and if the cost-to-benefit ratio of cooperation is low, we observe several important patterns. Each social norm is able to maintain a high level of cooperation when dominant. Bushido and Shonindo players evaluate each other unfavorably and engage in a severe conflict. In the end, only one norm permeates the whole group driving the other to the extinction. When both social norms are equally effective, a rare occurrence of unconditional defectors may lead to a successful invasion. PMID:24380777

Matsuo, Tadasu; Jusup, Marko; Iwasa, Yoh

2014-04-01

41

A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students.  

PubMed

The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use. PMID:24611821

Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick

2014-06-01

42

The Neurotechnological Cerebral Subject: Persistence of Implicit and Explicit Gender Norms in a Network of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural\\u000a interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time\\u000a the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies.\\u000a This

Sigrid Schmitz

43

Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…

Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.

2007-01-01

44

Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

2007-01-01

45

Models of Attitude-Behavior Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three replications of a structural equation model for the prediction of behavior are tested, using a questionnaire assessing undergraduate students' attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and behavior. The proposed models supersede the Fishbein-Ajzen theory in their ability to reflect the dynamics of attitude-behavior relations. (Author/RD)

Bentler, P. M.; Speckart, George

1979-01-01

46

Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure…

Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2010-01-01

47

Attribution of blame in rape cases: The impact of norm violation, gender, and sex-role attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the importance of the characteristics of the rape victims to the characteristics of observers in the attribution of blame in rape cases. Both blame of the victim and blame of the rapist are considered, along with seriousness of the crime, perceived norm violation, respectability, behavioral intentions toward the victim, and behavioral intentions toward the rapist. A

Alan C. Acock; Nancy K. Ireland

1983-01-01

48

Cultural attitudes to corruption : a perspective on the interplay between cultural and legal norms for Western businesses operating in China  

E-print Network

Corruption is an important challenge facing those who wish to do business in China. Beyond the commercial context, corruption and attitudes towards it are also more broadly relevant to politics, political economics and ...

Winters, Timothy (Timothy Mark)

2013-01-01

49

Constrained optimal attitude control of a quadrotor helicopter subject to wind-gusts: Experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Constrained Finite Time Optimal Controller (CFTOC) for attitude set-point maneuvers of an Unmanned Quadrotor Helicopter (UqH) operating under severe wind conditions is the subject of this article. The UqH's nonlinear dynamics is linearized in various operating points resulting in a set of piecewise models. The CFTOC is designed for set-point maneuvers taking into account the switching between the linear

K. Alexis; G. Nikolakopoulos; A. Tzes

2010-01-01

50

Development, Norms and Factorial Validity of Scales for Measuring Racial Attitudes in Adolescents in Multi-Ethnic Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of scales for measuring racial attitudes in adolescents in British multiracial schools. Studies of data on adolescents in 39 schools suggest a link between racism and poor self-esteem, lack of ego strength, alienation from school and society, and scholastic underachievement in Whites, Blacks of West Indian origin, and Asians.…

Bagley, Christopher; Verma, Gajendra

1978-01-01

51

The attitude toward xenocorneal transplantation in wait-listed subjects for corneal transplantation in Korea.  

PubMed

Shortage of donor cornea is a significant problem in Asia, and xenocorneal transplantation is being actively studied to alleviate this problem. However, the attitudes of subjects who await corneal transplants toward xenocorneal transplantation are not known at all. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the attitudes of subjects on the waiting lists for corneal transplants, toward corneal xenotransplantation. A telephone questionnaire survey comprising six items was conducted in 132 subjects among the wait-listed individuals (n = 590) who were awaiting corneal transplantation or had undergone corneal transplantation at Seoul National University Hospital from July, 2003 to August, 2012. Among six inquiries, four questions were used to analyze attitudes toward corneal xenotransplantation. Each question pertained to (1) the acceptance of xenocorneal transplantation, (2) willingness to participate in clinical trials, (3) worries in xenocorneal transplantation, and (4) the concern of self-identity or social life after xenocorneal transplantation. To analyze demographic factors influencing the question, the subjects were arbitrarily divided into two groups: the young (age < 60 yr, n = 58) and the elderly (age ? 60 yr, n = 74) or the less-educated (n = 53) and the well-educated with high school diploma, college graduation, or higher education (n = 79). Collected demographic data were analyzed as influencing factors on each question using a chi-square and logistic regression tests. In this study, 42.4% of the subjects (n = 56) expressed favorable views on xenocorneal transplantation using porcine corneas to cure visual loss from corneal blindness. Among those subjects expressing favorable views (n = 56), the willingness to participate in clinical trials, knowing they and their spouses must undergo long-term surveillance, was 62.5% (n = 35). There were 76.5% of subjects (n = 101) expressing worries regarding xenocorneal transplantation, while 28.8% of subjects (n = 38) expressed their concerns about self-identity or social life after xenotransplantation. Younger subjects expressed more worry about xenotransplantation than elderly subjects. The well-educated expressed less concern over self-identity and social life than the less-educated. This survey among subjects who are wait-listed for corneal transplant or who have received a corneal transplant demonstrates that there is an interest in xenocorneal transplantation as an alternate procedure, although there are worries about the procedure that should be further explored in educational campaigns and future studies of the general population. PMID:24164549

Lee, Jong Joo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jang, Young Eun; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

2014-01-01

52

Sorting Through Chickens and Eggs: A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations Between Attitudes, Norms, and Sexual Risk Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Health behavior theories posit that health-relevant attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral skills drive subsequent actions people take to protect themselves from health threats. Within the realm of HIV-related sexual risk behavior, much of the research in support of this notion is cross-sectional, rather than longitudinal, particularly in studies of gay and bisexual men. Other psychological theories (e.g., self-perception or cognitive

David M. Huebner; Torsten B. Neilands; Gregory M. Rebchook; Susan M. Kegeles

2011-01-01

53

Adaptation and perceptual norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

2007-02-01

54

Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of attitude research has been concurrent with the growth of the adult education movement. Most attitude research to date has focused on attitudes toward controversial issues but recent formulations of the nature of attitudes emphasize that they exist in functional interdependence with other attitudinal, motivational, and value…

Kirchner, Corinne; Wilder, David S.

55

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and "Autistic" Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

56

Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of how to improve elementary school students' writing focuses on teaching and explaining the literary element of a character's attitude. Considers the relationship between attitude, mood, and motive; includes suggested student activities related to attitude; and describes evaluation possibilities. (LRW)

Davis, Jonathan; Davis, Lisa

2000-01-01

57

The effect of moral obligation, attitude, and social norms on sexual decision-making in heterosexual older adolescents at three U.S. colleges: an archival multivariate investigation of the Fishbein-Ajzen model of behavioral intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of 6 theoretical models-Social Inoculation, Evolutionary, Sex Guilt, Sex Anxiety, Ecological, and FishbeinAjzen- Iays the groundwork for this examination of the extent to which 3 variables-attitude, morality, and social norms-are related to adolescent sexual decision-making. A total of 302 undergraduate students from 3 United States colleges were surveyed in 1987 with a questionnaire

John Gerrit Laskowski

2002-01-01

58

Attitude Stability of a Spacecraft with Slosh Mass Subject to Parametric Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attitude motion of a spin-stabilized, upper-stage spacecraft is investigated based on a two-body model, consisting of a symmetric body, representing the spacecraft, and a spherical pendulum, representing the liquid slag pool entrapped in the aft section of the rocket motor. Exact time-varying nonlinear equations are derived and used to eliminate the drawbacks of conventional linear models. To study the stability of the spacecraft's attitude motion, both the spacecraft and pendulum are assumed to be in states of steady spin about the symmetry axis of the spacecraft and the coupled time-varying nonlinear equation of the pendulum is simplified. A quasi-stationary solution to that equation and approximate resonance conditions are determined in terms of the system parameters. The analysis shows that the pendulum is subject to a combination of parametric and external-type excitation by the main body and that energy from the excited pendulum is fed into the main body to develop the coning instability. In this paper, numerical examples are presented to explain the mechanism of the coning angle growth and how angular momenta and disturbance moments are generated.

Kang, Ja-Young

2003-09-01

59

How International Students Select Offshore Programs: The Influence of Image, Attitude, Subject Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research studies identified country image as an important variable in international students' selection of onshore programs, and it is often perceived that there is little difference between onshore and offshore program selection. Looking at a sample of high school students in China and their selections of offshore programs (from a…

Li, Jianyao; Liu, Fang; Rojas-Méndez, José I.

2013-01-01

60

Knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking in subjects of lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world since 1988, both in terms of incidence and mortality among both men and women. Approximately half of the cases of lung cancer now occur in developing countries compared to 1980. Tobacco smoking is by far the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. A knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking among 132 cases of lung cancer in this study was undertaken. Amongst 113 ever smokers, out of 132 cases, 91.18% of males and 36.36% of female subjects continued smoking despite knowing the harmful effects of tobacco, displayed over the cigarette or bidi packets. In these group squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type followed by adenocarcinoma. Among the never smokers adenocarcinoma was the commonest type, females accounting for 75% of the cases, though a good number was observed among male ever smokers, signifying the changing histological types of lung cancer today. PMID:23936950

Dey, Subir Kumar; Jha, Sumanta; Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Das, Abhradip; Gangopadhyay, Subir

2012-12-01

61

When We Do What We See: The Moderating Role of Social Motivation on the Relation Between Subjective Norms and Behavior in the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies tested whether increased social motivation was associated with nondeliberative, or direct, effects of descriptive norms and injunctive norms on behavior in the context of the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). In a 2-week longitudinal study, 142 participants in Study 1 completed planned behavior measures (injunctive and descriptive norms, perceptions of behavioral control, intentions and actual behavior) and

Mark Manning

2011-01-01

62

Comparison of Attitudes Regarding Quality of Life between Insulin-Treated Subjects with Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy Populations  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and one of the main causes of mortality in developing countries. The main objective of treating all chronic diseases, of course, is to improve well-being and attain a satisfactory quality of life (QOL). The major goal of this study is comparison of attitude toward QOL in insulin-dependent subjects with diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects. Methods In this study, insulin-dependent subjects with diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects were gathered via convenience sampling. The subjects were asked to complete the Hanestad & Albrektsen Attitude to Quality of Life Questionnaire. The questionnaire evaluates five quality of life dimensions-physical, social, mental-emotional, behavioral-activity, and economic-using a scoring system similar to the Likert scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare scores between the two groups. Results The mean total score on attitude toward QOL in the healthy control group was 53.8, and it in the insulin-dependent subjects with diabetes mellitus group was 35.9. The mean total score of attitude toward QOL in the physical dimension, mental-emotional and feelings of well-being dimension, and behavioral-activity dimension were significantly higher in the healthy population than they were in diabetes mellitus groups. Such a difference was not seen in the social and economic dimensions. Conclusion Since the attitudes of insulin-dependent subjects with diabetes mellitus toward QOL are used as an index of individual and societal health levels, it appears that this group may benefit from education and professional counseling to improve their QOLs. PMID:21977460

Hashemi Hefz Abad, Fariba

2011-01-01

63

Norms and correlates of bioimpedance phase angle in healthy human subjects, hospitalized patients, and patients with liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This study investigates whether bioimpedance indexes rather than derived body compartments would be adequate for nutritional\\u000a assessment. Evidence is provided that the phase angle as determined by conventional tetrapolar whole body bioelectrical impedance\\u000a analysis at 50 kHz (1) was largely determined by the arms and legs and not the trunk, (2) was higher in control subjects than\\u000a in hospitalized patients

Oliver Selberg; Daniela Selberg

2002-01-01

64

Cognition is only minimally impaired in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14): a neuropsychological study of ten Norwegian subjects compared to intrafamilial controls and population norm  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing awareness of the role of the cerebellum not only in motor, but also in cognitive and emotional functions. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia characterized by a relatively pure cerebellar phenotype. Cognitive impairment has been reported in studies with phenotype descriptions of SCA14, but previous studies have been small without control groups, and no homogeneous and systematic test panel has been used. The objective of this study was to thoroughly characterize the neuropsychological profile in ten Norwegian SCA14 subjects compared to unaffected family members and population norm data. Methods Ten SCA14 subjects and ten intrafamilial unaffected age- and education-matched controls from two Norwegian families were included. The unaffected intrafamilial controls included six first degree relatives, two second degree relatives, and two spouses. General intellectual ability, memory, visuoperceptive skills, psychomotor speed, executive functions, depression and anxiety were examined using internationally standardized tests, with minimal need for manual response to avoid motor bias. Results No significant cognitive deficit was found in SCA14 subjects compared to intrafamilial controls. Verbal IQ, verbal executive function and psychomotor speed tended to be reduced in affected subjects, but previously reported non-verbal executive dysfunction was not confirmed in this study. Conclusion Only subtle cognitive impairment was found in SCA14 affected subjects. The current findings do not confirm earlier reports of cognitive dysfunction in SCA14, but does shows a mild impairment in specific verbal executive functions. Genotypic differences may partly account for this discrepancy, and further studies on larger materials are needed to verify the findings. PMID:24289098

2013-01-01

65

The Effects of Principle-Testing Discussions on Student Attitudes towards Selected Groups Subjected to Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative effectiveness of principle testing discussion (PTD) and its possible interaction with moral development levels in students' demonstrations of positive attitudes toward women, the physically handicapped, and East Indians. Analysis of attitude scale responses provided equivocal support for the use of PTD.…

Kehoe, John W.; Rogers, W. Todd

1978-01-01

66

Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed. PMID:25154118

Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

2014-01-01

67

BSL Norms 1 Running head: BSL norms  

E-print Network

BSL Norms 1 Running head: BSL norms The British Sign Language (BSL) Norms for Age of Acquisition for age of acquisition, familiarity and iconicity for 300 British Sign Language (BSL) signs, as rated languages, age of acquisition, familiarity, iconicity #12;BSL Norms 3 The British Sign Language (BSL) Norms

Vigliocco, Gabriella

68

Attitude stability of a spacecraft on a stationary orbit around an asteroid subjected to gravity gradient torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitude stability of spacecraft subjected to the gravity gradient torque in a central gravity field has been one of the most fundamental problems in space engineering since the beginning of the space age. Over the last two decades, the interest in asteroid missions for scientific exploration and near-Earth object hazard mitigation is increasing. In this paper, the problem of attitude stability is generalized to a rigid spacecraft on a stationary orbit around a uniformly-rotating asteroid. This generalized problem is studied via the linearized equations of motion, in which the harmonic coefficients C_{20} and C_{22} of the gravity field of the asteroid are considered. The necessary conditions of stability of this conservative system are investigated in detail with respect to three important parameters of the asteroid, which include the harmonic coefficients C_{20} and C_{22}, as well as the ratio of the mean radius to the radius of the stationary orbit. We find that, due to the significantly non-spherical shape and the rapid rotation of the asteroid, the attitude stability domain is modified significantly in comparison with the classical stability domain predicted by the Beletskii-DeBra-Delp method on a circular orbit in a central gravity field. Especially, when the spacecraft is located on the intermediate-moment principal axis of the asteroid, the stability domain can be totally different from the classical stability domain. Our results are useful for the design of attitude control system in the future asteroid missions.

Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

2013-04-01

69

The attitudes and perceptions of medical students towards basic science subjects during their clinical years: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the conventional system of medical education, basic subjects are taught in the 1st year with least interdisciplinary interaction. The objective of this study was to explore the students’ perception about content, need and application of basic science subjects during the clinical years of their medical education. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among students randomly after taking their written consent for participation in the study. About 265 completely filled questionnaires were received back and the response was analyzed. Results: Students identified anatomy as the subject with overloaded syllabus (75.4%) and also with maximum clinical application with 50.1% of them considering it the most important basic subject. Students were satisfied with the practical integration of subjects to impart clinical skills, but considered problem based learning a better method of teaching. According to 37%, 43.8% and 33.2% of respondents respectively; anatomy, biochemistry and physiology curriculum should only cover the general concepts to give the working knowledge of the subject. Approximately, 65% of the respondents were able to recall the knowledge of anatomy and physiology while biochemistry was retained by 40%. Conclusions: Overall, the attitudes of students toward basic science subjects were positive. The learning experience for them can be improved significantly by better clinical integration of the subjects. PMID:24600572

Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Ashwani K; Verma, Minni; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

2014-01-01

70

Consumer Attitude toward Marketing and Subjective Quality of Life in the Context of a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to better understand Consumer Attitude toward Marketing (CATM) and how it relates to quality of life (QOL) in a developing country. Such sentiments toward marketing practice are core indicators of the marketing system's performance in delivering well-being to consumers during the first stage of the consumption process—acquisition. In this stage, the activities of businesses

Mark Peterson; Ahmet Ekici

2007-01-01

71

Experimental model predictive attitude tracking control of a quadrotor helicopter subject to wind-gusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate navigation and control of unmanned quadrotor helicopters in harsh environmental conditions due to wind disturbances is an open challenge. The aim of the work presented in this article is the design of a Model Predictive Control scheme based on Piecewise Affine (PWA) modeling of an Unmanned quadrotor Helicopter (UqH) in attitude maneuvers. The suggested algorithm is verified in experimental

Kostas Alexis; George Nikolakopoulos; Anthony Tzes

2010-01-01

72

Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

2011-01-01

73

Attitudes toward Women as a Function of Subject's Experience with Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence is accumulating that experiences of children within the violent family are fundamental causes of the continuing problem of family and societal violence. To examine attitudes and values as a function of experience with family violence, 114 male undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing general demographics, and several…

Stahly, Geraldine Butts

74

Welfare-Spending Judgments Through Class, Race, and Gender Lenses: Exploring the Influence of Stratification Beliefs, Racial Attitudes, and Gender Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

As politicians in the 1990s shrank welfare appropriations and tinkered with eligibility rules, many researchers examined American welfare attitudes. In doing so, separate lines of research argued that welfare-spending inclinations can be swayed by a person's class, race and gender statuses. Moreover, different studies connected welfare appraisals to a person's explanation of poverty, racial inequalities and gender hierarchies. As these

Eric Swank

2005-01-01

75

The Effect of Subjective Risk Attitudes and Overconfidence on Risk Taking Behaviors: A Experimental Study Based on Traders of the Chinese Stock Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research analyzes the effect of the traders’ subjective risk attitude, optimism and overconfidence on their risk taking behaviors on the Chinese Stock Market by experimental study method. We find that investors’ risk taking behavior is significantly affected by their subjective risk attitude, optimism and overconfidence. Our results also argue that the objective return and volatility of stock are not as good predictors of risk taking behavior as subjective risk and return measures. Moreover, we illustrate that overconfidence and optimism have an significant impact on risk taking behavior In line with theoretical models.

Chen, Qi-An; Xiao, Yinghong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Liang

76

Drug dealing and attitudes and norms about drug dealing among young adults and their peers in a high-risk community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the extent of drug dealing and of non-hostile views towards drug dealing among young adults and their peers in an impoverished minority community with considerable drug dealing and use. Methods: A population-representative sample of three hundred and sixty-three 18–24 year olds was interviewed in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn, NY. Questions asked about drug dealing, attitudes to

Samuel R Friedman; Peter L Flom; Benny J Kottiri; Alan Neaigus; Milagros Sandoval; Richard Curtis; Bruce D Johnson; Don C Des Jarlais

2003-01-01

77

Collaboration between L2 and Content Subject Teachers in CBI: Contrasting Beliefs and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As content-based instruction (CBI) programmes involve certain degrees of integration of second language (L2) and content learning, collaboration between L2 and content subject teachers has been strongly advocated. Whether this type of teacher collaboration can be successfully implemented will depend on many factors, one of which is teacher beliefs…

Lo, Yuen Yi

2014-01-01

78

Field Guide for the Study of Aspects of Subjective Culture. Illinois Studies of the Economically Disadvantaged, Technical Report Number 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective culture is a human group's characteristic way of perceiving the man-made part of its environment. It includes the group's model attitudes, norms, values, and roles. The study of subjective culture is likely to make a contribution to our understanding of the way various groups in any culture interact with members of other groups. The…

Triandis, Harry C.; Malpass, Roy S.

79

A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use.  

PubMed

The practice of waterpipe smoking (hookah) has rapidly increased in popularity among young adults yet burgeoning research suggests that its use is associated with nicotine dependence and other negative smoking-related health consequences. Moreover, descriptive studies indicate that consumers may hold the belief that hookah smoking is safer than smoking cigarettes. The current study extended previous work by conducting a comprehensive assessment of patterns and contexts of hookah use, psychological correlates of use, co-occurring substance use as well as social norms and health perceptions surrounding the practice. Participants were 143 ethnically diverse undergraduate students at a large urban US university. Approximately half of the sample (48%) reported life-time use of hookah and 22% reported use within the past 30days. Relative to cigarette smoking, hookah smoking was associated with less perceived harm and addiction potential and higher social approval. Participants who reported life-time hookah use, as compared to those who did not, perceived less associated harm, had a greater number of friends who had tried and approved of hookah, were more likely to use cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol and in higher frequencies and quantities and were at higher risk for problem tobacco and alcohol use. Among participants who were not current smokers, those with hookah experience were more likely to endorse intent to try a cigarette soon. Hookah users did not differ from non-users on measures of trait anxiety, depression and impulsivity though they were more likely to drink alcohol for coping, social and enhancement purposes than non-users. Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking. PMID:23934006

Heinz, Adrienne J; Giedgowd, Grace E; Crane, Natania A; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Braun, Ashley R; Olejarska, Natalia A; Kassel, Jon D

2013-11-01

80

Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

2011-01-01

81

Drugs and the College Athlete: An Analysis of the Attitudes of Student Athletes At Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information that describes the attitudes of college athletes who are at risk for drug use. Responses from 563 athletes indicate that subjective norms, based on the influence of drug testing, peer influence, and a fear of detection, significantly influence student athletes' decisions to use banned substances. (RJM)

Tricker, Raymond; Connolly, Declan

1997-01-01

82

Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

2011-01-01

83

Design and experimental verification of a Constrained Finite Time Optimal control scheme for the attitude control of a Quadrotor Helicopter subject to wind gusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the design and the experimental verification of a Constrained Finite Time Optimal (CFTO) control scheme for the attitude control of an Unmanned Quadrotor Helicopter (UqH) subject to wind gusts is being presented. In the proposed design the UqH has been modeled by a set of Piecewise Affine (PWA) linear equations while the wind gusts effects are embedded

Kostas Alexis; George Nikolakopoulos; Anthony Tzes

2010-01-01

84

Development, social norms, and assignment to task  

PubMed Central

Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

Fafchamps, Marcel

2011-01-01

85

Development, social norms, and assignment to task.  

PubMed

Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

Fafchamps, Marcel

2011-12-27

86

Attitude stability of a spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays on a stationary orbit around an asteroid subjected to gravity gradient torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the gravity field of an asteroid with the second order and degree harmonics C 20 and C 22, the attitude stability of a spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays on a stationary orbit subjected to the fourth-order gravity gradient torque is investigated in this paper. The sufficient conditions of attitude stability of the spacecraft are obtained, the effect of the direction of the flexible solar arrays and some special cases are discussed. Taking the asteroids 4769 Castalia, 25143 Itokawa and the imaginary asteroids as examples, the attitude stability domains, determined by the sufficient conditions, of the spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits around them are presented. It is found that the attitude stability domains of the spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays are evidently different when the solar arrays are installed in different directions; the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has the significant influence on the attitude stability domains of the spacecrafts with flexible appendages moving on stationary orbits; in the certain case, the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has no influence on the attitude stability domains of the rigid spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits, but in the other cases, the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has also the significant influence on the attitude stability domains of the rigid spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits; whether the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids are considered or not, the effect of flexible appendages decreases the attitude stability domains.

Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhao, Chang-Yin

2014-06-01

87

Values, attitudes and perceptions of managers as predictors of corporate environmental responsiveness.  

