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1

Individual Differences in Predicting Behavioral Intentions from Attitude and Subjective Norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between attitude toward the act and subjective norm to behavioral intentions were examined from an individual difference perspective. High- and low-self-monitoring American undergraduates indicated how likely they would be to write a letter about pending drinking-age legislation, what their attitudes were toward this behavior, and their subjective norm with respect to this behavior. As expected, the letter-writing intentions

Kenneth G. Debono; Allen M. Omoto

1993-01-01

2

Threshold assessment of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control for predicting exercise intention and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) are hypothesized to have linear associations with intention and behavior. However, no previous research has examined this hypothesized linearity across scale responses. Further, no study using social cognitive measures has detailed the incremental increases in the proportion of people meeting the American College of

Ryan E. Rhodes; Kerry S. Courneya

2005-01-01

3

Korean homemakers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions toward energy conservation behaviors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to understand and predict Korean homemakers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions toward energy conservation behaviors. The reasoned action model was adopted to accomplish the objective. The household energy consumption could be determined by person's personal factors including behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, normative beliefs, motivation to comply, attitudes, and subjective norms. Therefore, the change of person's behaviors could influence energy consumption in the household. The subjects' intentions were explained by path analysis to test the explanatory model. The Korean households' intentions were significantly accounted for by past behaviors, behavioral beliefs, motivation to comply, and subjective norms. The insignificant relationship between attitudes and intentions may be happened by the cultural difference. That is, Korean households were more concerned about the social standards rather than personal standards. This study showed that in order to facilitate energy conservation behaviors in the household level, the program should provide households the manifest results of the conservation behaviors and the households member would be the good messengers to diffuse energy conservation information and the program should be planned based on the subjects' characteristics such income and education level.

Chung, K.

1993-01-01

4

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications.  

PubMed

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0 degrees C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent perceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 391 Australian parents of children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Recruitment was through advertising, face-to-face and snowball methods. The survey targeted constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions and previously identified background factors. Structural equation modeling identified 69% of the variance in intentions. The strongest influences were from non-scientifically based attitudes (phobic) (beta=0.55) and subjective norms (husband/partner and doctors) (beta=0.36). Attitudes (beta=0.69) and subjective norms (beta=0.52) were strongly determined by child medication behavior (whether the child took medications easily when febrile) which had a total effect on intentions of beta=0.66. Perceived control, education and number of children had minimal influence on intentions. There is an urgent need for (i) the education of both parents in the benefits of fever and (ii) for doctors to consistently provide parents with evidence-based information. PMID:18974070

Walsh, A; Edwards, H; Fraser, J

2008-10-28

5

Attitudes, subjective norms and perception of behavioural control as predictors of sun-related behaviour in Swedish adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major preventable cause of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the explanatory value of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control on behaviours related to UV exposure.Method. A random population-based sample (n = 1752, 18–37 years of age) in the Stockholm County, Sweden, answered a questionnaire with items

Richard Bränström; Henrik Ullén; Yvonne Brandberg

2004-01-01

6

Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

7

Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

8

Factors Related to Condom Use Behavior Among Club- Working Women in South Korea: Importance of Subjective Norms and Customer-Related Attitudes.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to understand factors associated with condom use behavior among club-working women and identify the most influential factors to be addressed in future health programs. A total of 158 club-working women were surveyed from 3 midsize cities in South Korea from July to September 2004. Survey questionnaires were developed based on the theory of planned behavior. A total of 7 distinct themes emerged: Health aspects, Customer related, Pleasure related, Finance related, Societal norm, Occupational norm, and Perceived control. The results indicated that the Customer-related theme, Societal norm, and Occupational norm were statistically significant factors affecting condom use. On the other hand, self-related factors such as health, pleasure, and finance are not significantly related to the condom use behavior of club-working women in South Korea, suggesting that the currently used knowledge-focused education programs may not be sufficient for this population. PMID:22345303

Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Ja-Young

2012-04-11

9

Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

2005-01-01

10

Gender effect and prejudice: when a salient female norm moderates male negative attitudes toward homosexuals.  

PubMed

Men generally express more negative attitudes than women toward homosexuals. This study aims to determine if social norms saliency can rely on this "gender effect" and influence attitudes toward homosexuals. Gender characteristics (attitudes and lexical markers) concerning homosexuality were identified in Study 1 and used to construct male- (i.e., promoting a prejudice-related norm) and female-marked (i.e., promoting an anti-prejudice-related norm) messages. Social norms saliency was primed using these messages (Studies 2 and 3) and the participant's immediate context (Study 3). Results show that promoting a prejudiced norm eases expression of males' negative attitudes toward homosexuals, whereas the promotion of an anti-prejudice norm inhibits their attitudes. Theoretical elaborations and potential applications for promotion of tolerance are discussed. PMID:23808349

Mange, Jessica; Lepastourel, Nadia

2013-07-01

11

The Role of Group Orientation and Descriptive Norms on Water Conservation Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms have been shown to impact behaviors, but with mixed results. The theory of normative social behavior delineates factors that moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors, and it addresses the attributes of behaviors that make them susceptible to normative influence. This study tests whether group orientation moderates the impact of descriptive norms on water conservation attitudes and

Maria Knight Lapinski; Rajiv N. Rimal; Rebecca DeVries; Ee Lin Lee

2007-01-01

12

Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

2009-01-01

13

Animosity, subjective norms, and anticipated emotions during an international crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research seeks to add to the body of research pertaining to animosity by examining the additional roles of anticipated emotions and subjective norms on consumers' purchase intentions regarding foreign products when companies' or governments' actions cause negative repercussions. The paper also examines the role of group responsibility as an antecedent to animosity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected

Amro A. Maher; Sarah Mady

2010-01-01

14

The Influence of Confidence on Associations Among Personal Attitudes, Perceived Injunctive Norms, and Alcohol Consumption  

PubMed Central

Social norms theories hold that perceptions of the degree of approval for a behavior have a strong influence on one’s private attitudes and public behavior. In particular, being more approving of drinking and perceiving peers as more approving of drinking, are strongly associated with one’s own drinking. However, previous research has not considered that students may vary considerably in the confidence in their estimates of peer approval and in the confidence in their estimates of their own approval of drinking. The present research was designed to evaluate confidence as a moderator of associations among perceived injunctive norms, own attitudes, and drinking. We expected perceived injunctive norms and own attitudes would be more strongly associated with drinking among students who felt more confident in their estimates of peer approval and own attitudes. We were also interested in whether this might differ by gender. Injunctive norms and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured in a sample of 708 college students. Findings from negative binomial regression analyses supported moderation hypotheses for confidence and perceived injunction norms but not for personal attitudes. Thus, perceived injunctive norms were more strongly associated with own drinking among students who felt more confident in their estimates of friends’ approval of drinking. A three-way interaction further revealed that this was primarily true among women. Implications for norms and peer influence theories as well as interventions are discussed.

Neighbors, Clayton; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Knee, C. Raymond; Fossos, Nicole; DiBello, Angelo

2011-01-01

15

Green Entertainment: Effects on Attitude Accessibility, Norm Accessiblity, and Behavioral Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how proenvironmental messages contained within entertainment programming impacted an individual’s environmental attitude accessibility, descriptive and injunctive norm accessibility, behavioral intent, and behavior. Participants filled out a questionnaire about their environmental attitudes at least a week in advance of the experiment. When participants came to the computer lab they were exposed to one of four television show clips

Jennifer Toole

2010-01-01

16

Masculine Norms, School Attitudes, and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Gifted Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being an academically gifted boy may mean negotiating masculinity. In this exploratory study, 58 gifted and talented adolescent boys completed the Male Role Norms Inventory–Adolescent (MRNI-A) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children–Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP-A). Correlation results show endorsing traditional masculine norms was positively associated with feelings of competency, confidence, self-reliance, and feeling self-assured. Feelings of inadequacy also decreased

Samuel J. Shepard; Megan Foley Nicpon; James T. Haley; Michael Lind; William Ming Liu

2011-01-01

17

Attitudes Toward Male Vegetarians: Challenging Gender Norms Through Food Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that individuals learn to “do gender” and adhere to traditional gender norms from an early age. Those who do not do gender on a daily basis often experience adverse consequences (e.g., ridicule from others). The present study was designed to expand upon the literature regarding perceptions of a particular group of men who do not conform to gender

Brooke Browarnik

2012-01-01

18

Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been given to measuring symptoms of eating disorders in adolescents, but representative norms for the two widely used measures, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), have not been available. The present study collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in Grades 9–12. Significant sex, but not age, differences were

James C. Rosen; Nancy T. Silberg; Janet Gross

1988-01-01

19

The Influence of Confidence on Associations Among Personal Attitudes, Perceived Injunctive Norms, and Alcohol Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms theories hold that perceptions of the degree of approval for a behavior have a strong influence on one's private attitudes and public behavior. In particular, being more approving of drinking and perceiving peers as more approving of drinking, are strongly associated with one's own drinking. However, previous research has not considered that students may vary considerably in the

Clayton Neighbors; Kristen P. Lindgren; C. Raymond Knee; Nicole Fossos; Angelo DiBello

2011-01-01

20

Individual, Country and Societal Cluster Differences on Measures of Personality, Attitudes, Values, and Social Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains--personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R], N = 1,600) and U.S. college students (N = 429). Total variability of each subscale was…

Stankov, Lazar

2011-01-01

21

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2005-01-01

22

Including subjective norm and technology trust in the technology acceptance model: a case of e-ticketing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that includes subjective norm and technology trust as antecedents of adoption intention. Although much of previous research has included subjective norm as an adoption factor, the results obtained are not consistent. This study suggests that subjective norm is salient when adoption involves people living in collectivist societies. Trust in

Chang Lee; Guohua Wan

2010-01-01

23

Single axis attitude determination by the linear least squares method with norm constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a set of inertial reference vectors and a corresponding set of angular measurements between a body axis and these reference vectors, the problem of single axis attitude determination can be formulated as a linear least squares problem with norm constraint on the solution (LSQN). This problem can be elegantly solved by singular value decomposition of the matrix made up from the reference row vectors. A complete solution algorithm is developed. The solution of the LSQN problem in general is not identical to the normalized solution of the unconstrained linear least problem. The LSQN formulation is applied to attitude determination for the spin stabilized ULYSSES spacecraft from Sun aspect angle and Conical Scanning measurements. It is implemented in the ULYSSES Flight Dynamics system as set of subroutines, callable via an interactive program and via the ULYSSES real-time monitor program.

Gienger, G.

24

The perceived informational basis of attitudes: implications for subjective ambivalence.  

PubMed

Three studies tested the hypothesis that when people receive persuasive messages, their perceptions of the information on which they base their attitudes can determine feelings of subjective ambivalence. Across studies, it is shown that when elaboration (e.g., need for cognition, personal relevance) is high, people have more subjective ambivalence when they perceive that they have based their attitudes on the source of a message rather than the arguments contained in that message. When elaboration is low, this effect is reversed. These findings suggest that people can assess the informational basis of their attitudes and that these assessments influence feelings of attitude ambivalence. PMID:18212335

Tormala, Zakary L; DeSensi, Victoria L

2008-02-01

25

Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and\\/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these

Rena J. Pasick; Judith C. Barker; Regina Otero-Sabogal; Nancy J. Burke; Galen Joseph; Claudia Guerra

2009-01-01

26

Maternal autonomy and attitudes towards gender norms: associations with childhood immunization in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Globally 2.5 million children under-five die from vaccine preventable diseases, and in Nigeria only 23 % of children ages 12-23 months are fully immunized. The international community is promoting gender equality as a means to improve the health and well-being of women and their children. This paper looks at whether measures of gender equality, autonomy and individual attitudes towards gender norms, are associated with a child being fully immunized in Nigeria. Data from currently married women with a child 12-23 months from the 2008 Nigeria demographic and health survey were used to study the influence of autonomy and gender attitudes on whether or not a child is fully immunized. Multivariate logistic regression was used and several key socioeconomic variables were controlled for including wealth and education, which are considered key inputs into gender equality. Findings indicated that household decision-making and attitudes towards wife beating were significantly associated with a child being fully immunized after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Ethnicity, wealth and education were also significant factors. Programmatic and policy implications indicate the potential for the promotion of gender equality as a means to improve child health. Gender equality can be seen as a means to enable women to access life-saving services for their children. PMID:22696106

Singh, Kavita; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort

2013-07-01

27

Sick leave in workers with asthma and COPD: the role of attitudes, perceived social norms and self efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated associations of sick leave in 165 workers with asthma and COPD with three components of the Model of Planned Behavior (MPB): attitudes, social norms towards sick leave, and perceived control over sick leave and over health complaints. All participants underwent lung-function tests and completed questionnaires on sick leave, and on the MPB-components. Differences were calculated between high and

Cécile R. Boot; J. H. M. M. Vercoulen; Joost W. van der Gulden; Karin H. Orbon; Chris van Weel; Hans Th. Folgering

2005-01-01

28

Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

2004-01-01

29

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TOWARD DIFFERENT SUBJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the favorite subject to teach and enjoyment of teaching of 490 elementary school teachers (K–5) from two rural school districts in the southeastern United States. Reading and language arts were consistently ranked among the favorite and most enjoyed subjects to teach, whereas science and writing were consistently ranked among the least favorite and least enjoyed subjects to

Jesse L. M. Wilkins

2009-01-01

30

"Coming to Town": The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women’s networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women’s attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted.

Williams, Chyvette T.; Marks, Amy Seidel

2008-01-01

31

Antismoking Initiatives: Effects of Analysis Versus Production Media Literacy Interventions on Smoking-Related Attitude, Norm, and Behavioral Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and

Smita C. Banerjee; Kathryn Greene

2007-01-01

32

Gender differences in IS career choice: examine the role of attitudes and social norms in selecting IS profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed research will systematically assess the causes of gender-related differences in attraction to information systems (IS) as a career. We propose a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)—based model of intention to pursue an IS career which incorporates work value congruence, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy. Undergraduate students in an introductory IS course, which for many will be their first introduction

Kshiti D. Joshi; Kristine M. Kuhn

2001-01-01

33

Boys Don't Cry: Examination of the Links Between Endorsement of Masculine Norms, Self-Stigma, and Help-Seeking Attitudes for Men From Diverse Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms as an antecedent to help-seeking attitudes in men has been established using convenience samples made up largely of college-age and European American males. However, the role of conformity to masculine norms on help-seeking attitudes for noncollege-age men or for men from diverse backgrounds is not well understood. To fill this gap

David L. Vogel; Sarah R. Heimerdinger-Edwards; Joseph H. Hammer; Asale Hubbard

2011-01-01

34

Personal Attitudes, perceived social norms, and health risk behavior among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions.  

PubMed

To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Sixty-eight females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent's current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

2013-03-22

35

Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture  

PubMed Central

Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people’s day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists.

Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

2010-01-01

36

Career attitudes and subjective career success: tackling gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of gender upon the relation between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective career success, in today's dynamic and changing organizational context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire conducted on 150 graduate and post-graduate distance learning students. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings

Mihaela Enache; Jose M. Sallan; Pep Simo; Vicenç Fernandez

2011-01-01

37

Differences across Academic Subjects in Teachers' Attitudes about Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey study examined how attitudes about professional development (PD) vary among teachers of different subjects. Elementary teachers were more supportive of PD than health and physical education, social studies, and science teachers; special education teachers were more supportive of PD than social studies and science teachers; and five…

Torff, Bruce; Byrnes, Katherine

2011-01-01

38

Psychometric properties and U.S. National norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS).  

PubMed

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure and policies, organizational culture and climate, and first-level leadership. EBPAS scores are also related to service provider characteristics, including age, education level, and level of professional development. The present study examined the factor structure, reliability, and norms of EBPAS scores in a sample of 1,089 mental health service providers from a nationwide sample drawn from 100 service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study also examined associations of provider demographic characteristics with EBPAS subscale and total scores. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a second-order factor model, and reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged from .91 to .67 (total scale = .74). The study establishes national norms for the EBPAS so that comparisons can be drawn for U.S. local as well as international studies of attitudes toward evidence-based practices. The results suggest that the factor structure and reliability are likely generalizable to a variety of service provider contexts and different service settings and that the EBPAS subscales are associated with provider characteristics. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20528063

Aarons, Gregory A; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2010-06-01

39

“Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa.\\u000a We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising\\u000a exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town\\u000a townships, some of

Chyvette T. Williams; Sonya A. Grier; Amy Seidel Marks

2008-01-01

40

Cancer screening in France: subjects' and physicians' attitudes  

PubMed Central

Objective Since screening for cancer has been advocated, funded, and promoted in France, it is important to evaluate the attitudes of subjects in the general population and general practitioners (GPs) toward cancer screening strategies. Methods EDIFICE is a nationwide opinion poll that was carried out by telephone among a representative sample of 1,504 subjects living in France and aged between 40 and 75 years and among a representative sample of 600 GPs. The questionnaire administered to subjects queried about previous screening for cancer. Results Ninety-three percent of women stated that they had undergone at least one mammography. Although rated “A” recommendation—strongly recommended—by the US Preventive Services Task Force, screening for colorectal cancer received less attention than prostate cancer screening which is rated “I”—insufficient evidence—(reported screening rates of 25% and 36%, respectively). Six percent of subjects stated that they had undergone lung cancer screening. GPs’ attitudes toward cancer screening showed similar inconsistencies. Conclusions It thus appears that understanding of cancer screening practices in the French general population does not match scientific evidence. To a lesser extent, this also holds for GPs.

Blay, Jean-Yves; Morere, Jean-Francois; Rixe, Olivier; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Cals, Laurent; Coscas, Yvan; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Namer, Moise; Serin, Daniel; Roussel, Claire; Pivot, Xavier

2007-01-01

41

A novel tool to assess community norms and attitudes to multiple and concurrent sexual partnering in rural Zimbabwe: participatory attitudinal ranking.  

PubMed

Concurrent sexual partnerships are important in understanding the evolution and maintenance of the HIV heterosexual epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. While it is possible to measure individual attitudes around sensitive behaviours through questionnaire surveys, studies suggest that responses may be subject to social desirability bias and may not reflect community norms. This study used a novel tool to collect data on community norms relating to the acceptability of concurrency in rural Zimbabwe. Six questions exploring general concurrency concepts and 28 scenarios in which multiple-partnerships might occur were developed and translated into Shona. Participatory attitudinal ranking (PAR), an approach adapted from participatory wealth ranking, was used to conduct group discussions (n=24) with 170 participants recruited in a household survey. Participants discussed and ranked scenarios according to the acceptability of the multiple-partnering described in the short accounts. Data analysis followed grounded theory principles. Qualitative data were examined against quantitative survey data collected from a representative sample of 18-44-year olds. While discussants indicated that concurrency was common among both males and females, self-reports from survey participants indicated that 37.1% of males (n=717/1931; 95% CI: 35.0-39.3%) and only 7.3% of females (n=215/2948; 95% CI: 6.4-8.3%) were in concurrent relationships suggesting under-reporting of this behaviour, particularly by women. We found that concurrency is an accepted community norm for men but never for women. Concurrency is considered more acceptable in specific social contexts, including infertility and lack of a male heir. Having protected rather than unprotected sex with a concurrent partner does not render this behaviour more acceptable. Using PAR, we managed to gain a more nuanced understanding of socially sanctioned concurrency, knowledge that could prove useful for improving behaviour change interventions targeting this behaviour. PAR allowed us to rank attitudes in terms of acceptability, which would enable us to compare attitudes between communities and evaluate changes over time. PMID:21218276

Mavhu, Webster; Langhaug, Lisa; Pascoe, Sophie; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Hart, Graham; Cowan, Frances

2011-01-01

42

Conversation and Compliance: Role of Interpersonal Discussion and Social Norms in Public Communication Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in a public health campaign, the BBC Condom Normalization Campaign, designed to promote conversation and change the public perception of condom use in India. Drawing upon the integrative model of behavioral prediction, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and descriptive norms were predicted to relate to behavioral intentions to use condoms.

Lauren B. Frank; Joyee S. Chatterjee; Sonal T. Chaudhuri; Charlotte Lapsansky; Anurudra Bhanot; Sheila T. Murphy

2012-01-01

43

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

Lee, Kaman

2011-01-01

44

Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

2009-01-01

45

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

Lee, Kaman

2011-01-01

46

"Boys don't cry": examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self-stigma, and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds.  

PubMed

The role of conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms as an antecedent to help-seeking attitudes in men has been established using convenience samples made up largely of college-age and European American males. However, the role of conformity to masculine norms on help-seeking attitudes for noncollege-age men or for men from diverse backgrounds is not well understood. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study examined the cross-cultural relevance of a mediational model of the relationships between conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms and attitudes toward counseling through the mediator of self-stigma of seeking counseling for 4,773 men from both majority and nonmajority populations (race/ethnicity and sexual orientation). Structural equation modeling results showed that the model established using college males from majority groups (European American, heterosexual) may be applicable to a community sample of males from differing racial/ethnic groups and sexual orientations. However, some important differences in the presence and strengths of the relationships between conformity to dominant masculine norms and the other variables in the model were present across different racial/ethnic groups and sexual orientations. These findings suggest the need to pay specific theoretical and clinical attention to how conformity to dominant masculine norms and self-stigma are linked to unfavorable attitudes toward help seeking for these men, in order to encourage underserved men's help-seeking behavior. PMID:21639615

Vogel, David L; Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R; Hammer, Joseph H; Hubbard, Asale

2011-07-01

47

Correlates of negative attitudes toward gay men: Sexism, male role norms, and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that heterosexual men are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This

Michelle Davies

2004-01-01

48

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents’ Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents’ environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to environment-related media content is positively associated with Hong Kong youngsters’ subjective

Kaman Lee

2011-01-01

49

Gateway to doping? Supplement use in the context of preferred competitive situations, doping attitude, beliefs, and norms.  