PubMed

We examine whether managers' values, attitudes, and perceptions influence the greening of organizations. To that purpose, we specify and test a model of corporate environmental responsiveness (CER), drawing upon a modified version of the theory of planned behavior and the value-belief-norm theory. Based on survey data from 142 Greek companies, we find that top managers' personal values influence responses indirectly, through shaping their environmental attitudes, while direct relationship is not significant. Subjective norms, expressing stakeholder expectations, do affect CER, with their effect being stronger than that of attitudes. Managers' perceived ability to handle environmental issues also appears to influence responses. Results have theoretical implications, indicating the significant role of managers' values, attitudes and perceptions in a firm's environmental response. Practical implications are discussed in relation to selection of managers and training. PMID:22361109

Papagiannakis, Giorgos; Lioukas, Spyros

2012-06-15

88

Assessing the impact of nutrition education on growth indices of Iranian nomadic children: an application of a modified beliefs, attitudes, subjective-norms and enabling-factors model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to teach suitable feeding and hygiene practices to a group of randomly selected Qashqa'i tribe families with 406 children aged 0 - 59 months, a culturally appropriate community-based education intervention approach was used. To assess the impact of the interven- tion on the study group, another group of families with 405 children were randomly selected to serve as

Mousa Salehi; S. M. Kimiagar; M. Shahbazi; Y. Mehrabi; A. A. Kolahi

2004-01-01

89

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions toward Nuclear Energy before and after Chernobyl in a Longitudinal within-subjects Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward nuclear energy in the Netherlands were investigated within a sample of Dutch citizens two months before the Chernobyl accident, one month after the accident, six months after the accident, and one year and seven months after the accident. One month after the accident, analyses revealed more unfavorable attitudes which became less antinuclear five months

Bas Verplanken

1989-01-01

90

Crime and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a general equilibrium model of crime. It is shown that law and norms are substitutes in achieving a stable equilibrium. Here we offer a new interpretation of different theories of social norms in the context of crime and deterrence. The law and economics theory is presented as an ‘opportunism-limiting’ approach to norms whereas the evolutionary

Nuno Garoupa

2003-01-01

91

EVOLUTION OF MORAL NORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral norms are the rules of morality, those that people actually follow, and those that we feel people ought to follow, even when they don't. Historically, the social sciences have been primarily concerned with describing the many forms that moral norms take in various cultures, with the emerging implication that moral norms are mere arbitrary products of culture. Philosophers, on

William Harms; Brian Skyrms

92

Yvon PESQUEUX NORMES & MONDIALISATION  

E-print Network

of culture. Keywords Culture, globalization, multinational companies, norms, standards, values 1 Introduction groupes issus de cultures différentes, les normes étant vues ici en relation avec la culture. Mots clés Culture, mondialisation, entreprise multinationale, normes, valeurs Abstract This communication

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian and vegan diets: an examination of the role of ambivalence.  

PubMed

Vegetarianism within the U.K. is growing in popularity, with the current estimate of 7% of the population eating a vegetarian diet. This study examined differences between the attitudes and beliefs of four dietary groups (meat eaters, meat avoiders, vegetarians and vegans) and the extent to which attitudes influenced intentions to follow each diet. In addition, the role of attitudinal ambivalence as a moderator variable was examined. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 111 respondents (25 meat eaters, 26 meat avoiders, 34 vegetarians, 26 vegans). In general, predictions were supported, in that respondents displayed most positive attitudes and beliefs towards their own diets, and most negative attitudes and beliefs towards the diet most different form their own. Regression analyses showed that, as predicted by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intention to follow each diet (apart from the vegetarian diet, where subjective norm was non-significant). In each case, attitudinal ambivalence was found to moderate the attitude-intention relationship, such that attitudes were found to be stronger predictors at lower levels of ambivalence. The results not only highlight the extent to which such alternative diets are an interesting focus for psychological research, but also lend further support to the argument that ambivalence in an important influence on attitude strength. PMID:11562154

Povey, R; Wellens, B; Conner, M

2001-08-01

94

Do Perceptions of Discrepancy Between Self and Group Norms Contribute to Peer Harassment at School?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which adolescents systematically perceive a discrepancy between private and group norms about the acceptability of bullying and examined the association between norm estimation and actual bystander behavior. Ninety-one 8th graders (42 male and 49 female) described their personal attitudes about bullies and victims as well as their perceptions of their classmates' attitudes. Teachers rated

Marlene J. Sandstrom; Maria Bartini

2010-01-01

95

Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364

Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

2010-01-01

96

Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

2013-01-01

97

1-norm Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard -norm SVM is known for its good performance in two- class classification. In this paper, we consider the -norm SVM. We argue that the -norm SVM may have some advantage over the standard -norm SVM, especially when there are redundant noise features. We also propose an efficient algorithm that computes the whole s olution path of the -norm

Ji Zhu; Saharon Rosset; Trevor Hastie; Robert Tibshirani

2003-01-01

98

Actual and subjective age-related differences in women's attitudes toward their bodies across the life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined actual and subjective age-related variations in women's perceptions of their weight, sexual attractiveness,\\u000a physical condition, and overall body satisfaction. To this end, 265 women between the ages of 17 and 85 years completed the\\u000a Body Esteem Scale (Franzio & Shields, 1984), the subjective age scales of the Subjective Age and Gender Scale (Montepare,\\u000a 1996), and the

Joann M. Montepare

1996-01-01

99

Subjective and objective measures of attractiveness and their relation to sexual behavior and sexual attitudes in university students.  

PubMed

This study examined both self-rated and objectively measured attractiveness in relation to sexual behaviors and attitudes in an undergraduate sample (N=456). About a quarter of the variance in self-ratings of attractiveness was predicted from combining standard objective measures of attractiveness, including face photo ratings, body mass index, and chest-to-waist ratio for men, and face photo ratings, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio for women. Correlations were investigated among self-rated attractiveness, measured attractiveness, the residual component of self-rated attractiveness (controlling for measured attractiveness), and a number of sexual and related variables. Measured attractiveness correlated moderately with sexual behaviors but not with sociosexuality or sexual moral attitudes, indicating that higher levels of observable attractiveness may serve to increase opportunities for sex with multiple desirable partners without affecting interests in or moral acceptance of casual sex. Self-rated attractiveness correlated positively with sexual behaviors and with sociosexuality, but the correlation with sociosexuality was based entirely on residual factors beyond the objective measures of attractiveness. Other predictors of sexual behavior were discussed in terms of their variable roles in affecting interest in, opportunities for, and social costs of promiscuous sexual activity. PMID:17136591

Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

2007-02-01

100

Attitudes toward older people and coworkers' intention to work with older employees: a Taiwanese study.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N= 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived subjective norm, and traditional Chinese cultural values were all related to stronger intentions to work with older employees; (2) the model derived from the theory of reasoned action emerged the best model accounting for behavioral intention among competing structural models. The associations of positive attitudes and subjective norm with intention were found after controlling for demographics, cultural values, and personal contact experiences with older people. Our results highlight the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform public and organizational policies to better promote and manage the careers of older employees in an aging, economically developing society. PMID:21261137

Lu, Luo

2010-01-01

101

Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research  

PubMed Central

This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

2010-01-01

102

Theory of Reasoned Action and Its Integration with Economic Modelling in Linking Farmers' Attitudes and Adoption Behavior - An Illustration from the Analysis of the Uptake of Livestock Technologies in the South West of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural intentions of a sample of livestock farmers in the south-west of England towards new technologies were analysed within a Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) framework, in order to explore reasons for the apparently low rate at which research-based knowledge is being transferred to the livestock industry. Correlations between components of attitudes (outcome beliefs and evaluations), subjective norms (normative

Tahir Rehman; K. McKemey; Chris Garforth; R. Huggins; C. M. Yates; R. J. Cook; Richard B. Tranter; Julian R. Park; Peter T. Dorward

2003-01-01

103

THEORY OF REASONED ACTION AND ITS INTEGRATION WITH ECONOMIC MODELLING IN LINKING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND ADOPTION BEHAVIOUR - AN ILLUSTRATION FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE UPTAKE OF LIVESTOCK TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOUTH WEST OF ENGLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural intentions of a sample of livestock farmers in the south-west of England towards new technologies were analysed within a Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) framework, in order to explore reasons for the apparently low rate at which research-based knowledge is being transferred to the livestock industry. Correlations between components of attitudes (outcome beliefs and evaluations), subjective norms (normative

T Rehman; K McKemey; C Garforth; R Huggins; CM Yates; RJ Cook; RB Tranter; PT Dorward

104

Changes in Obesity-related Food Behavior: A Nutrition Education Intervention to Change Attitudes and Other Factors Associated with Food-related Intentions in Adolescents: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

E-print Network

adolescents completed the questionnaire at baseline and 75 completed it at post-intervention. Cronbach alpha statistic for subjective norms and attitudes toward eating breakfast, consuming low-fat dairy and whole-grains were 0.67 and higher for each dependant...

Carson, Diane E.

2011-08-08

105

Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding  

PubMed Central

This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

2014-01-01

106

Preschool Children's Attitudes about Deviations from Gender-Role Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 3- to 7-year old children's knowledge about gender roles and moral and social norms, their beliefs about the possibility of violating these roles and norms, and their attitudes about children who do. The gender role norms were grouped into several categories: toys, games, play styles, adult occupations, adult parental roles,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen; Russ, Lisa S.

107

Attitudes toward Genetic Research Review: Results from a National Survey of Professionals involved in Human Subjects Protection  

PubMed Central

The recent expansion of human genetics research has raised complex ethical and regulatory issues. However, few published reports describe the views of professionals involved in human subjects protection (HSP) regarding the risks and benefits of genetic research. This anonymous, web-based study elicited the opinions of 208 HSP professionals about review of genetic research. The majority of respondents felt that different guidance is needed for various aspects of genetic protocol review compared with other types of human subjects research. Importantly, opinions were divided on specific genetic research issues such as what constitutes human subjects research, when to re-consent, and the likelihood and risks of research participant identification. Findings from this study illustrate the need for a collaborative approach to ethics oversight in the conduct and review of genetic research. PMID:20235866

Lemke, Amy A.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Edwards, Karen L.; Starks, Helene; Wiesner, Georgia L.

2010-01-01

108

Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

Grow, Richard T.

1980-01-01

109

Adolescent Alcohol-Related Risk Cognitions: The Roles of Social Norms and Social Networking Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not.

Dana M. Litt; Michelle L. Stock

2011-01-01

110

An Exploratory Study of the Relationships Between Televised Sports Viewing Habits and Conformity to Masculine Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this exploratory study the relationships between televised sports viewing habits and conformity to masculine norms were examined through a single panel survey. The amount and types of sports programming an individual watches in a usual week were assessed, along with attitudes about masculinity as measured by the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory. A group of 183 U.S. college students

Thomas C. Johnson; Edward Schiappa

2010-01-01

111

Serotonin and Social Norms  

PubMed Central

How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

2014-01-01

112

Vitrification of NORM wastes  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification of wastes is a relatively new application of none of man`s oldest manufacturing processes. During the past 25 years it has been developed and accepted internationally for immobilizing the most highly radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel. By the year 2005, there will be nine operating high-level radioactive vitrification plants. Many of the technical ``lessons learned`` from this international program can be applied to much less hazardous materials such as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). With the deployment of low capital and operating cost systems, vitrification should become a broadly applied process for treating a large variety of wastes. In many situations, the wastes can be transformed into marketable products. This paper will present a general description of waste vitrification, summarize some of its key advantages, provide some test data for a small sample of one NORM, and suggest how this process may be applied to NORM.

Chapman, C.

1994-05-01

113

Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

114

Perceived Peer Norms and Sexual Intentions Among African American Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research was to examine whether perceived peer dating and sexual experience norms are related to attitudes toward dating and sexual behavior and to precoital and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. Participants included 1,046 African American youth aged 9-12 years (M = 10.57 years). Youth completed a…

Wallace, Scyatta A.; Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex

2008-01-01

115

Nerds and Freaks: A Theory of Student Culture and Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the relationship between the study behavior and academic engagement of individual students, the norms and attitudes of close friends, and the peer culture of school. The authors are particularly interested in how the academic orientation of a student and his or her close friends invites or protects him or her from harassment by…

Bishop, John H.; Bishop, Matthew; Gelbwasser, Lara; Green, Shanna; Zuckerman, Andrew

2003-01-01

116

The development of subjective group dynamics: When in-group bias gets specific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children aged 6- 7 years and 10- 11 years evaluated an in-group or out-group summer school and judged in-group or out-group members whose attitudes towards the summer schools were either normative or anti-normative. According to a subjective group dynamics model of intergroup processes, intergroup differentiation and intragroup differentiation co-occur to bolster the validity of in-group norms. The hypothesis that this

Dominic Abrams; Adam Rutland; Lindsey Cameron; Josém. Marques

2003-01-01

117

Social Norms as Choreography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that social norms are better explained as correlating devices for a correlated equilibrium of the underlying stage game, rather than Nash equilibria. Whereas the epistemological requirements for rational agents playing Nash equilibria are very stringent and usually implausible, the requirements for a correlated equilibrium amount to the existence of common priors, which we interpret as induced by

Herbert Gintis

2009-01-01

118

Social norms as choreography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that social norms are better explained as correlating devices for a correlated equilibrium of the underlying stage game, rather than Nash equilibria. Whereas the epistemological requirements for rational agents playing Nash equilibria are very stringent and usually implausible, the requirements for a correlated equilibrium amount to the existence of common priors, which we interpret as induced by

Herbert Gintis

2010-01-01

119

Social Norms and Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are often posited as an explanation of differences in economic behavior and performance of societies that are difficult to explain by differences in endowments and technology. Economists are often reluctant to incorporate social aspects into their analyses when doing so leads to models that depart from the “standard” model. I discuss ways that agents’ social environment can be

Andrew Postlewaite

2010-01-01

120

Social norms and the expression and suppression of prejudice: the struggle for internalization.  

PubMed

The authors studied social norms and prejudice using M. Sherif and C. W. Sherif's (1953) group norm theory of attitudes. In 7 studies (N = 1,504), social norms were measured and manipulated to examine their effects on prejudice; both normatively proscribed and normatively prescribed forms of prejudice were included. The public expression of prejudice toward 105 social groups was very highly correlated with social approval of that expression. Participants closely adhere to social norms when expressing prejudice, evaluating scenarios of discrimination, and reacting to hostile jokes. The authors reconceptualized the source of motivation to suppress prejudice in terms of identifying with new reference groups and adapting oneself to fit new norms. Suppression scales seem to measure patterns of concern about group norms rather than personal commitments to reducing prejudice; high suppressors are strong norm followers. Compared with low suppressors, high suppressors follow normative rules more closely and are more strongly influenced by shifts in local social norms. There is much value in continuing the study of normative influence and self-adaptation to social norms, particularly in terms of the group norm theory of attitudes. PMID:11902622

Crandall, Christian S; Eshleman, Amy; O'Brien, Laurie

2002-03-01

121

NORM disposal options, costs vary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum producers have various options with different associated costs for disposing of oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). NORM can be disposed of both on the lease site and at offsite commercial disposal facilities.

J. A. Veil; K. Smith

1999-01-01

122

Evolutionary stability and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-interested behavior need not earn higher material payoffs than norm-guided behavior in strategic environments in which a recognized adherence to social norms can help solve the commitment problem. This insight can provide the basis for an evolutionary theory of social norms. If the composition of behaviors evolves under pressure of differential payoffs, a population consisting exclusively of optimizers may be

Rajiv Sethi

1996-01-01

123

Social norms and human cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of social norms is one of the big unsolved problems in social cognitive science. Although no other concept is invoked more frequently in the social sciences, we still know little about how social norms are formed, the forces determining their content, and the cognitive and emotional requirements that enable a species to establish and enforce social norms. In

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

124

NORM survey in Argentina.  

PubMed

A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested. PMID:23089035

Canoba, A C

2012-01-01

125

Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small. PMID:22846251

Johnson, Mark B.

2012-01-01

126

Are (Some) Reports of Attitude Strength Context Dependent?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the impact of subjective experiences on judgments of attitude strength. Sixty undergraduate subjects generated either three or seven arguments that either supported (for some subjects) or countered (for other subjects) their attitude toward doctor-assisted suicide, and subsequently indicated the strength of their attitude. Subjects reported that their attitude was more important, intense, and certain after having

GEOFFREY HADDOCK; ALEXANDER J. ROTHMAN; NORBERT SCHWARZ

1996-01-01

127

Notes on super-operator norms induced by Schatten norms  

E-print Network

This paper considers basic properties of super-operator norms induced by Schatten p-norms. Such super-operator norms arise in various contexts in the study of quantum information. It is proved that for completely positive super-operators, the value of any such norm is achieved by a positive semidefinite input, answering a question recently posed by King and Ruskai. However, for any choice of p, there exists a super-operator that is the difference of two completely positive, trace-preserving super-operators such that the value of the super-operator norm is not even achieved on a Hermitian input operator. Also considered are the properties of the above norms for super-operators tensored with the identity super-operator.

John Watrous

2004-11-10

128

Storage of household firearms: an examination of the attitudes and beliefs of married women with children  

PubMed Central

Although safe firearm storage is a promising injury prevention strategy, many parents do not keep their firearms unloaded and locked up. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examines factors associated with safe storage among married women with children and who have firearms in their homes. Data come from a national telephone survey (n?=?185). We examined beliefs about defensive firearm use, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and firearm storage practices. A Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was conducted to assess associations between psychosocial factors and firearm storage practices. Women were highly motivated to keep firearms stored safely. Those reporting safe storage practices had more favorable attitudes, more supportive subjective norms and higher perceptions of behavioral control than those without safe storage. One-fourth believed a firearm would prevent a family member from being hurt in case of a break-in, 58% believed a firearm could scare off a burglar. Some 63% said they leave decisions about firearm storage to their husbands. Women were highly motivated to store firearms safely as evidenced by favorable attitudes, supportive subjective norms and high perceptions of behavioral control. This was especially true for those reporting safer storage practices. PMID:17890758

Johnson, R. M.; Runyan, C. W.; Coyne-Beasley, T.; Lewis, M. A.; Bowling, J. M.

2008-01-01

129

A Social Norms Approach to Drug Prevention in Schools in Ireland: Results from a Pre Development Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that social norms interventions, which aim to educate individuals and groups on their actual attitudinal and behavioural norms relating to alcohol, cigarette and drug use,incur some success in reducing positive attitudes to substance use and rates of substance use. The research aimed to investigate the extent of misperceptions…

Culleton, Leigheann Ryan; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Foley, Michelle

2013-01-01

130

Perceived Peer Norms and Sexual Intentions Among African American Preadolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to examine whether perceived peer dating and sexual experience norms are related to attitudes toward dating and sexual behav- ior and to precoital and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. Participants included 1,046 African American youth aged 9-12 years (M = 10.57 years). Youth completed a baseline survey as part of a larger in-

Scyatta A. Wallace; Kim S. Miller; Rex Forehand

2008-01-01

131

The Transsituational Influence of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined the behavioral implications of a conceptual distinction between 2 types of social norms: descriptive norms, which specify what is typically done in a given setting, and injunctive norms, which specify what is typically approved in society. Using the social norm against littering, injunctive norm salience procedures were more robust in their behavioral impact across situations than were

Raymond R. Reno; Robert B. Cialdini; Carl A. Kallgren

1993-01-01

132

Development and Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Attitudes and Beliefs about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use among Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Despite cancer patients' extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), validated instruments to measure attitudes, and beliefs predictive of CAM use are lacking. We aimed at developing and validating an instrument, attitudes and beliefs about CAM (ABCAM). The 15-item instrument was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework. The literature review, qualitative interviews, expert content review, and cognitive interviews were used to develop the instrument, which was then administered to 317 outpatient oncology patients. The ABCAM was best represented as a 3-factor structure: expected benefits, perceived barriers, and subjective norms related to CAM use by cancer patients. These domains had Eigenvalues of 4.79, 2.37, and 1.43, and together explained over 57.2% of the variance. The 4-item expected benefits, 7-item perceived barriers, and 4-item subjective norms domain scores, each had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.91, 0.76, and 0.75, respectively. As expected, CAM users had higher expected benefits, lower perceived barriers, and more positive subjective norms (all P < 0.001) than those who did not use CAM. Our study provides the initial evidence that the ABCAM instrument produced reliable and valid scores that measured attitudes and beliefs related to CAM use among cancer patients. PMID:22693532

Mao, Jun J.; Palmer, Steve C.; Desai, Krupali; Li, Susan Q.; Armstrong, Katrina; Xie, Sharon X.

2012-01-01

133

Social norms, cooperation and inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the outcomes that can be supported by social norms in a society of infinitely lived and patient agents that are randomly matched in pairs every period to play a given game. I find that any mutually beneficial outcome can be supported by a self-enforcing social norm under both perfect information and a simple local information system. These

Pedro Dal Bó

2007-01-01

134

Social Norms and Social Assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are often posited as an explanation of differences in the economic behavior and performance of societies that are difficult to explain by differences in endowments and technology. The successful integration of social norms into economic models requires an understanding of the basis of the differences in preferences that lead to different behaviors. I explore the difference between deep

Andrew Postlewaite

2011-01-01

135

The Objectivity of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a popular view, a social norm exists in a society if the members of the community act in accordance with this norm and if deviant behavior is sanctioned. According to this view, the social commitment of a person P to perform action A can be equated with communal expectation towards P to do A. This view strikes a

Bernd Prien

136

Distributed Norm Enforcement Via Ostracism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agent normative society has to deal with two main con- cerns: how to dene norms and how to enforce them. Enforcement be- comes a complex issue as agent societies become more decentralized and open. We propose a new distributed mechanism to enforce norms by os- tracizing agents that do not abide by them. Our simulations have shown that, although

Adrian Perreau De Pinninck; Carles Sierra; W. Marco Schorlemmer

2007-01-01

137

Social Norms for Networked Communities  

E-print Network

Sustaining cooperation among self-interested agents is critical for the proliferation of emerging networked communities, such as the communities formed by social networking services. Providing incentives for cooperation in networked communities is particularly challenging because of their unique features: a large population of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, having asymmetric interests, and dynamically joining and leaving the community; network operation errors; and low-cost identity whitewashing. In this paper, taking these features into consideration, we propose a framework for the design and analysis of a class of incentive schemes based on social norms. We first define the concept of sustainable social norm under which no agent has an incentive to deviate. We then formulate the problem of designing an optimal social norm, which selects a social norm that maximizes overall social welfare among all sustainable social norms. Using the proposed framework, we study the structure of optimal social no...

Zhang, Yu; van der Schaar, Mihaela

2011-01-01

138

Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

2011-12-01

139

A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper responds to the call for culturally-relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV\\/STI research and intervention project in a low-income community in Mumbai, India (2008–2012). Community gender

Kristin M. Kostick; Stephen L. Schensul; Rajendra Singh; Pertti Pelto; Niranjan Saggurti

2011-01-01

140

Drugs and the college athlete: an analysis of the attitudes of student athletes at risk.  

PubMed

Theories related to planned behavior and reasoned action have included an individual's attitude as an important factor in the formation of behavioral intentions and behaviors. Research on this topic suggests that salient beliefs affect intentions and subsequent behaviors, either through attitudes or subjective norms, or the degree of (perceived) control that an individual feels he/she has over the behavior. This study was designed to examine the relative importance of selected attitude variables in describing a profile of athletes who were at risk for using anabolic steroids, human grown hormone, amphetamines, cocaine, and marijuana. Responses from 563 student athletes at two Division One NCAA universities were used in the study. The results of this study suggest that subjective norms, based on the influence of drug testing, peer influence, and a fear of detection are significant factors that influence the decisions of student athletes related to using banned substances. In this article characteristics of at-risk athletes are presented with recommendations for drug education programs for student athletes. PMID:9270209

Tricker, R; Connolly, D

1997-01-01

141

Beliefs and Attitudes Associated With the Intention to Not Accept the Diagnosis of Depression Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Negative attitudes and beliefs about depression treatment may prevent many young adults from accepting a diagnosis and treatment for depression. We undertook a study to determine the association between depressive symptom severity, beliefs about and attitudes toward treatment, subjective social norms, and past behavior on the intent not to accept a physician’s diagnosis of depression. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10,962 persons aged 16 to 29 years who participated and had positive screening results on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score in an Internet-based public health depression screening program. Participants reported whether they would accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Based on the theory of reasoned action, we developed a multivariate model of the factors that predict intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression. RESULTS Twenty-six percent of the participants stated their intent not to accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Disagreeing that medications are effective in treating depression (strongly disagree, odds ratio ( OR ) = 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.6–9.3), that there is a biological cause for depression (strongly disagree, OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3–2.7), and agreeing that you would be embarrassed if your friends knew you had depression were associated with the intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression (strongly agree, OR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.8–2.9). Beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and past behavior explained most of the variance in this model (84%). CONCLUSIONS Negative beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and lack of past helpful treatment experiences are associated with the intent to not accept the diagnosis of depression and may contribute to low rates of treatment among young adults. PMID:15671189

Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Houston, Thomas K.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E.

2005-01-01

142

Observed Divergence in the Attitudes of Incumbents and Supervisors as Subject Matter Experts in Job Analysis: A Study of the Fire Captain Rank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared attitudes of 20 incumbent fire captains and 11 supervisors about critical aspects of a fire captain's job. Results showed that they agree substantially about the criticality of tasks and moderately agree about Fire Captain attributes. (Contains 41 notes and references.) (JOW)

Mueller, Michael; Belcher, Greg

2000-01-01

143

Social norms, partnerships and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a social norms interpretation to explain cross-country differences in partnership formation rates. Social\\u000a norms are modeled as a constraint on the allocation of household labor that diminishes the gains of entering a partnership,\\u000a especially for highly educated women with a higher opportunity cost of time. Results using individual level data from 7 waves\\u000a of the European Community

J. Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal; Jose Alberto Molina; Almudena Sevilla-Sanz

2012-01-01

144

Social norms or social preferences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some behavioral economists argue that the honoring of social norms can be adequately modeled as the optimization of social\\u000a utility functions in which the welfare of others appears as an explicit argument. This paper suggests that the large experimental\\u000a claims made for social utility functions are premature at best, and that social norms are better studied as equilibrium selection\\u000a devices

Ken Binmore

2010-01-01

145

Branching geodesics in normed spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal.

Ivanov, A. O.; Tuzhilin, A. A.

2002-10-01

146

Autonomous Agents with Norms Frank Dignum  

E-print Network

in an environment that is governed by some (social) norms. We divide the norms over three levels: the private level give some idea about an agent architecture incorporating the social norms based on a BDI framework. Key words: Agent society, Norms, Contracts, Speech acts 1. Introduction In the area of Multi­Agent Systems

Dignum, Frank

147

MODELING SOCIAL NORMS IN MULTIAGENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are cultural phenomena that naturally emerge in human societies and help prescribe and proscribe normative patterns of behavior. In recent times, the discipline of multiagent systems has been modeling social norms in artificial society of agents. This paper reviews norms in multiagent systems and then offers exploration of a series of norms in a simulated urban traffic setting.

Henry Hexmoor; Satish Gunnu Venkata; Donald Hayes

148

Third-party punishment and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the characteristics and relative strength of third-party sanctions in a series of experiments. We hypothesize that egalitarian distribution norms and cooperation norms apply in our experiments, and that third parties, whose economic payoff is unaffected by the norm violation, may be willing to enforce these norms although the enforcement is costly for them. Almost two-thirds of the third

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

149

Quality of Decision Making and Group Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of

Tom Postmes; Russell Spears; Sezgin Cihangir

2001-01-01

150

Differentiating Among Motives for Norm Conformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated why individuals conform to social norms. The authors propose that individuals conform to social norms to satisfy 3 general motives: accuracy, self-related, and other-related. Building on previous behavior prediction models, Study 1 found that measures of norms that identify specific motivational goals predicted behavior and intention better than did standard measures of social norms that consider only

Gregory J. Pool; Andria F. Schwegler

2007-01-01

151

The Neural Signature of Social Norm Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY All known human societies establish social order by punishing violators of social norms. However, little is known about how the brain processes the punishment threat associated with norm violations. We use fMRI to study the neural circuitry behind social norm compliance by comparing a treatment in which norm viola- tions can be punished with a control treatment in which

Manfred Spitzer; Urs Fischbacher; Bärbel Herrnberger; Georg Grön; Ernst Fehr

2007-01-01

152

Social norms and the traditional deterrence game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bicchieri (The grammar of society: The nature and dynamics of norms, 2006, xi) presents a formal analysis of norms that answers\\u000a the questions of “when, how, and to what degree” norms affect human behavior in the play of games. The purpose of this paper\\u000a is to apply a variation of the Bicchieri norms analysis to generate a model of norms-based

Lisa J. Carlson; Raymond Dacey

2010-01-01

153

The empirical study of norms is just what we are missing  

PubMed Central

This paper argues that the goals people have when reasoning determine their own norms of reasoning. A radical descriptivism which avoids norms never worked for any science; nor can it work for the psychology of reasoning. Norms as we understand them are illustrated with examples from categorical syllogistic reasoning and the “new paradigm” of subjective probabilities. We argue that many formal systems are required for psychology: classical logic, non-monotonic logics, probability logics, relevance logic, and others. One of the hardest challenges is working out what goals reasoners have and choosing and tailoring the appropriate logics to model the norms those goals imply. PMID:25368590

Achourioti, Theodora; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stenning, Keith

2014-01-01

154

Resolving Conflict and Inconsistency in Norm-Regulated Virtual Organizations  

E-print Network

in which agents support Grid services. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.4 [Artificial Intelligence]: Applications and Expert Systems-- Law; I.2.11 [Artificial Intelligence]: Distributed Artificial Intelli- genceResolving Conflict and Inconsistency in Norm-Regulated Virtual Organizations Wamberto Vasconcelos

Vasconcelos, Wamberto

155

Scaling sex attitudes and behavior in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex attitudes and behavior were scaled according to Guttman scale criteria among 300 members of the public, students, and nurses in Johannesburg, South Africa, replicating the central features of earlier studies conducted in the United States. The study presents an initial attempt to establish norms of sex attitudes and behavior in South Africa. The scales are shown to provide reliable

Eric D. Stillerman; Colin M. Shapiro

1979-01-01

156

Painkilling drugs in collegiate athletics: knowledge, attitudes, and use of student athletes.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the attitudes of student athletes toward the use of painkilling drugs. A total of 563 student athletes at two Division One NCAA universities were surveyed in this study. Twenty-nine percent of the student athletes (n = 165) reported that they felt there is nothing wrong with using painkilling drugs on the day of competition (when injured) to cope with pain. These student athletes reported that they would use painkilling drugs to mask injury in order to continue to participate in their sport. Student athletes' perceptions of societal norms and expectations related to competition, and the degree of control student athletes perceive that they have when deciding to use painkillers, may be important determinants governing the extent to which they may be at risk for abusing these substances. Research on planned behavior and reasoned action against suggests that salient beliefs affect intentions and subsequent behaviors, either through attitudes or subjective norms, or the degree of (perceived) control that an individual feels he/she has over the behavior [1, 2]. This theoretical model was used as a guiding framework for analyzing the attitudes of college athletes toward painkilling drugs. Recommendations are included in this article for coaches, educators, team physicians, team trainers, and administrators who are concerned about controlling the use and abuse of painkilling drugs by student athletes. PMID:11092151

Tricker, R

2000-01-01

157

What's in a Norm? Sources and Processes of Norm Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reply to the commentary by E. Staub and L. A. Pearlman (2009) revisits the field experimental results of E. L. Paluck (2009). It introduces further evidence and theoretical elaboration supporting Paluck's conclusion that exposure to a reconciliation-themed radio soap opera changed perceptions of social norms and behaviors, not beliefs. Experimental and longitudinal survey evidence reinforces the finding that the

Elizabeth Levy Paluck

2009-01-01

158

Are Traditional Gender Role Attitudes Associated With Risky Sexual Behavior and Condom-related Beliefs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional gender role attitudes, which emphasize an unequal distribution of power in the family and stereotypical norms about masculinity, may be associated with unsafe sexual behavior and beliefs in young men and women. This study was designed to examine associations between gender role attitudes including gender-based family role attitudes and masculinity ideology, sexual behaviors, and condom-related beliefs in a sample

Cindy L. Shearer; Shelley J. Hosterman; Meghan M. Gillen; Eva S. Lefkowitz

2005-01-01

159

Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

Zint, Michaela

2002-11-01

160

Gender-Role Variables and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationships of gender-role variables to attitudes toward homosexuality. Study 1, a meta-analysis, found that endorsement of traditional gender-role beliefs, modern sexism, and hypermasculinity were related to attitudes, but that gender-role self-concept was not. Study 2 examined the relationships of endorsement of male role norms, attitudes toward women, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, modern sexism, hypermasculinity, and hyperfemininity

Bernard E. Whitley

2001-01-01

161

Implementing Social Norms Using Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-agent systems are difficult to develop. One reason for this is that agents are embedded in a society where all agents must agree to obey certain social norms in order for the society to function. Thus, different programmers, writing different agents, must carefully obey certain agreed-upon protocols. This problem is difficult enough due to the complexity of the interactions, but

Robert Kremer

2009-01-01

162

Social Norms and Moral Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability of income loss depends on talent and effort. Effort has positive externalities and therefore individuals are proportion to their perceived diligence. The social norm requires more effort from individuals perceived as more talented, but talent is private information and individuals cunningly choose effort so as to manipulate the public perception of their talent. We analyze the workings of

Martin Dufwenberg; Michael Lundholm

1997-01-01

163

Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

2011-01-01

164

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

165

Modelling social norms in multiagent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Social norms ,are ,cultural phenomena ,that naturally ,emerge ,in human societies and help prescribe and,proscribe normative,patterns of behavior. In recent times, the discipline of multiagent systems has been modeling social norms,in artificial society of agents. ,This paper ,reviews ,norms ,in multiagent systems,and then offers exploration of a series of norms in a simulated,urban traffic setting. Using game,theoretic concepts,we define,and

Henry Hexmoor; Satish Gunnu Venkata; Donald Hayes

2006-01-01

166

Economic Approaches to Understanding Scientific Norms  

E-print Network

the norms of individual scientists and those of society at large. Though drawing from the same suite on this theme, namely, the investigation of the interface between social norms and individual interestsEconomic Approaches to Understanding Scientific Norms Michael Strevens To appear in Episteme

Strevens, Michael

167

Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norms are tabulated for the Bender Gestalt Test, based on a group of 62 male and 73 female junior high school students in Utah. These norms are designed to fill a gap in norms which now range from 3 years through adult. The students in this group were aged 12 through 14. Standard Bender Gestalt cards were used. The tests were administered…

Grow, Richard T.

168

Trace Norm Regularization: Reformulations, Algorithms, and Multi ...  

E-print Network

by the trace norm (also called nuclear norm) W?, defined as the sum of the singular ... the highest predictive power. ... A practical challenge in using trace norm regularization is to develop efficient methods to solve the ..... tion, which is a second-order method, but the computational cost per iteration appears prohibitive for.

2010-03-21

169

Collective Social Dynamics and Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

How individual behaviour is determined or at least influenced by social norms is one of the classic questions of social theory. We consider a norm as a rule guiding individual decisions concerning rituals, beliefs, traditions, and routines. Whenever coordinated behaviour is enforced without the help of an authority, this may be due to social norms. The individual being in the

Thomas Fent; Frank Schweitzer

2006-01-01

170

Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students.  

PubMed

Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-12-01

171

Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables.…

Aydin, Selami

2007-01-01

172

Attitudes towards euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit

C Winget; F T Kapp; R C Yeaworth

1977-01-01

173

Feminism: What is it Good For? Feminine Norms and Objectification as the Link between Feminist Identity and Clinically Relevant Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between feminism and clinical outcomes, such as eating attitudes,\\u000a depression, and self-esteem, employing structural equation modeling to look at indirect relationships. This study examined\\u000a female participants’ (N?=?282) responses to an online survey measuring feminist self-identification, conformity to feminine norms, objectified body\\u000a consciousness, eating attitudes, depression, and self-esteem. Participants were recruited

Molly M. Hurt; Jaclyn A. Nelson; Dixie L. Turner; Megan E. Haines; Laura R. Ramsey; Mindy J. Erchull; Miriam Liss

2007-01-01

174

A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

This paper responds to the call for culturally relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low income community in Mumbai, India (2008–2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities. PMID:21524835

Schensul, Stephen L.; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

2011-01-01

175

[Cleanliness Norms 1964-1975].  

PubMed

In 1964 the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach made a first survey taking stock of norms concerning cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany. At that time, 78% of respondents thought that the vogue among young people of cultivating an unkempt look was past or on the wane (Table 1.). Today we know that this fashion was an indicator of more serious desires for change in many different areas like politics, sexual morality, education and that its high point was still to come. In the fall of 1975 a second survey, modelled on the one of 1964, was conducted. Again, it concentrated on norms, not on behavior. As expected, norms have changed over this period but not in a one-directional or simple manner. In general, people are much more large-minded about children's looks: neat, clean school-dress, properly combed hair, clean shoes, all this and also holding their things in order has become less important in 1975 (Table 2). To carry a clean handkerchief is becoming oldfashioned (Table 3). On the other hand, principles of bringing-up children have not loosened concerning personal hygiene - brushing ones teeth, washing hands, feet, and neck, clean fingernails (Table 4). On one item related to protection of the environment, namely throwing around waste paper, standards have even become more strict (Table 5). With regard to school-leavers, norms of personal hygiene have generally become more strict (Table 6). As living standards have gone up and the number of full bathrooms has risen from 42% to 75% of households, norms of personal hygiene have also increased: one warm bath a week seemed enough to 56% of adults in 1964, but to only 32% in 1975 (Table 7). Also standards for changing underwear have changed a lot: in 1964 only 12% of respondents said "every day", in 1975 48% said so (Table 8). Even more stringent norms are applied to young women (Tables 9/10). For comparison: 1964 there were automatic washing machines in 16%, 1975 in 79% of households. Answers to questions which qualities men value especially in women and which qualities women value especially in men show a decrease in valutation of "cleanliness". These results can be interpreted in different ways (Tables 11/12). It seems, however, that "cleanliness" is not going out as a cultural value. We have found that young people today do not consider clean dress important but that they are probably better washed under their purposely neglected clothing than young people were ten years ago. As a nation, Germans still consider cleanliness to be a articularly German virtue, 1975 even more so than 1964 (Table 13). An association test, first made in March 1976, confirms this: When they hear "Germany", 68% of Germans think of "cleanliness" (Table 14). PMID:1015044

Noelle-Neumann, E

1976-01-01

176

Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales  

PubMed Central

Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

2014-01-01

177

Do different types of social identity moderate the association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among college students?  

PubMed

Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university's student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. PMID:24836160

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-09-01

178

A Model for Optimal Reaction Norms: The Case of the Pregnant Garter Snake and Her Temperature?Sensitive Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model to test Osgood's (1978) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature- sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or U-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by

Stevan J. Arnold; Charles R. Peterson

2002-01-01

179

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

180

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

181

My beliefs of my peers' beliefs: exploring the gendered nature of social norms in adolescent romantic relationships.  

PubMed

Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted. PMID:24144721

Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn

2014-01-01

182

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design…

Fabiano, Patricia M.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan; Linkenbach, Jeff; Stark, Christopher

2003-01-01

183

Cigarette use by adolescents: attitude-behavior relationships.  

PubMed

Structural equation models were used to test the effectiveness of various theories in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents. Maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12, was used to compare the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior, and a modified version of the theory of reasoned action incorporating past behavior. Respondents consisted of 225 high school students who were questioned in 1994 about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior, intentions, and actual behavior relating to the use of cigarettes. Results indicated that the modification of the TRA incorporating past behavior provided a marginally better fit than the other models. For this group of high school students, attitudes toward smoking, past behavior in relation to smoking, and perceptions of what significant others think they should do were significant predictors of their intentions to smoke. Intentions, together with past behavior, predicted their actual behavior. The models used in the present research show that this behavior can be explained with reference to a small number of key variables which are useful for furthering our understanding of the structure of adolescent smoking. PMID:10082067

O'Callaghan, F V; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A

1999-02-01

184

Les rythmes de travail hors norme  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les rythmes de travail hors norme. Travailler sept ou huit heures par jour, du lundi au vendredi et aux mêmes horaires toute l'année, demeure encore la norme. Cependant, trois actifs sur dix ont connu, en 1 995, un rythme de travail autre : irrégularité des jours ou, des horaires de travail, avec ou sans rythme hebdomadaire. Les non-salariés, même

Pierre Boisard; Jean-David Fermanian

1999-01-01

185

Semidefinite programs for completely bounded norms  

E-print Network

The completely bounded trace and spectral norms in finite dimensions are shown to be expressible by semidefinite programs. This provides an efficient method by which these norms may be both calculated and verified, and gives alternate proofs of some known facts about them.

John Watrous

2009-01-29

186

Social norms and the fertility transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a norm-based explanation for two features of the fertility transition that have been observed in many different settings: the slow response to external interventions and the wide variation in the response to the same intervention. Most societies have traditionally put norms into place to regulate fertility. When the economic environment changes, individuals gradually learn through their social

Kaivan Munshi; Jacques Myaux

2006-01-01

187

Genomics in Cyprus: Challenging the social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent situations illustrate how social norms can be made unstable as a result of breakthrough scientific advances such as genetic technologies. Technological advances can trigger the emergence of new solutions to complex problems, but in the process may challenge previously held norms. The prevention of ?-Thalassaemia in the social setting of Cyprus serves as a case study. A decision

Zosia B. Bornik; Hadi Dowlatabadi

2008-01-01

188

Towards the Group Formation through Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the decentralized formation of groups within a multiagent normative society. In our case, a group is dened based on the set of social norms used by its members: all the agents using the same set of norms belong to the same social group. In this pa- per we explore dierent mechanisms that allow agents to recognize the

Daniel Villatoro; Jordi Sabater-Mir

189

Social Norms and Conditional Cooperative Taxpayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper incorporates tax morale into the Allingham Sandmo (1972) model of income tax evasion. Tax morale is interpreted as a social norm for tax compliance. The norm strength, depending on the share of evaders in the society, is endogenously derived. Taxpayers act conditionally cooperative, as their evasion decision depends on the other agents' compliance. We characterize an equilibrium which

Christian Traxler

2006-01-01

190

Evolution and Interaction of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the framework of random matching games and develop a two society model to analyze the interaction of societies with different social norms. Each agent repeatedly faces two different coordination games. A social norm of a society is a mode of behavior --strategy--which is adopted by a majority of agents in the society. There are many equilibria in this

Akihiko Matsui; Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara

1997-01-01

191

Social norms and conditional cooperative taxpayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper incorporates tax morale into the Allingham Sandmo (1972) model of income tax evasion. Tax morale is modeled as a social norm for tax compliance. The strength of the norm is shaped endogenously, depending on the share of evaders in the society. Taxpayers act conditionally cooperative as their evasion depends on the others' compliance. We characterize the equilibrium which

Christian Traxler

2009-01-01

192

Social norms and conditional cooperative taxpayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper incorporates tax morale into the Allingham and Sandmo (1972) model of income tax evasion. Tax morale is modeled as a social norm for tax compliance. The strength of the norm is shaped endogenously, depending on the share of evaders in the society. Taxpayers act conditionally cooperative as their evasion depends on the others' compliance. We characterize the equilibrium

Christian Traxler

2010-01-01

193

Evolution and Interaction of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the framework of random matching games and develop a two society model to analyze the interaction of societies with different social norms. Each agent repeatedly faces two different coordination games. A social norm of a society is a mode of behavior - strategy - which is adopted by a majority of agents in the society. There are many

A. Matsui; M. Okuno-Fujiwara

1997-01-01

194

Higher Education Economy in Russia: Evolution of Legal Forms and Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 1991 the legislative basis of education economy in Russia has evolved from late-Soviet constrained subjectiveness not to full subjectiveness but to its elimination. The legislature didnt mark the difference between legal and economic norms, between the free character of education and its accessibility. As the author points out, the activity of all branches of state power in this sphere

L. GREBNEV

2005-01-01

195

Attitude sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling the attitude of a spacecraft is described. The device consists of two light sensors on a spacecraft that are mounted beneath a baffle which divides the light from a light source such as the sun or a star. The divided light reflects off of two reflective surfaces onto the two light sensors. When the spacecraft assumes its normal attitude, the baffle divides the light source into two equal parts, causing the two light sensors to produce equal outputs. When the light is equally detected, the stabilizing system is disconnected. Deviations from the normal attitude cause unequal distribution of the light source and energize the stabilizing system.

Newcomb, A. L., Jr.; Price, A. G. (inventors)

1973-01-01

196

Social Identity and Media Dependency in the Gay CommunityThe Prediction of Safe Sex Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interplay between social identity and media dependency in the prediction of safe sex attitudes in the gay community. A sample of 76 gay men completed a survey measuring (a) frequency of gay media use and media dependency, (b) identification with the gay community and perceptions of community norms, and (c) personal attitudes toward safe sex. Consistent

THOMAS A. MORTON; JULIE M. DUCK

2000-01-01

197

Kalman Filter Innovation Sequence Based Fault Detection in LEO Satellite Attitude Determination and Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, fault detection algorithm for LEO satellite attitude determination and control system using an approach for checking the statistical characteristics of Extended Kalman filter (EKF) innovation sequence is proposed. It is based on given statistics for the mathematical expectation of the spectral norm of the normalized innovation matrix of the EKF. The attitude dynamics of the LEO satellite

A. Okatan; Ch. Hajiyev; U. Hajiyeva

2007-01-01

198

Attitudes Towards the Role of Women in Cuban Women Attending a Community College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number

Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner

1982-01-01

199

College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

200

Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China  

PubMed Central

Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n=562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer’s condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

2010-01-01

201

The impact of social norm change strategies on smokers' quitting behaviours  

PubMed Central

Objective Using a social norm change paradigm model that reflects the California Tobacco Control Program's (CTCP) priorities, we compare the strength of the relationship of the social norm constructs to key smoking behavioural outcomes. Methods Social norm constructs that correspond to CTCP's priority areas were created from selected California Adult Tobacco Survey knowledge, attitude and belief questions using confirmatory factor analysis. We then examined the relationship between these constructs and quitting behaviours using logistic regression. Results The secondhand smoke (SHS) and countering pro-tobacco influences'(CPTI) constructs followed a dose-response curve with quitting behaviours. Respondents who rated high on the SHS construct were about 70% more likely to have made a recent quit attempt in the last 12?months and about 100% more likely to intend to quit in the next 6?months than respondents who rated low on the SHS construct. For CPTI, respondents who rated high on this construct were 67% more likely to have made a recent quit attempt in the last 12?months and 62% more likely to have intentions to quit in the next 6?months than respondents who rated low on the CPTI construct. Conclusion Social norm change constructs represent CTCP's priorities and are strongly related to desired individual behaviour outcomes. This analysis provides strong support for the framework underlying CTCP—namely, that changing social norms affects behaviour change at the individual level through changing population-level smoking-related behaviours. PMID:20382651

Cowling, David W; Tang, Hao

2010-01-01

202

Client and counselor attitudes toward the use of medications for treatment of opioid dependence.  

PubMed

Attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1,083 clients from outpatient, methadone, and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms, and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, whereas their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence. PMID:17306729

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E; Thomas, Cindy P; McCarty, Dennis

2007-03-01

203

Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

2004-01-01

204

Ethnocultural variables and attitudes toward cultural socialization of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural socialization is the transmission of cultural values and norms to one's children. The current study presents a new scale to assess parental socialization attitudes to both the U.S. American culture and the Latino culture. The scale is based on a social cognitive model of cultural socialization and cultural values of independence and interdependence. It was hypothesized that individuals who

Andrea J. Romero; Israel Cuéllar; Robert E. Roberts

2000-01-01

205

Attitudes About Childlessness in the United StatesCorrelates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About one fifth of adults disagreed with prescriptive norms that favor parenthood over

Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox; Gretchen Pendell

2007-01-01

206

Sparse Regression Using Mixed Norms Matthieu Kowalski  

E-print Network

Sparse Regression Using Mixed Norms Matthieu Kowalski LATP, CMI, Universit´e de Provence, 39, rue F: kowalski@cmi.univ-mrs.fr Phone: +33-(0)491054743 Fax: +33-(0)491054742 (Matthieu Kowalski). Preprint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Local Norms--When and Why.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief examination of norms, local and general, with emphasis on the former. The difficulties of using aptitude in counseling are discussed. Some data from the Differential Aptitude Tests is provided. (DLG)

Ricks, James H., Jr.

208

Forward - Backward Greedy Algorithms for Atomic Norm ...  

E-print Network

matrices is the nuclear norm, often used as a heuristic for rank ... fidelity, (b) introduction of efficient backward steps that dramatically ..... The cost of finding only the top singular ... decomposition, computed via power iterations. We look to

2014-04-21

209

Metric sparsification and operator norm localization.  

E-print Network

We study an operator norm localization property and its applications to the coarse Novikov conjecture in operator K-theory. A metric space X is said to have operator norm localization property if there exists a positive number c such that for every r>0, there is R>0 for which, if m is a positive locally finite Borel measure on X, H is a separable infinite dimensional Hilbert space and T is a bounded linear operator acting on L^2(X,m) with propagation r, then there exists an unit vector v satisfying with support of diameter at most R and such that |Tv| is larger or equal than c|T|. If X has finite asymptotic dimension, then X has operator norm localization property. In this paper, we introduce a sufficient geometric condition for the operator norm localization property. This is used to give many examples of finitely generated groups with infinite asymptotic dimension and the operator norm localization property. We also show that any sequence of expanding graphs does not possess the operator norm localization property.

Xiaoman Chen; Romain Tessera; Xianjin Wang; Guoliang Yu

210

[Behavior change from defection to cooperation in a social dilemma: a field study of attitude-behavior consistency in campus parking behavior by motorcyclists].  