PubMed

Nutritional supplement (NS) use is widespread in sport. This study applied an integrated social cognitive approach to examine doping attitudes, beliefs, and self-reported doping use behavior across NS users (n = 96) and nonusers (n = 116). Following ethical approval, 212 competitive athletes (age mean = 21.4, s = 4.5; 137 males) completed self-reported measures of doping-related social cognitions and behaviors, presented in an online format where completion implied consent. Significantly more NS users (22.9%) reported doping compared with nonusers (6.0%; U = 4628.0, P < 0.05). NS users presented significantly more positive attitudes toward doping (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05) and expressed a significantly greater belief that doping is effective (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05). When presented with the scenario that performance-enhancing substances are effective and increase the possibility of winning, NS users were significantly more in favor of competing in situations that allow doping (U = 3504.5, P < 0.05). In sum, doping use is three-and-a-half times more prevalent in NS users compared with nonusers. This finding is accompanied by significant differences in doping attitudes, norms, and beliefs. Thus, this article offers support for the gateway hypothesis; athletes who engage in legal performance enhancement practices appear to embody an "at-risk" group for transition toward doping. Education should be appropriately targeted. PMID:22092778

Backhouse, S H; Whitaker, L; Petróczi, A

2011-08-09

50

Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia  

SciTech Connect

How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

2008-06-05

51

The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

2010-01-01

52

The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

2010-01-01

53

Television, Gender Norms, and Tanning Attitudes and Intentions of Young Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether and how exposure to tanned images on television is related to tanning attitudes and intentions among men and women, using the influence of presumed influence model (Gunther & Storey, 2003). The model showed a better fit with the male rather than female sample. In addition, among males, exposure to tanned-men images on television was directly associated

Hyunyi Cho; Jounghwa Choi

2011-01-01

54

The relationship of proximal normative beliefs and global subjective norms to college students' alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Heavy drinking among college students is a major concern across the country. Several studies have shown that students tend to overestimate the alcohol consumption of students, in general (global social norms), and of their close friends (proximal normative beliefs). Research has also shown that beliefs about others' alcohol consumption is strongly related to alcohol use. We hypothesized that normative

Jay Maddock; Karen Glanz

2005-01-01

55

How Culturally Congruent Mental Health Services Relate to Subjective Norms and Help Seeking Intentions for Latino Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latino older adults under-utilize mental health services. Mental health professionals are encouraged to provide culturally competent treatment for many diverse populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the importance of providing culturally congruent mental health services for older Latino adults. Research suggests that treatment is sought when the treatment fits an individual’s culture based on attitudes, subjective

Debbie Ojeda

2011-01-01

56

Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct  

PubMed Central

This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms.

Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

2010-01-01

57

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent per- ceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to re- duce childhood fever with medications. A com- munity-based cross-sectional survey

A. Walsh; H. Edwards; J. Fraser

2009-01-01

58

Attitudes and practices of Japanese and American music teachers towards integrating music with other subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA obtained higher attitude ratings towards the use

Stephen F. Zdzinski; Masafumi Ogawa; Charlene Dell; Ching Ching Yap; Cedric Adderley; Rosetta Dingle

2007-01-01

59

WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR MEN'S HOSTILE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN?: THE INFLUENCE OF HEGEMONIC MALE ROLE NORMS AND MASCULINE GENDER ROLE STRESS  

PubMed Central

This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed.

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

60

A preliminary investigation of the influence of subjective norms and relationship commitment on stages of change in female intimate partner violence victims.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a prevalent and serious problem throughout the world, causing devastating mental and physical health problems for victims. Recent research has begun to focus on factors that may influence women's decisions to stay or leave their abusive partners, as interventions for batterers has only resulted in minimal success in reducing IPV. Therefore, this study preliminarily examined the influence of women's perceptions of their social network members' subjective norms and their relationship commitment on stages of change to end an abusive relationship among a community sample of female IPV victims (N = 84). Results showed that subjective norms and women's relationship commitment were associated with women's stages of change. Relationship commitment did not mediate the relation between subjective norms and stages of change. These findings indicate that a number of factors contribute to women's stay/leave decision-making process, and close social network members could be included in interventions designed to keep women safe. PMID:22929339

Shorey, Ryan C; Tirone, Vanessa; Nathanson, Alison M; Handsel, Vanessa A; Rhatigan, Deborah L

2012-08-27

61

Teacher Attitudes toward Subject-Specific Acceleration: Instrument Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the research supporting acceleration, some teachers are still hesitant to recommend acceleration for advanced students. The Teacher Attitudes Toward Subject-Specific Acceleration (TATSSA) instrument was designed to uncover the factors that influence teacher decisions to recommend students for subject-specific acceleration. First, we…

Rambo, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2012-01-01

62

The potential of multivariate analysis in assessing students' attitude to curriculum subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?Understanding student attitudes to curriculum subjects is central to providing evidence-based options to policy makers in education.Purpose:?We illustrate how quantitative approaches used in the social sciences and based on multivariate analysis (categorical Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis and General Linear Modelling), can complement qualitative analysis to support this need.Sample:?Our example involved an attitude survey of 128 students from five high

Michael Gaotlhobogwe; Janet Laugharne; Isabelle Durance

2011-01-01

63

A path analysis of pre-service teachers' attitudes to computer use: applying and extending the technology acceptance model in an educational context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity were significant determinants of pre-service attitudes to computer use. A multiple square correlation

Timothy Teo

2010-01-01

64

Fully magnetic attitude control for spacecraft subject to gravity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents stability and control analysis of a satellite on a near polar orbit subject to the gravity torque. The satellite is actuated by a set of mutually perpendicular coils. The concept is that interaction between the Earth's magnetic \\

Mogens Blanke; Fredrik Bajers Vej

1999-01-01

65

Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…

Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.

2007-01-01

66

Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure…

Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2010-01-01

67

Attribution of blame in rape cases: The impact of norm violation, gender, and sex-role attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the importance of the characteristics of the rape victims to the characteristics of observers in the attribution of blame in rape cases. Both blame of the victim and blame of the rapist are considered, along with seriousness of the crime, perceived norm violation, respectability, behavioral intentions toward the victim, and behavioral intentions toward the rapist. A

Alan C. Acock; Nancy K. Ireland

1983-01-01

68

Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure and policies, organizational culture and climate, and first-level leadership. EBPAS scores are

Gregory A. Aarons; Charles Glisson; Kimberly Hoagwood; Kelly Kelleher; John Landsverk; Guy Cafri

2010-01-01

69

Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

2007-01-01

70

Comparing primary student teachers’ attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge needs in a physics activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores and compares primary student teachers’ attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students were more confident, but no more knowledgeable nor more secure in their PCK.

Jane Johnston; Maija Ahtee

2006-01-01

71

Ability Grouping in the Secondary School: Attitudes of Teachers of Practically Based Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aimed to explore the attitudes of teachers of practically based subjects (arts and sports) towards ability grouping. Teachers from 45 secondary schools adopting different levels of ability grouping completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Overall, the…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Ireson, Judith

2008-01-01

72

The Potential of Multivariate Analysis in Assessing Students' Attitude to Curriculum Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Understanding student attitudes to curriculum subjects is central to providing evidence-based options to policy makers in education. Purpose: We illustrate how quantitative approaches used in the social sciences and based on multivariate analysis (categorical Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis and General Linear…

Gaotlhobogwe, Michael; Laugharne, Janet; Durance, Isabelle

2011-01-01

73

Attitudes and Practices of Japanese and American Music Teachers towards Integrating Music with Other Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA…

Zdzinski, Stephen F.; Ogawa, Masafumi; Dell, Charlene; Yap, Ching Ching; Adderley, Cedric; Dingle, Rosetta

2007-01-01

74

Similarities in Attitudes and Norms and the Effect on Bicycle Commuting: Evidence from the Bicycle Cities Davis and Delft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its beneficial effects, many governments encourage bicycle use for commuting. In search of effective strategies, they often study best practices from elsewhere. However, in order to assess the likely success of transferring measures from one city or country to another, an accurate comparison of the bicycling context is needed. This article explores the similarities and differences in attitudes

Eva Heinen; Susan Handy

2012-01-01

75

Similarities in Attitudes and Norms and the Effect on Bicycle Commuting: Evidence from the Bicycle Cities Davis and Delft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its beneficial effects, many governments encourage bicycle use for commuting. In search of effective strategies, they often study best practices from elsewhere. However, in order to assess the likely success of transferring measures from one city or country to another, an accurate comparison of the bicycling context is needed. This paper explores the similarities and differences in attitudes

Eva Heinen; Susan Handy

2011-01-01

76

Adaptation and perceptual norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

2007-03-01

77

Three scales assessing high school students' attitudes and perceived norms about seeking adult help for distress and suicide concerns  

PubMed Central

Validated measures that can be administered to school populations are needed to advance knowledge of help-seeking processes and to evaluate suicide prevention programs that target help-seeking. With 6,370 students from 22 high schools, we assessed the psychometric properties of three brief measures: Help-Seeking Acceptability at School, Adult Help for Suicidal Youth, and Reject Codes of Silence. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.64 – 0.84. In support of construct validity, lower scores on each scale were associated with more maladaptive coping norms; and for each one unit increase on each scale, students were one-third to one-half as likely to report suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and elevated depression.

Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R.; Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A.

2011-01-01

78

Should Bible Studies Remain in Israeli Public Schools? Teachers' Attitudes toward Bible Teaching as a Mandatory Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and analysis of attitudes of Israeli K-12 educators and bible teachers toward religious studies. Teachers' attitudes toward bible teaching as a mandatory subject are, on the whole, positive throughout the country. The present study addresses the absence of systematic research into the opinions…

Idalovichi, Israel

2003-01-01

79

Nature and operation of attitudes.  

PubMed

This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

Ajzen, I

2001-01-01

80

The effect of moral obligation, attitude, and social norms on sexual decision-making in heterosexual older adolescents at three U.S. colleges: an archival multivariate investigation of the Fishbein-Ajzen model of behavioral intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of 6 theoretical models-Social Inoculation, Evolutionary, Sex Guilt, Sex Anxiety, Ecological, and FishbeinAjzen- Iays the groundwork for this examination of the extent to which 3 variables-attitude, morality, and social norms-are related to adolescent sexual decision-making. A total of 302 undergraduate students from 3 United States colleges were surveyed in 1987 with a questionnaire

John Gerrit Laskowski

2002-01-01

81

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and "Autistic" Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

82

Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.  

PubMed

NUMEROUS STUDIES HAVE DOCUMENTED THE PHENOMENON OF PHONETIC IMITATION: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

Yu, Alan C L; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-09-30

83

A Path Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes to Computer Use: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in an Educational Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…

Teo, Timothy

2010-01-01

84

Attitudes and evaluative practices: category vs. item and subjective vs. objective constructions in everyday food assessments.  

PubMed

In social psychology, evaluative expressions have traditionally been understood in terms of their relationship to, and as the expression of, underlying 'attitudes'. In contrast, discursive approaches have started to study evaluative expressions as part of varied social practices, considering what such expressions are doing rather than their relationship to attitudinal objects or other putative mental entities. In this study the latter approach will be used to examine the construction of food and drink evaluations in conversation. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes recorded over a period of months. The aim of this study is to highlight two distinctions that are typically obscured in traditional attitude work ('subjective' vs. 'objective' expressions, category vs. item evaluations). A set of extracts is examined to document the presence of these distinctions in talk that evaluates food and the way they are used and rhetorically developed to perform particular activities (accepting/refusing food, complimenting the food provider, persuading someone to eat). The analysis suggests that researchers (a) should be aware of the potential significance of these distinctions; (b) should be cautious when treating evaluative terms as broadly equivalent and (c) should be cautious when blurring categories and instances. This analysis raises the broader question of how far evaluative practices may be specific to particular domains, and what this specificity might consist in. It is concluded that research in this area could benefit from starting to focus on the role of evaluations in practices and charting their association with specific topics and objects. PMID:14715115

Wiggins, Sally; Potter, Jonathan

2003-12-01

85

Knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking in subjects of lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world since 1988, both in terms of incidence and mortality among both men and women. Approximately half of the cases of lung cancer now occur in developing countries compared to 1980. Tobacco smoking is by far the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. A knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking among 132 cases of lung cancer in this study was undertaken. Amongst 113 ever smokers, out of 132 cases, 91.18% of males and 36.36% of female subjects continued smoking despite knowing the harmful effects of tobacco, displayed over the cigarette or bidi packets. In these group squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type followed by adenocarcinoma. Among the never smokers adenocarcinoma was the commonest type, females accounting for 75% of the cases, though a good number was observed among male ever smokers, signifying the changing histological types of lung cancer today. PMID:23936950

Dey, Subir Kumar; Jha, Sumanta; Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Das, Abhradip; Gangopadhyay, Subir

2012-12-01

86

Teaching hands-on science activities: Variables that moderate attitude-behavior consistency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between prospective elementary teachers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to teach science using hands-on activities at least twice a week during their first year of employment was investigated. The findings suggest that measuring prospective teachers' attitudes toward science cannot adequately predict nor provide a satisfactory explanation of their science teaching behaviors. The findings also provide clear support for two hypotheses derived from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action regarding the predictability of prospective teachers' intentions to teach science from their attitudes and subjective norms.Received: 25 October 1985

Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

87

Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward

Wilson Vincent; Dominic J. Parrott; John L. Peterson

2011-01-01

88

Attitudes of Demented and Non-demented Chinese Elderly Subjects Towards End-of- life Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Due to progressive cognitive and physical deterioration, it is not uncommon for carers and medical professionals to face situations requiring proxy end-of-life decisions for patients with dementia. In this study, attitudes toward making end-of-life decisions were com- pared in non-demented and mildly demented Chinese subjects. Patients and Methods: Responses to three hypothetical scenarios concerning end-of-life decisions in demented subjects

JSW Lee; LCW Lam; CSH Tang

89

Health care utilisation and attitudes towards health care in subjects reporting environmental annoyance from electricity and chemicals.  

PubMed

Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group. PMID:19936124

Eek, Frida; Merlo, Juan; Gerdtham, Ulf; Lithman, Thor

2009-04-14

90

Examining the Influence of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm.…

Teo, Timothy

2010-01-01

91

Patients' and clinicians' attitude towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with a first episode of psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The acceptance and use of long-acting depot antipsychotics has been shown to be influenced by the attitudes of patients and clinicians. Depot treatment rates are low across countries and especially patients with first-episode psychosis are rarely treated with depot medication. The aim of this article was to review the literature on patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotics in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycINF and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data describing patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards long-acting depot antipsychotic in subjects with first-episode psychosis. Results: Six studies out of a total of 503 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four studies conveyed a negative and two a positive opinion of clinicians toward depot medication. No systematic study directly addressed the attitude of patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatrists frequently presume that patients with first-episode psychosis would not accept depot medication and that depots are mostly eligible for chronic patients. Conclusions: Full information of all patients especially those with first episode psychosis in a therapeutic relationship that includes shared decision-making processes could reduce the negative image and stigmatization attached to depots.

Theodoridou, Anastasia; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kaiser, Stefan; Jager, Matthias

2013-01-01

92

Examining the influence of subjective norm and facilitating conditions on the intention to use technology among pre-service teachers: a structural equation modeling of an extended technology acceptance model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined pre-service teachers’ self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen\\u000a participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends\\u000a the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm. Structural equation modeling\\u000a was used as the main technique for data analysis. This study contributes to

Timothy Teo

2010-01-01

93

Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

2011-01-01

94

Attitudes toward Women as a Function of Subject's Experience with Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence is accumulating that experiences of children within the violent family are fundamental causes of the continuing problem of family and societal violence. To examine attitudes and values as a function of experience with family violence, 114 male undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing general demographics, and several…

Stahly, Geraldine Butts

95

Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed.

Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

2011-01-01

96

Low-Income Women Describe Fertility-Related Expectations: Descriptive Norms, Injunctive Norms, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms surrounding sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing may help guide women's health-related behaviors. In this study, we explore low-income women's perceptions of fertility-related norms by allowing women to describe their experiences with normative expectations. Semistructured interviews (n = 30) suggested that women in low-income subject positions articulate descriptive norms that generally correspond with mainstream descriptive norms, identify two major sources

Jennifer J. Bute; Robin E. Jensen

2010-01-01

97

Conversation and compliance: role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in public communication campaigns.  

PubMed

This study explores the role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in a public health campaign, the BBC Condom Normalization Campaign, designed to promote conversation and change the public perception of condom use in India. Drawing upon the integrative model of behavioral prediction, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and descriptive norms were predicted to relate to behavioral intentions to use condoms. It is important to note that the valence of discussion was hypothesized to relate to each of these more proximal predictors. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the model on 3 separate samples of Indian men between the ages of 15 and 49 years: (a) high-risk men who had sex with nonspouses; (b) low-risk, sexually inactive, unmarried men; and (c) low-risk, monogamous, married men. Results were similar for low- and high-risk audiences, with valence of discussion about condoms predicting condom-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective and descriptive social norms with respect to condom use, which, in turn, predicted behavioral intent to use condoms. These findings underscore the need to take not only the frequency but also the valence of interpersonal discussion into account when assessing the effect of health campaigns. Implications for theory and design of future public communication campaigns are explored. PMID:22808934

Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Chaudhuri, Sonal T; Lapsansky, Charlotte; Bhanot, Anurudra; Murphy, Sheila T

2012-07-18

98

Variations in adults' subjective ages in relation to birthday nearness, age awareness, and attitudes toward aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the extent to which variations in adults' subjective age identities were related to information provided by proximal age markers, which are specific age-symbolic experiences presumed to channel shifts in age identities. To this end, adults' psychological, physical, and social subjective age identities were examined in relation to the nearness of their birthdays. In the absence of proximal

Joann M. Montepare

1996-01-01

99

The Effect of Subjective Risk Attitudes and Overconfidence on Risk Taking Behaviors: A Experimental Study Based on Traders of the Chinese Stock Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research analyzes the effect of the traders’ subjective risk attitude, optimism and overconfidence on their risk taking behaviors on the Chinese Stock Market by experimental study method. We find that investors’ risk taking behavior is significantly affected by their subjective risk attitude, optimism and overconfidence. Our results also argue that the objective return and volatility of stock are not as good predictors of risk taking behavior as subjective risk and return measures. Moreover, we illustrate that overconfidence and optimism have an significant impact on risk taking behavior In line with theoretical models.

Chen, Qi-An; Xiao, Yinghong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Liang

100

Differences between Pupils from Mixed and Single?sex Schools in Their Enjoyment of School Subjects and in Their Attitudes to Science and to School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 2300 pupils aged 13?14 years in seven mixed and six single?sex English comprehensive schools were tested on their attitudes to science in general, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and school, and were asked to rank in order all their school subjects in terms of liking and of perceived importance. The results of all but the Perception of Subject Importance questionnaire reveal

1990-01-01

101

Women and work: what role do social norms play?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of the current (economic) research which concentrates particularly on individual and structural factors, this paper examines if and to what extent social norms (in terms of attitudes towards gender roles and work commitment) can make a complementary statement in explaining women’s employment status and number of working hours. The impact is presumed to be enhanced through norms

Andreia Tolciu; Ulrich Zierahn

2012-01-01

102

Drugs and the College Athlete: An Analysis of the Attitudes of Student Athletes At Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information that describes the attitudes of college athletes who are at risk for drug use. Responses from 563 athletes indicate that subjective norms, based on the influence of drug testing, peer influence, and a fear of detection, significantly influence student athletes' decisions to use banned substances. (RJM)|

Tricker, Raymond; Connolly, Declan

1997-01-01

103

Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

2011-01-01

104

Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

2011-01-01

105

The influence of subjective and objective knowledge on attitude, motivations and consumption of organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Although the organic market has expanded in recent years, it remains small. Some researchers argue that consumers' lack of knowledge concerning organic food is an important factor slowing down growth. This paper aims to focus on the factors influencing objective and subjective knowledge with regard to organic food production and the relationship between both types of knowledge and

Joris Aertsens; Koen Mondelaers; Wim Verbeke; Jeroen Buysse; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2011-01-01

106

Attitudes Towards End-of-Life Decisions and the Subjective Concepts of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background People have fought for their civil rights, primarily the right to live in dignity. At present, the development of technology in medicine and healthcare led to an apparent paradox: many people are fighting for the right to die. This study was aimed at testing whether different moral principles are associated with different attitudes towards end-of-life decisions for patients with a severe brain damage. Methodology We focused on the ethical decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in patients with severe brain damage. 202 undergraduate students at the University of Padova were given one description drawn from four profiles describing different pathological states: the permanent vegetative state, the minimally conscious state, the locked-in syndrome, and the terminal illness. Participants were asked to evaluate how dead or how alive the patient was, and how appropriate it was to satisfy the patient's desire. Principal Findings We found that the moral principles in which people believe affect not only people's judgments concerning the appropriateness of the withdrawal of life support, but also the perception of the death status of patients with severe brain injury. In particular, we found that the supporters of the Free Choice (FC) principle perceived the death status of the patients with different pathologies differently: the more people believe in the FC, the more they perceived patients as dead in pathologies where conscious awareness is severely impaired. By contrast, participants who agree with the Sanctity of Life (SL) principle did not show differences across pathologies. Conclusions These results may shed light on the complex aspects of moral consensus for supporting or rejecting end-of-life decisions.

Lotto, Lorella; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rigoni, Davide; Rumiati, Rino; Sartori, Giuseppe; Birbaumer, Niels

2012-01-01

107

[Autonomy attitudes in the treatment compliance of a cohort of subjects with continuous psychotropic drug administration].  