PubMed

Behavior change by persuasive communications in a social dilemma, in which a university tried to persuade students to park their motorcycles in a designated lot in order to resolve noise problems, was studied by a questionnaire. Hayashi's quantification theory III was applied to variables such as subjective norms, beliefs in the effectiveness of one's cooperation, the perception of campus traffic conditions and attitudes toward one's parking behavior. Factor scores obtained were subjected to a cluster analysis, which, within 105 defectors, yielded three subgroups. Contrary to prediction, subgroups were not different in their cooperation ratio examined 10 months later, but tended to be different in their readiness for acceptance of persuasion and in their intention to cooperate in a social dilemma other than parking. Two mechanisms underlying cooperation were revealed: internalization of prosocial norm, and compliance in which cooperation was unaccompanied by correspondent changes in normative beliefs. The Fishbein model was applicable only to change through internalization. A linear assumption in the Fishbein model between evaluative attitude and behavior should be reexamined in its application to a social dilemma. PMID:3450919

Minoura, Y

1987-12-01

211

The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007  

PubMed Central

Aims Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time period. Design Combined analysis of nationally-representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the U.S. conducted 1976–2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. Setting In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the U.S. Participants 986,003 adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12 Measurements Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Findings Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana, and other characteristics. For example, compared to birth cohorts in which most (87–90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where less than half (42–46.9%) disapproved (99% C.I. 2.75, 4.53). Conclusions Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms. PMID:21545669

Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

2011-01-01

212

Modeling Attitude Change from Political Dialogues  

E-print Network

I use an agent-based simulation to model how individual and societal attitude change arise from the mutual interactions that occur within political dialogues. Agents converse with members of their social network, express their political attitudes, and update their beliefs in a manner that reflects their personal convictions, their tolerance for dissimilarity, and local social norms. The model extends previous work by endowing agents with multiple, theoretically motivated heuristics for reevaluating and expressing their opinions, including homophily, attitude strength, and conformity. I demonstrate that novel macroscopic phenomenon emerge from the interactions of these cognitively and socially refined agents. Specifically, I find that (a) interactions between persuadable and closed-minded agents drive non-monotonic changes in the societal distribution of opinions; (b) extremists instigate neighborhood polarization that propagates outward through undecided agents; (c) preference falsification produces non-repre...

Duggins, Peter

2014-01-01

213

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis,

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2011-01-01

214

A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: an example from Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

This paper responds to the call for culturally-relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low-income community in Mumbai, India (2008-2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally-relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities. PMID:21524835

Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

2011-05-01

215

Social norms and social choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments can provide rich information on behavior conditional on the institutional rules of the game being imposed by the experimenter. We consider what happens when the subjects are allowed to choose the institution through a simple social choice procedure. Our case study is a setting in which sanctions may or may not be allowed to encourage \\

Anabela Botelho; Glenn W. Harrison; Lígia Pinto; Elisabet E. Rutstrom

2005-01-01

216

Social Norms and Social Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments can provide rich information on behavior conditional on the institutional rules of the game being imposed by the experimenter. We consider what happens when the subjects are allowed to choose the institution through a simple social choice procedure. Our case study is a setting in which sanctions may or may not be allowed to encourage \\

Anabela Botelho; Glenn W. Harrison; Lígia M. Costa; Elisabet E. Rutström

217

Social norms and social choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Experiments can provide rich information on behavior conditional on the institutional rules of the game being imposed by the experimenter. We consider what happens when the subjects are allowed to choose the institution through a simple social choice procedure. Our case study is a setting in which sanctions may or may not be allowed to encourage “righteous behavior.” Laboratory

A. Botelho; G. W. Harrison; Costa Pinto

2005-01-01

218

Attitudes towards women who work in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates Egyptian society’s attitudes towards women who work held by a sample of 217 participants. The subjects completed the newly developed multidimensional aversion to women who work scale (MAWWWS). The study validates the scale in a non-western context. The results reveal that, contrary to our expectation, Egyptian students have very similar attitudes towards women who work to those

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2003-01-01

219

Soft Tissue Esthetic Norms for Mahabubnagar Population of Southern India  

PubMed Central

Aims: The Aim of the study was to establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for skeletal and dental relationships amongst the Mahabubnagar adult population. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (30 Males & 30 Females) subjects from different part of Mahabubnagar in the age group 18-25 Years (Mean age 21.3 Years) were selected at random for the study and lateral cephalograms were taken. All the cephalograms were traced by two operators using conventional hand tracing. The parameters used in the study were taken from Arnett and Bergman soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA). Overall 46 measurements including 40 linear, 6 angular parameters were used. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated. The difference between males and females were evaluated using student t-test. Results: The values obtained from the study showed significant difference in most of the parameters from that of Arnett et al., norms and between males and females within Mahabubnagar population. Conclusion: Males had thicker soft tissue structures, acute nasolabial angle, increased facial lengths and heights, increased midface deficiency, recessive lower face, more convex profile and less upright mandibular incisors than females within Mahabubnagar population. PMID:24596789

Sinojiya, Jay; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Pyata, Jaipal Reddy; Mallikarjun, Vankre; Reddy, C. Manjunatha

2014-01-01

220

Experimental Evidence of Revitalizing Social Norms Across Ethnicity in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses an adaptation of the classic dictator game from the field of behavioral economics to tap into social norms across ethnicity in postwar Bosnia. Between September 2003 and January 2004 a total of 681 Bosnian Muslims, Croats, and Serbs took part in several field experiments from regions across Bosnia. The experiments were designed to measure subjects? expectations or

Sam Whitt

221

A Rule-based Approach to Norm-Oriented Programming of Electronic Institutions  

E-print Network

Intelligence]: Applications and Expert Systems--Law; I.2.11 [Artificial Intelligence]: Distributed Artificial with a selection of examples from the literature. Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.2.1 [Artificial Intelligence--Multi-agent systems General Terms: Languages Additional Key Words and Phrases: Norms, electronic

Vasconcelos, Wamberto

222

Attitudes of college students and the changes in such attitudes during four years in college, Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuation of the report of a study of students' attitudes toward war, religion, and the church (Part I, J. educ. Psychol., 1938, ^W29^n, 14-25). In this article the relationships of intelligence, age, major subject, political party, and religious affiliation to attitudes are reported. Major conclusions are as follows: (1) High intelligence and liberal attitudes are positively related, but the

V. Jones

1938-01-01

223

Expanding the Psychosocial Work Environment: Workplace Norms and Work-Family Conflict as Correlates of Stress and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms

Tove Helland Hammer; Per Øystein Saksvik; Kjell Nytrø; Hans Torvatn; Mahmut Bayazit

2004-01-01

224

Predictors of poor sportspersonship in youth sports: personal attitudes and social influences.  

PubMed

The present study examined personal and social correlates of poor sportspersonship among youth sport participants. Male and female athletes (n = 676) in the fifth through eighth grades from three geographic regions of the U.S. participated in the study. Young athletes involved in basketball, soccer, football, hockey, baseball/ softball, or lacrosse completed a questionnaire that tapped poor sportspersonship behaviors and attitudes, team sportspersonship norms, perceptions of the poor sportspersonship behaviors of coaches and spectators, and the sportspersonship norms of coaches and parents. Preliminary analyses revealed significant gender, grade, sport area, and location differences in self-reported unsportspersonlike behavior. The main analysis revealed that self-reported poor sport behaviors were best predicted by perceived coach and spectator behaviors, followed by team norms, sportspersonship attitudes, and the perceived norms of parents and coaches. Results are discussed in relation to the concept of moral atmosphere. PMID:18089902

Shields, David Light; LaVoi, Nicole M; Bredemeier, Brenda Light; Power, F Clark

2007-12-01

225

Optimal diagonal-norm SBP operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal boundary closures are derived for first derivative, finite difference operators of order 2, 4, 6 and 8. The closures are based on a diagonal-norm summation-by-parts (SBP) framework, thereby guaranteeing linear stability on piecewise curvilinear multi-block grids and entropy stability for nonlinear equations that support a convex extension. The new closures are developed by enriching conventional approaches with additional boundary closure stencils and non-equidistant grid distributions at the domain boundaries. Greatly improved accuracy is achieved near the boundaries, as compared with traditional diagonal-norm operators of the same order. The superior accuracy of the new optimal diagonal-norm SBP operators is demonstrated for linear hyperbolic systems in one dimension and for the nonlinear compressible Euler equations in two dimensions.

Mattsson, Ken; Almquist, Martin; Carpenter, Mark H.

2014-05-01

226

MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

Pruseth, Kamal L.

2009-09-01

227

Oral Word Association Norms for Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Studies in Language and Language Behavior, Progress Report VIII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To collect word association norms, 100 educable mentally handicapped boys (chronological ages 11 to 16, mental ages 7 to 11.5) responded to 25 nouns from the Mein and O'Connor list of words most commonly used by retarded children. The subjects were individually tested by stimuli typed on cards. The responses of all 100 subjects to the 25 stimulus…

Semmel, Melvyn I.; And Others

228

Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

2009-01-01

229

From Moral to Social Norms and Back  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how different behavioural norms affect individual and social welfare in a population with heterogeneous preferences. I assume preferences are private information, and that interactions between individuals do not involve communication, nor bargaining. I first compare two stylized behavioural rules: one states “do to your neighbours what you would like them do to you”, also known as Jesus’

Matteo Richiardi

2005-01-01

230

Moral and Social Norms in Heterogeneous Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an idealized model of social interaction, where preferences are private information and individuals cannot condition their behavior on the identity of whom they are interacting with. An optimal decentralized benchmark is identified, where each individual imposes some restriction on what people interacting with him cannot do. Social norms arise in the model as a consequence of reciprocating

Matteo Richiardi

231

Nuclear Norm Regularization for Overparametrized Hammerstein Systems  

E-print Network

of X and X 2 is the largest singular value of X and called spectral norm. Finally ` ' is used for conic inequalities. After giving a brief introduction in the present section, overparametrization for Hammerstein systems is described in Section II. The focus is on its implicit rank constraint and regularization

232

Ethnography of Communication: Cultural Codes and Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary tasks of the ethnographic researcher are to discover, describe, and comparatively analyze different speech communities' ways of speaking. Two general abstractions occurring in ethnographic analyses are normative and cultural. Communicative norms are formulated in analyzing and explaining the "patterned use of speech." Analysis of…

Carbaugh, Donal

233

Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

2013-01-01

234

Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

Randall, Robert S.

235

Norm Internalisation in Human and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, principles of architectures relating to normative agents are evaluated with regard to the question whether and to what extend results of empirical research are incorporated in the architecture. In the human sciences, internalisation is a crucial element within the concept of norms. Internalisation distinguishes normative behaviour regulation from mere coercion. The aim of this article is to

Martin Neumann

2010-01-01

236

Socialization of Doctoral Students to Academic Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the framework for graduate and professional student socialization developed by Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001), this study addresses socialization of doctoral students to the academic norms of research and scholarship. Data are presented about the perceptions doctoral students in a social science discipline (sociology) and in educational foundations at a major research university have of the scholarly and collegial

John C. Weidman; Elizabeth L. Stein

2003-01-01

237

Bioimpedance norms for the hemodialysis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioimpedance norms for the hemodialysis population. More than 3,000 hemodialysis patients were examined with single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Distributions of resistance, reactance, phase angle (PA), and estimates of total body water (TBW) and body cell mass (BCM) by BIA were determined, and compared with traditional laboratory markers of nutritional status. Bioimpedance parameters and body composition estimates differed significantly by

Glenn M Chertow; J Michael Lazarus; Nancy L Lew; Lihong Ma; Edmund G Lowrie

1997-01-01

238

The Chicano Racial Attitude Measure (CRAM): Results of an initial investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces an instrument, The Chicano Racial Attitude Measure (CRAM), designed to measure racial attitude towards Chicanos by Chicano and Anglo children. It is adapted from the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM II), an instrument designed to measure racial attitude towards Blacks, developed by Williams and his associates at Wake Forest University from 1960-1971. Subjects were 120 children, 5

Gloria Bernat; Philip Balch

1979-01-01

239

Mercury toxicity in the Amazon: contrast sensitivity and color discrimination of subjects exposed to mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured visual performance in achromatic and chromatic spatial tasks of mercury-exposed subjects and compared the results with norms obtained from healthy individuals of similar age. Data were obtained for a group of 28 mercury-exposed subjects, comprising 20 Amazonian gold miners, 2 inhabitants of Amazonian riverside com- munities, and 6 laboratory technicians, who asked for medical care. Statistical norms were

A. R. Rodrigues; C. R. B. Souza; A. M. Braga; P. S. S. Rodrigues; A. T. Silveira; E. T. B. Damin; M. I. T. Côrtes; A. J. O. Castro; G. A. Mello; J. L. F. Vieira; M. C. N. Pinheiro; D. F. Ventura; L. C. L. Silveira

2007-01-01

240

© 2010 Jeanette Reinhardt-KleinFIREFIGHTERS: ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, AND BEHAVIORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HIGH-RISK BEHAVIORS BY  

E-print Network

This study investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that contribute to risk-taking intentions among firefighters. To examine if attitudes have an effect on risk-taking intentions, the Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen (TPB; 1988, 1991, 2001) was applied. A questionnaire and scenarios were developed to assess the TPB. Further interest was if emotion-laden stimuli moderate firefighters ’ intentions to engage in risky scenarios. Two primes, one depicted a firefighter fighting a fire blast (hero), the other one depicted a firefighter handing candy to children (public servant) were used in the study. The study consisted of 155 firefighters who were randomly assigned to three groups: hero group, public servant group, and control group. It was assumed that firefighters primed with the picture of a hero will show higher risk-taking intentions than firefighters primed with the picture of a public servant. Further, firefighters in the control group will show less risk-taking intentions. The hypotheses were not supported in this study. Path model analyses, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) were used to analyze the data. The path model showed that attitudes and subjective norms were strong predictors of intentions for firefighters ’ risk-taking intentions

Jeanette Reinhardt-klein

241

Clothin as a Nonverbal Communicator of Social and Political Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzed the responses of 96 subjects on a questionnaire in which they indicated (1) their own attitudes toward social and political issues, (2) their perceptions of attitudes of probable wearers of clothing shown in stimulus photographs, and (3) their own responses to types of clothing shown in the photographs. The subjects represented two types of students attending a

Hilda Mayer Buckley; Mary Ellen Roach

1974-01-01

242

Optimal income taxation and social norms in the labor market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns optimal income taxation in a two-type model extended to allow for social interaction and social norms\\u000a in the labor market. One norm refers to “normal behavior” with respect to work hours (the hours of work norm), whereas another\\u000a means that “one should earn one’s living by working” (the participation norm). The results show how the hours of

Thomas Aronsson; Tomas Sjögren

2010-01-01

243

Signal norm testing in additive and independent standard Gaussian noise  

E-print Network

Signal norm testing in additive and independent standard Gaussian noise Dominique Pastor (Télécom the noise standard deviation is unknown. Keywords Signal norm testing, hypothesis testing, invariance,version1-5Jun2012 #12;Abstract This paper addresses signal norm testing (SNT), that is, the problem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

« TERTIUM NON DATUR » DE NORM VAN DE DISJUNCTIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the law of identity is the norm of all affirmation and the law of contradiction the norm of all negation, so is the law of excluded middle a norm for the disjunction, seil, so far as every disjunctive proposition, formed according to this law, is self-evident and necessarily true. While the negative formulation : « No logical proposition is

Cl. SCHOONBROOD

1951-01-01

245

Regulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

employ the notion of a normative system regulat- ing an agent society. For example, norms allow to regu the construction of social reality one needs, besides regulative norms like obligations, prohibi- tionsRegulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella Dipartimento di

Torino, Università di

246

Social Norms and the Law: Why Peoples Obey the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relations between law and social norms and in particular, the case of legal compliance in groups. Specifically, this paper argues that the rule of law is a social norm interfacing the formal institutions of society with the informal ones. As social institutions, norms should also be analyzed at the societal level – a level of analysis

Amir N. Licht

2008-01-01

247

Social Norms and the Evolution of Conditional Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model of social norms and cooperation in large societies. Within this framework we use an indirect evolutionary approach to study the endogenous formation of preferences and the coevolution of norm compliance. Thereby we link the multiplicity of equilibria, which emerges in the presence of social norms, to the evolutionary analysis: Individuals face situations where many others

Mathias Spichtig; Christian Traxler

2007-01-01

248

Implementing Social Norms using Policies Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

agents must agree to obey certain social norms in order for the society to function. Thus, differentImplementing Social Norms using Policies Rob Kremer Department of Computer Science University to describe social norms among agents at a global scale, independent of individual agents. In addition, CASA

Kremer, Rob

249

Norm-based behaviour modification in BDI agents Felipe Meneguzzi  

E-print Network

a desirable social order in which agents work together effectively. For many, norms are the mechanism]. Such norms define standards of behaviour that are acceptable in a society, indicating desirable behavioursNorm-based behaviour modification in BDI agents Felipe Meneguzzi King's College London Department

Luck, Michael

250

Constraining Autonomy through Norms Fabiola Lopez y Lopez  

E-print Network

Social order, control, norms 1. INTRODUCTION It has been argued by many [3, 4, 7, 18] that agents work, reduce complex- ity, and in general to achieve a desirable social order. This is the role of norms, which, norms represent the means to achieve the goals of a society, and therefore their study becomes

López-Sánchez, Maite

251

From Innovation to Social Norm: Bounded Normative Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correction: Every innovation begins as a deviation from existing social norms. Given the strong effect of social norms and pressure, how can any innovation ever diffuse to the point where it becomes a new social norm? The seeming paradox of how a minority can influence the majority has not been explained well by prevailing social science theory. Computer simulations of

D. LAWRENCE KINCAID

2004-01-01

252

A Distributed Architecture for Norm-Aware Agent Societies  

E-print Network

A Distributed Architecture for Norm-Aware Agent Societies A. Garc´ia-Camino1 , J. A. Rodr-agent systems with a social layer in which norms are explicitly represented and managed via rules. We propose architecture built around an explicit model of the norms associated with a society of agents. We propose

Vasconcelos, Wamberto

253

A HIERARCHY OF NORMS DEFINED VIA BLACKWELL GAMES  

E-print Network

structure theory under AD: the Hierarchy of Norms going back to Moschovakis' First Periodicity TheoremA HIERARCHY OF NORMS DEFINED VIA BLACKWELL GAMES BENEDIKT L¨OWE Abstract. We define a hierarchy of norms using strongly optimal strategies in Blackwell games and prove that the resulting hierarchy

Amsterdam, University of

254

Friendships: From Cultural Guidelines to Mutually Agreed Upon Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists have predicted that individuals in a relationship initially follow social norms and later follow the mutually-agreed-upon norms which have evolved from the relationship. Since social norms prescribe sex-stereotyped behavior, an androgynous person may initially behave in a sex-typed way. Same-sex pairs (N=26) of undergraduates, matched on…

Walker, Alexis J.

255

Singular Vectors for Moisture-Measuring Norms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In dynamic meteorology, singular vectors (SVs) are the structures that maximize a given norm of a forecast perturbation given a tangent linear model and a quadratic constraint on the initial perturbation. That constraint is a prescription of the value of either the same or a different norm applied to the initial perturbations. In the sense that SVs maximize the forecast perturbations according to a specified measure, they may be considered as optimal perturbations. SVs are used to characterize predictability, to identify and correct possible initial errors given forecast errors, to create a set of significant perturbations for ensemble forecasting, or to determine locations for observation targeting. They are a specific application of generally defined singular vectors in mathematics.

Errico, Ronald M.; Raeder, Kevin; Ehrendorfer, Martin

2002-01-01

256

An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2011-01-01

257

MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below.

Kamal L. Pruseth

2009-01-01

258

Social Norm Emergence in Virtual Agent Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of virtual environments such as SecondLife call for a distributed approach for norm emergence and spreading. In\\u000a open virtual environments, monitoring various interacting agents (avatars), using a centralized authority might be computationally\\u000a expensive. The number of possible states and actions of an agent could be huge. An approach for sustaining order and smoother\\u000a functioning of these environments can

Bastin Savarimuthu; Maryam Purvis; Martin Purvis; Stephen Cranefield

259

Race-norming of neuropsychological tests.  

PubMed

Recent studies in the United States indicate that some neurologically intact minority groupings perform well below White Americans on neuropsychological tests. This has sparked the production of race-norms, especially for African Americans, that seek to reduce false positive rates (i.e., neurologically intact individuals misdiagnosed with cognitive impairment) in neuropsychological assessments. There are problems with this enterprise including: possible justification for inferior/superior treatment of different racial groupings; unknown effects on false negative rates (i.e., cognitive deficit misdiagnosed as normal); the overlooking of factors possibly responsible for group racial differences (e.g., acculturation); non-scientific and non-operational definitions of race/ethnic groupings; and an impossibly large number of potential race/ethnic groupings for which to generate race-norms. An alternative approach is to use a single set of combined race/ethnic norms and estimate preexisting neuropsychological skill levels by using individual comparison standards. This alternative has been poorly researched, a situation that needs correcting. PMID:19294515

Gasquoine, Philip G

2009-06-01

260

Personal and perceived peer attitudes supporting sexual aggression as predictors of male college students' willingness to intervene against sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Male college students ( N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness to intervene, in regression analyses only perceived peer attitudes emerged as a significant predictor of willingness to intervene. Results suggest that personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression are not as relevant to men's willingness to intervene against sexual aggression as are perceived peer norms regarding sexual aggression. Findings are relevant to sexual assault prevention education with men, suggesting that attempts to encourage bystander intervention may be best presented in the context of challenging perceived norms. PMID:19401602

Brown, Amy L; Messman-Moore, Terri L

2010-03-01

261

What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

Priest, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

262

First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2012-01-01

263

Evolution of generous cooperative norms by cultural group selection.  

PubMed

Evolution of cooperative norms is studied in a population where individual- and group-level selection are both in operation. Individuals play indirect reciprocity game within their group. Individuals are well informed about the previous actions and reputations, and follow second-order norms. Individuals are norm-followers, and imitate their successful group mates. In contrast to previous models where norms classify actions deterministically, we assume that norms determine only the probabilities of actions, and mutants can differ in these probabilities. The central question is how a selective cooperative norm can emerge in a population where initially only non-cooperative norms were present. It is shown that evolution leads to a cooperative state if generous cooperative strategies are dominant, although the "always defecting" and the "always cooperating"-like strategies remain stably present. The characteristics of these generous cooperative strategies and the presence of always defecting and always cooperating strategies are in concordance with experimental observations. PMID:19171153

Scheuring, István

2009-04-01

264

Language attitudes of teachers and prospective teachers towards black and white speakers  

E-print Network

' backgrounds and their language attitudes. This study goes beyond the subjects' responses considered as a whole and attempts to identify whether or not certain characteristics influence language attitudes. Specifically, I am interested in whether the age...' backgrounds and their language attitudes. This study goes beyond the subjects' responses considered as a whole and attempts to identify whether or not certain characteristics influence language attitudes. Specifically, I am interested in whether the age...

Kerr-Mattox, Beverly Jean

2012-06-07

265

Normative Misperceptions and Temporal Precedence of Perceived Norms and Drinking*  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous research has shown that students overestimate the drinking of their peers, and that perceived norms are strongly associated with drinking behavior. Explanations for these findings have been based largely on cross-sectional data, precluding the ability to evaluate the stability of normative misperceptions or to disentangle the direction of influence between perceived norms and drinking. The present research was designed to evaluate (1) the stability of normative misperceptions and (2) temporal precedence of perceived norms and drinking. Method Participants were college students (N = 164; 94 women) who completed assessments of perceived norms and reported behavior for drinking frequency and weekly quantity. Most participants (68%) completed the same measures again two months later. Results Results indicated large and stable overestimations of peer drinking for frequency and weekly quantity. Results also showed that for weekly quantity, perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking also predicted later perceived norms. Results for frequency revealed perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking did not predict later perceived norms. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of longitudinal designs in evaluating normative influences on drinking. The present findings suggest that normative misperceptions are stable, at least over a relatively short time period. Findings support a mutual influence model of the relationship between perceived norms and drinking quantity but are more strongly associated with conformity explanations for the relationship between perceived norms and drinking frequency. Results are discussed in terms of implications for prevention interventions. PMID:16562412

NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; DILLARD, AMANDA J.; LEWIS, MELlSSA A.; BERGSTROM, ROCHELLE L.; NEIL, TERYL A.