PubMed

Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs are part of a general practitioner's daily routine. As with all drugs, they need to be controlled by a phenomenon of observance. Respecting prescriptions is in fact a major public health concern. Our problematic is centred on the analysis of the association between observance and autonomy in order to gain a better understanding of the links between the drug, how it is to be taken, and how the patients adapt and control it. Identifying and comparing autonomous practices psychotrope users associated with attitudes put into play by those who claim to observe or not to observe their treatment is the aim of this project. The qualitative analysis of the speech is based on the categorial analysis of the contents of 46 transcriptions of 23 women et 23 men continuous (regular monthly intake for at least 5 years), aged between 50 and 65. The majority live in couples, have professional activities, and are executives. The psychotropes with the largest consumption are: anxiolytics and antidepressors. The average duration of their consumption is more than 17 years. Two types of attitude can be distinguished through the qualitative analyse. The attitudes of non-observers towards the psychotropic drug and dependence show controlled, autonomous acts. Autonomy is an influencing factor in their observation of the prescribed treatment, it is a major component of their non-observance regarding psychotropes; thus our hypothesis is confirmed. The strategy adopted around the medication arises from autonomy of action. Organising the treatment is seen as a sign of autonomy, as taking an initiative in relation to the medical prescription, and not as rebellious, or carefree behaviour, or as a sign of inconsistency. Non-observers seem more to be involved in a step towards self-regulation. Active taking verbs such as stop, diminish, increase , and success verbs succeed the I is greatly used, reinforced in some cases by myself ; this vocabulary situates the patient as an actor facing the drug and shows that he is capable of action. For observers, taking the drug is qualified as regular and some users categorically refuse to bypass the doctor's advice never . Looking for additional information is an act of autonomy. It is found partly with the doctor; but also from the media, the exchanges with the others and the reading of the notes. But talking to other people and reading the information leaflets are more often done by non-observers. Recognizing oneself in the indications and the dosage marked on the leaflet seems to be the first step to adopting the drug so as to know it better and to gain mastery of it. Autonomy is gained through finding alternative, substitutive or complementary solutions with a large share left to herbal medicine and homeopathy. Non-observers seem to be more active than observers in diminishing or stopping taking psychotropes. Affirming one's autonomy is also shown in the direction given to each person's trajectory of life, behaviour referring to it, the projection into the future, and the dynamics of life. These actions underlie a capacity of resistance, non-observers using evocative terms such as taking things in hand , recognizing the while, in certain cases, the need to be supported. This capacity of action is far less present in observers who acknowledge their difficulties in facing up to events. The intentionality and the determination of their behaviour and their choices depend on the autonomy of willpower. Adjusting the amount taken is shown by expressions of intention, and justifies self-regulation. Non-observers direct their behaviour towards a reduction in the medication and commit themselves not to go over a certain amount. Stopping usage is declared as certain , it is planned. On the other hand, it remains unpredictable for observers for whom consumption is linked to the description of a need to have long-lasting health. Observers describe taking their medication as automatic, routine, and easy. A sort of fatality and resignation is attached to the prescription, linked to a negati

Baumann, M; Trincard, M

108

Development, social norms, and assignment to task  

PubMed Central

Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks.

Fafchamps, Marcel

2011-01-01

109

Group norms, threat, and children's racial prejudice.  

PubMed

To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was of the same or different race. Consistent with SIDT, prejudice was greater when the in-group had a norm of exclusion and there was threat from the out-group. Norms and threat also interacted with participant age to influence ethnic attitudes, although prejudice was greatest when the in-group had an exclusion norm and there was out-group threat. The implications of the findings for SIDT are discussed. PMID:15892784

Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

110

From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

111

EVOLUTION OF MORAL NORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral norms are the rules of morality, those that people actually follow, and those that we feel people ought to follow, even when they don't. Historically, the social sciences have been primarily concerned with describing the many forms that moral norms take in various cultures, with the emerging implication that moral norms are mere arbitrary products of culture. Philosophers, on

William Harms; Brian Skyrms

112

Quality of Statistical Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is acontribution to this work. Statistical Norms considered here encompasspopulations, statistical units, classifications, characteristics, reference periods and"statistical summaries". It is shown that specific quality components for norms canbe isolated, in a way consistent with the definition of quality in statistics. Thismakes possible to report on the quality of norms in a standard way.

Raoul Depoutot Eurostat; Batiment Jean Monnet

1998-01-01

113

Do Perceptions of Discrepancy Between Self and Group Norms Contribute to Peer Harassment at School?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which adolescents systematically perceive a discrepancy between private and group norms about the acceptability of bullying and examined the association between norm estimation and actual bystander behavior. Ninety-one 8th graders (42 male and 49 female) described their personal attitudes about bullies and victims as well as their perceptions of their classmates' attitudes. Teachers rated

Marlene J. Sandstrom; Maria Bartini

2010-01-01

114

A Cross-National Study of Subjective Sexual Well-Being Among Older Women and Men: Findings From the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective sexual well-being refers to the cognitive and emotional evaluation of an individual's sexuality. This study examined subjective sexual well-being, explored its various aspects, examined predictors across different cultures, and investigated its possible associations with overall happiness and selected correlates, including sexual dysfunction. Data were drawn from the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, a survey of 27,500 men

Edward O. Laumann; Anthony Paik; Dale B. Glasser; Jeong-Han Kang; Tianfu Wang; Bernard Levinson; Edson D. Moreira; Alfredo Nicolosi; Clive Gingell

2006-01-01

115

The Determinants of Physician Attitudes and Subjective Norms Toward Drug Information Sources: Modification and Test of the Theory of Reasoned Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To improve upon the theory of reasoned action and apply it to pharmaceutical research, we investigated the effects of relevant appraisals, attributes, and past behavior of physicians on the use of drug information sources. We also examined the moderating effects of practice characteristics.

Caroline A. Gaither; Richard P. Bagozzi; Frank J. Ascione; Duane M. Kirking

1997-01-01

116

Assessing the impact of nutrition education on growth indices of Iranian nomadic children: an application of a modified beliefs, attitudes, subjective-norms and enabling-factors model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to teach suitable feeding and hygiene practices to a group of randomly selected Qashqa'i tribe families with 406 children aged 0 - 59 months, a culturally appropriate community-based education intervention approach was used. To assess the impact of the interven- tion on the study group, another group of families with 405 children were randomly selected to serve as

Mousa Salehi; S. M. Kimiagar; M. Shahbazi; Y. Mehrabi; A. A. Kolahi

2004-01-01

117

Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health - a Swedish questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Background Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. Methods The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL), sense of coherence (SOC), subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. Results Work ethics (WE) and general work attitudes (GWA) were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. Conclusion Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender, good QOL, high SOC and good health as well as support from both parents, positive experience of school and work contacts related positively to attitudes towards work. Further planning and supportive work have to take these factors into account.

Axelsson, Lars; Andersson, Ingemar; Hakansson, Anders; Ejlertsson, Goran

2005-01-01

118

Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian and vegan diets: an examination of the role of ambivalence.  

PubMed

Vegetarianism within the U.K. is growing in popularity, with the current estimate of 7% of the population eating a vegetarian diet. This study examined differences between the attitudes and beliefs of four dietary groups (meat eaters, meat avoiders, vegetarians and vegans) and the extent to which attitudes influenced intentions to follow each diet. In addition, the role of attitudinal ambivalence as a moderator variable was examined. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 111 respondents (25 meat eaters, 26 meat avoiders, 34 vegetarians, 26 vegans). In general, predictions were supported, in that respondents displayed most positive attitudes and beliefs towards their own diets, and most negative attitudes and beliefs towards the diet most different form their own. Regression analyses showed that, as predicted by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intention to follow each diet (apart from the vegetarian diet, where subjective norm was non-significant). In each case, attitudinal ambivalence was found to moderate the attitude-intention relationship, such that attitudes were found to be stronger predictors at lower levels of ambivalence. The results not only highlight the extent to which such alternative diets are an interesting focus for psychological research, but also lend further support to the argument that ambivalence in an important influence on attitude strength. PMID:11562154

Povey, R; Wellens, B; Conner, M

2001-08-01

119

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions toward Nuclear Energy before and after Chernobyl in a Longitudinal within-subjects Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward nuclear energy in the Netherlands were investigated within a sample of Dutch citizens two months before the Chernobyl accident, one month after the accident, six months after the accident, and one year and seven months after the accident. One month after the accident, analyses revealed more unfavorable attitudes which became less antinuclear five months

Bas Verplanken

1989-01-01

120

Influence of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration branch on medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the introduction of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and founding of The Cochrane Collaboration branch at the University of Split School of Medicine influenced students’ knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM), including the use of research literature. Methods We used a 26-item questionnaire on EBM knowledge and attitudes to survey 1232 medical students of all study years in 3 medical schools in Croatia (Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and the Croatian-speaking medical school in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Results Students from the University of Split School of Medicine who had been exposed to the vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration at the school had better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward EBM. In general, students rarely searched for evidence; 28% of students searched for evidence more than once a month and 96% of students used only textbooks in Croatian and teachers’ handouts, even though 74% of students agreed that articles from scholarly journals were an important supplement for textbooks. Conclusion Building up an environment that fosters EBM may be beneficial for students’ knowledge and attitudes toward EBM. Teachers should encourage and require using evidence during all the courses in medical school.

Balajic, Karolina; Barac-Latas, Vesna; Drenjancevic, Ines; Ostojic, Marko; Fabijanic, Damir; Puljak, Livia

2012-01-01

121

Laws and Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how private decisions and public policies are shaped by personal and societal preferences (values), material or other explicit incentives (laws) and social sanctions or rewards (norms). It first examines how honor, stigma and social norms arise from individuals? behaviors and inferences, and how they interact with material incentives. It then characterizes optimal incentive-setting in the presence of

Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

2011-01-01

122

Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

2013-01-01

123

Attitudes and Attitude Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and

Gerd Bohner; Nina Dickel

124

Attitudes and Attitude Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and

Gerd Bohner; Nina Dickel

2011-01-01

125

Attitudes toward homosexuality: Feminist attitudes and sexual conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward women, sexual conservatism, social desirability, masculinity, femininity, and psychological androgyny were measured in 104 male and female subjects. Both nonfeminist and conservative sexual attitudes independently correlated with antihomosexual attitudes. Antihomosexual individuals held more stereotyped attitudes regarding women and defined acceptable heterosexual behaviors more narrowly than prohomosexual individuals. Psychological androgyny, measured with Bem's Sex-Role Inventory, did

Fred A. Minnigerode

1976-01-01

126

Health norms in pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women. The study had two aims: to develop a method of measuring social expectations (norms) and to find out how far women conform in their behaviour to these norms. The areas of behaviour were smoking, exercise, diet, alcohol, and medication. Pregnancy was found to be appropriate for this study because of the high degree of formalisation that this state enjoys in our society. The methods used for measuring norms in this study are an improvement on earlier methods, but further refinements are needed. The findings show that women generally do conform to the social expectations and that their behaviour is in accordance with three types of norms--that is, general, specific, and transitional. The implications for health education interventions are discussed.

Baric, L; MacArthur, C

1977-01-01

127

A Sociocultural Stress, Appraisal, and Coping Model of Subjective Burden and Family Attitudes Toward Patients With Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sociocultural stress, appraisal, and coping model was developed to understand relatives' burden of care and negative affective attitudes toward patients with schizophrenia. Ninety-two African American and 79 White patients and a significant other (80% mothers) completed 2 10-min family problem-solving discussions. In addition, the Kreisman Rejection Scale and a global self-report rating of family burden were administered to relatives,

Irwin S. Rosenfarb; Alan S. Bellack; Nahid Aziz

2006-01-01

128

Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: the role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

This study examined the usefulness of integrating measures of affective and moral attitudes into the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-model in predicting purchase intentions of organic foods. Moral attitude was operationalised as positive self-rewarding feelings of doing the right thing. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Italy (N=202), Finland (N=270) and UK (N=200) in March 2004. Questions focussed on intentions to purchase organic apples and organic ready-to-cook pizza instead of their conventional alternatives. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling by simultaneous multi-group analysis of the three countries. Along with attitudes, moral attitude and subjective norms explained considerable shares of variances in intentions. The relative influences of these variables varied between the countries, such that in the UK and Italy moral attitude rather than subjective norms had stronger explanatory power. In Finland it was other way around. Inclusion of moral attitude improved the model fit and predictive ability of the model, although only marginally in Finland. Thus the results partially support the usefulness of incorporating moral measures as well as affective items for attitude into the framework of TPB. PMID:18036702

Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Dean, M; Lampila, P; Saba, A; Lähteenmäki, L; Shepherd, R

2007-09-29

129

Preschool Children's Attitudes about Deviations from Gender-Role Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined 3- to 7-year old children's knowledge about gender roles and moral and social norms, their beliefs about the possibility of violating these roles and norms, and their attitudes about children who do. The gender role norms were grouped into several categories: toys, games, play styles, adult occupations, adult parental roles,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen; Russ, Lisa S.

130

Effects of different conditions of acceptance upon conformity to group norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental groups of Ss, 2 different norms were developed: one concerning a social value judgment; the other, a simple perceptual judgment. The Ss were experimentally made to feel different degrees of being accepted by the other members and were then given opportunities and incentives to deviate from the norms. Subsequent conformity, participation, and attitudes toward the group were studied

James E. Dittes; Harold H. Kelley

1956-01-01

131

Profile of Masculine Norms and Help-Seeking Stigma in College Football  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents an interdisciplinary endeavor between the fields of sport psychology and the psychological study of men and masculinity. The purpose of this study was to provide a greater understanding of the relationship between traditional masculine norms and help-seeking attitudes within the unique context of football. We examined conformity to masculine norms and help-seeking stigma within a sample of

Jesse A. Steinfeldt; Matthew Clint Steinfeldt

2012-01-01

132

Gentlemen don't speak: communication norms and condom use in bathhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of reasoned action (TRA) focuses on attitudes, norms, behavior, and intentions in explaining a behavior. This study provides a qualitative, detailed description of TRA components applied specifically to condom use for STD prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in bathhouses. Using a detailed, semi-struc- tured interview guide, MSM acknowledged an existing norm for condom use

William N. Elwood; Kathryn Greene; Karen K. Carter

2003-01-01

133

Adolescent Alcohol-Related Risk Cognitions: The Roles of Social Norms and Social Networking Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not.

Dana M. Litt; Michelle L. Stock

2011-01-01

134

Innovation Credit: When Can Leaders Oppose Their Group's Norms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two preliminary studies and 5 experiments examined judgments of leaders who challenge their group's norms. Participants viewed information about group members whose attitudes were normative or deviated in a pronormative or antinormative direction. The antinorm member was identified as (a) either a nonleader or an established leader (Study 1), (b) an ex-leader (Studies 2 and 5), or (c) a future

Dominic Abrams; Georgina Randsley de Moura; José M. Marques; Paul Hutchison

2008-01-01

135

Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs et al. [2006: Behav Res Ther 44:1187–1197] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic rather than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods:

S. S. Schreier; N. Heinrichs; L. Alden; R. M. Rapee; S. G. Hofmann; J. Chen; K. Y. Oh; S. M. Bogels

2010-01-01

136

Content-blind norms, no norms, or good norms? A reply to Vranas.  

PubMed

In the psychology of thinking, little thought is given to what constitutes good thinking. Instead, normative solutions to problems have been accepted at face value, thereby determining what counts as a reasoning fallacy. I applaud Vranas (Cognition 76 (2000) 179) for thinking seriously about norms. I do, however, disagree with his attempt to provide post hoc justifications for supposed reasoning fallacies in terms of 'content-neutral' norms. Norms need to be constructed for a specific situation, not imposed upon it in a content-blind way. The reason is that content-blind norms disregard relevant structural properties of the given situation, including polysemy, reference classes, and sampling. I also show that content-blind norms can, unwittingly, lead to double standards: the norm in one problem is the fallacy in the next. The alternative to content-blind norms is not no norms, but rather carefully designed norms. PMID:11525483

Gigerenzer, G

2001-08-01

137

Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?  

PubMed

Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently. PMID:22477038

Spranzi, Marta

2013-02-01

138

Biological Foundations of Moral Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

All people acquire beliefs about how they should and should not behave. When such beliefs are adopted by most members of a culture, they constitute moral norms. How do moral norms originate and spread? Why do people preach them and behave in accordance with them? Why are some moral norms universal, and others relative to particular cultures? In this chapter

Dennis Krebs; Maria Janicki

139

Graphical norms via conceptual graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification of acceptable behaviour can be achieved via the use of obligations, permissions and prohibitions, collectively known as norms, which identify the states of affairs that should, may, or should not hold. Norms provide the ability to constrain behaviour while preserving individual agent autonomy. While much work has focused on the semantics of norms, the design of normative systems,

Madalina Croitoru; Nir Oren; Simon Miles; Michael Luck

140

Social influences on the motivation to quit smoking: Main and moderating effects of social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends the previous research on the social influences on quitting by investigating inconsistencies between different types of social norms and their main and moderating effects on quitting intentions. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) served as the theoretical framework. Social influences were operationalised by subjective quitting norm (significant others' expectations that one should quit), descriptive quitting norm

Birte Dohnke; Edith Weiss-Gerlach; Claudia D. Spies

2011-01-01

141

Computational Substrates of Norms and Their Violations during Social Exchange  

PubMed Central

Social norms in humans constrain individual behaviors to establish shared expectations within a social group. Previous work has probed social norm violations and the feelings that such violations engender; however, a computational rendering of the underlying neural and emotional responses has been lacking. We probed norm violations using a two-party, repeated fairness game (ultimatum game) where proposers offer a split of a monetary resource to a responder who either accepts or rejects the offer. Using a norm-training paradigm where subject groups are preadapted to either high or low offers, we demonstrate that unpredictable shifts in expected offers creates a difference in rejection rates exhibited by the two responder groups for otherwise identical offers. We constructed an ideal observer model that identified neural correlates of norm prediction errors in the ventral striatum and anterior insula, regions that also showed strong responses to variance-prediction errors generated by the same model. Subjective feelings about offers correlated with these norm prediction errors, and the two signals displayed overlapping, but not identical, neural correlates in striatum, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that responses in anterior insula can encode information about social norm violations that correlate with changes in overt behavior (changes in rejection rates). Together, these results demonstrate that the brain regions involved in reward prediction and risk prediction are also recruited in signaling social norm violations.

Xiang, Ting; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P. Read

2013-01-01

142

Norms and Tables for Animal Nutrition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Nutrition norms and rations for domestic animals (Cattle feeding norms and rations, Nutrition norms and rations for swine, Nutrient requirements and rations for sheep, Nutrient requirements and rations for horses, Nutrition norms and rations for...

M. Fedorovic-Tome M. Obradovic D. Stosic

1970-01-01

143

Reciprocity and Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For over a quarter of a century or more, Serge Kolm (see Kolm 1984, 2006, 2008) has made a number of contributions to the\\u000a study of reciprocity. This article is intended to supplement his writings by addressing a topic that Kolm discusses mostly\\u000a (but frequently) in passing: the relation between reciprocity and norms. I shall also consider the relation between

Jon Elster

144

Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small.

Johnson, Mark B.

2012-01-01

145

Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

146

The "is" and the "ought": How do perceived social norms influence safety behaviors at work?  

PubMed

Despite a widespread view that social norms have an important contextual influence on health attitudes and behaviors, the impact of normative influences on safety behaviors has received very little attention. The current study proposes that supervisors' and coworkers' descriptive and injunctive safety norms influence proactive and compliance safety behaviors. Longitudinal results from 132 workers in a passenger transportation company support the link between coworkers' descriptive safety norms (at Time 1) and proactive safety practices (at Time 2). Crystallization of supervisor' injunctive safety norms (at Time 2) moderated the effect of coworkers' descriptive safety norms (at Time 1) on self-reported proactive safety behavior (at Time 2). These findings emphasize the differences between supervisors' and coworkers' descriptive and injunctive norms as sources of social influence on compliance and proactive safety behavior. PMID:21280945

Fugas, Carla S; Meliá, José L; Silva, Silvia A

2011-01-01

147

Storage of household firearms: an examination of the attitudes and beliefs of married women with children  

PubMed Central

Although safe firearm storage is a promising injury prevention strategy, many parents do not keep their firearms unloaded and locked up. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examines factors associated with safe storage among married women with children and who have firearms in their homes. Data come from a national telephone survey (n?=?185). We examined beliefs about defensive firearm use, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and firearm storage practices. A Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was conducted to assess associations between psychosocial factors and firearm storage practices. Women were highly motivated to keep firearms stored safely. Those reporting safe storage practices had more favorable attitudes, more supportive subjective norms and higher perceptions of behavioral control than those without safe storage. One-fourth believed a firearm would prevent a family member from being hurt in case of a break-in, 58% believed a firearm could scare off a burglar. Some 63% said they leave decisions about firearm storage to their husbands. Women were highly motivated to store firearms safely as evidenced by favorable attitudes, supportive subjective norms and high perceptions of behavioral control. This was especially true for those reporting safer storage practices.

Johnson, R. M.; Runyan, C. W.; Coyne-Beasley, T.; Lewis, M. A.; Bowling, J. M.

2008-01-01

148

NORMS AND ESSENTIAL NORMS OF LINEAR COMBINATIONS OF ENDOMORPHISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute norms and essential norms of linear combinations of endomorphisms on uniform algebras. 1. The introduction Let X denote a compact Hausdorff space. Recall that a uniform algebra is a closed subalgebra of C(X) that contains the constants and separates the points of X. We will denote the maximal ideal space of A (also known as the spectrum of

PAMELA GORKIN; RAYMOND MORTINI

149

Emotions and actions associated with norm-breaking events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms have a strong influence on human social interactions, but the emotions and actions associated with norm-breaking events\\u000a have not been systematically studied. We asked subjects to imagine themselves in a conflict situation and then to report how\\u000a they would feel, how they would act, and how they would imagine the feelings and actions of their opponent. By altering the

David Sloan Wilson; Rick O’Gorman

2003-01-01

150

Perceived Peer Norms and Sexual Intentions Among African American Preadolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to examine whether perceived peer dating and sexual experience norms are related to attitudes toward dating and sexual behav- ior and to precoital and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. Participants included 1,046 African American youth aged 9-12 years (M = 10.57 years). Youth completed a baseline survey as part of a larger in-

Scyatta A. Wallace; Kim S. Miller; Rex Forehand

2008-01-01

151

The Haskell norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

Advocate, Dev L.

152

An evolved cognitive bias for social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are a widely used concept for explaining human behavior, but there are few studies exploring how we cognitively utilize them. We incorporate here an evolutionary approach to studying social norms, predicting that if norms have been critical to biological fitness, then individuals should have adaptive mechanisms to conform to, and avoid violating, norms. A cognitive bias toward norms

Rick O'Gorman; David Sloan Wilson; Ralph R. Miller

2008-01-01

153

Equivalent Norms for Sobolev Spaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The equivalence of the usual norm in the Sobolev Space (W sub 0, superscript m,p)(G) and the norm obtained by using only the highest (i.e. m'th) order partial derivatives is established for a suitably restricted class of quasicylindrical, unbounded domain...

R. A. Adams

1969-01-01

154

European norms in hand hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of hand hygiene, European Norms exist, or are under development, with regard to protective gloves and for assessing the antimicrobial efficacy of hand disinfectants. Important norms for gloves are EN 420 (General requirements), EN 374 (Protective gloves against chemicals and microorganisms) and EN 455 (Medical gloves for single use). A suspension test for the demonstration of bactericidal

M. L Rotter

2004-01-01

155

The evolution of social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary game theory provides the tools to analyze which strategies, or patterns of behaviour, emerge over time through a process of adaptation. Social norms can be defined as patterns of behaviour with certain characteristics. Evolutionary game theory thus provides one perspective on how social norms are formed and maintained. Prisoner's dilemma games can be used to study the conditions under

Ivar Kolstad

2003-01-01

156

Moving beyond the individual: examining the effects of domestic violence policies on social norms.  

PubMed

To be effective, criminal justice policies should affect the underlying social norms for which the policies were enacted. This study sought to determine whether public perceptions of criminal justice policies on domestic violence affected social norms. Two waves of data were collected via a telephone survey where a random probability sample of 973 residents was drawn from 4 communities. A structural equation model was tested and confirmed. Results provided strong support for the hypothesis that perceptions of criminal justice policies have direct effects on attitudes toward criminal justice response, and indirect effects on victim-blaming attitudes, both underlying social norms related to domestic violence. The enactment of criminal justice policies, therefore, may have an impact beyond victims and perpetrators and lead to a transformation of the community through the emergence of new social norms. Public awareness campaigns designed to disseminate criminal justice policies may be instrumental in provoking social change. PMID:14703261

Salazar, Laura F; Baker, Charlene K; Price, Ann W; Carlin, Kathleen

2003-12-01

157

Legal forms and reproductive norms.  

PubMed

This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

Fletcher, Ruth

2003-06-01

158

Clinical Depression and Condom Use Attitudes and Beliefs Among African American Adolescent Females  

PubMed Central

Depression, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are growing concerns among African American adolescent females. Theoretical models contribute to identification of mediators of condom use; however, minimal research has addressed the explicit relationship between clinical depression and condom use in African American adolescent females. The authors report results from quantitative surveys with clinically depressed (n = 64) and non-depressed (n = 64) African American adolescent females in two large metropolitan cities in the eastern United States. Theoretical mediators of condom use in the study sample—attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions— were investigated. Significant differences existed between the groups in condom use frequency (U = 356.5, p = .037); however, there were no statistically significant differences in condom use attitudes and beliefs. Although clinically depressed and non-depressed African American adolescent females may hold similar attitudes and beliefs about condom use, differences in condom use frequency may be a psychopathologic occurrence.

Brawner, Bridgette M.; Davis, Zupenda M.; Fannin, Ehriel F.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Kirschstein, Ruth L.

2011-01-01

159

Clinical depression and condom use attitudes and beliefs among African American adolescent females.  

PubMed

Depression, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are growing concerns among African American adolescent females. Theoretical models contribute to identification of mediators of condom use; however, minimal research has addressed the explicit relationship between clinical depression and condom use in African American adolescent females. The authors report results from quantitative surveys with clinically depressed (n = 64) and nondepressed (n = 64) African American adolescent females in two large metropolitan cities in the eastern United States. Theoretical mediators of condom use in the study sample-attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions-were investigated. Significant differences existed between the groups in condom use frequency (U = 356.5, p = .037); however, there were no statistically significant differences in condom use attitudes and beliefs. Although clinically depressed and nondepressed African American adolescent females may hold similar attitudes and beliefs about condom use, differences in condom use frequency may be a psychopathologic occurrence. PMID:21737313

Brawner, Bridgette M; Davis, Zupenda M; Fannin, Ehriel F; Alexander, Kamila A

2011-07-06

160

Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

2011-06-06

161

Issues related to setting exemption levels for oil and gas NORM  

SciTech Connect

In the absence of any federal regulations that specifically address the handling and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), individual states have taken responsibility for developing their own regulatory programs for NORM. A key issue in developing NORM rules is defining exemption levels--specific levels or concentrations that determine which waste materials are subject to controlled management. In general, states have drawn upon existing standards and guidelines for similar waste types in establishing exemption levels for NORM. Simply adopting these standards may not be appropriate for oil and gas NORM for several reasons. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee has summarized the issues involved in setting exemption levels in a report titled ``Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM): Issues from the Oil and Gas Point of View''. The committee has also recommended a set of exemption levels for controlled practices and for remediation activities on the basis of the issues discussed.

Blunt, D. L.; Gooden, D. S.; Smith, K. P.

1999-11-12

162

Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

All known human societies have maintained social order by enforcing compliance with social norms. The biological mechanisms underlying norm compliance are, however, hardly understood. We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance. Brain stimulation had a particularly strong effect on compliance in the context of socially constituted sanctions, whereas it left beliefs about what the norm prescribes and about subjectively expected sanctions unaffected. Our findings suggest that rLPFC activity is a key biological prerequisite for an evolutionarily and socially important aspect of human behavior. PMID:24091703

Ruff, C C; Ugazio, G; Fehr, E

2013-10-03

163

The Need for Attitude Changes concerning Drinking and Drinking Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, drinking norms, and treatment of alcoholism among a representative sample of adults (N=933). Results indicated public concern about alcohol abuse and a desire to help, definite norms maintained against heavy drinking and drunkeness, and a belief in the value of treatment demonstrated. (Author)

Smart, R. G.; Liban, C. B.

1981-01-01

164

Social norms, partnerships and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a social norms interpretation to explain cross-country differences in partnership formation rates. Social\\u000a norms are modeled as a constraint on the allocation of household labor that diminishes the gains of entering a partnership,\\u000a especially for highly educated women with a higher opportunity cost of time. Results using individual level data from 7 waves\\u000a of the European Community

J. Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal; Jose Alberto Molina; Almudena Sevilla-Sanz

2012-01-01

165

BUILDING SOCIAL NORMS ON THE INTERNET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note examines how architecture, and particularly the design and coding of software on the Internet, helps shape social norms. The Note makes two points about architecture and norms. First, architectural decisions affect what norms evolve and how they evolve. By allowing or facilitating certain types of behavior and preventing others, architecture can promote the growth of norms. On the

Daniel B Levin

2002-01-01

166

Third-party punishment and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the characteristics and relative strength of third-party sanctions in a series of experiments. We hypothesize that egalitarian distribution norms and cooperation norms apply in our experiments, and that third parties, whose economic payoff is unaffected by the norm violation, may be willing to enforce these norms although the enforcement is costly for them. Almost two-thirds of the third

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

167

Morale and the evolution of norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides theoretical insights into the diversity of economic performances within organizations. Diverse morale and the evolution of norms interact in nontrivial ways. Individuals can acquire and internalize their norms through socialization. The process by which norms evolve exhibits generalized increasing returns. There are two steady states with different effort levels. If the norm, which is enforced by altruism,

Shinji Teraji

2007-01-01

168

Norm Regress: US Revisionism and the Slow Death of the Torture Norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is the norm against torture suffering a crisis of legitimacy within the United States, and if so, does this constitute a crisis in the norm itself? Can constructivist international relations theory explain how the norm came to be significantly weakened by its most important proponent? Constructivist literature on norms has hitherto suffered from a `nice norm bias' that does not

Ryder McKeown

2009-01-01

169

A Test of Turk's Theory of Norm Resistance Using Observational Data on Police-Suspect Encounters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turk's theory of norm resistance explains how authority-subject relations can be structured in manners that have different probabilities of overt conflict (norm resistance). Building on previous research by Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf, this study uses data collected as part of an observational study of the police in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St.…

Weidner, Robert R.; Terrill, William

2005-01-01

170

Social Norms Regarding Protected Status and Threat Reactions to the Stigmatized  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines whether social norms regarding a stigma's protection from preju- dice differentially affect explicit and implicit threat reactions to the stigmatized, and the degree to which such differences can be accounted for by socially desirable responding, internalized egalitarian values, and dual attitudes about stigmatized individuals. Partici- pants (N = 78) completed a traditional self-report measure to assess explicit

Stephanie Madon; Alison E. Smith; Max Guyll

2005-01-01

171

China's evolving AIDS policy: the influence of global norms and transnational non-governmental organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is moving towards greater rule of law and more accountable governance, including civil society participation. China's AIDS response has moved from denial to pragmatic policy. This change has come both through global influence and domestic pressure and led to adoption of many international norms for prevention, treatment, and care, sometimes in conflict with cultural attitudes and political positions. Connections

Joan Kaufman

2012-01-01

172

Social context of bullying: Do misperceptions of group norms influence children's responses to witnessed episodes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the association between norm misperception and behavioral responses to witnessed bullying episodes. We hypothesized that pluralistic ignorance (PI) could explain individual differences in behavioral responses. According to PI theory, children who believe that victims deserve protection may inhibit defending behavior if they assume their attitudes are out of step with their peers. A total of 446 fourth

Marlene Sandstrom; Heather Makover; Maria Bartini

2012-01-01

173

Using social norms to reduce bullying: A research intervention among adolescents in five middle schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of peers were assessed in a case study experiment employing a social norms intervention in five diverse public middle schools in the State of New Jersey (Grades 6 to 8). Data were collected using an anonymous online survey (baseline n = 2,589; postintervention n = 3,024). In the baseline survey, students substantially misperceived peer

H. Wesley Perkins; David W. Craig; Jessica M. Perkins

2011-01-01

174

Effects of Peer Group Rejection, Group Membership, and Group Norms, on Children's Outgroup Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects on 6- and 8-year old children (n = 160) of rejection versus acceptance by an initial group, the reason for the rejection or acceptance (personal versus category-based), and the norms (inclusion versus exclusion) of a new group to which the children were assigned, on their negative affect and attitudes towards the…

Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith; Ekberg, Andreas

2007-01-01

175

Scaling sex attitudes and behavior in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex attitudes and behavior were scaled according to Guttman scale criteria among 300 members of the public, students, and nurses in Johannesburg, South Africa, replicating the central features of earlier studies conducted in the United States. The study presents an initial attempt to establish norms of sex attitudes and behavior in South Africa. The scales are shown to provide reliable

Eric D. Stillerman; Colin M. Shapiro

1979-01-01

176

Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

Robbins, Janet L.

177

What's in a Norm? Sources and Processes of Norm Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reply to the commentary by E. Staub and L. A. Pearlman (2009) revisits the field experimental results of E. L. Paluck (2009). It introduces further evidence and theoretical elaboration supporting Paluck's conclusion that exposure to a reconciliation-themed radio soap opera changed perceptions of social norms and behaviors, not beliefs. Experimental and longitudinal survey evidence reinforces the finding that the

Elizabeth Levy Paluck

2009-01-01

178

Are Traditional Gender Role Attitudes Associated With Risky Sexual Behavior and Condom-related Beliefs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional gender role attitudes, which emphasize an unequal distribution of power in the family and stereotypical norms about masculinity, may be associated with unsafe sexual behavior and beliefs in young men and women. This study was designed to examine associations between gender role attitudes including gender-based family role attitudes and masculinity ideology, sexual behaviors, and condom-related beliefs in a sample

Cindy L. Shearer; Shelley J. Hosterman; Meghan M. Gillen; Eva S. Lefkowitz

2005-01-01

179

Painkilling drugs in collegiate athletics: knowledge, attitudes, and use of student athletes.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the attitudes of student athletes toward the use of painkilling drugs. A total of 563 student athletes at two Division One NCAA universities were surveyed in this study. Twenty-nine percent of the student athletes (n = 165) reported that they felt there is nothing wrong with using painkilling drugs on the day of competition (when injured) to cope with pain. These student athletes reported that they would use painkilling drugs to mask injury in order to continue to participate in their sport. Student athletes' perceptions of societal norms and expectations related to competition, and the degree of control student athletes perceive that they have when deciding to use painkillers, may be important determinants governing the extent to which they may be at risk for abusing these substances. Research on planned behavior and reasoned action against suggests that salient beliefs affect intentions and subsequent behaviors, either through attitudes or subjective norms, or the degree of (perceived) control that an individual feels he/she has over the behavior [1, 2]. This theoretical model was used as a guiding framework for analyzing the attitudes of college athletes toward painkilling drugs. Recommendations are included in this article for coaches, educators, team physicians, team trainers, and administrators who are concerned about controlling the use and abuse of painkilling drugs by student athletes. PMID:11092151

Tricker, R

2000-01-01

180

Self-monitoring, and individual expectation of performance-norms in sport teams.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-monitoring and individuals' expectation of performance-norms, the attitudes shared among team members about how high a performance the group should achieve in team sports. A secondary purpose was to assess whether the relationship between self-monitoring and individual expectation of performance-norms would be moderated by the type of group selected. Analysis suggests that for an elite sport team there is no difference between the performance-norm for the team and individuals' expectations in terms of self-monitoring. For recreational sport teams, however, those high on self-monitoring had higher individual expectations of performance-norms than the low self-monitors. PMID:10710761

Kim, M S

1999-12-01

181

Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of…

Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

2011-01-01

182

Puerto Rican Spanish: Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger sociolinguistic study investigating the attitudes of Puerto Ricans on the island toward their own vernacular speech, the present research focused on the subjective reactions of 104 public high school teachers and students to spoken speech styles. The subjects' task was to: listen to a prerecorded tape, rate the voices on the…

Betancourt, Francisco

183

Gender-Role Variables and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationships of gender-role variables to attitudes toward homosexuality. Study 1, a meta-analysis, found that endorsement of traditional gender-role beliefs, modern sexism, and hypermasculinity were related to attitudes, but that gender-role self-concept was not. Study 2 examined the relationships of endorsement of male role norms, attitudes toward women, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, modern sexism, hypermasculinity, and hyperfemininity

Bernard E. Whitley

2001-01-01

184

Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

Zint, Michaela

2002-11-01

185

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existi...

J. A. Veil K. P. Smith D. Tomasko D. Elcock D. Blunt

1998-01-01

186

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

187

Modelling social norms in multiagent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Social norms ,are ,cultural phenomena ,that naturally ,emerge ,in human societies and help prescribe and,proscribe normative,patterns of behavior. In recent times, the discipline of multiagent systems has been modeling social norms,in artificial society of agents. ,This paper ,reviews ,norms ,in multiagent systems,and then offers exploration of a series of norms in a simulated,urban traffic setting. Using game,theoretic concepts,we define,and

Henry Hexmoor; Satish Gunnu Venkata; Donald Hayes

2006-01-01

188

Content-blind norms, no norms, or good norms? A reply to Vranas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the psychology of thinking, little thought is given to what constitutes good thinking. Instead, normative solutions to problems have been accepted at face value, thereby determining what counts as a reasoning fallacy. I applaud Vranas (Cognition 76 (2000) 179) for thinking seriously about norms. I do, however, disagree with his attempt to provide post hoc justifications for supposed reasoning

Gerd Gigerenzer

2001-01-01

189

External Norms and Rationality of Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since Sen (1993) criticized the notion of internal consistency of choice, there exists a widespread perception that the standard rationalizability approach to the theory of choice has difficulties in coping with the existence of external norms. We introduce a concept of norm-conditional rationalizability and show that external norms can be made compatible with the methods underlying the rationalizability approach.

Walter Bossert; Kotaro Suzumura

2008-01-01

190

Norm negotiations. The construction of new norms regarding gender and development in EU foreign aid policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to explain norm change regarding gender and development in the EU. I trace the policy process from initiation to implementation to clarify how new norms were introduced and spread. The article combines a constructivist approach to norm diffusion with a negotiation perspective. Constructivist accounts underline the role of norm entrepreneurs and how they persuade

Ole Elgström

2000-01-01

191

Moving toward a theory of normative influences: how perceived benefits and similarity moderate the impact of descriptive norms on behaviors.  

PubMed

In recent years researchers have focused attention on understanding the role of normative factors in influencing behaviors. Although there is some evidence to support the idea that restructuring normative beliefs can result in behavior change, the norms literature is largely silent about how or why this influence occurs. The theory of normative social behavior describes the moderators of the descriptive norm-behavior relationship. Through a 2 (descriptive norms: high or low) x 2 (perceived benefits: high or low) x 2 (similarity: high or low) between-subjects experiment (N = 174), we tested whether these cognitive mechanisms moderated the norms-behavior link. Results indicated that descriptive norms do not exert a direct influence on behavior. Rather, perceived benefits moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and behavioral intention and perceived similarity moderated the relation between descriptive norms and self-efficacy. PMID:16199387

Rimal, Rajiv N; Lapinski, Maria K; Cook, Rachel J; Real, Kevin

192

Attitude and behavior are correlates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

Shrigley, Robert L.

193

[Reference group norm and its effects on fertility behavior].  

PubMed

Explores the relatively untouched field of the role of reference groups in fertility behavior, and proposes further research in this important area. A reference group is a social unit which an individual perceives as holding values in common with his own, and which is a basis for self evaluation and attitude formation. The contingent consistency hypothesis proposes that social pressures reinforce the effect of attitude on behavior. The attitudes and behaviors examined here pertain to the use of family planning; contingent effects are norms of parents and other kin. The influence of the community on individual family formation is explored. The relationship between fertility transition and changes in values is also addressed. According to research findings, parents conceal cultural pressures for childbearing, either deliberately to avoid the appearance of being manipulated by others, or unintentionally because the pressures are internalized. In traditional societies, many choices are culturally proscribed, while in modern societies an individual exercises more freedom of choice. The study of reference groups is important because society shapes and directs individual behavior, and without such a mechanism an individual finds it difficult to adjust to rapid social change. Further research should focus on groups and communities rather than on individuals, through understanding the difficulties surrounding individuals in departing from unquestioning conservative attitudes. (Author's modified) PMID:12178461

Kown, H W

1980-11-01

194

Normed likelihood as saddlepoint approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barndorff-Nielsen's formula (normed likelihood with constant-information metric) has been proffered as an approximate conditional distribution for the maximum-likelihood estimate, based on likelihood functions. Asymptotic justifications are available and the formula coincides with the saddlepoint approximation in full exponential models. It is shown that the formula has wider application than is presently indicated, that in local analysis it corresponds to Laplace's

D. A. S. Fraser

1988-01-01

195

Deserters, Social Norms, and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen percent of Union Army soldiers were deserters. Were these men, who were known in their home communities to have failed cause and comrades, reintegrated into their communities? We construct a rich micropanel data set of U.S. Civil War soldiers from pro-war and anti-war communities to present new evidence on how community social norms shape soldiers’ postwar experiences. Relative to

Dora L. Costa; Matthew E. Kahn

2007-01-01

196

Social influence on temptation: Perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students.  

PubMed

Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2013-09-04

197

The Relationship Between Subjects' Predominant Sensory Predicate Use, Their Preferred Representational System And Self-Reported Attitudes Towards Similar Versus Different Therapist-Patient Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study addresses several issues raised by Neurolinguistic Programming's (NLP) conceptualizations of the function of individual differences in preferred sensory predicate usage.One hundred twenty-four (124) subjects completed the necessary procedures for inclusion in the present study. A language sample was obtained for each subject. This language sample was transcribed and coded with regard to the number and type (auditory,

Hilda Maria Pantin

1982-01-01

198

Preconditions of Voluntary Tax Compliance: Knowledge and Evaluation of Taxation, Norms, Fairness, and Motivation to Cooperate  

PubMed Central

Taxpayers' willingness to cooperate with the state and its institutions in general, and their willingness to pay taxes in particular, depend on a variety of variables. While economists stress the relevance of external variables such as tax rate, income and probability of audits and severity of fines, psychological research shows that internal variables are of similar importance. We present a comprehensive review on the relevance of citizens' knowledge of tax law, their attitudes towards the government and taxation, personal norms, perceived social norms and fairness, as well as motivational tendencies to comply, and discuss possibilities for strategic intervention to increase tax compliance.

Hofmann, Eva; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

2010-01-01

199

Attitudes towards euthanasia.  

PubMed

There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163

Winget, C; Kapp, F T; Yeaworth, R C

1977-03-01

200

Hand Hygiene: Adherence Influenced by Knowledge and Subjective Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively low rate of adherence to the indications for hand hygiene, despite various efforts in hospitals, is puzzling. Lack of time is frequently cited as a reason not to perform hand hygiene. Another reason is the unavailability of hand disinfectant solution at the bedside of the patient. These issues have been addressed by promoting the use of alcoholic hand

C. Ruef

2009-01-01

201

Feminism: What is it Good For? Feminine Norms and Objectification as the Link between Feminist Identity and Clinically Relevant Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between feminism and clinical outcomes, such as eating attitudes,\\u000a depression, and self-esteem, employing structural equation modeling to look at indirect relationships. This study examined\\u000a female participants’ (N?=?282) responses to an online survey measuring feminist self-identification, conformity to feminine norms, objectified body\\u000a consciousness, eating attitudes, depression, and self-esteem. Participants were recruited

Molly M. Hurt; Jaclyn A. Nelson; Dixie L. Turner; Megan E. Haines; Laura R. Ramsey; Mindy J. Erchull; Miriam Liss

2007-01-01

202

Attitude to Suicide in Elderly People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitudes about suicide were examined among older adults in Padua, Italy and were compared to attitudes of younger subjects. Elderly subjects (N=246) consisted of 122 adults living in residential homes, 73 medical inpatients of a geriatric hospital, and 51 depressed inpatients with primary affective disorders. Younger subjects (N=263) consisted…

De Leo, Diego; And Others

203

A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

This paper responds to the call for culturally relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low income community in Mumbai, India (2008–2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities.