2008-01-01

266

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

2010-01-01

267

ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION Diversity Policy, Social Dominance, and Intergroup Relations: Predicting  

E-print Network

(attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological-mail: Serge.Guimond@univ-bpclermont.fr Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013, Vol. 104, No. 6 of Psychology, University of Shef- field, Sheffield, United Kingdom; Pierre De Oliveira, Laboratoire Socio

Sart, Remi

268

Mental Health and Substance Use: A Qualitative Study of Resident Assistants' Attitudes and Referral Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described mental health and substance use referral practices of resident assistants (RAs). Interviews were conducted with 48 RAs at three campuses. RAs generally had positive attitudes toward helping residents, and believed that existing norms supported their referral actions. However, many perceived referring residents to be…

Reingle, Jennifer; Thombs, Dennis; Osborn, Cynthia; Saffian, Steven; Oltersdorf, Dan

2010-01-01

269

Nurses’ and physicians’ attitudes about women abuse: The effects of gender and professional role  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apathy encountered by battered women when they seek help from medical and other professions has been attributed to patriarchal norms and victim?blaming. Because of their place in the medical hierarchy this study hypothesized that: a) nurses would have more sympathetic attitudes toward battered women than physicians; and b) professional roles and not gender would explain the differences. The findings

Karla Rose; Daniel G. Saunders

1986-01-01

270

Consequentialist demographic norms and parenting rights.  

PubMed

"This paper extends the author's recent work on dynamically consistent consequentialist social norms for an unrestricted domain of decision trees with risk to trees in which the population is a variable consequence--i.e., endogenous. Given a form of ethical liberalism and ethical irrelevance of distant ancestors, classical utilitarianism is implied (provided also that a weak continuity condition is met). The 'repugnant conclusion' that having many poor people may be desirable can be avoided by denying that individuals' interests extend to the circumstances of their birth. But it is better avoided by recognizing that potential parents have legitimate interests concerning the sizes of their families." PMID:12281903

Hammond, P J

1988-01-01

271

Towering Waves May Be Norm for Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard to measure big waves at sea because the waves can smash scientific instruments to bits. But this radio broadcast reports on sensors sitting on the bottom of the sea 75 miles off the coast of Mississippi that survived Hurricane Ivan in September, 2004 and measured waves over 90 feet high. These are perhaps the tallest, most extreme waves ever recorded with modern instruments. This study suggests that big waves may be the norm for hurricanes rather than freak, rogue events. The clip is 3 minutes and 50 seconds in length.

272

Sexual Partner Accumulation From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood: The Role of Family, Peer, and School Social Norms  

PubMed Central

Purpose An early age of sexual initiation and sexual activity with multiple partners are risk factors for an array of detrimental outcomes. Drawing on social norms theory, this study assessed the role of subjective and descriptive social norms from parents, peers, and schoolmates on trajectories of sexual partner accumulation from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the in-home survey sample of Add Health, following 14,797 youth from adolescence through early adulthood. Social norms data were drawn from youth, parent, schoolmate, and school administrator reports. Multi-level growth models assess how parent, peer, and school social norms predicted initial levels and growth in sexual partner accumulation. Results Parent and peer approval of youth sexual behavior, as well as lower perceived negative repercussions of pregnancy, predicted greater initial levels and greater growth over time in the accumulation of sexual partners. Similarly, youth attending schools with a greater proportion of sexually experienced schoolmates reported higher initial levels of sexual partners. In contrast, greater parental warnings regarding negative consequences of sex predicted heightened sexual partner accumulation. Some moderation by youth gender and age emerged as well. Conclusions Results highlight the role of both subjective and descriptive social norms, suggesting the importance of understanding and seeking to influence the social beliefs and expectations of youth and their families. PMID:23528837

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Mahalik, James R.; Sims, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

273

Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

274

Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

2004-01-01

275

Plasticity of lifespan: a reaction norm perspective.  

PubMed

It is a well-appreciated fact that in many organisms the process of ageing reacts highly plastically, so that lifespan increases or decreases when the environment changes. The perhaps best-known example of such lifespan plasticity is dietary restriction (DR), a phenomenon whereby reduced food intake without malnutrition extends lifespan (typically at the expense of reduced fecundity) and which has been documented in numerous species, from invertebrates to mammals. For the evolutionary biologist, DR and other cases of lifespan plasticity are examples of a more general phenomenon called phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes (e.g. lifespan) in response to changes in the environment (e.g. changes in diet). To analyse phenotypic plasticity, evolutionary biologists (and epidemiologists) often use a conceptual and statistical framework based on reaction norms (genotype-specific response curves) and genotype × environment interactions (G × E; differences in the plastic response among genotypes), concepts that biologists who are working on molecular aspects of ageing are usually not familiar with. Here I briefly discuss what has been learned about lifespan plasticity or, more generally, about plasticity of somatic maintenance and survival ability. In particular, I argue that adopting the conceptual framework of reaction norms and G × E interactions, as used by evolutionary biologists, is crucially important for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying DR and other forms of lifespan or survival plasticity. PMID:25222922

Flatt, Thomas

2014-11-01

276

94 5 Metrics on Normed Structures lp-metric  

E-print Network

system by the formula x, y = n i=1 xiyi. In a standard coordinate system #12;5 Metrics on Normed94 5 Metrics on Normed Structures · lp-metric The lp-metric dlp , 1 p , is a norm metric on Rn p . For p = , we obtain ||x|| = limp p n i=1 |xi|p = max1in |xi|. The metric space (Rn , dlp

Fitelson, Branden

277

Evolutionary precursors of social norms in chimpanzees: a new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral behaviour, based on social norms, is commonly regarded as a hallmark of humans. Hitherto, humans are perceived to be\\u000a the only species possessing social norms and to engage in moral behaviour. There is anecdotal evidence suggesting their presence\\u000a in chimpanzees, but systematic studies are lacking. Here, we examine the evolution of human social norms and their underlying\\u000a psychological mechanisms.

Claudia Rudolf von RohrJudith; Judith M. Burkart; Carel P. van Schaik

2011-01-01

278

Social norms and the indirect evolution of conditional cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of social norms and cooperation in large societies. Within this framework we use an indirect evolutionary\\u000a approach to study the endogenous formation of preferences and the co-evolution of norm compliance. The multiplicity of equilibria,\\u000a which emerges in the presence of social norms, is linked to the evolutionary analysis: individuals face situations where many\\u000a others cooperate as

Christian Traxler; Mathias Spichtig

2011-01-01

279

Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency of occurrence is an important attribute of lexical units, and one that is widely used in psychological research\\u000a and theorization. Although printed frequency norms have long been available for Spanish, and subtitle-based norms have more\\u000a recently been published, oral frequency norms have not been systematically compiled for a representative set of words. In\\u000a this study, a corpus of over

María Angeles Alonso; Angel Fernandez; Emiliano Díez

2011-01-01

280

NORM Scale Formation, Control, And Relation To Gas Hydrate Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some oil field scales have the potential to contain regulated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). It is estimated that between 300,000 and 1,000,000 tons of NORM scale are produced each year. The most common NORM containing scale is BaSO4, or barite. Research at the Brine Chemistry Consortium have studied the causes of barite scale formation and control techniques.

Mason B. Tomson; Amy T. Kan; Gongmin Fu; Musaed Al-Thubaiti

281

Mobility norms, risk aversion, and career satisfaction of Chinese employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on Turner’s (American Sociological Review, 25:855–867, 1960) framework of contest and sponsored mobility norms, this study investigated factors that affect employees’ career satisfaction\\u000a in the Chinese setting. Using two organization-referenced variables, procedural justice and perceived organizational support\\u000a (POS), to represent contest mobility norm and sponsored mobility norm, we evaluated their effects on career satisfaction.\\u000a We also explored the moderating

Raymond Loi; Hang-Yue Ngo

2010-01-01

282

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

283

Attitudes about Food  

E-print Network

Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...

Baker, Nicole Alexis

2012-10-19

284

Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

2012-02-01

285

Attitude computation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude computation facility for the control of unmanned satellite missions is reported. The system's major components include: the ability to transfer the attitude data from the control center to the attitude computer at a rate of 2400 bps; an attitude computation center which houses communications, closed circuit TV, graphics devices and a data evaluation area; and the use of interactive graphics devices to schedule jobs and to control program flow.

Werking, R. D.

1973-01-01

286

The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

2000-11-08

287

The influence of authoritarian attitudes, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity upon attitudes towards woman abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated attitudes towards woman abuse among South Asian Americans and European Americans adults (N = 151) grounded in feminist psychological theory. The expected predictors of attitudes towards woman abuse were gender role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, gender, and ethnicity. Participants completed the Inventory of Attitudes towards Wife Beating (IBWB), the Attitudes towards Woman (AWS) scale, the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA)

Suraiya Parwin Baluch

2004-01-01

288

Attitude change in response to information that male homosexuality has a biological basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed 28 college students' attitudes toward homosexuals immediately before and 1 week after the presentation of either an article suggesting that male homosexuality has a biological component or a control article. Change in attitude toward homosexuality for subjects exposed to the biological article depended on subjects' memory of the article and on their college major. Subjects undecided in their

Jeffd Oldham; Tim Kasser

1999-01-01

289

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

290

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and

Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

2004-01-01

291

Attitudes to and use of baby walkers in Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The

M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall

1995-01-01

292

Exploring Individual Differences in Attitudes toward Audience Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in attitudes toward Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, the impact of gender, grade, subject area, computer comfort level, participation level, and type of use were examined in 659 students. Males had significantly more positive attitudes

Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

2009-01-01

293

The Motherhood Inventory: A Questionnaire for Studying Attitudes Toward Motherhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.

294

Consumer Attitudes toward Health and Health Care: A Differential Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires returned by 343 out of 350 subjects measured health attitudes and health status. Results suggest that some consumers take a more scientific approach to health care and prevention. Demographic factors, health status, and health consciousness are partial predictors of consumer attitudes and approach to health care. (SK)

Gould, Stephen J.

1988-01-01

295

Attraction as a Function of Attitudes and Dress  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was designed for the study of the effect of similarity in attitudes, similarity in dress, and attractiveness of dress on attraction. In an initial session with the experimenter, each of 72 female college students serving as subjects completed a shortened version of Byrne's (1971) Survey of Attitudes and was photographed. Between the initial session and a second session,

Hilda Mayer Buckley; Mary Ellen Roach

1981-01-01

296

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

297

A model for optimal reaction norms: the case of the pregnant garter snake and her temperature-sensitive embryos.  

PubMed

We present a model to test Osgood's ( 1978 ) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature-sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or [Formula: see text]-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by maintaining 67 female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) at eight different constant temperatures (21 degrees -33 degrees C) during pregnancy and making a series of scale counts on their newborn offspring (n = 491). To insure that the experimental temperatures were ecologically relevant, we used automated radiotelemetry to record the body temperature of pregnant, free-ranging females. The resulting temperature data allowed us to test the prediction that the inflection points of reaction norms would correspond to the average temperature experienced by embryos in the field. In line with predictions of the Osgood model, reaction norms were flat or U-shaped. In the case of U-shaped reaction norms, the inflection point of the curves corresponded to the average temperature imposed on embryos by free-ranging females. In contrast to some past studies, none of the standard scale scores (ones commonly used in systematics) showed significant temperature effects in either sex. Reaction norms were flat. In contrast, incidences of various abnormalities showed U-shaped reaction norms. Temperature effects were more pronounced in males than in females. The results have implications for systematics and for the evolution of canalization and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:18707441

Arnold, Stevan J; Peterson, Charles R

2002-09-01

298

EMOTIONS AND ACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NORM-BREAKING EVENTS  

E-print Network

/12/03 13:39 Page 277 #12;KEY WORDS: Emotions; Evolutionary psychology; Fictional scenarios; Social norms), and Irons (1991), norms have been surprisingly neglected within the field of evolutionary psychology. For example, three recent textbooks on evolu- tionary psychology (Buss 1999; Cartwright 2000; Gaulin and Mc

Wilson, David. S.

299

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions  

E-print Network

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions Davide Grossi and Frank Dignum Utrecht accounts for how (abstract) norms can be incorporated in the (concrete) procedures constituting. This abstract is organized as follows. In Section 2 we make the problem we are focusing on concrete by means

Dignum, Frank

300

Matching structure and the cultural transmission of social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and study a model of cultural transmission of social norms in a setting where agents are repeatedly matched to play a one-shot interaction prisoners’ dilemma. There are two types of agents in the society: some that adhere to a social norm of cooperation and some that do not. Limited integration of these two types can bias the matching

Friederike Mengel

2008-01-01

301

Introducing Emotions into the Computational Study of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that modelling emotions among agents in artificial societies will further the computational study of social norms. The appraisal theory of emotions is presented as theoretical underpinning of Jon Elster's view that social norms are sustained not only by material sanctions but also by emotions such as shame and contempt. Appraisal theory suggests the following twofold relationship between social

Alexander Staller; Paolo Petta

302

Categorizing Social Norms in a Simulated Resource Gathering Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Our main interest research is focused on reaching a decentral- ized form of social order through the usage of social norms in virtual communities. In this paper, we analyze the effects of different sets of social norms within a society. The simulation scenario used for the experiments is a metaphor,of a resource- gatherer prehistoric society. Finally, we obtain a

Daniel Villatoro; Jordi Sabater-mir

2008-01-01

303

Evolutionary Considerations in the Framing of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the implementation of social norms, context and framing effects can make enormous differences. This is commonplace in the rich social psychology literature that is brought to bear in Cristina Bicchieri's The Grammar of Society. She sees the application of norms being controlled by social scenarios or scripts that people act out. The same problem may elicit different behavior depending

Brian Skyrms; Kevin Zollman

2009-01-01

304

Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored

Alison M. Buttenheim; Jenna Nobles

2009-01-01

305

Cultural Norms and Risk: Lessons Learned from HIV in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural sensitivity has been identified as an important component of assessment and intervention for HIV risk. Recognizing cultural norms is important for selecting methods for assessment and intervention. The behavioral HIV literature in Thailand is reviewed to illustrate the importance of the localization of cultural norms and practices, the often fragmented or mediated character of broad social dynamics, and subtleties

Richard A. Jenkins; Bryan Kim

2004-01-01

306

Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the effect of composition was small, indicating that composition, as

Cynthia A. Hedricks; Chet Robie; John V. Harnisher

2008-01-01

307

Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute score…

Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

2011-01-01

308

CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

2010-01-01

309

Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

2009-01-01

310

Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural considerations in social anxiety are a rarely investigated topic although it seems likely that differences between countries in social norms may relate to the extent of social anxiety. The present study investigated individuals’ personal and perceived cultural norms and their relation to social anxiety and fear of blushing. A total of 909 participants from eight countries completed vignettes describing

Nina Heinrichs; Ronald M. Rapee; Lynn A. Alden; Susan Bögels; Stefan G. Hofmann; Kyung Ja Oh; Yuji Sakano

2006-01-01

311

Anatomy of Zero-norm States in String Theory  

E-print Network

We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantised (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely the light-cone DDF zero-norm states and the off-shell BRST zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the inter-particle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive sigma-model approach of string theory. The high energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross.

Chuan-Tsung Chan; Jen-Chi Lee; Yi Yang

2005-01-04

312

Establishing Norms for Network Topologies Samhar Mahmoud1  

E-print Network

.mahmoud@kcl.ac.uk 2 Department of Computer Science University of Warwick Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. Abstract. In order. The use of norms to provide a means of ensuring cooperative behaviour has been proposed by many [3, 5, 6 already been undertaken on examining the impact of different topologies on norm establishment. For example

Luck, Michael

313

Dynamical norm Pisot a-i [0, ) Z  

E-print Network

(F) K.Schmidt [19] Pisot 1 1 Salem 1 1 1 Frougny Solomyak [10] (F) Pisot Z0 Fin() Pisot Salem 1() = 1 G 2 3 Pisot ([4]) 4 Salem ([9]) Pisot 4 ([3]). Pisot (F) Dynamical Norm Dynamical Norm 1 1 4, Pisot and Salem numbers, Birkh¨a

Akiyama, Shigeki

314

Promoting Recycling: Private Values, Social Norms, and Economic Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a nationally representative sample of households illuminates the determinants of recycling behavior for plastic water bottles. Private values of the environment are influential in promoting recycling, as are personal norms for pro-environmental behavior. However, social norms with respect to the assessment of the household's recycling behaviors by others have little independent effect. Particularly influential are policies that create

W. Kip Viscusi; Joel Huber; Jason Bell

2011-01-01

315

Food Safety, Liability and Collective Norms Eric Giraud-Hraud  

E-print Network

Food Safety, Liability and Collective Norms Eric Giraud-Héraud Hakim Hammoudi Louis-Georges Soler:lyza.racon@shs.poly.polytechnique.fr hal-00243034,version1-6Feb2008 #12;Food Safety, Liability and Collective Norms* Eric Giraud-Héraud1 food safety and reduce the risks related to microbial contamination and pesticide residues

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

What will the neighbors think? Cultural norms and ecological design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural norms for landscape appearance may affect preferences for and adoption of ecological design in exurban residential landscapes, a rapidly growing land use that covers a larger area than all other urban land uses in America combined. We conducted an image-based web survey of 494 southeast Michigan exurban homeowners to investigate the influence of implicit neighborhood norms as well as

Joan Iverson Nassauer; Zhifang Wang; Erik Dayrell

2009-01-01

317

The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

318

easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

2014-01-01

319

COVENANTS, SOFT LAW ET AUDIT: L'ADOPTION DES NORMES  

E-print Network

1 COVENANTS, SOFT LAW ET AUDIT: L'ADOPTION DES NORMES INTERNATIONALES PAR DEUX ENTREPRISES besoins de financement ont déclenché l'adoption, des pressions normatives, imminence de la septième constitue le catalyseur de l'adoption, le choix effectif des normes de référence traduit une mise en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory  

SciTech Connect

We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice-Di Vecchia-Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive {sigma}-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross.

Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Yi Yang [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2005-04-15

321

Anatomy of zero-norm states in string theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate and identify the counterparts of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string in two other quantization schemes of string theory, namely, the light-cone Del Giudice Di Vecchia Fubine zero-norm states and the off-shell Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) zero-norm states (with ghost) in the Witten string field theory (WSFT). In particular, special attention is paid to the interparticle zero-norm states in all quantization schemes. For the case of the off-shell BRST zero-norm states, we impose the no-ghost conditions and recover exactly two types of on-shell zero-norm states in the OCFQ string spectrum for the first few low-lying mass levels. We then show that off-shell gauge transformations of WSFT are identical to the on-shell stringy gauge symmetries generated by two types of zero-norm states in the generalized massive ?-model approach of string theory. The high-energy limit of these stringy gauge symmetries was recently used to calculate the proportionality constants, conjectured by Gross, among high-energy scattering amplitudes of different string states. Based on these zero-norm state calculations, we have thus related gauge symmetry of WSFT to the high-energy stringy symmetry of Gross.

Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Lee, Jen-Chi; Yi-Yang

2005-04-01

322

Rank Aggregation via Nuclear Norm Minimization David F. Gleich  

E-print Network

.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SupportedRank Aggregation via Nuclear Norm Minimization David F. Gleich Sandia National Laboratories Terms Algorithms Keywords nuclear norm, skew symmetric, rank aggregation 1. INTRODUCTION One

Lim, Lek-Heng

323

SURGICAL PERSPECTIVE Antibiotic Overuse: The Influence of Social Norms  

E-print Network

SURGICAL PERSPECTIVE Antibiotic Overuse: The Influence of Social Norms The McDonnell Norms Group Since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s, antibiot- ics ("antibiotics" refers to antibacterial to human life are now readily treated. This widespread use of antibiotics has led to at least two

Otto, Sarah

324

Television Content Viewing Patterns: Some Clues from Societal Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on how television viewing fits into a general model of consumer consumption patterns, a study examined (1) the extent to which the viewing of certain television content can be considered a "norm" of society, (2) similarities and differences between the norms for adults and those for children, and (3) some of the antecedents of beliefs…

McDonald, Daniel G.; Glynn, Carroll J.

325

Eects of Social Network Topology on Norm Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A norm is a behavior that emerges as a convention within society without any direction from a central authority. Norms emerge as repeated interactions between individuals give rise to biases toward actions or behaviors which spread through the society until one behavior is adapted as the default behavior, even when multiple acceptable behaviors exist. Of particular interest to us

Onkur Sen

326

Gender Inequality, Endogenous Cultural Norms and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more

Victor Hiller

2008-01-01

327

Evolution of Norms in a Newly Forming Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms are expected to make significant contributions towards enabling discourse in cyberspace among people of different backgrounds, just as they do in the physical world. Yet many distributed, electronically mediated groups fail to form norms successfully. Causes range from open discord to the more insidious lack of comfort people experience in groups that fail to openly address disagreements about what

Catalina Danis; Alison Lee

2005-01-01

328

Maximum norms of chaotic quantum eigenstates and random waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the maximum norms of quantum eigenstates of classically chaotic systems with increasing energy is investigated. The maximum norms provide a measure for localization effects in eigenfunctions. An upper bound for the maxima of random superpositions of random functions is derived. For the random-wave model this gives the boundc p lnE in the semiclassical limit E !1 .

R. Aurich; A. Bäcker; R. Schubert; M. Taglieber

1998-01-01

329

A Study of African-American College Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the belief that a person's attitude affects the way they view, pursue, and achieve within a subject area. From research using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales come Fennema's Theory, which Tapia and Marsh (2004) explain as the belief that performance in mathematics is an interaction of attitudes, mathematics anxiety, and behavior that occur during a learning

David C. Bramlett; Sherry Herron

330

Effect of Gender, Achievement in Mathematics, and Grade Level on Attitudes toward Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of gender, math achievement, and grade level on attitudes toward mathematics were examined by use of an inventory, Attitudes Toward Mathematics Instrument. Subjects were 803 bilingual, middle and high school students. The data were analyzed using a multivariate factorial model with four factors of Mathematics Attitudes as dependent…

Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E., II

331

Measuring the Ways Significant Persons Influence Attitudes Towards Science and Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people's attitudes towards science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are subject to interpersonal influence of significant persons—defined as those who influence a person's attitudes. This article presents the development of an instrument designed to measure different modes of significant persons’ influence on attitudes towards STEM. The questionnaire used in the pilot study was compiled based on Woelfel and Haller's

Jørgen Sjaastad

2012-01-01

332

Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies. PMID:18493030

Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

2008-08-01

333

Probabilistic modeling of sensor artifacts in critical care Norm Aleks and Stuart Russell NORM|RUSSELL@CS.BERKELEY.EDU  

E-print Network

for an ICU patient. #12;Probabilistic modeling of sensor artifacts in critical care Inputto bedside monitorProbabilistic modeling of sensor artifacts in critical care Norm Aleks and Stuart Russell NORM|MANLEYG@NEUROSURG.UCSF.EDU Dept. of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0112 Abstract We

Russell, Stuart

334

Mind Over Matter: Internalization of the Thinness Norm as a Moderator of Responsiveness to Norm Misperception Education in College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the effectiveness of norm misperception education in decreasing disordered eating. One hundred seven 1st-year college women completed questionnaires assessing their own and others' actual and ideal body size as well as their own disordered eating and were then randomly assigned to read either a norm misperception or a control brochure. Participants completed questionnaires immediately after reading the

Jenny A. Mutterperl; Catherine A. Sanderson

2002-01-01

335

Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students have been shown to consistently overestimate the drinking of their peers. As a result, social norms approaches are effective in correcting these misperceived norms to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. In this review of literature, the authors critically evaluated the effectiveness of personalized normative…

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

2006-01-01

336

Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park.  

PubMed

This paper analyses whether the environmental profile of park visitors as defined by the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory, determines their willingness to pay for park conservation. The sample consists of 194 visitors to a suburban Spanish park. Under these theories, it is shown that positive attitudes, a strong orientation towards biospheric and altruistic values with strong pro-environmental and normative beliefs determine the visitors' willingness to pay. Various fit statistics and the proportion of explained variance reveal that Theory of Planned Behavior has a greater influence on willingness to pay. The managers of urban spaces should direct their efforts to obtaining greater knowledge of people's attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental values given their importance in their decisions regarding economic valuation of this sort of resources. PMID:23041517

López-Mosquera, Natalia; Sánchez, Mercedes

2012-12-30

337

Students' Attitude Toward Foreign Language (SAFL).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated variables associated with students' attitudes about second language use and second language learning. Subjects were 173 university students in foreign language classes. The questionnaire consisted of 27 Likert-type statements addressing such issues in language learning as performance anxiety, self-confidence, interest in…

Sutarso, Pudjiati

338

College Students' Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes and knowledge regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of 498 college students enrolled at California State University, Dominguez Hills were surveyed. The AIDS Opinion and Information Surveys were administered to subjects between the ages of 18 and 46+, with 81.5% being below the age of 32. The 19-item Opinion survey uses a…

Goggin, Kathy

339

Instructional Media, Attitude Change and Field Dependence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of two media types (sound film and still slides with audiotape) in changing student attitudes, and their impact on students varying in field dependency levels was examined. Subjects, 82 college students scoring at the high and low extremes of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), were randomly assigned to either a (1) multi-cue…

Kloock, Terryl R.; And Others

340

Parents Share Their Attitudes and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the attitudes and expectations of parents of sixth-grade students concerning science education in the elementary school. Discusses parents' responses with regard to the role of science education, time allotted for science, comparisons with other subjects, helping children with science homework, important topics, and views of science.…

Smith, Leigh K.; Tolman, Marvin N.