Schensul, Stephen L.; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

2011-01-01

204

The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.  

PubMed

This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. PMID:22732053

Phua, Joe J

2012-06-25

205

Some Correlates of Attitudes toward Homosexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the relationship between attitudes toward homosexuality and attitudes toward certain aspects of heterosexual sexuality and to personal sex guilt and sex stereotyping. One hundred twenty-six Canadian male students completed a series of specially devised attitude scales pertaining to these areas. On the basis of their responses to the anti-homosexual scale, subjects were divided into

John Dunbar; Marvin Brown; Donald M. Amoroso

1973-01-01

206

Attitudes of EFL Learners towards the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Related literature indicates that the Internet has an important role and great potential in foreign language learning. It is also obvious that attitudes of learners affect learning process significantly. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of foreign language learners and to find the relationship between attitudes and subject variables.…

Aydin, Selami

2007-01-01

207

Attitude Statements as Positive and Negative Reinforcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that attraction is a function of attitude similarity has been interpreted as a special case of the effect of positive and negative reinforcements on attraction. A simple discrimination learning task was employed in which the reinforcements were attitude statements similar and dissimilar to the opinions of the subject. The presentation of similar attitude statements after each correct response

Carole Golightly; Donn Byrne

1964-01-01

208

Norm Stability in Jirisan National Park: Effects of Time, Existing Conditions, and Background Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for “quiet time” and “seeing others littering” were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for “number of other tents.” There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users’ demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed.

Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

2008-04-01

209

Social Image and the 50-50 Norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A norm,of 50-50 division appears,to have considerable,force in a wide,range of economic environments, both in the real world and in the laboratory. Even in settings where one party unilaterally determines the allocation of a prize (the dictator game), many,subjects voluntarily cede exactly half to another,individual.,The hypothesis that people care about,fairness does not by itself account,for key experimental,pat- terns —

James Andreoni; B. Douglas Bernheim

210

Bone mineral density reference norms for Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish bone mineral density (BMD) reference norms for Hong Kong Chinese using Hologic QDR 2000 and 4500 densitometers, and to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis in the population. Altogether, 4,274 subjects (2,415 females and 1,859 males), aged 9–94 years old, were recruited using a combination of private solicitation and public advertising from schools, community

H. S. Lynn; E. M. C. Lau; B. Au; P. C. Leung

2005-01-01

211

Attitudes towards euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit

C Winget; F T Kapp; R C Yeaworth

1977-01-01

212

A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

2009-01-01

213

A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to examine multiple drinking outcomes, taking

William DeJong; Shari Kessel Schneider; Laura Gomberg Towvim; Melissa J. Murphy; Emily E. Doerr; Neal R. Simonsen; Karen E. Mason; Richard A. Scribner

2009-01-01

214

Aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism: taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account.  

PubMed

Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of attitude-behavior relations to examine how peer absence-related norms and leader support combine to explain the effect of aversive workplace conditions on absenteeism. Using a prospective design and a random sample of transit workers, we obtained results indicating that perceived job hazards and exposure to critical incidents are positively related to subsequent absenteeism, but only under conditions of more permissive peer absence norms. Moreover, this positive impact of peer norms on absenteeism is amplified among employees perceiving their supervisor to be less supportive and is attenuated to the point of nonsignificance among those viewing their supervisor as more supportive. PMID:22390387

Biron, Michal; Bamberger, Peter

2012-03-05

215

Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

2006-01-01

216

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

217

How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions about norm diffusion in world politics are not simply about whether and how ideas matter, but also which and whose ideas matter. Constructivist scholarship on norms tends to focus on hard cases of moral transformation in which good global norms prevail over the bad local beliefs and practices. But many local beliefs are themselves part of a legitimate normative

Amitav Acharya

2004-01-01

218

Hormesis and radiation safety norms.  

PubMed

Today's radiation safety norms are based on the linear no-threshold theory (LNT): extrapolation of the dose-response relationships down to the minimal doses, where such relationships are unproven and can be inverse due to hormesis. The most promising way to obtaining reliable data on the dose-effect relationships for low radiation doses would be large-scale animal experiments. Outstanding published data on carcinogenic effects of the doses e.g. below 100 mSv should be verified by experiments. Arguments against applicability of the LNT to the doses comparable to those from the natural radiation background are discussed. Furthermore it is stressed that medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been overestimated; and this theme has been exploited to strangle development of atomic energy and to elevate prices for fossil fuels. Worldwide introduction of nuclear energy will be possible only after a concentration of authority within a powerful international executive. It would enable the construction of nuclear reactors in optimally suitable places, considering all sociopolitical, geographical, and geological conditions, which would contribute to the prevention of accidents like in Japan in 2011. A concluding point is that radiation safety norms are exceedingly restrictive and should be revised to become more realistic and workable. Elevation of the limits must be accompanied by measures guaranteeing their strict observance. It is also concluded that there are no evidence-based contraindications to fivefold elevation of the total equivalent effective doses to individual members of the public (up to 5 mSv/year), and doubling of the limits for professional exposures. PMID:22249392

Jargin, Sergei V

2012-01-16

219

Dissonance effects as conformity to consistency norms: the effect of anonymity and identity salience.  

PubMed

This paper presents an induced compliance experiment (N=55) that tests the idea, developed from social identity theory (SIT), that attitude shift towards advocacy reflects conformity to a consistency norm. Following computer-mediated group discussion of the primed consistency norm in either anonymous or identified conditions, participants were given either high or low choice to advocate counterattitudinally. As predicted by the social identity model of de-individuation effects (SIDE), anonymity increased identity salience and adherence to the in-group's consistency norm. As predicted by the social identity approach to dissonance, high choice/anonymous participants shifted attitude significantly more than high choice/identified participants, an effect that was mediated by salience. Contrary to predictions, the high choice/identified condition did not shift attitude significantly more than the low choice condition, though the predicted effect was found when salience was controlled for. These data strongly support both SIDE's view of anonymity and the SIT approach to dissonance, especially as alternative approaches predict the reverse of these effects. Implications for research and theory are discussed in relation to dissonance, anonymity and social identity. PMID:17393875

Robertson, Toby

2006-12-01

220

BOUNDS ON NORMS OF SCATTERING MATRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattering matrices play an important role in transmission-line network, theory and in electromagnetic topology. Norms of such matrices are used in bounding system response. Using power considerations, bounds for the 2-norm of such matrices can be found. Appropriate constraints on the normalizing admittance (impedance) matrix for the N waves defining the scattering matrix are made. A renormalizing procedure is defined

Carl Baum

1986-01-01

221

Evolution and Interaction of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the framework of random matching games and develop a two society model to analyze the interaction of societies with different social norms. Each agent repeatedly faces two different coordination games. A social norm of a society is a mode of behavior --strategy--which is adopted by a majority of agents in the society. There are many equilibria in this

Akihiko Matsui; Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara

1997-01-01

222

Evolution and Interaction of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the framework of random matching games and develop a two society model to analyze the interaction of societies with different social norms. Each agent repeatedly faces two different coordination games. A social norm of a society is a mode of behavior - strategy - which is adopted by a majority of agents in the society. There are many

A. Matsui; M. Okuno-Fujiwara

1997-01-01

223

Social norms and prejudice against homosexuals.  

PubMed

Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable. PMID:19899658

Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio

2009-11-01

224

The impact of social norm change strategies on smokers' quitting behaviours  

PubMed Central

Objective Using a social norm change paradigm model that reflects the California Tobacco Control Program's (CTCP) priorities, we compare the strength of the relationship of the social norm constructs to key smoking behavioural outcomes. Methods Social norm constructs that correspond to CTCP's priority areas were created from selected California Adult Tobacco Survey knowledge, attitude and belief questions using confirmatory factor analysis. We then examined the relationship between these constructs and quitting behaviours using logistic regression. Results The secondhand smoke (SHS) and countering pro-tobacco influences'(CPTI) constructs followed a dose-response curve with quitting behaviours. Respondents who rated high on the SHS construct were about 70% more likely to have made a recent quit attempt in the last 12?months and about 100% more likely to intend to quit in the next 6?months than respondents who rated low on the SHS construct. For CPTI, respondents who rated high on this construct were 67% more likely to have made a recent quit attempt in the last 12?months and 62% more likely to have intentions to quit in the next 6?months than respondents who rated low on the CPTI construct. Conclusion Social norm change constructs represent CTCP's priorities and are strongly related to desired individual behaviour outcomes. This analysis provides strong support for the framework underlying CTCP—namely, that changing social norms affects behaviour change at the individual level through changing population-level smoking-related behaviours.

Cowling, David W; Tang, Hao

2010-01-01

225

The attitudes toward transgendered individuals scale: psychometric properties.  

PubMed

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals are sexual and gender minorities subject to stigma in a heteronormative culture with binary gender role norms. Although much research has examined sexual stigma in the form of homophobia, or negative attitudes and reactions to homosexuals and homosexuality, little is known about the stigma experienced by transgendered individuals. Transgendered people are those whose gender identity (sense of oneself as a man or a woman) or gender expression (expression of oneself as a man or a woman in behavior, manner, and/or dress) differ from conventional expectations for their physical sex. Although a scale exists to measure transphobia or negative attitudes and reactions to transgendered individuals, it includes items tapping into overt behavioral expression of this stigma, or gender-bashing, and fails to identify or define transgendered persons as the attitudinal target of the items. A new scale was developed and evaluated in an effort to assess transgender-related stigma, separately from discrimination and violence, among members of the general population. Using two separate samples of college students ranging in age from 18-64 years, exploratory (N = 134) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 237) were performed. The resulting 20-item, self-report measure demonstrated a single-factor structure, high internal consistency reliability, and evidence of convergent and discriminant construct validity. PMID:22810996

Walch, Susan E; Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Francisco, Jacquelyn; Stitt, Rashunda L; Shingler, Kimberly A

2012-07-19

226

Attitudes Towards the Role of Women in Cuban Women Attending a Community College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number

Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner

1982-01-01

227

Social Identity and Media Dependency in the Gay CommunityThe Prediction of Safe Sex Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interplay between social identity and media dependency in the prediction of safe sex attitudes in the gay community. A sample of 76 gay men completed a survey measuring (a) frequency of gay media use and media dependency, (b) identification with the gay community and perceptions of community norms, and (c) personal attitudes toward safe sex. Consistent

THOMAS A. MORTON; JULIE M. DUCK

2000-01-01

228

Static Balance Norms in Children.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The ability to sustain single leg stance and tandem stance is often used to determine the balance abilities of children, particularly after ankle or foot injury. The aim of this study was to assess performance norms on timed static balance tests in children aged 4 to 15?years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Children from schools across the Republic of Ireland (n?=?534) were tested on six balance tests as well as a standing broad jump. RESULTS: Interquartile ranges for the tests are presented for each age group (4-5, 6-7, 8-9, 10-11 and 12+?years). The results confirm the improvement in balance performance as children age especially after the 7 to 8th year. Girls tend to outperform boys across all balance tests. There is a ceiling effect for some single leg stance and tandem stance tests after the age of 7?years. CONCLUSIONS: Results can be used for comparative purposes against age appropriate normative balance test scores. This removes the estimation from balance testing and the risk of applying an insufficient cut-off time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23703740

Condon, Cillin; Cremin, Katie

2013-05-23

229

Client and Counselor Attitudes Toward the Use of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Attitudes, perceived social norms and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1083 clients from outpatient, methadone and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, while their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence.

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E.; Thomas, Cindy P.; McCarty, Dennis

2009-01-01

230

Ethnocultural variables and attitudes toward cultural socialization of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural socialization is the transmission of cultural values and norms to one's children. The current study presents a new scale to assess parental socialization attitudes to both the U.S. American culture and the Latino culture. The scale is based on a social cognitive model of cultural socialization and cultural values of independence and interdependence. It was hypothesized that individuals who

Andrea J. Romero; Israel Cuéllar; Robert E. Roberts

2000-01-01

231

Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

Rubin, Roger H.

1981-01-01

232

Violating Conversational Conventions Disrupts Cognitive Processing of Attitude Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research distinguishes conversational norms from conversational conventions and tests the notion that violation of conversational conventions in attitude questions disrupts processing and reduces data quality. Our first study showed that in questions with simple, dichotomous affirmative and negative response alternatives, respondents expect the affirmative response alternative to be offered before the negative one. Four studies showed that violating this

Allyson L. Holbrook; Jon A. Krosnick; Richard T. Carson; Robert Cameron Mitchell

2000-01-01

233

Human health and stoic moral norms.  

PubMed

For the philosophy of medicine, there are two things of interest about the stoic account of moral norms, quite apart from whether the rest of stoic ethical theory is compelling. One is the stoic version of naturalism: its account of practical reasoning, its solution to the is/ought problem, and its contention that norms for creating, sustaining, or restoring human health are tantamount to moral norms. The other is the stoic account of human agency: its description of the intimate connections between human health, rational agency, and moral norms. There is practical guidance to be gained from exploring those connections, whether or not one is ready to follow stoic moral theory all the way to its austere end. PMID:12943215

Becker, Lawrence C

2003-04-01

234

NORM in the oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes} or specific activity levels in the range of one part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn`t be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930s, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980s. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. This paper will address the most significant aspects of NORM in the oil patch by discussing original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, an update will be given on industry NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies dealing with NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed.

Steingraber, W.A. [Mobile Exploration and Producing U.S., Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

235

The mentalizing network orchestrates the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement.  

PubMed

Parochial altruism--a preference for altruistic behavior towards ingroup members and mistrust or hostility towards outgroup members--is a pervasive feature in human society and strongly shapes the enforcement of social norms. Since the uniqueness of human society critically depends on the enforcement of norms, the understanding of the neural circuitry of the impact of parochial altruism on social norm enforcement is key, but unexplored. To fill this gap, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects had the opportunity to punish ingroup members and outgroup members for violating social norms. Findings revealed that subjects' strong punishment of defecting outgroup members is associated with increased activity in a functionally connected network involved in sanction-related decisions (right orbitofrontal gyrus, right lateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsal caudatus). Moreover, the stronger the connectivity in this network, the more outgroup members are punished. In contrast, the much weaker punishment of ingroup members who committed the very same norm violation is associated with increased activity and connectivity in the mentalizing-network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporo-parietal junction), as if subjects tried to understand or justify ingroup members' behavior. Finally, connectivity analyses between the two networks suggest that the mentalizing-network modulates punishment by affecting the activity in the right orbitofrontal gyrus and right lateral prefrontal cortex, notably in the same areas showing enhanced activity and connectivity whenever third-parties strongly punished defecting outgroup members. PMID:21574212

Baumgartner, Thomas; Götte, Lorenz; Gügler, Rahel; Fehr, Ernst

2011-05-13

236

Sex roles and sexual attitudes of young Iranian women: implications for cross-cultural counseling.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found that young Iranian women in the US feel conflicted between their cultural traditions and adoption of American values. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the educational level of young Iranian women is strongly related to their attitudes regarding sex roles and intimate relationships. Study subjects included 81 Iranian women (mean age, 23 years) residing in Los Angeles, California, who had been away from Iran for an average of 8 years. The mean summed scores on questionnaire items measuring attitudes about these issues were 233.57, 264.79, 290.58, and 295.57 (with higher scores indicating more liberal views) for women attending or with a high school education, attending college, with a college degree, and in graduate programs or with a graduate degree, respectively, confirming the hypothesis. Also noted were a significant negative relationship between the women's age when they left Iran and test scores and a significant positive relationship between the number of years the women had been away from Iran and test scores. A similar liberalization in sex role-related attitudes following exposure to less traditional US norms has been observed among young Puerto Rican immigrants to the US. Counselors who work with young Iranian women in the US should be alerted to potential conflicts regarding the adoption or rejection of the American way of life. PMID:12291743

Hanassab, S; Tidwell, R

1996-01-01

237

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis,

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2011-01-01

238

Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

Lester, Jaime

2011-01-01

239

Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

Lester, Jaime

2011-01-01

240

Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime was examined in three studies. In Study 1,73 items about guns were administered to subjects to determine if the construct “Gun Attitudes” contained sub-constructs, possibly causing the confusion in the literature on gun attitudes and fear of crime. Nine factors were revealed, which were grouped into Socio-cultural and Personal Indices.

Linda Heath; Marie Mackay Murphy

1997-01-01

241

Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

Bartram, Dave

2008-01-01

242

l?-norm and clipped l2-norm based commutation for ironless over-actuated electromagnetic actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norm-based commutation methods are discussed for the class of ironless, over-actuated actuators with a linear relation between applied current and produced force\\/torque. Three norm-based commutation methods are compared. The l?-norm and clipped l2-norm based commutation methods are novel alternatives to the known l2-norm based commutation. The main benefit of the proposed new commutations is the limitation of maximum current. All

M. Gajdusek; A. A. H. Damen; P. P. J. van den Bosch

2010-01-01

243

Attitudes of registered nurses toward euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify variables that contribute to euthanasia attitude and behavior, including demographics, death fears, experience with death, attitudes toward patient autonomy, and level of moral development.Subjects were 137 registered nurses from the southeastern United States representing 13 clinical nursing areas. Principal components analysis identified four factors that together explained 62.9% of total variance. These factors were belief in

Carolyn R. Shuman; Glenn P. Fournet; Paul F. Zelhart; Billy C. Roland; Robert E. Estes

1992-01-01

244

Environmental Attitude - Behaviour Correlations in 21 Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from the International Social Survey Program to investigatethe correlation between 'green' attitudes and 'green' consumption behaviours in 21 different countries. Despite avoiding the methodological problems often blamed for poor attitude-behaviour correlations, we found lower correlations than reported in a recent meta-analysis of this subject. Furthermore, the correlations varied considerably between countries, and in some countries were not

Malcolm Wright; Babs Klÿn

1998-01-01

245

Optimized norm-conserving Vanderbilt pseudopotentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully nonlocal two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotentials are shown to be compatible with a systematic approach to the optimization of convergence with the size of the plane-wave basis. A reformulation of the optimization is developed, including the ability to apply it to positive-energy atomic scattering states and to enforce greater continuity in the pseudopotential. The generalization of norm conservation to multiple projectors is reviewed and recast for the present purposes. Comparisons among the results of all-electron and one- and two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotential calculations of lattice constants and bulk moduli are made for a group of solids chosen to represent a variety of types of bonding and a sampling of the periodic table.

Hamann, D. R.

2013-08-01

246

The role of individual correlates and class norms in defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

This study investigates possible individual and class correlates of defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying, in a sample of 1,825 Italian primary school (mean age=10 years 1 month) and middle school (mean age=13 years 2 months) students. The findings of a series of multilevel regression models show that both individual (e.g., provictim attitudes and perceived peer pressure for intervention) and class characteristics (e.g., class provictim attitudes, peer injunctive norms, and descriptive norms) help explain defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. These results significantly expand previous findings in this field, by demonstrating the need for a social-ecological approach to the study of the different aspects of bullying. Implications for antibullying programs are discussed. PMID:22880944

Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Vieno, Alessio

2012-08-07

247

Social Image and the 50-50 Norm: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Audience Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A norm of 50-50 division appears to have considerable force in a wide range of economic environments, both in the real world and in the laboratory. Even in settings where one party unilaterally determines the allocation of a prize (the dictator game), many subjects voluntarily cede exactly half to another individual. The hypothesis that people care about fairness does not

James Andreoni; B. Douglas Bernheim

2007-01-01

248

Social norms of sharing in high school: Teen student giving in the dictator game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We conduct a study of altruism among,high school and university students using the dictator game. We find a much stronger norm of equal splitting than previously observed in the typical college student population, with almost 45% of high school subjects offering an equal split of the endowment. Tests indicate that thisdifference is not due to factors traditionally considered in

Catherine Eckel; Philip J. Grossman; Angela C. M. De Oliveira; Cathleen Johnson; Rick Wilson

249

Dysfunctional attitudes, loneliness, and depression in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of dysfunctional attitudes in loneliness among college students was investigated. Subjects were 50 introductory psychology volunteers (20 male, 30 female) who completed measures of loneliness severity, depression, and dysfunctional attitudes. The results showed a strong predictive relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and loneliness even after level of depression was statistically controlled. Lonely college students' thinking is dominated by doubts

Jeffrey R. Wilberff; Patricia A. Rupert

1986-01-01

250

The effect of advertising message involvement on brand attitude accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the hypothesis that the level of message involvement during advertising exposure determines the accessibility of brand attitudes. Sixty-two subjects were exposed to an advertisement for an unfamiliar product under high and low involvement conditions and subsequently their brand attitudes, as well as the accessibility of these attitudes, were assessed. The results support the hypothesis as the brand

Flora Kokkinaki; Peter Lunt

1999-01-01

251

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of technical secondary school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students’ intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia. The findings indicate that students scored high on entrepreneurial attitude components including self?esteem cognition, achievement cognition,

Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie; Afsaneh Bagheri

2010-01-01

252

Help-Seeking Attitudes and Perceptions of Counselor Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fischer-Turner Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help inventory was evaluated. Subjects reporting prior professional assistance for psychological problems espoused more favorable attitudes than individuals without such professional contact. Help-seeking attitudes were found to represent a significant positive influence on the…

Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

1978-01-01

253

Attitudes of college students and the changes in such attitudes during four years in college, Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuation of the report of a study of students' attitudes toward war, religion, and the church (Part I, J. educ. Psychol., 1938, ^W29^n, 14-25). In this article the relationships of intelligence, age, major subject, political party, and religious affiliation to attitudes are reported. Major conclusions are as follows: (1) High intelligence and liberal attitudes are positively related, but the

V. Jones

1938-01-01

254

Comparing injunctive marijuana use norms of salient reference groups among college student marijuana users and nonusers.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students and has the potential for various negative outcomes. Perceptions of what constitutes typical approval/acceptability of a reference group (i.e. injunctive social norms) have been shown to have strong utility as predictors of health-risk behaviors in the college context, yet this construct remains significantly understudied for marijuana use despite its potential for use in social norms-based interventions. The current research evaluated individuals' marijuana approval level and their perceptions of others' marijuana approval level (i.e. injunctive norms) for various reference groups (typical student on campus, one's close friends, and one's parents) as a function of individual user status (abstainers, experimenters, occasional users, and regular users). A diverse sample of 3553 college students from two universities completed an online survey. Among all user status groups, individual approval yielded mean scores paralleling that of perceived close friends' approval and all groups were relatively uniform in their perception of typical students' approval. Higher levels of marijuana use tended to produce higher endorsements of individual approval, perceived close friends' approval, and perceived parental approval. Among occasional and regular users, there were no differences between one's own approval level for use and the perceptions of close friends' approval, nor did they think the typical student was more approving than themselves. Abstainers and experimenters, however, perceived typical students and close friends to have more permissive attitudes than themselves. Implications and future directions for research regarding the role of injunctive marijuana use norms in the development of social norms intervention are discussed. PMID:21397405

LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew

2011-02-12

255

Voting Motives, Group Identity, and Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional rational voter model has problems explaining why people vote, since the costs typically exceed the expected benefits. This paper presents Swedish survey evidence suggesting that people vote based on a combination of instrumental and expressive motives, and that people are strongly influenced by a social norm saying that it is an obligation to vote. Women and older individuals

Fredrik Carlsson; Olof Johansson-Stenman

2009-01-01

256

Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

257

A Failed Norms Social Marketing Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this article we test the efficacy of an inten- sive norms social marketing campaign to reduce heavy drinking among college students living in a residence hall. Method: We employed a pre- test-posttest nonequivalent comparison group design. The study was con- ducted in two (experimental and comparison) comparable residence halls located in a large urban public university. We attempted

JOHN D. CLAPP; JAMES E. LANGE; CRISTEL RUSSELL; ROBERT B. VOAS

258

Rebranding Russia: Norms, Politics and Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper argues that Russia is in the process of re-branding itself internationally, with a variety of normative arguments increasingly creeping into its wider international discourse. By appealing to norms, Russia tries to reformulate the key messages it sends to the world and implant the concept of its power worldwide. Yet given that Russia's normative messages are often met

Andrey S. Makarychev

2008-01-01

259

Triangular norm based predicate fuzzy logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys the present state of knowledge on t-norm based predicate fuzzy logics with their double semantics: standard (the set of truth values being the real interval [0,1]) and general with abstract algebras of truth functions.

Petr Cintula; Petr Hájek

2010-01-01

260

Group Norms, Threat, and Children's Racial Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…

Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

2005-01-01

261

Ethnography of Communication: Cultural Codes and Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary tasks of the ethnographic researcher are to discover, describe, and comparatively analyze different speech communities' ways of speaking. Two general abstractions occurring in ethnographic analyses are normative and cultural. Communicative norms are formulated in analyzing and explaining the "patterned use of speech." Analysis of…

Carbaugh, Donal

262

Outsourcing the Constitution and Administrative Law Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the constitutional constraints and administrative law requirements imposed on government agencies generally have no applicability to private entities performing outsourced public administrative activities. In this article, the authors broadly explore the issues associated with outsourcing constitutional and administrative law norms along with government work by imposing them on private contractors. The authors seek to help frame

David H. Rosenbloom; Suzanne J. Piotrowski

2005-01-01

263

Criterion vs. Norm-referenced Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A norm-referenced evaluation system, which evaluates the student in comparison to his peers, is rejected in favor of a criterion-referenced system. The latter, which rates the performance of a student on an absolute standard, makes for an individualized approach. Two kinds of tests are distinguished, the formative, administered during the course…

Pimsleur, Paul

1975-01-01

264

Norm Evolution in EC Environmental Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will the next generation experience the same quality of natural environmental beauty as that of former generations? Environmental protection is one of the most serious tasks to be dealt with in the days and years ahead, and in tackling this issue, the question of how environmental norms evolve is an essential topic for consideration. With regard to the above, the

Yoichiro Usui

2002-01-01

265

General knowledge norms: Updated and expanded from the Nelson and Narens (1980) norms.  

PubMed

The Nelson and Narens (Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19:338-368, 1980) general knowledge norms have been valuable to researchers in many fields. However, much has changed over the 32 years since the 1980 norms. For example, in 1980, most people knew the answer to the question "What is the name of the Lone Ranger's Indian sidekick?" (answer: Tonto), whereas in 2012, few people know this answer. Thus, we updated the 1980 norms and expanded them by providing new measures. In particular, we report two new metacognitive measures (confidence judgments and peer judgments) and provide a detailed report of commission errors. Each of these measures will be valuable to researchers, and together they are likely to facilitate future research in a number of fields, such as research investigating memory illusions, metamemory processes, and error correction. The presence of substantial generational shifts from 1980 to 2012 necessitates the use of updated norms. PMID:23344739

Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A; Rhodes, Matthew G; Sitzman, Danielle M

2013-01-24

266

The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

267

On the Cultural Evolution of Age-at-Marriage Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present an agent-based model designed to study the cultural evolution of age-at-marriage norms. We review both theoretical\\u000a arguments and empirical evidence regarding the existence of norms which proscribe marriage outside of an acceptable age interval.\\u000a Using a definition of norms as built-in constraints in agents, we model the transmission of norms and the mechanisms of the\\u000a intergenerational transmission of

Francesco C. Billari; Alexia Prskawetz; Johannes Fürnkranz

2002-01-01

268

Evolution of generous cooperative norms by cultural group selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of cooperative norms is studied in a population where individual- and group-level selection are both in operation. Individuals play indirect reciprocity game within their group. Individuals are well informed about the previous actions and reputations, and follow second-order norms. Individuals are norm-followers, and imitate their successful group mates. In contrast to previous models where norms classify actions deterministically, we

István Scheuring

2009-01-01

269

The Effect of Unintended Interracial Contact Upon Racial Interaction and Attitude Change. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This was a study of the influence of unintended interracial contact and characteristics of the contact situation on attitude-related action and attitude change. It was designed to determine if persons with initially negative racial attitudes would change these attitudes by an experimental experience. The research subjects were white students from…

Cook, Stuart W.

270

The Chicano Racial Attitude Measure (CRAM): Results of an initial investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces an instrument, The Chicano Racial Attitude Measure (CRAM), designed to measure racial attitude towards Chicanos by Chicano and Anglo children. It is adapted from the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM II), an instrument designed to measure racial attitude towards Blacks, developed by Williams and his associates at Wake Forest University from 1960-1971. Subjects were 120 children, 5

Gloria Bernat; Philip Balch

1979-01-01

271

Care of the Elderly in Japan: Changing Norms and Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzed changes in norms of filial care for elderly parents and expectations of old-age support from children, based on Japanese national surveys. Findings suggest that norms of filial care for elderly parents were fairly constant from 1963 until 1986, when major weakening of norms began. Government efforts to shift burden of caring back to…

Ogawa, Naohiro; Retherford, Robert D.

1993-01-01

272

Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

2008-01-01

273

Group Beneficial Norms Can Spread Rapidly in a Structured Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group beneficial norms are common in human societies. The persistence of such norms is consistent with evolutionary game theory, but existing models do not provide a plausible explanation for why they are common. We show that when a model of imitation used to derive replicator dynamics in isolated populations is generalized to allow for population structure, group beneficial norms can

Robert Boyd; Peter J. Richersonz

2002-01-01

274

On the Normed Space of Equivalence Classes of Fuzzy Numbers  

PubMed Central

We study the norm induced by the supremum metric on the space of fuzzy numbers. And then we propose a method for constructing a norm on the quotient space of fuzzy numbers. This norm is very natural and works well with the induced metric on the quotient space.

Lu, Chongxia; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

275

Beyond the FAQ: Explicit and implicit norms in Usenet newsgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on reference group and socialization theories, this article examines the social norms of online communities. These theories are modified through an examination of the history of Usenet and a review of the scholarly literature related to social norms and normative behavior in Usenet newsgroups and other virtual communities. The article proposes a modification of Merton's paradigmatic division of norms

Gary Burnett; Laurie Bonnici

2003-01-01

276

Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.  

PubMed

This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not. PMID:14700459

Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

2004-01-01

277

Girls' Attitudes Toward Violence as Related to TV Exposure , Family Attitudes, and Social Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A previous study (EM 009 547) found that the most favorable attitudes of boys toward aggression existed when there was high exposure to television (TV) violence, ambiguous family attitudes toward aggression, or low socio-economic status. This study sought to examine the same three variables with respect to girls. Subjects, who were 404 fourth…

Dominick, Joseph R.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

278

Mercury toxicity in the Amazon: contrast sensitivity and color discrimination of subjects exposed to mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured visual performance in achromatic and chromatic spatial tasks of mercury-exposed subjects and compared the results with norms obtained from healthy individuals of similar age. Data were obtained for a group of 28 mercury-exposed subjects, comprising 20 Amazonian gold miners, 2 inhabitants of Amazonian riverside com- munities, and 6 laboratory technicians, who asked for medical care. Statistical norms were

A. R. Rodrigues; C. R. B. Souza; A. M. Braga; P. S. S. Rodrigues; A. T. Silveira; E. T. B. Damin; M. I. T. Côrtes; A. J. O. Castro; G. A. Mello; J. L. F. Vieira; M. C. N. Pinheiro; D. F. Ventura; L. C. L. Silveira

2007-01-01

279

Gendered egos: attitude functions and gender as predictors of homonegativity.  

PubMed

This study used a correlational design with a sample of university students to clarify the relationships between attitude functions and homonegativity with respect to gender. Classic work on attitude functions posits that attitudes serve psychological needs for the attitude holder. Herek (1986b) adapted this theory to explain attitudes toward homosexuality. Herek (1987) identified four functions: ego-defensive (defense of threats to the self), value-expressive (expression of key values), social-expressive (expression of important social norms), and experiential (based on past experiences). Results suggested that men were more likely to attribute their attitudes to the ego-defensive function. Men and women were equally likely to attribute their attitudes to the experiential function. The ego-defensive function was the best predictor of homonegativity for men and women, whether they held generally positive or generally negative attitudes toward homosexuality. The experiential function did not predict homonegativity. Participants tended to be neither very homonegative nor very ego-defensive. PMID:21058147

Meaney, Glenn J; Rye, B J

2010-01-01

280

Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China)

2011-06-15

281

Induced norms for sampled-data systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a general linear interconnection of a continuous-time plant and a discrete- time controller via sample and hold devices. When the closed loop sampled-data feedback system is internally stable, bounded inputs produce bounded outputs. We present some explicit formulae for the induced norm of the closed loop system with ~ (i.e. peak value) and ~1 (i.e.

N. SIVASHANKARt; PRAMOD P. KHARGONEKAR

1992-01-01

282

Race-Norming of Neuropsychological Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in the United States indicate that some neurologically intact minority groupings perform well below White Americans\\u000a on neuropsychological tests. This has sparked the production of race-norms, especially for African Americans, that seek to\\u000a reduce false positive rates (i.e., neurologically intact individuals misdiagnosed with cognitive impairment) in neuropsychological\\u000a assessments. There are problems with this enterprise including: possible justification for

Philip G. Gasquoine

2009-01-01

283

NORM in the oil and gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes} or specific activity levels in the range of one part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant

Steingraber

1994-01-01

284

Trigonometric approximation in Lp-norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We shall weaken the conditions of monotonicity given by Chandra [J. MathE Anal. Appl. 275 (2002) 13-26], where he investigated trigonometrical polynomials associated with f[set membership, variant]Lip([alpha],p) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1, p[greater-or-equal, slanted]1) to approximate f in Lp-norm to the degree of O(n-[alpha]) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1).

Leindler, László

2005-02-01

285

Social Norms, Rational Choice and Belief Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter elaborates on foundational issues in the social sciences and their impact on the contemporary theory of belief\\u000a revision. Recent work in the foundations of economics has focused on the role external social norms play in choice. Amartya\\u000a Sen (Econometrica 61(3): 495–521, 1993) has argued that the traditional rationalizability approach used in the theory of rational\\u000a choice has serious

Horacio Arló-Costa; Arthur Paul Pedersen

2009-01-01

286

Behavioral norms for condensed moral vignettes  

PubMed Central

Moral judgment is an evaluation of the actions and character of a person made with respect to societal norms. Although many types of vignettes have been used in previous studies on moral beliefs and judgment, what is missing is a set of standardized common vignettes based in real life. The goal of this study was to provide researchers with stimuli that have values on several dimensions pertaining to moral judgment and whose underlying components are known. These values will allow researchers to select stimuli based on standardized ratings rather than on the results of pilot studies, while avoiding the limitations of the classic, abstract moral scenarios. Our study was composed of three phases, (i) collecting and shortening the vignettes, (ii) obtaining ratings of the vignettes on several dimensions including emotional intensity, degree of social norm violation, and level of harm or benefit caused and (iii) determining the underlying components of the vignettes by performing a factor analysis. We found three components that accounted for most of the variance: norm violation, social affect and intention. The resulting vignettes can be used in future parametric studies on moral judgment in behavioral, neuropsychological and functional imaging experiments.

Koenigs, Michael; Hawley, Angelina; Escobedo, Jessica R.; Vasudeva, Viren; Adolphs, Ralph

2010-01-01

287

Threatening the Patriarchy: Testing an Explanatory Paradigm of Anti-lesbian Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been relatively little research on heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians that has utilized the considerable amount\\u000a of feminist scholarship on the topic. The present study examined an explanatory paradigm derived from Pharr (Homophobia: A weapon of sexism, Chardon, Inverness, CA, USA, 1988) that considers defined norm, sexism, economic beliefs, and attitudes toward institutional violence to be associated with\\u000a anti-lesbian

Wayne W. Wilkinson

2008-01-01

288

Personal and perceived peer attitudes supporting sexual aggression as predictors of male college students' willingness to intervene against sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Male college students ( N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness to intervene, in regression analyses only perceived peer attitudes emerged as a significant predictor of willingness to intervene. Results suggest that personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression are not as relevant to men's willingness to intervene against sexual aggression as are perceived peer norms regarding sexual aggression. Findings are relevant to sexual assault prevention education with men, suggesting that attempts to encourage bystander intervention may be best presented in the context of challenging perceived norms. PMID:19401602

Brown, Amy L; Messman-Moore, Terri L

2009-04-28

289

First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2012-01-01

290

First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2012-01-01

291

Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.  

PubMed

This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula. PMID:22111788

Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

2011-11-23

292

The Role of Prior Expectancy and Group Discussion in the Attribution of Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to understand conditions under which group discussion enhances and weakens individual bias in the attribution of attitudes. Subjects were given congruent, incongruent, or irrelevant prior expectancy information about the attitude of an essay writer who was assigned to either support or oppose legalizing marijuana. Subjects estimated the essay writer?s actual attitude on legalized marijuana before and after

Gwen M. Wittenbaum; Garold Stasser

1995-01-01

293

[Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].  

PubMed

This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem. PMID:23681384

Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

294

Local Active Sound Control Using 2-NORM and ?-NORM Pressure Minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of designing active noise control systems to generate zones of quiet in which a new approach was employed, involving 2-norm or ?-norm pressure minimization in the quiet zone. This is in contrast to the conventional design method, where the acoustic pressure or the acoustic pressure and particle velocity are set to zero at given cancellation points, with no direct control on the size and shape of the quiet zones. It is shown that larger zones of quiet are obtained using this new approach, with better control over the shape of the zones of quiet.

Tseng, W.-K.; Rafaely, B.; Elliott, S. J.

2000-07-01

295

[Authoritarian attitudes and violence in Madrid].  

PubMed

One of the objectives of the Multicentric Study on Cultural Norms and Attitudes Toward Violence (Estudio Multicéntrico sobre Actitudes y Normas Culturales frente a la Violencia, the ACTIVA project) is to analyze the relationship between those attitudes that foster violence and the violent behaviors themselves. This article examines the relationship between attitudes and two components of violence: its justification and its actual occurrence. Data were collected in Madrid between October and December 1996 from a representative sample of 1,219 people, who were interviewed at home with the common questionnaire used for the ACTIVA project, with some additional questions. Overall, the sample respondents scored low on the authoritarianism scale. Persons who most strongly justified the use of violence scored higher on authoritarianism, along with those who customarily displayed a higher level of aggression. Attitudes that were more strongly authoritarian were found in low-income neighborhoods, in people who were not part of the workforce, in people with less education, and in those persons who described themselves as having a right-wing ideology. If people who are more authoritarian justify and practice violence more than others, it becomes necessary to encourage criticism of those who abuse their power and tolerance toward differences, in order to prevent such behaviors without disregarding the influence of the social variables previously mentioned. PMID:10355328

Moreno Martín, F

296

The Effects of Experimenter Attitudes and Feelings on Response to Painful Stimulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypothesis was that the more positive the experimentor's (E's) attitude and expressed affect toward Ss receiving painful electric shock, the more positive would be their subjective experience and the greater their learning efficiency. E's attitude and...

C. E. Izard W. J. Livsey

1964-01-01

297

Racial Differences in Sexual and Fertility Attitudes in an Urban Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (neighborhood N=77; individual N=951), we consider the extent to which African American youth maintain sexual and fertility-related norms that support early sexual activity and childbearing and examine the robustness of racial differences in sexual attitudes to controls for…

Browning, Christopher R.; Burrington, Lori A.

2006-01-01

298

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories—social norms, health consequences, or tobacco industry manipulation. Methods: An independent samples t test was used to test for

Rebecca Murphy-Hoefer; Andrew Hyland; Cheryl Rivard

2010-01-01

299

Nurses’ and physicians’ attitudes about women abuse: The effects of gender and professional role  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apathy encountered by battered women when they seek help from medical and other professions has been attributed to patriarchal norms and victim?blaming. Because of their place in the medical hierarchy this study hypothesized that: a) nurses would have more sympathetic attitudes toward battered women than physicians; and b) professional roles and not gender would explain the differences. The findings

Karla Rose; Daniel G. Saunders

1986-01-01

300

Socioeconomic Variation in Attitudes to Eating and Weight in Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was stimulated by J. Sobal and A. J. Stunkard's (1989) theory that differences in deliberate weight control could underlie the socioeconomic gradient in adult weight. Female adolescents (N = 1,248) completed measures of socioeconomic status, social norms for weight, weight ideals, attitudes to weight, and weight control behaviors. Higher socioeconomic status adolescents had greater awareness of the social

Jane Wardle; Kathryn A. Robb; Fiona Johnson; Jayne Griffith; Eric Brunner; Chris Power; Martin Tovée

2004-01-01

301

Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): changes in community attitudes toward cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The success of the Community,Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in changing smoking attitudes is examined by test- ing two primary hypotheses: (1) the priority of smoking as a public health problem increased more in the intervention communities than in the comparison communities, and (2) norms and values that support non-smoking increased more in the intervention than in the

S. Martin Taylor; Nancy A. Ross; K. Michael Cummings; Russell E. Glasgow; Charles H. Goldsmith; Mark P. Zanna; Donald K. Corle

1998-01-01

302

Mental Health and Substance Use: A Qualitative Study of Resident Assistants' Attitudes and Referral Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study described mental health and substance use referral practices of resident assistants (RAs). Interviews were conducted with 48 RAs at three campuses. RAs generally had positive attitudes toward helping residents, and believed that existing norms supported their referral actions. However, many perceived referring residents to be…

Reingle, Jennifer; Thombs, Dennis; Osborn, Cynthia; Saffian, Steven; Oltersdorf, Dan

2010-01-01

303

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

2010-01-01

304

Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

305

Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

2004-01-01

306

Relations between convergence rates in Schatten p-norms  

SciTech Connect

In quantum estimation theory and quantum tomography, the quantum state obtained by sampling converges to the ''true'' unknown density matrix under topologies that are different from the natural notion of distance in the space of quantum states, i.e., the trace class norm. In this paper, we address such problem, finding relations between the rates of convergence in the Schatten p-norms and in the trace class norm.

Albini, Paolo; Toigo, Alessandro; Umanita, Veronica [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica 'F. Brioschi', Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

2008-01-15

307

Infertility, cancer, and changing gender norms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent improvements in cancer detection, treatment, and technology have increased survivorship rates. These same life-saving treatments, however, can lead to infertility or sterility. Oncofertility, an emerging field at the intersection of cancer and oncology, centers on providing cancer patients with the potential to preserve their biological fertility. Methods We examine the history of how men and women have been treated for infertility and analyze contemporary studies of how women without cancer respond to infertility. Results Both female and male cancer patients and survivors value their fertility, although there is conflicting evidence on the degree to which women and men value fertility. Some studies have found that women and men value their fertility equally while others found that women value their fertility more than men. Gendered norms around fertility and parenthood seem to be changing, which may minimize these discrepancies. Discussions/conclusions Although oncofertility is a nascent field, infertility is a historically relevant medical condition that is characterized by gendered narratives and norms. An analysis of the historical evolution of the understanding and treatment of infertility leads insight into modern conceptualizations of infertility both generally and in the case of cancer. Understanding these historical and current gendered influences helps to define the current context in which cancer patients are confronting potential infertility. Implications for cancer survivors The insight gained from this analysis can be used to inform clinical practice, offering guidance to healthcare providers approaching cancer patients about potential infertility, regardless of gender.