1997-01-01

341

The attitudes and behaviours of illegal downloaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarise and evaluate the literature on digital consumer behaviour and attitudes towards digital piracy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a review and synthesis of the academic literature on the subject, using the authors' unique “pro-forma” approach to the evaluation of individual papers. Findings – A major limitation in the studies reported

Peter Williams; David Nicholas; Ian Rowlands

2010-01-01

342

Oncologists' attitudes to treatment of cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, based on questionnaire responses of 46 Israeli oncologists, explores the factors influencing these physicians' beliefs and decisions regarding chemo and radiation therapy. A simple discriminant analysis identified five physician-related variables with a significant impact on the subjects' attitudes to treatment: age, sex, years of oncology experience, pity for the patient, and whether they believed all cancer patients suffer

Ora Gilbar; Ben-Zion Cohen

1995-01-01

343

Phonological Treatment Efficacy and Developmental Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies, one within subjects and the other across subjects, evaluated the efficacy of teaching sounds in developmental sequence to nine young children (ages three to five). Treatment of later-acquired phonemes led to systemwide changes in untreated sound classes, whereas treatment of early-acquired phonemes did not. Findings suggest…

Gierut, Judith A.; And Others

1996-01-01

344

Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.  

SciTech Connect

Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

345

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the workhorse of real-time spacecraft attitude estimation. Since the group SO3 of rotation matrices has dimension three, most attitude determination EKFs use lower- dimensional attitude parameterizations than the nine-parameter attitude matrix itself. The fact that all three- parameter representations of SO3 are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to extended discussions of constraints and attitude representations in EKFs. The most successful EKF uses a nonsingular parameterization for the global attitude, which necessarily has more than three parameters, while employing a three-component representation for the attitude errors. This filter has become known as the Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter. These issues are now well understood, however, and the EKF has performed admirably in the vast majority of attitude determination applications. Nevertheless, poor performance or even divergence arising from the linearization implicit in the EKF has led to the development of nonlinear filters, most recently sigma point or unscented filters and particle filters.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

346

Adolescents' perceptions of their peers' health norms.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance adolescents place on preventive health behaviors. METHODS. Data were from a survey of California adolescents (n = 5040). Respondents were asked how important it was to their peers to avoid drugs, marijuana, cigarettes, heavy drinking, and drinking and driving and to maintain seat belt use, fitness, weight control, and healthy eating habits. Results were compared with data from a similar national survey (n = 6126). RESULTS. California teenagers perceived that their peers gave top priority to weight control: 85% of California teenagers believed that weight control was of high concern to girls in their age group. Avoiding drugs, not drinking and driving, and maintaining fitness ranked in the top five behaviors. The lowest ranked health behaviors were seat belt use, heavy drinking, and, last, eating healthily. In the national survey, healthy eating also ranked last. Although not identical in rank, teenage priorities for other health behaviors were consistent with the California results. CONCLUSION. Efforts are needed to bring adolescent health norms more into line with the objective risks of their health choices during this critical period of socialization. PMID:7625497

Evans, N; Gilpin, E; Farkas, A J; Shenassa, E; Pierce, J P

1995-01-01

347

Visual acuity norms in young children.  

PubMed

There are no universally accepted standards for visual acuity tests or norms in young (3-6-year-old) children, although acuity measurement is important in both clinical and screening settings. This review outlines the requirements for such standards. Although more research is needed, available data suggest that a standard test should meet the following requirements. It should utilize a letter optotype (tumbling E, Landolt C, or HOTV variant of the STYCAR), and single optotype with contour interaction bar surround. It should permit nonverbal pointing responses in younger children and verbal responses in older children. If an orientation-specifying method is followed, as with the E or Landolt C, the test should use a three-alternative choice--up, down, and sideways with a nondifferentiated left-right--rather than the traditional four alternative choice. A C-like O pseudo-optotype should be considered in a paired-comparison test format when the Landolt C is utilized, with a similar format for the tumbling E if a suitable pseudo-optotype can be derived. The optical grating test, which is widely used in infant testing, may underestimate acuity deficits and so is not a test of choice for determination of Snellen-equivalent acuity. A letter-based variant of the grating test may hold promise. Reduction in testing distance from 6 to 3 or 4 meters is recommended. PMID:6359515

Simons, K

1983-01-01

348

Interrogating the changing inequalities constituting ‘popular’ ‘deviant’ and ‘ordinary’ subjects of school\\/subculture in Ireland: moments of new migrant student recognition, resistance and recuperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores moments in which three new migrant students become constituted as particular types of learners and classmates, through the interplay of racialised, classed and gendered norms made available in one Irish school. Certainly, new migrant students’ subjectivities may be constrained due to already embedded school\\/subcultural inequalities. Yet rather than simply being entirely subject to the exclusionary norms underpinning

Karl Kitching

2011-01-01

349

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Young African-American Men: Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions  

E-print Network

Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cancer to kill African Americans in the U.S. Compared to White men, African-American men have CRC incidence and mortality rates 20% and 45% higher, respectively...

Rogers, Charles Ray

2013-12-05

350

Saving, Reusing, and Remixing Web Video: Using Attitudes and Practices to Reveal Social Norms  

E-print Network

in a handful of distinct realms. On one hand, home movies were used to record special occasions and family as many views as a movie or TV series that cost millions to make and is available through a for production concerns such as Sony and Disney aggressively push forward to protect their assets [27]. Meanwhile

Marshall, Cathy

351

Measurement-induced nonlocality based on the Schatten 1-norm  

E-print Network

We propose to quantify the measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) by the Schatten 1-norm. We show explicitly that this measure is monotonous under the action of completely positive trace-preserving map on the unmeasured party. This avoids the undesirable characteristic for the known measure of MIN by the Hilbert-Schmidt norm which may be increased or decreased by trivial local reversible operations on the unmeasured party. We also obtain analytical formulas of the 1-norm MIN for any $2\\times n$ dimensional pure state, two-qubit state, and certain high-dimensional states.

Ming-Liang Hu; Heng Fan

2014-02-18

352

[The new International Standardization Organization 9000 norms: 2000].  

PubMed

The reviewing of ISO 9000 norms has been planned to be published within the last quarter of the year 2000. It aims at overcoming the limits and difficulties of use evidenced by the implementation of the 1994 ISO norms, and at providing an analysis aid for improving quality, which would be adapted to the needs of each company or user. What is at stake with these new norms is the implementation of a quality management system, and its evolution towards a total-quality management. PMID:10472689

Arnold, J

1999-07-01

353

Establishment of soft tissue norms for the north Indian population based on laymen perception.  

PubMed

In this study we aimed to determine the soft tissue norms for the North Indian population based on the laymen perception of facial esthetics and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurement between North Indians and White Americans norms. Two sets (Facial frontal and profile photographs) of 170 standardized facial photographs (76 males and 94 females in the age group of 18-28 years) were taken. A panel of judges which consisted of 20 laymen evaluated the photographs on the visual analogue scale to select a sample of 120 subjects (60 males and 60 females), which included individuals with esthetically pleasing appearance. Digital lateral cephalograms were made and anatomic landmarks were identified directly on the digital images. Seventeen soft tissue variables taken from Subtenley's, Holdaway's, Ricketts and Legan's analysis were calculated electronically using the Dolphin (version 9) software package. Most measurements were similar to the white American norms, some differences were noticed in nasal prominence, basic upper lip thickness, and 'H' angle measurements. The independent-sample t test was used to compare the measurement differences of the North Indian men and women. North Indian males have relatively prominent and thicker upper lip, and increased basic upper lip thickness than the females. Lower lip was found to be more protrusive in females than in males. PMID:24644392

Gupta, Ankur; Garg, Jaishree; Anand, Neelima; Hegde, Manjunath; Parashar, Sandeep

2014-03-01

354

School Subjects School Subjects [masomo  

E-print Network

] bayolojia [biology] biashara [business] botania [botany] dini [religion] elimu [education] elimu ya kompyuta? [What?/which?] katika [at/within] Nini? [What?] chuokikuu [university] Wapi? [Where?] #12;Question Formation Mifano: 1. Wewe unasoma masomo gani? [What subjects do you study? / What do

355

The worldwide NORM production and a fully automated gamma-ray spectrometer for their characterization  

E-print Network

Materials containing radionuclides of natural origin, which is modified by human made processes and being subject to regulation because of their radioactivity are known as NORM. We present a brief review of the main categories of non-nuclear industries together with the levels of activity concentration in feed raw materials, products and waste, including mechanisms of radioisotope enrichments. The global management of NORM shows a high level of complexity, mainly due to different degrees of radioactivity enhancement and the huge amount of worldwide waste production. The future tendency of guidelines concerning environmental protection will require both a systematic monitoring based on the ever-increasing sampling and high performance of gamma ray spectroscopy. On the ground of these requirements a new low background fully automated high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer MCA_Rad has been developed. The design of Pb and Cu shielding allowed to reach a background reduction of two order of magnitude with respect to laboratory radioactivity. A severe lowering of manpower cost is obtained through a fully automation system, which enables up to 24 samples to be measured without any human attendance. Two coupled HPGe detectors increase the detection efficiency, performing accurate measurements on sample volume (180 cc) with a reduction of sample transport cost of material. Details of the instrument calibration method are presented. MCA_Rad system can measure in less than one hour a typical NORM sample enriched in U and Th with some hundreds of Bq/kg, with an overall uncertainty less than 5%. Quality control of this method has been tested. Measurements of certified reference materials RGK-1, RGU-2 and RGTh-1 containing concentrations of K, U and Th comparable to NORM have been performed, resulting an overall relative discrepancy of 5% among central values within the reported uncertainty.

G. Xhixha; GP. Bezzon; C. Broggini; GP. Buso; A. Caciolli; I. Callegari; S. De Bianchi; G. Fiorentini; E. Guastaldi; M. Kaçeli Xhixha; F. Mantovani; G. Massa; R. Menegazzo; L. Mou; A. Pasquini; C. Rossi Alvarez; M. Shyti

2012-04-24

356

Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393

Krempien, Jennifer Luella; Barr, Susan Irene

2012-01-01

357

42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations... Use of norms and criteria. (a) Use of...Establish written criteria and standards to be used in conducting quality review studies. (d) Variant criteria and standards....

2010-10-01

358

42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations... Use of norms and criteria. (a) Use of...Establish written criteria and standards to be used in conducting quality review studies. (d) Variant criteria and standards....

2012-10-01

359

42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations... Use of norms and criteria. (a) Use of...Establish written criteria and standards to be used in conducting quality review studies. (d) Variant criteria and standards....

2013-10-01

360

42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations... Use of norms and criteria. (a) Use of...Establish written criteria and standards to be used in conducting quality review studies. (d) Variant criteria and standards....

2011-10-01

361

Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes.

Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

2014-01-01

362

Representing Knowledge about Norms Daniel Kayser and Farid Nouioua1  

E-print Network

, as described by car-crash reports. 1. INTRODUCTION Norms are essential in our life. Our everyday behavior- lies, including of course the accident itself. The readers gener- ally understand one of them as being

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

2009-01-01

364

Discriminant locality preserving projections based on l1-norm maximization.  

PubMed

Conventional discriminant locality preserving projection (DLPP) is a dimensionality reduction technique based on manifold learning, which has demonstrated good performance in pattern recognition. However, because its objective function is based on the distance criterion using L2-norm, conventional DLPP is not robust to outliers which are present in many applications. This paper proposes an effective and robust DLPP version based on L1-norm maximization, which learns a set of local optimal projection vectors by maximizing the ratio of the L1-norm-based locality preserving between-class dispersion and the L1-norm-based locality preserving within-class dispersion. The proposed method is proven to be feasible and also robust to outliers while overcoming the small sample size problem. The experimental results on artificial datasets, Binary Alphadigits dataset, FERET face dataset and PolyU palmprint dataset have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25330429

Zhong, Fujin; Zhang, Jiashu; Li, Defang

2014-11-01

365

An H-infinity norm minimization approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

Muse, Jonathan A.

366

Direct marketing attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines empirically consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing using a sample of 354 consumers. The sample was randomly drawn from a large southern metropolitan area. The study instrument comprised items developed from literature sources. Respondents' evaluations of the items were obtained through in-home personal interviews. Underlying the study is the hypothesis that consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing are a

Daulatram Lund; Pradeep K. Korgaonkar

1995-01-01

367

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

368

Teachers' Attitudes toward Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the development and testing of measures of teachers' attitudes toward testing and appropriate use of tests. A random sample of 555 practicing teachers in Wyoming were surveyed by mail (81 percent response rate). Five subscales assessing attitudes toward use of classroom and standardized tests were identified: (1) standardized…

Green, Kathy E.; Stager, Susan F.

369

Persistent Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the impact of adolescent attitudes and behaviors - academic motivation as assessed by the child herself and behavioral problems as assessed by the mother or the teacher of the child at age 16 - on adult attitudes and behaviors including illegal drugs consumption, smoking, physical and mental health, criminal activity, political participation, self-confidence and opinions about the

Christoph T. Weiss

2012-01-01

370

ANGST: Affective norms for German sentiment terms, derived from the affective norms for English words.  

PubMed

We present the German adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang in Technical Report No. C-1. Gainsville: University of Florida, Center for Research in Psychophysiology). A total of 1,003 Words-German translations of the ANEW material-were rated on a total of six dimensions: The classic ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance (as in the ANEW corpus) were extended with additional arousal ratings using a slightly different scale (see BAWL: Võ et al. in Behavior Research Methods 41: 531-538, 2009; Võ, Jacobs, & Conrad in Behavior Research Methods 38: 606-609, 2006), along with ratings of imageability and potency. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables (different types of word frequency counts, grammatical class, number of letters, number of syllables, and number of orthographic neighbors) for the words were also added, so as to further facilitate the use of this new database in psycholinguistic research. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials with this article. PMID:24415407

Schmidtke, David S; Schröder, Tobias; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

2014-12-01

371

Social Capital, Social Norms and the New Institutional Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglass North (1990) describes institutions as the rules of the game that set limits on human behavior, now a universally-accepted\\u000a definition. North and others especially underline the crucial role of informal social norms. They predict that, like all rules\\u000a of the game, social norms should affect the economic prosperity enjoyed by individuals and countries—that they should have\\u000a a crucial impact,

Philip Keefer; Stephen Knack

2003-01-01

372

Social norms: What happens when they become more abstract?  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Social norm” has been an important concept for sociologists, and shifts towards an increased attention to the role of costs\\u000a and benefits for social behavior did not displace this concept but may have even boosted its importance (see Opp 1983). Still, much needs to be done, as Hechter and Opp’s book on social norms testifies in 2001. “Phenomena like cooperation,

Siegwart M. Lindenberg

373

On a problem of Namioka on norm-attaining functionals  

E-print Network

with the equivalent norm · whose closed unit ball is given by the set B, where B := B 1 + A, satisfies the desired , hence B is the closed unit ball of an equivalent dual norm · in 1. From this point on we use, for a Banach space (X, · ), B(X, · ) will be its closed unit ball, S(X, · ) its unit sphere and X

Montesinos Santalucía, Vicente

374

Effects of Social Network Topology and Options on Norm Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A social norm is a behavior that emerges as a convention within society without any direction from a central authority. Social\\u000a norms emerge as repeated interactions between individuals give rise to biases toward actions or behaviors which spread through\\u000a the society until one behavior is adapted as the default behavior, even when multiple acceptable behaviors exist. Of particular\\u000a interest to

Onkur Sen; Sandip Sen

2009-01-01

375

Constraint rule-based programming of norms for electronic institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Norms constitute a powerful coordination mechanism,among heterogeneous agents. In this paper, we propose means to specify and ex- plicitly manage the normative positions of agents (permissions, prohibi- tions and obligations), with which distinct deontic notions and their rela- tionships can be captured. Our rule-based formalism includes constraints for more expressiveness and precision and allows the norm-oriented pro- gramming,of electronic

Andrés García-camino; Juan A. Rodríguez-aguilar; Carles Sierra; Wamberto Weber Vasconcelos

2009-01-01

376

"...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP) surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group). Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening such as embarrassment. The GP surgery is the ideal place to screen young people for chlamydia as it is not a threatening place for them and our study has shown that they think it is the normal place to go to discuss health matters. PMID:20955570

2010-01-01

377

New wave or second stage? Attitudes of college women toward feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes of female subjects toward gender roles, gender inequality, and the women's movement were measured using a 24-item attitudinal inventory. Subjects tended to hold nontraditional but only moderately feminist attitudes toward gender roles. They were, however, highly aware of gender inequality and supportive of the women's movement, although they were also reluctant to identify themselves as feminists. T tests

Claire M. Renzetti

1987-01-01

378

Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

1980-01-01

379

Age and Gender Differences in Body Attitudes: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of young and elderly adults toward their own bodies were investigated; subjects (N=274) rated 35 aspects of their bodies. Elderly subjects expressed less positive attitudes toward bodily functioning and attractiveness. Some sex differences and areas in which age differences are reversed are discussed. (Author/EMK)

Franzoi, Stephen L.; Koehler, Virginia

1998-01-01

380

Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

2013-02-01

381

Dental students' attitude to gender roles.  

PubMed

This investigation assessed attitudes held by United States women and men dental students toward professional and sex role concepts. The concepts included: female dental student, male dental student, dentist, adult woman, adult man, wife and husband. These attitudes were evaluated and compared in the context of the students' current and future professional roles and their sex roles. Although there were several differences in attitudes between the two subject groups, the results suggest that the women and men dental students viewed their various roles as consistent with one another. It is particularly important to note that the women dental student is viewed by both gender groups as having professional and sex roles which do not conflict. PMID:9877356

Rosenberg, H M; Cucchiara, A J; Helpin, M L

1998-12-01

382

Social Norms Among Peers and Social Norms Among Friends and Their Influences on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk Perceptions  

E-print Network

The influence of peers and peer norms is a significant health determinant of adolescent sexual activity, yet little is known in health education about differences between peer pressure and friend pressure on adolescents. The objective of this study...

Diep, Cassandra Somadevi

2012-02-14

383

Sports ideology, attitudes toward women, and anti-homosexual attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and anti-homosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and anti-homosexual attitudes, but only among males. Among females only sexist attitudes were associated with negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians. Among males, the link of sports ideology

Joseph Harry

1995-01-01

384

Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback  

PubMed Central

College students have been shown to consistently overestimate the drinking of their peers. As a result, social norms approaches are effective in correcting these misperceived norms to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. In this review of literature, the authors critically evaluated the effectiveness of personalized normative feedback. In addition, the authors reviewed personalized normative feedback interventions and provided suggestions for increasing the efficacy of these interventions by making better use of salient referent group data. PMID:16450845

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

2008-01-01

385

Community Structure, Mobility, and the Strength of Norms in an African  

E-print Network

11 Community Structure, Mobility, and the Strength of Norms in an African Society: the Sangu and punishment can evolve and stabilize pro-social norms, and such models suggest again and again that stable who violate local norms, often at a substantial cost to themselves and even when the norm violations

McElreath, Richard

386

Understanding compliance differences between legal and social norms: the case of smoking ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

The values shared within a society influence the (social) behaviour of the agents in that society. This connection goes through implicit and explicit norms. Agents act in situations where different, possibly conflicting, norms are applicable. In the case of a norm conflict, an agent will decide to comply with one or more of the applicable norms, while violating others. Our

Francien Dechesne; Virginia Dignum; Yao-Hua Tan

2012-01-01

387

Preserving Patriarchy: Assimilation, Gender Norms, and Second-Generation Korean American Evangelicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ethnographic study of a second-generation Korean American Protestant congregation explores the role of religion in assimilation, focusing on emerging gender and family norms. The study found that individuals maintained a substantial commitment to patriarchal gender norms and articulated these norms in language consistent with American evangelical theology rather than in ethnic\\/cultural terms. Members were also influenced by egalitarian norms

Antony W. Alumkal

1999-01-01

388

The Dual Quality of Norms and Governance beyond the State: Sociological and Normative Approaches to ‘Interaction’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay develops a critique of modern constructivist approaches to norms in international relations theory. It distinguishes between a behaviourist and a societal perspective on norms. The former explains compliance with norms and\\/or norm diffusion via the logic of appropriateness and the logic of arguing, respectively, the latter understands divergence in normative meaning via the logic of contestedness. Using Habermas's

Antje Wiener

2007-01-01

389

Medical Students' Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

390

Preferences don't have to be personal: Expanding attitude theorizing with a cross-cultural perspective.  

PubMed

Attitudes, theorized as behavioral guides, have long been a central focus of research in the social sciences. However, this theorizing reflects primarily Western philosophical views and empirical findings emphasizing the centrality of personal preferences. As a result, the prevalent psychological model of attitudes is a person-centric one. We suggest that incorporating research insights from non-Western sociocultural contexts can significantly enhance attitude theorizing. To this end, we propose an additional model-a normative-contextual model of attitudes. The currently dominant person-centric model emphasizes the centrality of personal preferences, their stability and internal consistency, and their possible interaction with externally imposed norms. In contrast, the normative-contextual model emphasizes that attitudes are always context-contingent and incorporate the views of others and the norms of the situation. In this model, adjustment to norms does not involve an effortful struggle between the authentic self and exogenous forces. Rather, it is the ongoing and reassuring integration of others' views into one's attitudes. According to the normative-contextual model, likely to be a good fit in contexts that foster interdependence and holistic thinking, attitudes need not be personal or necessarily stable and internally consistent and are only functional to the extent that they help one to adjust automatically to different contexts. The fundamental shift in focus offered by the normative-contextual model generates novel hypotheses and highlights new measurement criteria for studying attitudes in non-Western sociocultural contexts. We discuss these theoretical and measurement implications as well as practical implications for health and well-being, habits and behavior change, and global marketing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347311

Riemer, Hila; Shavitt, Sharon; Koo, Minkyung; Markus, Hazel Rose

2014-10-01

391

Sex, love and gender norms: sexual life and experience of a group of young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the impacts of gender norms on the sexual life and experience of a group of young Vietnamese people. It is based on a qualitative study on sexuality and abortion among young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There were two general attitudes towards premarital sex. One view supported young people in a serious, loving relationship engaging in sex before marriage; the other opposed premarital sex because it affected the reputation of girls and their families. These general attitudes were similar to the views on virginity: one group believed strongly in girls maintaining their virginity and the other group emphasised love, emotion and trust, not virginity, as the most important criteria for marriage. Among women there were more supporters than opponents of the traditional view of premarital sex and virginity. Premarital sex was more acceptable for young people in a serious, loving relationship with certain commitment to marriage. Young men considered sex a way to express their love and to become more intimate. Women's view was that premarital sex only occurred within a serious, loving relationship or when there was a serious commitment to marriage. It is clear that young people's sexual life is shaped and constrained by gender norms through political interventions, sexual education and moral judgements. Under the pressure of these norms, young people face many difficulties in order to fulfill a safe and satisfying sexual life. PMID:17382041

Nguyen, Hoa Ngan; Liamputtong, Pranee

2007-03-01

392

School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in Russia: Educational Relevant Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with some aspects of studying Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part of the "third dimension" of the Darmstadt model (they are also projected on the other two dimensions of this model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards, the learning…

Khenner, Evgeniy; Semakin, Igor

2014-01-01

393

Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess\\u000a frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, within 5–17 years\\u000a of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed

M. Laiacona; M. G. Inzaghi; A. De Tanti; E. Capitani

2000-01-01

394

Information and Attitudes toward Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

1979-01-01

395

Public awareness and attitudes toward palliative care in Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organisation recognises palliative care as a global public health issue and this is reflected at strategic level. Despite this, palliative care may not be universally welcomed. Surveys over the last decade have suggested that the general public have a lack of knowledge and negative perceptions towards palliative care. A detailed and comprehensive understanding of public views is needed in order to target education and policy campaigns and to manage future needs, expectations and resourcing of end of life care. The aim of this study was to establish the current levels of awareness and attitudes towards palliative care among the general public in Northern Ireland. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey with a population of 3,557 individuals aged over 17 years was performed. Information was collected using a structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items. Open questions were subject to content analysis; closed questions were subject to descriptive statistics with inferential testing as appropriate. Results A total of 600 responses were obtained (response rate 17%). Responses indicated limited knowledge about palliative care. Female gender and previous experience influenced awareness in a positive direction. Respondents who worked in healthcare themselves or who had a close relative or friend who had used a palliative care service were more aware of palliative care and the availability of different palliative care services. Findings reveal the preferred place of care was the family home. The main barriers to raising awareness were fear, lack of interaction with health services and perception of lack of resources. A number of strategies to enhance awareness, access and community involvement in palliative care were suggested. Conclusions Public awareness of the concept of palliative care and of service availability remains insufficient for widespread effective and appropriate palliative care to be accepted as the norm. In particular, those without previous family-related experiences lack awareness. This has implications for palliative care service provision and policy. An increased awareness of palliative care is needed, in order to improve knowledge of and access to services when required, empower individuals, involve communities and ultimately to realise the objectives contained within international strategies for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:24044631

2013-01-01

396

A Real Time Social Norms Intervention to Reduce Male Sexism  

Microsoft Academic Search

College males’ overestimation of peers’ sexism may result in reluctance to challenge these toxic attitudes. Researchers investigated\\u000a the power of a brief intervention to correct these cognitive distortions in Southeastern U.S. undergraduate samples of unacquainted\\u000a (N?=?65; 86.2% Caucasian) and acquainted males (N?=?63; 82% Caucasian). Participants first reported selfperceptions of attitudes toward women and then estimated the attitudes\\u000a of other men

Christopher Kilmartin; Tempe Smith; Alison Green; Harriotte Heinzen; Michael Kuchler; David Kolar

2008-01-01

397

Attitudes and Health Behavior in Diverse Populations: Drunk Driving, Alcohol Use, Binge Eating, Marijuana Use, and Cigarette Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different health behaviors (cigarette use, alcohol use, binge eating, illicit drug use, and drunk driving) were studied prospectively in 5 different groups of subjects. Associations between attitudes toward these behaviors and the behaviors themselves were investigated over at least 2 waves of measurement. Findings revealed that attitudes predicted behavior nonspuriously in 2 instances: alcohol use and marijuana use. Attitudes

Alan W. Stacy; Peter M. Bentler; Brian R. Flay

1994-01-01

398

Approaching healthy body mass index norms for children and adolescents from health-related physical fitness.  