Gardino, Shauna; Rodriguez, Sarah; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa

2011-01-01

308

NORM management in the oil and gas industry.  

PubMed

It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. PMID:23089032

Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

2012-08-22

309

Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?  

PubMed

In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal. PMID:20715321

Jones, Todd

2010-01-01

310

Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

2012-02-01

311

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

312

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite…

Alwitt, Linda F.

313

Differential Effects of Norm-Referenced and Self-Referenced Feedback on Performance Expectancies, Attributions, and Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that the deleterious effects of failure might be attenuated when failure is expressed in self-referenced terms relative to the individual's known level of ability as assessed by other measures was investigated. In this study, 128 undergraduate subjects received feedback described as either norm-referenced or as self-referenced.…

McColskey, Wendy; Leary, Mark R.

1985-01-01

314

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

315

Promotional Timetables: An Exploratory Investigation of Age Norms for Promotional Expectations and Their Association with Job Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores age norms for promotional expectations and assesses whether they carry psychological consequences. Collected data from male subjects (n=833) who answered a Quality of Employment Survey (QES). Normativity in promotion expectations was found in work life span, but was not associated with job well-being when other relevant factors were…

Lashbrook, Jeff

1996-01-01

316

Binge-Drinking: A Test of the Role of Group Norms in the Theory of Planned Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to assess the utility of the theory of planned behaviour in the prediction of students' binge-drinking. Additionally, a perspective was utilised to address the usually weak contribution of subjective norms in predicting behavioural intentions. Respondents were 289 undergraduate students. The study employed a longitudinal design, with the predictors of performing the behaviour under consideration assessed prior

Kim L. Johnston; Katherine M. White

2003-01-01

317

Promotional Timetables: An Exploratory Investigation of Age Norms for Promotional Expectations and Their Association with Job Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores age norms for promotional expectations and assesses whether they carry psychological consequences. Collected data from male subjects (n=833) who answered a Quality of Employment Survey (QES). Normativity in promotion expectations was found in work life span, but was not associated with job well-being when other relevant factors were…

Lashbrook, Jeff

1996-01-01

318

Ethnic Attitudes of Elementary School Children Toward Blacks and East Indians and the Effect of a Cultural Program on These Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to test the validity of the contact theory with elementary school children, to examine the attitudes of White Canadian fifth- and sixth-graders toward Black and East Indians, and the effect of a cultural program based on Triandis' theory of subjective culture of these attitudes. The ethnic attitudes of 180 students (boys=85; girls=85) in two high density

M. Ahmed Ijaz

1980-01-01

319

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

320

A Model of Dual Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an attitude changes from A1 to A2, what happens to A1? Most theories assume, at least implicitly, that the new attitude replaces the former one. The authors argue that a new attitude can override, but not replace, the old one, resulting in dual attitudes. Dual attitudes are defined as different evaluations of the same attitude object an automatic, implicit

Timothy D. Wilson; Samuel Lindsey; Tonya Y. Schooler

2000-01-01

321

Can values moderate the attitudes of right-wing authoritarians?  

PubMed

This investigation explored how right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and endorsement of egalitarian beliefs may interact to determine attitudes toward immigrants, homosexuals, and African Americans. Study 1 (N = 239) found that RWA was negatively related to evaluations of immigrants for those who weakly endorsed egalitarian beliefs. In contrast, endorsement of egalitarian beliefs was associated with positive evaluations of immigrants for both low and high RWAs. RWA did not interact with egalitarianism to determine attitudes toward homosexuals or African Americans. Study 2 analyzed data from the 1992 National Election Study and replicated these effects in a young adult (age < or = 24) sample (n = 102) using moral traditionalism as a proxy for RWA. Partial support for the hypotheses also was found in the adult (age > or = 25) sample (n = 1,257). It is concluded that when tradition and/or social norms offer unclear positions, endorsement of egalitarian beliefs influences the attitudes of authoritarians. PMID:16513801

Oyamot, Clifton M; Borgida, Eugene; Fisher, Emily L

2006-04-01

322

Individual and community attitudes toward financial elder abuse.  

PubMed

This study investigated attitudes toward financial elder abuse by sections of the Australian community using three focus groups, including Aged Care Workers, Older Adults, and Younger Adults. Participants were provided discussion cues prior to their focus group (i.e., What is financially abusive behavior? Why does it occur? How can it be prevented?). Two researchers authenticated the transcripts and identified micro- and macro-level themes within and across the groups. The study revealed a range of similar, different, and individual attitudes expressed across the groups, which could be used to develop a survey for a broader investigation of the role of individual attitudes and social/cultural norms in financial elder abuse. PMID:23473299

Mihaljcic, Tijana; Lowndes, Georgia

2013-01-01

323

Tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we set up a representation theorem for tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property in terms of Ky Fan norms. Examples of tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property include unitarily invariant norms on finite factors (type II1 factors and Mn(C)) and symmetric gauge norms

Junsheng Fang; Don Hadwin; Eric Nordgren; Junhao Shen

2008-01-01

324

Observational Learning of Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using basic learning theory the S-R behaviorial approach to the formation of attitudes defines an attitude in terms of a conditioned anticipatory implicit response to a stimulus object. Described in this study is a model used to investigate observational learning of attitudes in a laboratory situation. (SM)

Kanekar, Suresh

1973-01-01

325

Attitudes Toward Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Asian region moves to becoming a strong economic force and advertisers continue to increase their spending targeted toward Asian consumers, it is important to examine how these consumers feel about advertising. Consumers' attitudes towards advertising have been found to influence assessments of other desired advertising outcomes such as attitude toward individual advertisements and brand attitude. A study was

Carrie La Ferle; Wei-Na Lee

2003-01-01

326

Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

Zepelin, Harold; And Others

327

Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing chorus of scholars laments the apparent decline of political participation in America, and the negative implications of this trend for American democracy. This article questions this position - arguing that previous studies misdiagnosed the sources of political change and the consequences of changing norms of citizenship for Americans' political engagement. Citizenship norms are shifting from a pattern of

Russell J. Dalton

2008-01-01

328

Norm inequalities for the absolute value of Hilbert space operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use norm inequalities for operators, such as Cauchy–Schwarz inequality and Minkowski inequality, to establish sharp norm inequalities for the absolute value of operators. Among other inequalities, it is shown that if A, B and X are operators on a Hilbert space, such that X is self-adjoint, and r ? 1, then This inequality generalizes some earlier related results. Other

Khalid Shebrawi; Hussien Albadawi

2010-01-01

329

Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

2009-01-01

330

Evolutionary Considerations in the Framing of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the implementation of social norms, context and framing effects can make enormous differences. This is commonplace in the rich social psychology literature that is brought to bear in Cristina Bicchieri's The Grammar of Society. She sees the application of norms being controlled by social scenarios or scripts that people act out. The same problem may elicit different behavior depending

Brian Skyrms; Kevin Zollman

2009-01-01

331

Norm estimates for operators from Hp to lq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give upper and lower estimates of the norm of a bounded linear operator from the Hardy space Hp to lq in terms of the norm of the rows and the columns of its associated matrix in certain vector-valued sequence spaces.

Blasco, Oscar

2008-08-01

332

Simulating Norms, Social Inequality, and Functional Change in Artificial Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare the computational and sociological study of norms, and resimulate previous simulations (Conte and Castelfranchi 1995a, Castelfranchi, Conte and Paolucci 1998) under slightly different conditions. First, we analyze the relation between norms, social inequality and functional change more closely. Due to our results, the hypothesis stating that the \\

Nicole J. Saam; Andreas G. Harrer

1999-01-01

333

Television Content Viewing Patterns: Some Clues from Societal Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on how television viewing fits into a general model of consumer consumption patterns, a study examined (1) the extent to which the viewing of certain television content can be considered a "norm" of society, (2) similarities and differences between the norms for adults and those for children, and (3) some of the antecedents of beliefs…

McDonald, Daniel G.; Glynn, Carroll J.

334

Host plant adaptation and the evolution of thermal reaction norms.  

PubMed

For most ectotherms, increasing the rearing temperature reduces the final (adult) body size, producing a negative slope for the thermal reaction norm. Recent studies show that this relationship may be reversed under conditions of low resource quality, producing a positive slope for the thermal reaction norm. If populations or species differ in the degree of evolutionary adaptation to a resource, how does this differential adaptation alter their thermal reaction norms? We used a common garden experiment with the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, to address this question. We examined the thermal reaction norms for body size of two populations of M. sexta that differ in their evolutionary exposures to an atypical, low-quality resource (devil's claw; Proboscidea louisianica), but have comparable exposures to a typical, high-quality resource (tobacco; Nicotiana tabacum). Both populations had increased mean larval mortalities and development times when reared on devil's claw compared with tobacco, but the magnitudes of these increases differed between populations. Both populations had similar, negatively sloped thermal reaction norms on the typical, high-quality resource (tobacco), but had divergent, non-negative thermal reaction norms on the atypical, low-quality resource (devil's claw): the population with the longer evolutionary history of exposure to the atypical resource exhibited a flat (rather than positive) reaction norm. These results suggest that population differences in host plant adaptation can predictably influence the slopes of thermal reaction norms. PMID:22127429

Diamond, Sarah E; Kingsolver, Joel G

2011-11-30

335

An Investigation of Two Procedures for Smoothing Test Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several techniques have been developed for creating continuous smooth distributions of test norms. This paper describes two studies that explore the behavior of cubic splines in order to determine their appropriateness for use in test norming. The first study uses data from the Curriculum Referenced Tests of Mastery (CRTM) and employs two…

Jones, Patricia B.; Sabers, Darrell L.

336

Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute score…

Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

2011-01-01

337

Behaviour and norms: some experimental results for complex systems modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of some experimental results suggesting a way for modeling social interactions. We focus on two classical games, the ultimatum and the dictator game. Using observed facts in laboratory, we ask whether individual rationality could be explained by the presence of a norm of behavior. Norms suggest to individuals what is the appropriate behaviour in social

Roger Waldeck

2008-01-01

338

Evolution of Norms in a Newly Forming Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms are expected to make significant contributions towards enabling discourse in cyberspace among people of different backgrounds, just as they do in the physical world. Yet many distributed, electronically mediated groups fail to form norms successfully. Causes range from open discord to the more insidious lack of comfort people experience in groups that fail to openly address disagreements about what

Catalina Danis; Alison Lee

2005-01-01

339

Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

2008-01-01

340

Gender Inequality, Endogenous Cultural Norms and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more

Victor Hiller

2008-01-01

341

Gene regulation, quantitative genetics and the evolution of reaction norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ideas of phenotypic plasticity and of reaction norm are gaining prominence as important components of theories of phenotypic evolution. Our understanding of the role of phenotypic plasticity as an adaptation of organisms to variable environments will depend on (1) the form(s) of genetic and developmental control exerted on the shape of the reaction norm and (2) the nature

Carl D. Schlichting; Massimo Pigliucci

1995-01-01

342

Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural considerations in social anxiety are a rarely investigated topic although it seems likely that differences between countries in social norms may relate to the extent of social anxiety. The present study investigated individuals’ personal and perceived cultural norms and their relation to social anxiety and fear of blushing. A total of 909 participants from eight countries completed vignettes describing

Nina Heinrichs; Ronald M. Rapee; Lynn A. Alden; Susan Bögels; Stefan G. Hofmann; Kyung Ja Oh; Yuji Sakano

2006-01-01

343

Development of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the construction of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), which was designed to assess women’s conformity to an array of feminine norms found in the dominant culture in the United States. In addition, we present four studies in which the psychometric properties of the CFNI were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis indicated that the CFNI

James R. Mahalik; Elisabeth B. Morray; Aimée Coonerty-Femiano; Larry H. Ludlow; Suzanne M. Slattery; Andrew Smiler

2005-01-01

344

Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

2008-01-01

345

NORM Management in the Oil and Gas Industry  

SciTech Connect

It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat [Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

2008-08-07

346

Television Content Viewing Patterns: Some Clues from Societal Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on how television viewing fits into a general model of consumer consumption patterns, a study examined (1) the extent to which the viewing of certain television content can be considered a "norm" of society, (2) similarities and differences between the norms for adults and those for children, and (3) some of the antecedents of beliefs…

McDonald, Daniel G.; Glynn, Carroll J.

347

Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

2011-01-01

348

Campus sexual norms and dating relationships: A trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported here examines changes in sexual norms reported by students at the same university on three occasions over a 15?year time period: 1963, 1971, and 1978. It was hypothesized that the “sexual revolution” underway in American society during this period would be reflected in the emergence of more liberal campus sexual norms. Information collected from respondents (1963, n

Robert Sherwin; Sherry Corbett

1985-01-01

349

Tradeoffs and the evolution of thermal reaction norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tradeoffs have played a prominent role in the development of theories describing the evolution of reaction norms. Different classes of tradeoffs are known to constrain the evolution of phenotypes, but current theories incorporate only a subset of these tradeoffs. Consequently, these theories cannot account for some of the variation in reaction norms that has been observed within and among species.

Robbie S. Wilson; Carlos A. Navas; Rob S. James

2003-01-01

350

History, Expectations, and Leadership in the Evolution of Social Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of the social norm of “cooperation” in a dynamic environment. Each agent lives for two periods and interacts with agents from the previous and next generations via a coordination game. Social norms emerge as patterns of behavior that are stable in part due to agents’ interpretations of private information about the past, which are influenced by

Daron Acemoglu; Matthew O. Jackson

2011-01-01

351

The Evolution of Social Norms and Individual Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why does an altruistically inclined player behave altruistically in some contexts and egoistically or spitefully in others? This article provides an economic explanation to this question. The basic argument is centered on the idea that social norms shape our preferences through a process of cultural learning. In particular, we claim that, in contexts with a stable norm of reciprocity, an

Rodrigo Harrison; Mauricio Villena

2008-01-01

352

The evolution of social norms: With managerial implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary game theory provides the tools to analyze which strategies, or patterns of behaviour, emerge over time through a process of adaptation. Social norms can be defined as patterns of behaviour with certain characteristics. Evolutionary game theory thus provides one perspective on how social norms are formed and maintained. In particular, evolutionary models demonstrate how the emergence and stability of

Ivar Kolstad

2007-01-01

353

The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents national norms for 237,777 college freshmen in fall 1994 based on the 29th annual survey of incoming students at 461 two-year and four-year colleges and universities. Three major tables present the norms for type of institutional control for all freshmen and by sex; for universities by selectivity level and by sex; and…

Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

354

Investigating norms in interlingual subtitling: a systemic functional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about the investigation of norms in interlingual subtitling from a systemic functional perspective. For this purpose, it is divided into three main sections. The first section discusses some challenges that subtitlers face in film translation. The second section reviews briefly the literature on norms in audiovisual translation (AVT). In the light of this review, the last section

Kajingulu Somwe Mubenga

2010-01-01

355

On the role of social norms in a market economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that the discussion in Section 2 focuses on but two potential sources of norms and on only a pair of variables affecting the activities of these sources, it may appear premature to attempt to generalize about the supply of NETN norms in a market economy. However, based on the above discussion, it is nevertheless quite reasonable to hypothesize that

Gordon S. Bergsten

1985-01-01

356

Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms. PMID:19390522

Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

2009-04-23

357

Law and bioethics in Israel: between liberal ethical values and Jewish religious norms.  

PubMed

In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other. PMID:17902326

Shapira, Amos

358

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

359

The Effect of Persuasion upon the Attitudes of Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determined if a written, persuasive communication would positively affect the attitudes of preservice teachers (N=98) and if the communication would differently affect subjects rated on three levels of self-esteem. Results indicate written persuasive communication could change the attitudes of the preservice elementary teachers in this study.…

Hassan, Abdel Moneim Ahmed; Shrigley, Robert L.

1985-01-01

360

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

361

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

362

The Motherhood Inventory: A Questionnaire for Studying Attitudes Toward Motherhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.

363

Refinement of a Chemistry Attitude Measure for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work presents the evaluation and refinement of a chemistry attitude measure, Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI), for college students. The original 20-item and revised 8-item versions of ASCI (V1 and V2) were administered to different samples. The evaluation for ASCI had two main foci: reliability and validity. This…

Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

364

Attitude-Behavior Consistency: An Individual Difference Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of self-monitoring and self-reported variability in cross-situational behavior to identify persons most likely to manifest covariation between their attitudes and behaviors was investigated. In the first session, subjects (N=102) completed Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale, assessed their religious attitudes and indicated the extent to which…

Olson, James M.; And Others

365

Employing People With Disabilities: Impact of Attitude and Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of attitude and hypothetical situational encounters on affective, behavioral and cognitive responses of nondisabled employees toward coworkers with disabilities. Subjects completed the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale, and responded to 1 of 9 situations of varying levels of intimacy in which they imagined themselves and a person with an immediately obvious disability. Their affective, behavioral

Judy O. Berry; Julie A. Meyer

1995-01-01

366

Attitudes Toward the Unemployed Receiving Social Security Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though there appear to have been a number of psychological studies done in the 1930s and 1970s on the consequence of unemployment, there seem to be very few studies on attitudes toward the unemployed receiving social security benefits or attitudes toward welfare in general. This study examined the effect of sex, education, and voting pattern of over 170 subjects on

Adrian Furnham

1983-01-01

367

Time optimal attitude control for a rigid body  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time optimal control problem is studied for the attitude dynamics of a rigid body. The objective is to minimize the maneuver time to rotate the rigid body to a desired attitude and angular velocity while subject to constraints on the control input. Necessary conditions for optimality are developed directly on the special orthogonal group using rotation matrices. They completely

Taeyoung Leey; Melvin Leok; N. Harris McClamroch

2008-01-01

368

The Relationship between Attitudes toward Censorship and Selected Academic Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine characteristics of subjects relative to their attitudes toward censorship, a study surveyed 98 college students selected from students in a public university in the southeastern United States. A 24-item Likert-style censorship scale was used to measure attitudes toward censorship. Strong agreement with affirmative items would suggest…

Dwyer, Edward J.; Summy, Mary K.

1989-01-01

369

Mission impossible?: Can anything be done about attitudes to science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues relating to research in the area of high school pupils’ attitudes to science. Teachers appear to consider that pupils’ attitudes to science, and to what is being studied in science lessons, exert a profound influence on levels of engagement with the subject. Yet, perhaps because of the difficulties

Judith M. Ramsden

1998-01-01

370

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

371

$\\\\pmb{D}$-boundedness and $\\\\pmb{D}$-compactness in finite dimensional probabilistic normed spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we prove that in a finite dimensional probabilistic normed space, every two probabilistic norms are equivalent and we study the notion of $D$-compactness and $D$-boundedness in probabilistic normed spaces.

Reza Saadati; Massoud Amini

2005-01-01

372

Attitude change in response to information that male homosexuality has a biological basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed 28 college students' attitudes toward homosexuals immediately before and 1 week after the presentation of either an article suggesting that male homosexuality has a biological component or a control article. Change in attitude toward homosexuality for subjects exposed to the biological article depended on subjects' memory of the article and on their college major. Subjects undecided in their

Jeffd Oldham; Tim Kasser

1999-01-01

373

Developmental Reaction Norms for Water Stressed Seedlings of Succulent Cacti  

PubMed Central

Succulent cacti are remarkable plants with capabilities to withstand long periods of drought. However, their adult success is contingent on the early seedling stages, when plants are highly susceptible to the environment. To better understand their early coping strategies in a challenging environment, two developmental aspects (anatomy and morphology) in Polaskia chichipe and Echinocactus platyacanthus were studied in the context of developmental reaction norms under drought conditions. The morphology was evaluated using landmark based morphometrics and Principal Component Analysis, which gave three main trends of the variation in each species. The anatomy was quantified as number and area of xylem vessels. The quantitative relationship between morphology and anatomy in early stages of development, as a response to drought was revealed in these two species. Qualitatively, collapsible cells and collapsible parenchyma tissue were observed in seedlings of both species, more often in those subjected to water stress. These tissues were located inside the epidermis, resembling a web of collapsible-cell groups surrounding turgid cells, vascular bundles, and spanned across the pith. Occasionally the groups formed a continuum stretching from the epidermis towards the vasculature. Integrating the morphology and the anatomy in a developmental context as a response to environmental conditions provides a better understanding of the organism's dynamics, adaptation, and plasticity.

Rosas, Ulises; Zhou, Royce W.; Castillo, Guillermo; Collazo-Ortega, Margarita

2012-01-01

374

A Data Mining Approach to Identify Obligation Norms in Agent Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most works on norms have investigated how norms are regulated using institutional mechanisms. Very few works have focused\\u000a on how an agent may infer the norms of a society without the norm being explicitly given to the agent. This paper describes\\u000a how an agent can make use of the proposed norm identification architecture to identify norms. This paper explains how

Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu; Stephen Cranefield; Maryam Purvis; Martin K. Purvis

2010-01-01

375

The Reading Attitudes of Gifted Learners in Grades Seven and Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mikulecky Behavioral Reading Attitude Measure was administered to 399 gifted seventh and eighth grade students. Although reading attitudes were generally positive, nearly twice as many subjects were classified at the two lowest stages of attitude internalization than at the two highest stages. (Author/DB)|

Ley, Terry C.; Trentham, Landa L.

1987-01-01

376

Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

377

The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects

Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

378

Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

379

An Investigation of Egyptian Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Ethical Issues in Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates Egyptian consumers’ attitudes toward ethical issues in advertising held by a sample of 306 participants. The subjects completed a 20-item instrument originally designed to measure respondents’ attitudes toward controversial issues in advertising. The study validates the scale in an Arab non-Western context. The results revealed that Egyptian consumers have negative attitudes toward ethical issues in advertising. There

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2011-01-01

380

Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.  