PubMed

Current body mass index (BMI) norms for children and adolescents are developed from a reference population that includes obese and slim subjects. The validity of these norms is influenced by the observed secular increase in body weight and BMI. We hypothesized that the performance of children in health-related physical fitness tests would be negatively related to increased BMIs, and therefore fitness tests might be used as criteria for developing a more appropriate set of BMI norms. We evaluated the existing data from a nation-wide fitness survey for students in Taiwan (444 652 boys and 433 555 girls) to examine the relationship between BMI and fitness tests. The fitness tests used included: an 800/1600-m run/walk; a standing long jump; bent-leg curl-ups; and a sit-and-reach test. The BMI percentiles developed from the subgroup whose test scores were better than the 'poor' quartile in all four tests were compared with those of the whole population and linked to the adult criteria for overweight and obesity. The BMIs were significantly related to the results of fitness testing. A total of 43% of students had scores better than the poorest quartile in all of their tests. The upper BMI percentile curves of this fitter subgroup were lower than those of the total population. The 85th and 95th BMI percentile values of the fitter 18-year-old-students (23.7 and 25.5 kg m(-2) for boys; 22.6 and 24.6 kg m(-2) for girls) linked well with the adult cut-off points of 23 and 25 kg m(-2), which have been recommended as the Asian criteria for adult overweight and obesity. Hence, the BMI norms for children and adolescents could be created from selected subgroups that have better physical fitness. We expect that the new norms based on this approach will be used not only to assess the current status of obesity or overweight, but also to encourage activity and exercise. PMID:12164476

Chen, W; Lin, C C; Peng, C T; Li, C I; Wu, H C; Chiang, J; Wu, J Y; Huang, P C

2002-08-01

399

Attitude Bolstering Following Self-Induced Value Discrepancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the effects of behaving inconsistently with a central attitude, subjects (N=77) filled out a "Contemporary Social Issues Questionnaire," and then completed a sex-role or non-sex-role logic problem. It was hypothesized that subjects who score high on a feminism scale and who fail to solve a sex-role problem, thus demonstrating sexist…

Sherman, Steven J.; Gorkln, Larry

400

Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term word association is used in a very particular sense in the psycholinguistic literature. (Generally speaking, subjects respond quicker than normal to the word nurse if it follows a highly associated word such as doctor. ) We will extend the term to provide the basis for a statistical description of a variety of interesting linguistic phenomena, ranging from semantic relations of the doctor\\/nurse type

Kenneth Ward Church; Patrick Hanks

1990-01-01

401

Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry  

PubMed Central

Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

2012-01-01

402

Fast and accurate matrix completion via truncated nuclear norm regularization.  

PubMed

Recovering a large matrix from a small subset of its entries is a challenging problem arising in many real applications, such as image inpainting and recommender systems. Many existing approaches formulate this problem as a general low-rank matrix approximation problem. Since the rank operator is nonconvex and discontinuous, most of the recent theoretical studies use the nuclear norm as a convex relaxation. One major limitation of the existing approaches based on nuclear norm minimization is that all the singular values are simultaneously minimized, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practice. In this paper, we propose to achieve a better approximation to the rank of matrix by truncated nuclear norm, which is given by the nuclear norm subtracted by the sum of the largest few singular values. In addition, we develop a novel matrix completion algorithm by minimizing the Truncated Nuclear Norm. We further develop three efficient iterative procedures, TNNR-ADMM, TNNR-APGL, and TNNR-ADMMAP, to solve the optimization problem. TNNR-ADMM utilizes the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), while TNNR-AGPL applies the accelerated proximal gradient line search method (APGL) for the final optimization. For TNNR-ADMMAP, we make use of an adaptive penalty according to a novel update rule for ADMM to achieve a faster convergence rate. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithms in comparison to the state-of-the-art matrix completion algorithms on both synthetic and real visual datasets. PMID:23868774

Hu, Yao; Zhang, Debing; Ye, Jieping; Li, Xuelong; He, Xiaofei

2013-09-01

403

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis, a meta-analysis of the relevant literature was performed. Electronic database (PubMed), Saudi Dental Journal and Master theses were searched for studies reporting cephalometric values of normal male and female Saudi adults with numerical data and 8 studies with a total sample size of 485 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis with results from these studies was completed. The combined mean estimates and SD of common cephalometric measurements were calculated. The data included in this comprehensive meta-analysis were compared with Caucasian norms and results indicated that Saudis have distinct cephalometric features. Saudis tend to have slightly more convex profiles and more proclined incisors than the Caucasians. These findings confirm the previously published results and should serve as more accurate reference values that were drawn from a large sample size. PMID:24151411

Aldrees, Abdullah M.

2010-01-01

404

Evaluation of RxNorm for Representing Ambulatory Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the RxNorm standardized drug nomenclature for representing ambulatory e-prescriptions. Methods: Using a sample of 19743 primary care e-prescriptions, we estimated the coverage rate of RxNorm for representing clinical drugs, measured the 6-month replacement rate for RxNorm concepts, assessed the consistency of two independent concept mappings, and investigated inconsistent mappings. Results: RxNorm contained concepts for nearly all prescriptions in the sample (99.995%). Of 1419 concepts used, 8.1% were replaced between April and October 2009. Independent mappings produced different concepts for 676 e-prescriptions (3.4%), but most differences would have low clinical significance. Most mismatches were related to the use of extended-release form concepts with no duration specified, inhalers vs. their contents, and clinically inert salts. Conclusions: RxNorm provides concepts covering nearly all ambulatory e-prescriptions in this setting. Independent mappings were relatively consistent. Improvements could be made by enabling selection of the most-specific concepts when broader prescribable concepts exist. PMID:21347041

O'Neill, Sean M; Bell, Douglas S

2010-01-01

405

Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words.  

PubMed

Frequency of occurrence is an important attribute of lexical units, and one that is widely used in psychological research and theorization. Although printed frequency norms have long been available for Spanish, and subtitle-based norms have more recently been published, oral frequency norms have not been systematically compiled for a representative set of words. In this study, a corpus of over three million units, representing present-day use of the language in Spain, was used to derive a frequency count of spoken words. The corpus consisted of 913 separate documents that contained transcriptions of oral recordings obtained in a wide variety of situations, mostly radio and television programs. The resulting database, containing absolute and relative frequency values for 67,979 orally produced words, is presented. Validity analyses showed significant correlations of oral frequency with other frequency measures and suggest that oral frequency can predict some types of lexical processing with the same or higher levels of precision, when contrasted with text- or subtitle-based frequencies. In conclusion, we discuss ways in which these oral frequency norms can be put to use. The norms can be downloaded from www.springerlink.com. PMID:21416306

Alonso, María Angeles; Fernandez, Angel; Díez, Emiliano

2011-06-01

406

Implicit attitudes and psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 15 years have witnessed an ever-growing interest in the role of implicit attitudes in mental and health-related problems\\u000a and disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to this research area. More specifically, the\\u000a following issues will be addressed: 1) Why do researchers consider implicit attitudes to be of interest? 2) In what way

Jorg Huijding

2006-01-01

407

A Branch-and-Bound Algorithm to Compute the Worst-Case Norm of Uncertain Linear Systems under Inputs with Magnitude and Rate Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the worst-case norm (WCN) of linear systems subject to inputs with magnitude and rate bounds to the case of uncertain linear systems. While the WCN for linear systems can be accurately obtained by simply solving a sparse linear programming, the computation of the WCN for uncertain linear systems leads to an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a

Wathanyoo Khaisongkram; D. Banjerdpongchai

2006-01-01

408

Rural environmental attitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.

1994-05-01

409

Effects of an educational intervention on students' attitudes toward the disabled.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to determine if the attitudes of nursing students toward the disabled would improve following participation in a one-day educational conference on care of the physically disabled and to identify variables influencing these attitudes. Nursing students completed Yuker and Block's Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons scale (ATDP) (1986) prior to and one month following the conference. T test indicated that subjects had significantly higher ATDP scores following the rehabilitation conference (p = < .0001). Subjects with prior work experience with the disabled had significantly higher scores on the ATDP, indicating more positive attitudes toward the disabled. PMID:8388928

Lindgren, C L; Oermann, M H

1993-03-01

410

Analyzing attitudes as predictors of sexual abstinence among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relative importance of certain demographic variables in predicting adolescents' attitudes toward sexual abstinence, as well as assessing the impact of abstinence attitudes upon other risk-taking behaviors. The study, which was based on a pretest-posttest-follow-up within subjects longitudinal design, involved 2,516 self-selected Illinois middle school students between the ages of 13 and 16 who participated in Choosing

David C. Weidner

2005-01-01

411

Leveraging changing gender norms to address concurrency: focus group findings from South African university students.  

PubMed

Background This study aims to complement recent research on sexual concurrency in South Africa by providing a deeper understanding of women's roles and motivations for engaging in and accepting their partners' concurrency. Our goal is to inform the implementation of more effective interventions that embrace the powerful role that women can play in healthy sexual decision-making in consensual relationships. Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups with male and female students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Drawing on a subset of those focus groups, we examined the gender norms underpinning the apparently widespread acceptance of concurrent sexual partnerships. Our analysis focusses on women's attitudes and behaviours towards concurrency - from both men's and women's perspectives - with a goal of identifying opportunities to engage women as agents of change in sexual partnership patterns in their communities. Results: Our findings indicate that: (1) concurrent sexual partnerships were the norm among male students and increasingly common among female students; (2) material gain and changes in women's perceptions of their roles and power in relationships were the primary female motives for concurrency; (3) peer pressure, a perceived innate need and a fear of being alone were the primary male motives for concurrency; (4) women often know that their partners are cheating and stay with them because they believe they are the most important partner, for financial reasons, or because they worry they will not find another partner. Conclusions: HIV prevention interventions in populations where concurrency is common would benefit from emphasising women's role and power in taking greater control of their own sexual decision-making in consensual and nonviolent relationships. PMID:23809883

Psaki, Stephanie R; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Halperin, Daniel T

2013-08-01

412

Effects of sex role attitudes and similarity on men's rejection of male homosexuals.  

PubMed

The present study investigated reactions to homosexuals as a function of perceived attitude similarity and subjects' sex role attitudes. Male subjects, preselected on the basis of their profeminist, moderate, or antifeminist scores on the Attitude Toward Feminism Scale were assigned at random to one of the four experimental conditions. Using a standard attraction paradigm design, subjects rated a bogus "partner," who was represented as either homosexual or heterosexual and as having attitudes either similar or dissimilar to theirs. Consistent with predictions, similar partners were liked more than dissimilar partners, and heterosexual partners were liked more than homosexuals. Homosexuals were seen as more dissimilar to the subjects in all conditions. Further, liberals were more accepting of homosexuals and dissimilar partners than were traditionals. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role attitudes and tolerance of dissimilarity. PMID:7373510

Krulewitz, J E; Nash, J E

1980-01-01

413

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

2004-01-01

414

Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.  

PubMed

The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding. PMID:23771428

Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

2014-03-01

415

Image reconstruction from few views by l0-norm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the medical computer tomography (CT) field, total variation (TV), which is the l1-norm of the discrete gradient transform (DGT), is widely used as regularization based on the compressive sensing (CS) theory. To overcome the TV model's disadvantageous tendency of uniformly penalizing the image gradient and over smoothing the low-contrast structures, an iterative algorithm based on the l0-norm optimization of the DGT is proposed. In order to rise to the challenges introduced by the l0-norm DGT, the algorithm uses a pseudo-inverse transform of DGT and adapts an iterative hard thresholding (IHT) algorithm, whose convergence and effective efficiency have been theoretically proven. The simulation demonstrates our conclusions and indicates that the algorithm proposed in this paper can obviously improve the reconstruction quality.

Sun, Yu-Li; Tao, Jin-Xu

2014-07-01

416

Social norms and illicit behavior: an evolutionary model of compliance.  

PubMed

Economists have viewed the presence of externalities and other market failures as leading to a private equilibrium that would not be Pareto optimal. In the exploitation of common-pool resources, especially biological resources, this would lead to the much-discussed 'tragedy of the commons'. A challenge to this traditional view has emerged from a careful study of the theory and practice of the exploitation of common-pool resources. The existence of a social norm may provide an individual with information on the extent of external costs associated with a behavior, and thus provides an imperfect means of internalizing the external costs. In this paper we propose an evolutionary model of compliance that allows for the existence of a social norm. The impact of the social norm on public policy towards externalities is examined. PMID:12395588

Haab, Timothy C; McConnell, Kenneth E

2002-09-01

417

Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants.  

PubMed

Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience. PMID:21760974

Kwan, Christine M L; Chun, Kevin M; Chesla, Catherine A

2011-06-01

418

Done 4: analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign.  

PubMed

College students commonly believe their peers engage in higher levels of dangerous drinking than is actually the case. Social norms marketing campaigns attempt to correct these misperceptions, decrease the perceived normative pressure to drink, and thereby drive down high-risk alcohol consumption. In this case study, we critically examined "Done 4," an unsuccessful social norms marketing campaign conducted as part of a comprehensive prevention trial at a large urban university. As part of this analysis, undergraduate marketing students were shown the principal print advertisement used in the campaign and asked to complete an advertising analysis questionnaire. The results of this case study suggest that the advertisement was poorly constructed, which decreased its effectiveness and led to confusion about the social norms message. We discuss implications of these findings for future prevention campaigns and new research. PMID:15590342

Russell, Cristel Antonia; Clapp, John D; Dejong, William

2005-01-01

419

ATTITUDES TOWARD TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL PARENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies investigated attitudes toward traditional parents (stay-at-home mothers and employed fathers) and nontra- ditional parents (stay-at-home fathers and employed mothers) among adult men and women. Using a between-subjects design, Study 1 found that nontraditional parents were liked significantly less than traditional parents. Participants also believed that stay-at-home fathers were not regarded highly by others. Study 2 replicated these results

Victoria L. Brescoll; Eric Luis Uhlmann

2005-01-01

420

Measuring attitudes toward the physically disabled: testing the 'Attitude Towards Disabled Persons' scale (A.T.D.P. Form O) on social work and non-social work students.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to test the U.S.A. Validated 'Attitude Towards Disabled Persons' Inventory (A.T.D.P. Form O) on a British student population to establish norms. The objectives were to test specific hypotheses related to the sex of the respondent, contact with physically disabled people and whether social work students had different attitude scores than non social work students. In addition, a comparison was made between the British and U.S.A. 'norms'. The student population of four specific British Universities comprised the sampling frame. The sample was a non probability accidental sample of social work and non social work students. Standardised A.T.D.P. Form Os were administered in group situations. Each form was accompanied by a letter explaining the study, together with a short questionnaire eliciting the sex of respondent and type and extent of any contact with disabled people. The findings demonstrated that there are probably differences between U.S.A. and British norms but that there are general similarities between the two countries. In both countries females, scored higher than males, which by interpretation indicates possibly a more favourable attitude. Contact with the disabled is also a contributing factor in higher scores. Social work students also tended to score more highly than non social work students. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to the possible development of professional attitudes for those who work with the disabled. It is postulated that 'idealisation' may be reflected in attitudes of students who intend to work with the disabled which, after general and professional life experience gives way to less favourable attitudes. Closeness of contact of respondents to disabled people is a factor which needs further exploration in connection with changing attitude scores. PMID:155661

Smith, N J; McCulloch, J W

1978-01-01

421

Descriptive Drinking Norms: For Whom Does Reference Group Matter?*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Perceived descriptive drinking norms often differ from actual norms and are positively related to personal consumption. However, it is not clear how normative perceptions vary with specificity of the reference group. Are drinking norms more accurate and more closely related to drinking behavior as reference group specificity increases? Do these relationships vary as a function of participant demographics? The present study examined the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking behavior by ethnicity (Asian or White), sex, and fraternity/sorority status. Method: Participants were 2,699 (58% female) White (75%) or Asian (25%) undergraduates from two universities who reported their own alcohol use and perceived descriptive norms for eight reference groups: "typical student"; same sex, ethnicity, or fraternity/sorority status; and all combinations of these three factors. Results: Participants generally reported the highest perceived norms for the most distal reference group (typical student), with perceptions becoming more accurate as individuals' similarity to the reference group increased. Despite increased accuracy, participants perceived that all reference groups drank more than was actually the case. Across specific subgroups (fraternity/sorority members and men) different patterns emerged. Fraternity/sorority members reliably reported higher estimates of drinking for reference groups that included fraternity/ sorority status, and, to a lesser extent, men reported higher estimates for reference groups that included men. Conclusions: The results suggest that interventions targeting normative misperceptions may need to provide feedback based on participant demography or group membership. Although reference group-specific feedback may be important for some subgroups, typical student feedback provides the largest normative discrepancy for the majority of students. PMID:21906510

Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Pedersen, Eric r.; Montoya, Heidi; Hodge, Kimberley; Desai, Sruti; Hummer, Justin F.; Walter, Theresa

2011-01-01

422

Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

1992-06-01

423

Computer ethics education: Impact from societal norms  

SciTech Connect

Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination of both), but have also involved debates over who is best qualified to address the subject. What has seldom been addressed, however, is how societal impressions of what is ethical have impacted both those who develop software and those who use it. In light of the experience of such institutions as the U.S. Air Force Academy which recently instituted a program called the Center for Character Development (due to a perceived erosion of the core values of its recruits), should academia and industry expect more from computer scientists than from the population as a whole? It is the integration of ethics courses in the computer science curriculum in light of a general erosion of ethical values in society as a whole that is addressed in this paper.

White, G.B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

424

Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6th graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends’ disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions. PMID:24078745

Zaleski, Adam C.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

425

The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem  

PubMed Central

We formalize an algorithm for solving the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L1 projection and L1 regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics. PMID:23024460

Dula, J.H.

2012-01-01

426

AStudy of the Relationship of Geological Formation to the Norm.  

SciTech Connect

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) is a common and costly contaminant of produced waters associated with natural gas production and exploration. One way of combating this problem is by identifying the problem beforehand. Our approach to this problem involves development of NORM prediction capabilities based on the geological environment. During the eleventh quarter of this project, emphasis again remained on two major tasks; identifying new sampling sites and seeking approval for final project revisions. In light of the delays experienced, the project has been granted a one year extension, and a revision is currently under review.

Bursh, T.P.; Derald Chriss

1997-07-08

427

Mind over matter: internalization of the thinness norm as a moderator of responsiveness to norm misperception education in college women.  

PubMed

The authors examine the effectiveness of norm misperception education in decreasing disordered eating. One hundred seven 1st-year college women completed questionnaires assessing their own and others' actual and ideal body size as well as their own disordered eating and were then randomly assigned to read either a norm misperception or a control brochure. Participants completed questionnaires immediately after reading the brochures and again 3 months later. Although there were no main effects of brochure condition at the follow-up, participants who primarily compared themselves with other college women and who read the norm misperception brochure had higher actual and ideal weight as well as less frequent disordered eating. The discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings. PMID:12211520

Mutterperl, Jenny A; Sanderson, Catherine A

2002-09-01

428

Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

2005-01-01

429

Functional attitude theories revisited: an ecological perspective on attitude change  

E-print Network

attitudes (and accordingly, behavior), differing though in object of discussion and type of appeal made. Attitude top- ics may lead naturally to certain types of arguments (e. g. , logical in the case of what the best antacid is, value... attitudes (and accordingly, behavior), differing though in object of discussion and type of appeal made. Attitude top- ics may lead naturally to certain types of arguments (e. g. , logical in the case of what the best antacid is, value...

Marsh, Kerry Lynn

2012-06-07

430

[Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behavior among young people in Germany. Results of repeated, representative surveys by the BZgA].  

PubMed

Following an increase in tobacco consumption among 12 to 17 year olds between 1993 and 1997, a policy mix comprising various structural and behavioral prevention measures was implemented in Germany. One element of this policy mix is the "rauchfrei" ("smoke-free") youth campaign of the BZgA (Federal Centre for Health Education), a combination of media that reaches a large number of youth, personal communication, and setting-based interventions. The aim is to prevent young people from starting to smoke and to promote the cessation of smoking at an early stage. Based on a multistage intervention model, wide coverage of the measures should be achieved among young people, as well as changes in knowledge, attitudes, social norms, and behavioral intentions. Based on the intervention model, repeated, representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted to examine the development of these indicators and of tobacco consumption. Five studies were conducted during the period from 2003 to 2008, each comprising between 1,220 and 2,780 computer-assisted telephone interviews with randomly selected young people between the ages of 12 and 17. The percentage of young people reached by information offered on the subject of not smoking rose between 2003 and 2008. Participation in school-based prevention measures also rose. There was an increase in knowledge regarding the harmful substances contained in cigarette smoke, and in the percentage of young people who rated active and passive smoking as being harmful to health. In addition, the attitude towards smoking of young people who have never smoked became more critical, as did that perceived in the social environment. The proportion of young people who smoke declined substantially, from 27.5% (2001) to 15.4% (2008), and there was been a major rise in the number who have never smoked, from 40.5% (2001) to 60.6% (2008). The change in knowledge-based risk assessments, attitudes, and social norms should be further promoted by mass media and personal communication measures, as well as by setting-based and behavioral prevention measures. In order to encourage them to quit smoking, young smokers must be motivated and convinced by means of suitable behavioral prevention interventions. PMID:20098974

Orth, B; Töppich, J

2010-02-01

431

Trade school norms for some commonly used tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data on the AGCT, Bennett, and Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board tests are reported for 1,011 students enrolling in a large, privately endowed industrial institute. The norms are compared with those for other groups given in the manuals for the tests. Some data on test-retest reliabilities are also given. These data are part of a larger study of the

William B. Otterness; C. H. Patterson; R. H. Johnson; Lennis R. Peterson

1956-01-01

432

Norms for College Students. Health Related Physical Fitness Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an analysis of a normative study done to determine physical fitness norms of college age young adults. Data for this normative study were collected under the supervision of 24 coinvestigators who were affiliated with institutions distributed in all regions of the United States. The study presents the derivation of the…

Pate, Russell R.

433

OMNI: Introducing Social Structure, Norms and Ontologies into Agent Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a framework for modelling agent organizations, Omni, that allows the balance of global organizational requirements with the autonomy of individual agents. It specifies global goals of the system independently from those of the specific agents that pop- ulate the system. Both the norms that regulate interac- tion between agents, as well as the contextual meaning

Virginia Dignum; Javier Vázquez-salceda; Frank Dignum

2004-01-01

434

Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

Miller, Kathleen E.

2008-01-01

435

Changing college student norms on the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated 100 college student scores and reliabilities on the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (ISB) for the years 1965, 1970, and 1977. Results indicate (a) no significant differences among the years studied, (b) significant differences between student scores in the present study and the original ISB norms (J. B. Rotter and J. E. Rafferty, 1950), and (c) high interscorer reliabilities of

Michael I. Lah; Julian B. Rotter

1981-01-01

436

Communiquer dans un monde de normes l 235 Introduction  

E-print Network

). The Social Constructivists study the process which leads to the appropriation of new technology and itsCommuniquer dans un monde de normes l 235 Introduction The uses of social media are still in their early developmental stages at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Social media, which includes

Boyer, Edmond

437

Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties  

PubMed Central

Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S.; Raihani, Nichola J.

2014-01-01

438

Deference in Indians' decision making: introjected goals or injunctive norms?  

PubMed

We examine the claim that Indians are more likely than Americans to act deferentially in the presence of authority figures and explore 2 possible psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: introjected goals and injunctive norms. Studies 1 and 2 showed that after reflecting upon an authority's expectations, Indians were more likely than Americans to make clothing and course choices consistent with the authority's expectations, but there was no such cultural difference for peers' expectations. Study 3 showed that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians' choices but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying introjected goals versus injunctive norms, Study 4 showed that authority primes influenced Indians' sense of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 5 showed that, inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism, the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays. However, Indian participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, which supported the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms can be an effective means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings. PMID:22149457

Savani, Krishna; Morris, Michael W; Naidu, N V R

2012-04-01

439

The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

Horowitz, Irwin A.

1971-01-01

440

Trustworthiness is a Social Norm, but Trusting is Not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature has demonstrated the important role that trust plays in developing and maintaining well-functioning societies. However, if we are to learn how to increase levels of trust in society, we must first understand why people choose to trust others. One potential answer to this is that people view trust as normative: there is a social norm for trusting that

Cristina Bicchieri; Erte Xiao; Ryan Muldoon

2011-01-01

441

Social norm emergence in virtual agent societies (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of virtual environments such as SecondLife call for a distributed approach for norm emergence and spreading. In open virtual environments, monitoring various interacting agents (avatars), using a centralized authority might be computationally expensive. The number of possible states and actions of an agent could be huge. An approach for sustaining order and smoother functioning of these environments can

Bastin Tony; Roy Savarimuthu; Maryam Purvis; Martin Purvis

2008-01-01

442

Class systems and the enforcement of social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a model in which there is socially inefficient competition among people. In this model, self-enforcing social norms can potentially control the inefficient competition. However, the inefficient behavior often cannot be suppressed in equilibrium among those with the lowest income due to the ineffectiveness of sanctions against those in the society with the least to lose. We demonstrate that

Harold L. Cole; George J. Mailath; Andrew Postlewaite

1996-01-01

443

Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free

Claudio Juan Tessone; Angel S'anchez; Frank Schweitzer

2013-01-01

444

Social Norm, Costly Punishment and the Evolution to Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both laboratory and field evidence suggest that people tend to voluntarily incur costs to punish non-cooperators. While costly punishment typically reduces the average payoff as well as promotes cooperation. Why does the costly punishment evolve? We study the role of punishment in cooperation promotion within a two-level evolution framework of individual strategies and social norms. In a population with certain

Tongkui Yu; Shu-Heng Chen; Honggang Li

2011-01-01

445

Social Norms and Private Provision of Public Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of social norms for voluntary contributions to a public good is analyzed in a game in which people have preferences for private consumption, a public good, and social approval. Each person chooses to be one of the two types: a contributor or a non-contributor. Thereafter, each person meets people who can observe his type. A non-contributor feels disapproval,

Mari Rege

2004-01-01

446

A Social Norms Approach to Hazing Prevention Workshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazing is a common occurrence on sport teams and many athletes fear isolation if they speak out against it. Additionally, at many schools, prevention efforts are minimal. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to propose the use of the social norms approach to create hazing prevention programs. A five-step process (Berkowitz, 2003)—(a) notice the event, (b) interpret the behaviors

Jennifer J. Waldron

2012-01-01

447

Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication: Cultures, Firewalls, and Imported Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses public diplomacy and strategic communication to describe an instrument of statecraft that embraces diplomacy, cultural diplomacy, international broadcasting, political communication, democracy building, and open military information operations. Each element is instrumental in its core, but each imports discourse norms requiring limited firewalls to be successful. Because U.S. public diplomacy is characterized by episodic commitment, organizational stovepipes, tribal

Bruce Gregory

448

Cause and Norm [Forthcoming in Journal of Philosophy  

E-print Network

1 Cause and Norm [Forthcoming in Journal of Philosophy] Christopher Hitchcock Division, the Society for Philosophy and Psychology (Toronto), the Workshop on Causal and Counterfactual Understanding that there is nothing inherently general or universal about the causal structure. For example, the last equation only

Knobe, Joshua

449

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP  

E-print Network

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP Bilan 2011-2012 et Projets 2012-2013 Conseil de labo du 26 juin 2012 Les membres de l'axe NEO-RESSAP ont été très actifs cette année et de

Naud Frédéric

450

Developmental norms for the wisconsin card sorting test  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been used widely among adult populations to evaluate the effects of frontal-lobe lesions, no comparable work has been done among younger populations due, in part, to the lack of an adequate normative base. This study presents developmental norms by age for the WCST for 105 school-age children. The data indicate that, by

Gordon J. Chelune; Ruth A. Baer

1986-01-01

451

Breaking the Simulation Barrier: SRAM Evaluation Through Norm Minimization  

E-print Network

Breaking the Simulation Barrier: SRAM Evaluation Through Norm Minimization Lara Dolecek, Masood technologies, the ability to efficiently obtain an accurate estimate of failure probability of SRAM components illustrative examples are the data retention voltage and the read/write failure tradeoff for 6T SRAM in 32 nm

452

Distributed Norm Enforcement: Ostracism in Open Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enforcement in normative agent societies is a complex issue, which becomes more problematic as these societies become more decen- tralized and open. A new distributed mechanism is presented to enforce norms by ostracizing agents that do not abide by them in their interac- tions with other agents in the society. Simulations are run to check the mechanism's impact in dierent

Adrian Perreau De Pinninck; Carles Sierra; W. Marco Schorlemmer

2008-01-01

453

An Econometric Analysis of Public Transportation Planning Norms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this working paper is to extend the analysis of urbanized areas to explore the hypothesis that it is possible to develop some preliminary public transportation planning norms from the NTS data. The analysis proceeds on three sections. The f...

1975-01-01

454

Overcoming Omniscience for Norm Emergence in Axelrod's Metanorm Model  

E-print Network

this is an unreasonable expectation, the approach does not lend itself to modelling real-world systems such as peer Introduction In many application domains, engineers of distributed systems may choose, or be required, to adopt-interested individu- als [2] provides an analysis of the conditions in which norms can be established. In his

Griffiths, Nathan

455

A Pure L1-norm Principal Component Analysis  

E-print Network

Several previous works involve the L1 norm in subspace estimation with PCA. .... Theorem 1 motivates Algorithm L1-PCA? where points are iteratively ..... Out- lier observations comprise ten percent of each data set. We refer to the .... At the URL http://www.people.vcu.edu/?jpbrooks/l1pcastar are a script for L1-PCA? for R.

2010-07-02

456

Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…

Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

2004-01-01

457

Lower Bounds in Communication Complexity Based on Factorization Norms  

E-print Network

. This approach gives us access to several powerful tools from this area such as normed spaces duality communication can be saved by using entanglement. It is known that entanglement can save one of every two qubits, and examples for which this is tight are also known. It follows from our results that this bound on the saving

Linial, Nathan "Nati"

458

Norms and Standards for Management Education through Distance Mode.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the norms and standards for management education through distance mode that were considered and approved by the Distance Education Council (India) at its 12th meeting held on December 22, 1996. The document contains the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Curriculum Design; (3) Eligibility Criteria; (4)…

Rausaria, R. R.; Lele, Nalini A.; Bhushan, Bharat

459

FISCAL DISCIPLINE AS A SOCIAL NORM: THE EUROPEAN STABILITY PACT  

E-print Network

by the countries participating in the European Monetary Union. Social norms and their effect on economic behavior and monetary union, and yet survive be- cause of reputation considerations. More specifically, the public of the European Union. Us- ing this extreme--but not implausible--hypothesis, we build a simple model similar

Boyer, Edmond

460

FISCAL DISCIPLINE AS A SOCIAL NORM: THE EUROPEAN STABILITY PACT  

E-print Network

' ability to manoeuver when building and managing an economic and monetary union, and yet survive because Union. Social norms and their effect on economic behaviour and outcomes have been investigated at length reputation among the other members of the European Union. Using this extreme but not implau- sible hypothesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

461

Norm-of-Reaction: Definition and misinterpretation of animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a phenotype is due to an interaction of the genotype with the environment. Two terms have been used to describe the outcome of this interaction, the norm-of-reaction and the reaction range. The first represents the theoretically limitless distribution of the phenotypes that may be expressed by a given genotype. The reaction range implies an upper and lower

Steve A. Platt; Charles A. Sanislow

1988-01-01

462

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS are becoming the norm for information transmission. Stringent  

E-print Network

. For example, a radio subsys- tem's target market value is $2.50 with a 50% margin, implying a tolerable $1WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS are becoming the norm for information transmission. Stringent market requirements and tight time-to-market win- dows call for low-cost RF subsystems. Traditional design flows

Orailoglu, Alex

463

Exact norm-conserving stochastic time-dependent Hartree Fock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive an exact single-body decomposition of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for N pairwise interacting fermions. Each fermion obeys a stochastic time-dependent norm-preserving wave equation. As a first test of the method, we calculate the low energy spectrum of helium. An extension of the method to bosons is outlined.

Luca Tessieri; Joshua Wilkie; Murat Çetinbas

2005-01-01

464

Gender politics, women's rights and international norms in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the reasons for the under-representation of women in politics in Lebanon, and the role of international norms of gender equality in bringing about change. For those questions, I examined the particular relevance of confessionalism arguing that a confessional social structure and political system empower patriarchal forms of organization with detrimental effects to

S. G Harb

2010-01-01

465

Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Analysis indicated that in general, school-level disapproval lowered the probability of students' use of these substances. A school environment of disapproval was also found to create a protective environment for…

Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

2002-01-01

466

Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others

1995-01-01

467

Appropriately Upset? Emotion Norms and Perceptions of Crime Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victims who express less emotion in response to a crime are perceived as less deserving, less sympathetic, and they have less punishment assigned to the offender who committed the crime. This study considers the extent to which emotion norms underlie perceptions of victims who testify. Two studies investigate the circumstances in which emotional reactions to a crime are seen as

Mary R. Rose; Janice Nadler; Jim Clark

2006-01-01

468

Finding approximately rank-one submatrices with the nuclear norm ...  

E-print Network

a word in the language, excluding common words such as articles and prepositions. .... norm (|U?|·|V ?|)1/2, and there is no other kind of rank-one submatrix of A. ... It follows from Proposition 1 below that the optimal solution is found using the ...

2010-11-08

469

The Essential of Steiner's Problem in normed planes  

E-print Network

The Essential of Steiner's Problem in normed planes of "Shortest Connectivity" has a long and convoluted history. Usually, the problem is known as Steiner are given which use Steiner's Problem or one of its relatives as an application, as a subproblem

Schürmann, Michael

470

A Case-Based Reasoning approach for Norm Jordi Campos  

E-print Network

key. In this paper, we propose to use Case-Based Reasoning learning to adapt norms that regulate interactions among autonomous entities. Organ- ising such systems to regulate agent interactions helps, this additional layer can adapt the organisation while preserving agents' autonomy. However, the relationship

López-Sánchez, Maite

471

Addressing Temporal Aspects of Privacy-Related Norms  

E-print Network

, email: yves.demazeau@imag.fr privacy regulations is the notion of deadline. We will examine how existingAddressing Temporal Aspects of Privacy-Related Norms Guillaume Piolle1 and Yves Demazeau2 Abstract. In order to protect the privacy of human users, such agents have to be aware of the nor- mative context

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

472

Fuzzy ?-Hyperideals in ?-Hypersemirings by Using Triangular Norms  

PubMed Central

The concept of ?-semihyperrings was introduced by Dehkordi and Davvaz as a generalization of semirings, semihyperrings, and ?-semiring. In this paper, by using the notion of triangular norms, we define the concept of triangular fuzzy sub-?-semihyperrings as well as triangular fuzzy ?-hyperideals of a ?-semihyperring, and we study a few results in this respect. PMID:24967434

Ersoy, B. A.; Davvaz, B.; Onar, S.; Leoreanu-Fotea, V.

2014-01-01

473

Estimating the Gowers Norm of Modulo Functions over Prime Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show a technique for estimating an upper bound of the Gowers norm of modulo functions over prime fields, which reduces the estimation to the greatest common divisor of some periodic sequences. This estimation provides inapproximability of the modulo functions by low-degree polynomials over prime fields, which is a generalization of Viola and Wigderson's result in the case of the binary field.

Kawachi, Akinori; Tanaka, Hidetoki; Watanabe, Osamu

474

Attitude estimation and maneuvering for autonomous obstacle avoidance by miniature air vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the Euler-Rodrigues symmetric parameters (attitude quaternion) to describe vehicle orientation, we develop a multiplicative, nonlinear (extended) variation of the Kalman filter (MEKF) to fuse data from low-cost sensors. The sensor suite is comprised of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and a GPS receiver. In contrast to the common approach of using the complete vehicle attitude as the quantities to be estimated, our filter states consist of the three components of an attitude error vector. In parallel with the time update of the attitude error estimate, we utilize the gyroscope measurements for the time propagation of the attitude quaternion. The accelerometer and the GPS sensors are used independently for the measurement update portion of the Kalman filter. For both sensors, a vector arithmetic approach is used to determine the attitude error vector. Following each measurement update, a multiplicative reset operation moves the attitude error information from the filter state into the attitude estimate. This reset operation utilizes quaternion algebra to implicitly maintain the unity-norm constraint. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our attitude estimation algorithm through flight simulations and flight tests of aggressive maneuvers such as loops and small-radius circles. We implement an approach to acrobatic maneuvering for miniature air vehicles (MAVs) using time-parameterized attitude trajectory generation and an associated attitude tracking control law. We designed two methodologies, polynomial and trigonometric, for creating functions that specify pitch and roll angles as a function of time. For both approaches, the functions are constrained by the maneuver boundary conditions of aircraft position and velocity. We construct a trajectory tracking feedback control law to regulate aircraft orientation throughout the maneuvers. The trajectory generation algorithm was used to construct several maneuvers and trajectory tracking control law successfully executed the maneuvers in the flight simulator. In addition to the simulation results, MAV flight tests verified the performance of the maneuver generation and control. To achieve obstacle avoidance maneuvering, the time parameterized trajectories were converted to spatially parameterized paths, which allowed for inertial reference frame position error to be included in the control law feedback loop. We develop a novel method to achieve the spatial parameterization using a prediction and correction approach. Additionally, the first derivative of position of the desired path is modified using a corrective parameter scheme prior to being used in the control. Using the path position error and the corrected derivative, we utilize a unit-norm quaternion framework to implement a proportional-derivative (PD) control law. This control law was demonstrated in simulation and hardware on maneuvers designed specifically to avoid obstacles, namely the Immelmann and the Close-Q, as well as a basic loop.

Hall, James K.

475

Using the World-Wide Web to obtain large-scale word norms: 190,212 ratings on a set of 2,654 German nouns.  

PubMed

This article presents a new database of 2,654 German nouns rated by a sample of 3,907 subjects on three psycholinguistic attributes: concreteness, valence, and arousal. As a new means of data collection in the field of psycholinguistic research, all ratings were obtained via the Internet, using a tailored Web application. Analysis of the obtained word norms showed good agreement with two existing norm sets. A cluster analysis revealed a plausible set of four classes of nouns: abstract concepts, aversive events, pleasant activities, and physical objects. In an additional application example, we demonstrate the usefulness of the database for creating parallel word lists whose elements match as closely as possible. The complete database is available for free from ftp://ftp.uni-duesseldorf.de/pub/psycho/lahl/WWN. Moreover, the Web application used for data collection is inherently capable of collecting word norms in any language and is going to be released for public use as well. PMID:19182119

Lahl, Olaf; Göritz, Anja S; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Rosenberg, Jessica

2009-02-01

476

Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

2006-09-01

477

Bodies obliged and unbound: differentiated response tendencies for injunctive and descriptive social norms.  

PubMed

The authors suggest that injunctive and descriptive social norms engage different psychological response tendencies when made selectively salient. On the basis of suggestions derived from the focus theory of normative conduct and from consideration of the norms' functions in social life, the authors hypothesized that the 2 norms would be cognitively associated with different goals, would lead individuals to focus on different aspects of self, and would stimulate different levels of conflict over conformity decisions. Additionally, a unique role for effortful self-regulation was hypothesized for each type of norm-used as a means to resist conformity to descriptive norms but as a means to facilitate conformity for injunctive norms. Four experiments supported these hypotheses. Experiment 1 demonstrated differences in the norms' associations to the goals of making accurate/efficient decisions and gaining/maintaining social approval. Experiment 2 provided evidence that injunctive norms lead to a more interpersonally oriented form of self-awareness and to a greater feeling of conflict about conformity decisions than descriptive norms. In the final 2 experiments, conducted in the lab (Experiment 3) and in a naturalistic environment (Experiment 4), self-regulatory depletion decreased conformity to an injunctive norm (Experiments 3 and 4) and increased conformity to a descriptive norm (Experiment 4)-even though the norms advocated identical behaviors. By illustrating differentiated response tendencies for each type of social norm, this research provides new and converging support for the focus theory of normative conduct. PMID:21171790

Jacobson, Ryan P; Mortensen, Chad R; Cialdini, Robert B

2011-03-01

478

Attitude estimation of earth orbiting satellites by decomposed linear recursive filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attitude estimation of earth orbiting satellites (including Large Space Telescope) subjected to environmental disturbances and noises was investigated. Modern control and estimation theory is used as a tool to design an efficient estimator for attitude estimation. Decomposed linear recursive filters for both continuous-time systems and discrete-time systems are derived. By using this accurate estimation of the attitude of spacecrafts, state variable feedback controller may be designed to achieve (or satisfy) high requirements of system performance.

Kou, S. R.

1975-01-01

479

Differences between Gender Role Identity and Sexual Attitude among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare and examine gender role identity and sexual attitude according to sex among college students. Met hod: The subjects consisted of 1,118 college students. The tool for gender role identity and sexual attitude was the Korea Gender Role Identity Inventory(KGRII) of Lee, Kim and Koh(2002) and the Sexual Attitude Scale of Koh,

Hyo Jung; Eun Ju

2007-01-01

480

of Public Attitudes Energy & Environment  

E-print Network

.............................................................. 2 4. Public Attitudes toward Global Warming. Willingness to Pay to Solve Global Warming............................................................... 15 9 concerns.1 Goals of the surveys included collecting information about attitudes toward global warming

481

On the Propositional Attitudes  

E-print Network

it is appropriately linked causally with what it denotes and that the name adequately picks out or describes its referent, then it follows that the person knows exactly what or whom it denotes. The idea here is that in order for it to be truly said that Holmes... of the relational sense of (17), consider the following sentence. (24) Holmes believes that someone is the murderer. 6 This is done in "Quantifiers and Propositional Attitudes". 7 See Kaplan's essay, "Quantifying In". ON THE PROPOSITIONAL ATTITUDES 143...

Coleman, Keith

1991-06-01

482

Got an Attitude Problem?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

1999-01-01

483

Attitudes in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than half of all students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in regular education classes. Because LD student numbers are increasing, the ability of classroom teachers to accommodate these students is being challenged. The success of inclusion depends on many factors, including the attitudes of professional educators and the quality of instruction they offer their students. This article presents the findings of a survey that was conducted to assess how teachers' attitudes about inclusion of learning disabled students affects their use of accommodations.

Biddle, Susan

2006-03-01

484

Affective and cognitive attitudes, uncertainty avoidance and intention to obtain genetic testing: an extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

To ensure successful implementation of genetic screening and counselling according to patients best interests, the attitudes and motives of the public are important to consider. The aim of this study was to apply a theoretical framework in order to investigate which individual and disease characteristics might facilitate the uptake of genetic testing. A questionnaire using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed to assess the predictive value of affective and cognitive expected outcomes, subjective norms, perceived control and uncertainty avoidance on the intention to undergo genetic testing. In addition to these individual characteristics, the predictive power of two disease characteristics was investigated by systematically varying the diseases fatality and penetrance (i.e. the probability of getting ill in case one is a mutation carrier). This resulted in four versions of the questionnaire which was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Norwegians. Results showed genetic test interest to be quite high, and to vary depending on the characteristics of the disease, with participants preferring tests for highly penetrant diseases. The most important individual predictor was uncertainty avoidance. PMID:21347976

Wolff, Katharina; Nordin, Karin; Brun, Wibecke; Berglund, Gunilla; Kvale, Gerd

2011-09-01

485

Neuropsychological testing of high school athletes. Preliminary norms and test-retest indices.  

PubMed

This study provides preliminary norms and test-retest indices on a brief battery of neuropsychological tests administered to a sample of 60 male and 40 female high school athletes. Forty-eight subjects completed retesting 8 weeks later. Analyses of baseline scores indicate that girls outperform boys on selected measures of processing speed and executive functions [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) Digit Symbol, Trails B, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)]. Test-retest reliability was low and varied widely among the tests. There were no gender differences in test-retest reliability. Reliable Change Indices (RCIs) were computed on the test-retest data for use in clinical interpretation. These preliminary results indicate that caution should be used in interpreting neuropsychological test data from high school athletes. The current findings indicate that separate norms for boys and girls are warranted. Caution should be used in interpreting discrepancies from baseline scores as a result of what may turn out to be poor test-retest reliability in this population. PMID:14591481

Barr, William B

2003-01-01

486

Pre-service education and attitudes towards inclusion: the role of the teacher educator within a permeated teaching model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of teacher educators working within a permeated teaching model in Northern Ireland, and student teachers' attitudes towards special educational needs (SEN) and inclusion. A cohort of 125 student teachers representing eight subject areas responded to a survey exploring attitudes towards issues relating to inclusive education. Interviews conducted with the subject teacher educators examined their beliefs

Jackie Lambe

2011-01-01

487

[Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].  

PubMed

From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

Lejarraga, Horacio

2012-08-01

488

Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.  

PubMed

Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes. PMID:12379053

Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

2002-01-01

489

Effects of a Social Norm Feedback Campaign on the Drinking Norms and Behavior of Division I Student-Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. Examines the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. Results indicate that the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that…

Thombs, Dennis L.; Hamilton, Monair J.

2002-01-01

490

Predictors of Attitudes toward Childlessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…

Spreadbury, Connie

491

Correctional Officers' Attitudes Toward AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who

KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS

1995-01-01

492

Do attitudes towards immigrants matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse what are the consequences of such attitudes have on immigrants welfare. A well educated immigrant from a non developed country who lives in a municipality with strong negative attitudes earns less than what she would earn if she lived in a municipality where natives

Gisela Waisman; Birthe Larsen

2007-01-01

493

Do Attitudes Towards Immigrants Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse what are the consequences of such attitudes on immigrants' welfare. A well educated immigrant from a non developed country who lives in a municipality with strong negative attitudes earns less than what she would earn if she lived in a municpality where natives are

Gisela Waisman; Birthe Larsen

2008-01-01

494

Student Attitudes toward the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alberta Education study of student attitudes toward the handicapped described existing levels of student awareness and attitudes about handicapped persons and determined in 134 Alberta schools if attitudes could be changed through classroom presentations. The effectiveness of two programs were evaluated--Program 1, a handicapped person…

Baker, Peter J.; And Others

495

Public Attitudes Toward Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward water conservation were surveyed in seven northeastern Colorado communities to determine whether relationships exist between (1) attitudes and type of community or (2) attitudes and socioeconomic variables. The water conservation alternatives presented to these users included metering, price increases, restrictions on water use, restrictions on lawn size, controls on population growth, and reuse of treated wastewater for

J. Ernest Flack; Joanne Greenberg

1987-01-01

496

And the truth shall make you free : the international norm of truth-seeking  

E-print Network

The theoretical question this dissertation addresses is how do international norms emerge and spread. The theory I propose focuses on changes in the ideational content of norms and on the international agents who facilitate ...

Ben-Josef Hirsch, Michal

2009-01-01

497

Religion, religiosity and premarital sexual attitudes of young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Although attitudes to premarital sex may be influenced by several factors, the importance of religion to that discourse cannot be underestimated. By providing standards to judge and guide behaviour, religion provides a social control function such that religious persons are expected to act in ways that conform to certain norms. This study investigated the interconnectedness of several dimensions of religion and premarital sexual attitudes among young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Using reference group as the theoretical base, it was found that those affiliated with Pentecostal/Evangelical faiths had more conservative attitudes towards premarital sex than those of other Christian faiths. Additionally, while a high level of religiosity was found to associate with more conservative views on premarital sex, the effect was more pronounced among Pentecostal groups. The findings are discussed in relation to programmes on adolescent sexuality. PMID:22716919

Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Cofie, Nicholas; Ezeh, Alex

2013-