SciTech Connect

Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

381

Mortality salience increases adherence to salient norms and values.  

PubMed

Four studies indicate that mortality salience increases adherence to social norms and values, but only when cultural norms and values are salient. In Study 1, mortality salience coupled with a reminder about cultural values of egalitarianism reduced prejudice toward Blacks among non-Black participants. In Studies 2 through 4, a mortality salience induction (e.g., walking through a cemetery) increased self-reported and actual helping behavior only when the cultural value of helping was salient. These results suggest that people may adhere to norms and values so as to manage awareness of death. PMID:18550864

Gailliot, Matthew T; Stillman, Tyler F; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Maner, Jon K; Plant, E Ashby

2008-07-01

382

A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

2002-05-01

383

Cross-cultural differences in psychiatric nurses' attitudes to inpatient aggression.  

PubMed

Little is currently known about the attitudes of psychiatric nurses toward patient aggression, particularly from an international perspective. Attitudes toward patient aggression of psychiatric nurses from five European countries were investigated using a recently developed and tested attitude scale. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 1,769 student nurses and psychiatric nurses. Regression analysis was performed to identify personal and occupational characteristics of the respondents able to predict their attitude toward aggression. Analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences in attitudes between and among countries. Attitude was predicted by sex, contractual status (full vs. part time), and the type of ward on which subjects worked. With one exception (communicative attitude), attitudes differed across countries. More research on attitude formation is needed to determine which factors account for these differences. PMID:16549245

Jansen, Gerard J; Middel, Berry; Dassen, Theo W N; Reijneveld, Menno S A

2006-04-01

384

Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Fifth and Eighth Grade Students Regarding Alcoholic Beverages in Urban Parochial Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of fifth- and eighth-grade urban parochial school students (N=3,785) regarding alcoholic beverages. Survey results showed a religiously oriented school environment had little influence on drinking behavior. Family, friends, and cultural norms were strong influences. Sixth and seventh grades appear…

Lee, Essie E.

1983-01-01

385

Political attitudes vary with physiological traits.  

PubMed

Although political views have been thought to arise largely from individuals' experiences, recent research suggests that they may have a biological basis. We present evidence that variations in political attitudes correlate with physiological traits. In a group of 46 adult participants with strong political beliefs, individuals with measurably lower physical sensitivities to sudden noises and threatening visual images were more likely to support foreign aid, liberal immigration policies, pacifism, and gun control, whereas individuals displaying measurably higher physiological reactions to those same stimuli were more likely to favor defense spending, capital punishment, patriotism, and the Iraq War. Thus, the degree to which individuals are physiologically responsive to threat appears to indicate the degree to which they advocate policies that protect the existing social structure from both external (outgroup) and internal (norm-violator) threats. PMID:18801995

Oxley, Douglas R; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Hibbing, Matthew V; Miller, Jennifer L; Scalora, Mario; Hatemi, Peter K; Hibbing, John R

2008-09-19

386

Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to

William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw

1984-01-01

387

The attitudes and behaviours of illegal downloaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarise and evaluate the literature on digital consumer behaviour and attitudes towards digital piracy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a review and synthesis of the academic literature on the subject, using the authors' unique “pro-forma” approach to the evaluation of individual papers. Findings – A major limitation in the studies reported

Peter Williams; David Nicholas; Ian Rowlands

2010-01-01

388

Instructional Media, Attitude Change and Field Dependence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of two media types (sound film and still slides with audiotape) in changing student attitudes, and their impact on students varying in field dependency levels was examined. Subjects, 82 college students scoring at the high and low extremes of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), were randomly assigned to either a (1)…

Kloock, Terryl R.; And Others

389

Changing Frameworks in Attitudes Toward Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than two decades, legal abortion has been the subject of heated political debate and adversarial social movement activity; however, national polls have shown little change in aggregate levels of support for abortion. This analysis examines how the determinants of abortion attitudes have changed between 1977 and 1996, using data from the General Social Surveys. While in early time

Jennifer Strickler; Nicholas L. Danigelis

2002-01-01

390

Improving the Employability and Attitudes of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated program of vocational counseling and placement, casework, and sheltered workshop in increasing the employability and in favorably modifying attitudes associated with employability of difficult-to-place persons, who had previously received the same services but without die utilization of a sheltered workshop. The subjects of this research were 52

Alfred Feintuch

1955-01-01

391

Students' Attitudes toward Introductory Physics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem examined in this study deals with students' attitude toward physics among the freshmen and sophomore students who were taking first introductory physics course. In the study there were 176 students, and they were chosen sample of convenience from Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida. 125 subjects were male students, and…

Demirci, Neset

2004-01-01

392

Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instruction in Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were obtained from 311 teachers in order to sample a wide domain of attitudes toward writing instruction and writing anxiety. The subjects' responses were organized along four attitudinal dimensions: (1) the importance of standard English in writing instruction (SE), (2) the importance of defining and evaluating writing tasks (DE), (3) the…

Gere, Anne Ruggles; And Others

393

Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

Barnabei, Fred; And Others

394

Attitudes of medical students to HIV and AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to HIV\\/AIDS and whether attitudes correlate with knowledge and clinical experience. To determine if students felt adequately prepared to deal with medical and psychological aspects of HIV\\/AIDS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--The subjects consisted of 190 London and 99 Cambridge medical students at the end of their genitourinary medicine attachment, plus 230 Cambridge

J K Evans; J S Bingham; K Pratt; C A Carne

1993-01-01

395

A Semantic and Pragmatic Framework for the Specification of Agent Communication Languages: Motivational Attitudes and Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ability to communicate is one of the most important properties of agents. In an open environment, like the Internet, in\\u000a which agents are designed in many different ways, it is important to clearly establish the meaning of a standard language\\u000a for artificial agents. Traditionally, the pragmatics of ACLs take the form of interaction protocols, which only specify the\\u000a order

Rodrigo Agerri; Eduardo Alonso

2005-01-01

396

The prediction of safe sex behaviour: The role of intentions, attitudes, norms and control beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the utility of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Azjen, 1975) in relation to people's propensity to engage in a range of different safe sex strategies, including engaging in an exclusive sexual relationship, avoiding casual sex, and asking sexual partners about their previous sexual and IV drug use history. It was proposed

Deborah J. Terry; Roslyn F. Galligan; Vincent J. Conway

1993-01-01

397

Professional judgment in non-industrial private forestry: Forester attitudes and social norms influencing biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of conservation into management of non-industrial private forests rests with professional foresters. This paper empirically examines the intentions of foresters to conserve habitats beyond what is the minimum legally defined requirement when planning forestry operations: either by delineating particular habitats defined in the Finnish Forest Act completely outside the operation, despite this not being the obligation, or by

Eeva Primmer; Heimo Karppinen

2010-01-01

398

Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

2009-01-01

399

PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS' NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY  

PubMed Central

African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility.

Mollborn, Stefanie

2011-01-01

400

Alternate Norms for the Cabrelli and Wiggins Blind Deconvolution Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two blind deconvolution algorithms are extended to include alternate norms and used to estimate transient source signatures. The inputs to the blind algorithms are received signals which have undergone propagation through a medium and may be difficult to ...

L. A. Pflug M. K. Broadhead

1998-01-01

401

Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952  

Microsoft Academic Search

1927 and 1952 norms for Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test based on samples of University of Minnesota students were compared. Changes in response tendency were noted and hypotheses erected to explain the results.

James J. Jenkins; Wallace A. Russell

1960-01-01

402

Skewed Norms Weaken Case for Early Brain Overgrowth in Autism  

MedlinePLUS

... Norms Weaken Case for Early Brain Overgrowth in Autism Recent News NIMH's Jay Giedd Google Hangout on ... Disorder (ADHD) (30 Items) Anxiety Disorders (43 Items) Autism (81 Items) Bipolar Disorder (60 Items) Borderline Personality ...

403

Contract Specialist Inservice Placement Examination: Development, Norming, and Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the development, norming, and intended use of the Contract Specialist Inservice Placement Examination, constructed by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) with the support of the General Services Administration's Federal Acqu...

R. A. Childs L. D. Eyde

1995-01-01

404

Psychological norms for simple three-line graphic shapes.  

PubMed

There is a longstanding tradition in psychological research for norming lists of words that are used in experimental studies. The present study extends this practice to graphic imagery by obtaining norming data on 24 simple abstract graphic shapes composed of three straight-line segments. The attributes obtained in the norming procedure were the shapes' familiarity, describability, associability, availability, and potential for word association. Results from rating data indicate significantly different, yet reliable, responses by participants to the various shape configurations. Multidimensional scaling analysis of shape ratings identified two underlying dimensions of perceived differences: the continuity of a shape's linear direction and the consistency or regularity of its interior angles. By contrast, performance in generating word associations for figures appeared to be linguistically driven, with initial responses related to the similarity of shapes to letters of the alphabet. The norms and the computer program used to collect them can be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183920

Kealy, William A; Ritzhaupt, Albert D; Spears, Cameron

2007-11-01

405

Effects of Social Network Topology and Options on Norm Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A social norm is a behavior that emerges as a convention within society without any direction from a central authority. Social\\u000a norms emerge as repeated interactions between individuals give rise to biases toward actions or behaviors which spread through\\u000a the society until one behavior is adapted as the default behavior, even when multiple acceptable behaviors exist. Of particular\\u000a interest to

Onkur Sen; Sandip Sen

2009-01-01

406

SCL-90-R Norms for Dissociative Identity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms for dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been provided for a variety of structured interviews, self-report measures and computer-scored instruments. The SCL-90-R is a widely used self-report measure of general psychopathology, but prior to this report norms for DID were not available. The authors provide scores on the SCL-90-R for 101 participants with DID at baseline, and for 36 of

Joan Weathersbee Ellason; Colin A. Ross

2004-01-01

407

Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of energy-drink consumption frequencies on sociodemographic characteristics, jock identity, masculine norms, and risk-taking behavior. Results: Of participants, 39% consumed

Kathleen E. Miller

2008-01-01

408

On matrices for which norm bounds are attained  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let |A|p,q be the norm induced on the matrix A with n rows and m columns by the Hölder ?p and ?q norms on Rn and Rm (or Cn and Cm), respectively. It is easy to find an upper bound for the ratio |A|r,s|A|p,q. In this paper we study the classes of matrices for which the upper bound is attained.

Hans Schneider; Hans F. Weinberger

1998-01-01

409

The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply a structured approach to understand the importance of personal ecological norms in purchasing organic food. The norm-activation-model by Schwartz is used to predict self-reported and observed purchase behaviour of organic milk. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports the results of a field study with 63 customers of a German supermarket. A

Christian A. Klöckner; Silvia Ohms

2009-01-01

410

Morality salience increases adherence to salient norms and values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies indicate that mortality salience increases adherence to social norms and values, but only when cultural norms and values are salient. In Study 1, mortality salience coupled with a reminder about cultural values of egalitarianism reduced prejudice toward Blacks among non-Black participants. In Studies 2 through 4, a mortality salience induction (e.g., walking through a cemetery) increased self-reported and

M. T. Gailliot; T. F. Stillman; B. J. Schmeichel; J. K. Maner; E. A. Plant

2008-01-01

411

Norm enforcement among the Ju\\/’hoansi Bushmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of cooperative communities that enforce norm conformity through reward, as well as shaming, ridicule, and ostracism,\\u000a has been central to anthropology since the work of Durkheim. Prevailing approaches from evolutionary theory explain the willingness\\u000a to exert sanctions to enforce norms as self-interested behavior, while recent experimental studies suggest that altruistic\\u000a rewarding and punishing—“strong reciprocity”—play an important role in

Polly Wiessner

2005-01-01

412

Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity.

Hutchings, J A

2011-01-01

413

Interrogating the changing inequalities constituting ‘popular’ ‘deviant’ and ‘ordinary’ subjects of school\\/subculture in Ireland: moments of new migrant student recognition, resistance and recuperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores moments in which three new migrant students become constituted as particular types of learners and classmates, through the interplay of racialised, classed and gendered norms made available in one Irish school. Certainly, new migrant students’ subjectivities may be constrained due to already embedded school\\/subcultural inequalities. Yet rather than simply being entirely subject to the exclusionary norms underpinning

Karl Kitching

2011-01-01

414

Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393

Krempien, Jennifer Luella; Barr, Susan Irene

2011-11-11

415

Cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for North India (Eastern Uttar Pradesh)  

PubMed Central

Aim: The present study was aimed at development of the cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for the population of eastern Uttar Pradesh in North India. Settings and design: This study was conducted at a dental college. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 50 males and 50 females. Each lateral cephalogram was taken in occlusion and subsequently traced. All reference points, landmarks, and measurements were made according to cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) system. Statistical analysis used: The statistical analysis involved calculation of mean and standard deviation for each of the 23 parameters assessed for each subject. The data was subsequently compared with COGS study by using Normal (Z) test. Results: The norms were derived for the purvanchal population of North India and these were found to be quite distinct compared to those obtained from COGS study with respect to specific parameters. Conclusion: Male subjects indicated greater prominence of chin relative to the face, decreased posterior divergence, infraeruption of upper and lower molar as well as lower incisors, decreased total effective length of the maxilla, tendency towards Class III occlusion, and procumbent lower incisors. Female subjects, however, indicated increased anterior cranial base length, greater prominence of chin relative to the face, prognathic maxilla and mandible, increased middle third facial height, infraerupted lower incisors, increased mandibular body length, and procumbent lower incisors.

Gulati, Rajeev; Jain, Shikha

2011-01-01

416

Social and socio?mathematical norms in collaborative problem?solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the notions of social and socio?mathematical norms we investigate how these are established during the interactions of pre?service teachers who solve mathematical problems. Norms identified in relevant studies are found in our case too; moreover, we have found norms related to particular aspects of the problems posed. Our results show that most of these norms, once established, enhance

Konstantinos Tatsis; Eugenia Koleza

2008-01-01

417

Students' attitudes towards suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes of 800 college students from nine institutions were assessed by means of a 100 item Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. The results indicate both wide heterogeneity and communality of attitudes. Students see depression but not mental illness as a predisposing aspect. They exhibit considerable individual differences and intraindividual indecision as to religious precepts vis-a-vis suicide, see suicide as a “cry for

George Domino; Linda Gibson; Steven Poling; Laurie Westlake

1980-01-01

418

Nutrition Knowledge And Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to measure the nutrition knowledge and attitudes toward nutrition of caregivers in child care programs and relate these to the behaviors of caregivers as they interact with children at mealtime. The relationship between the independent variables: caregiver nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward nutrition, years of teaching experience, prior nutrition training, and level of education was

M. L. Nahikian-Nelms; P. O. Sarvela; C. Mogharreban; S. L. Andersen

1995-01-01

419

Changes in Soldier Attitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a study of methods for increasing motivation and preventing attitude deterioration of the enlisted man, responses to specific items in a 1970 HumRRO attitude survey conducted at Fort Knox were compared with responses to the same items in severa...

E. H. Drucker

1974-01-01

420

Calibration of attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.

Potapenko, E. M.

1986-04-01

421

Direct marketing attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines empirically consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing using a sample of 354 consumers. The sample was randomly drawn from a large southern metropolitan area. The study instrument comprised items developed from literature sources. Respondents' evaluations of the items were obtained through in-home personal interviews. Underlying the study is the hypothesis that consumers' attitudes toward direct marketing are a

Daulatram Lund; Pradeep K. Korgaonkar

1995-01-01

422

On norm resolvent convergence of Schrödinger operators with ?'-like potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a function V:{\\ R}\\rightarrow {\\ R} that is integrable and compactly supported, we prove the norm resolvent convergence, as ? ? 0, of a family S? of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators on the line of the form S_\\varepsilon := -\\frac{\\mathrm{d}^2}{\\mathrm{d}x^2} + \\frac{1}{\\varepsilon ^2}V\\Bigl (\\frac{x}{\\varepsilon }\\Bigr ). If the potential V satisfies the conditions \\int _{\\ R}V(\\xi ) \\,d\\xi =0,\\qquad \\int _{\\ R}\\xi V(\\xi ) \\,d\\xi =-1, then the functions ?-2V(x/?) converge in the sense of distributions as ? ? 0 to ?'(x), and the limit S0 of S? might be considered as a 'physically motivated' interpretation of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a potential ?'. In 1985, Šeba claimed that the limit operator S0 is the direct sum of the free Schrödinger operators on positive and negative semi-axes subject to the Dirichlet condition at x = 0, which suggested that in dimension 1 there is no non-trivial Hamiltonian with the potential ?'. In this paper, we show that in fact S0 essentially depends on V: although the above results are true generically, in the exceptional (or 'resonant') case, the limit S0 is non-trivial and is determined by the properties of an auxiliary Sturm-Liouville spectral problem associated with V. We then set V(?) = ??(?) with a fixed ? and show that there exists a countable set of resonances {?k}?k = -? for which a partial transmission of the wave package occurs for S0.

Golovaty, Yu D.; Hryniv, R. O.

2010-04-01

423

Radiological criteria for unrestricted use of sites containing norm  

SciTech Connect

Natural occurring radioactive materia (NORM) is redistributed in the environment as a result of many mineral recovery and processing industries. There are not federal regulations specifying criteria for NORM contaminated sites; however, several states have promulgated regulations. The regulations promulgated by the states generally focus on NORM from oil and gas production, the primary focus of the assessments for this paper. The criteria for residual NORM in soil are generally (1) 0.18 Bq g{sup -1} in the surface 15 cm of soil and 0.6 Bq g{sup -1} at depth or (2) 1.1 Bq g{sup -1}, with a limitation on the radon flux. The primary radiation dose pathways for unrestricted use of land are external gamma exposure and exposure related to indoor radon. Radiation doses vary by over an order of magnitude based on different ratios of {sup 226}Ra to {sup 228}Ra concentrations, biological uptake parameters related to NORM, and the different radon emanation factors for oil field scale and sludge. A {sup 226}Ra criterion of 1.1 Bq g{sup -1} results in a dose of about 2 mSv y{sup -1} from external gamma and about 3 mSv y{sup -1} from radon for a general crawl-space type residence home scenario. The chemical and physical characteristics of the NORM and site-specific factors are important considerations in the assessments. The radon dose would be about 3 times higher for NORM in sludge, vs. the assumption of pipe scale. The structural characteristics of residences (e.g., slab-on-grade, crawl-space, or trailer) also have a significant impact on the potential doses to residences.

Bernhardt, D.E.; Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-06-01

424

Computer ethics education: impact from societal norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions have occurred on the best way to implement the horizontal and vertical integration of education on the social, ethical and professional issues relating to computer science. These discussions have not only included debates on the subject matter and what manner to approach it (i.e. integrated among all computer science courses taught, as a separate required course, or a combination

Gregory B. White; Udo W. Pooch

1994-01-01

425

Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and\\/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of attitudes and past eating behavior than other information underlying attitudes

Shelley N. Aikman; Kate E. Min; Dan Graham

2006-01-01

426

Animals for teaching purposes: medical students' attitude.  

PubMed

Animal rights movements have increased the scope and intensity of their activities over the past decade. While it is generally assumed that doctors and other members of the health care professions favour the use of animals for science, few data are available. Student protests in various medical schools against use of animals in teaching laboratories indicated further need for objective data. A questionnaire about attitudes to the use of animals for teaching purposes was distributed to all the medical students at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, present during classes on a given day. All students present (200) returned the questionnaire (70% of the student body). Also queried were attitudes towards related subjects. A high percentage of medical students surveyed had significant reservations about animal experimentation for teaching purposes and about the preferential priority for human life over that of animals. These attitudes, if confirmed, have serious implications for educators both in the health fields and otherwise. PMID:7623684

Glick, S M

1995-01-01

427

Attitudes towards organic foods and risk\\/benefit perception associated with pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 947 subjects completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and beliefs towards the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. A section of the questionnaire was aimed at assessing the role of trust on perception of risks and benefits associated with pesticides on foods. The subjects tended to hold positive attitudes towards eating fruits and vegetables produced by organic agriculture.

Anna Saba; Federico Messina

2003-01-01

428

Attitude toward Chemistry: A Semantic Differential Instrument for Assessing Curriculum Impacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of a 20-item semantic differential assessment instrument for measuring student attitudes toward the subject of chemistry is described (Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory-ASCI). Instrument subscales and survey items pertain to interest and utility, anxiety, intellectual accessibility, emotional satisfaction, and…

Bauer, Christopher F.

2008-01-01

429

Predictors of non-condom use intentions by university students in Britain and Greece: The impact of attitudes, time perspective, relationship status, and habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the impact of socio-cognitive factors (attitudes and norms), time perspective (TP), relationship status (RS), and past sexual behaviour on intended non-condom use in 104 Greek and 93 British university undergraduates.Method: Data were obtained by a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis included correlation, regression and ANOVA procedures.Results: Attitudes were the strongest predictors of non-condom use intentions for participants

Cleo Protogerou; Julie Turner-Cobb

2011-01-01

430

Medical Students' Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition.

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

431

Acculturation to the Global Culture as Moderator to Subjective Norm and Internet Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet adoption is seen as a prerequisite to the diffusion of eCommerce. Underdeveloped online markets exist in the Middle East. However, there is a scarcity of knowledge related to these markets [1]. This paper complements the work of Stafford et al. [1] by reporting on the results of a study on Internet adoption in two urban social communities in Jordan.

Reem Ayouby; Anne-marie Croteau

2009-01-01

432

Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy,…

Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

2009-01-01

433

Quantifying rice farmers’ pest management decisions: beliefs and subjective norms in stem borer control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces the pest belief model and Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to analyze farmers’ decisions in stem borer management. Farmers spent an average of $39\\/ha (median $18) on insecticides believing that if they had not controlled an average loss of 1004 kg\\/ha or $402 (median 592, $237) would occur. Farmers’ estimates of the worst attack averaged

K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada

1999-01-01

434

Channel Capacity Subject to Frequency Domain Normed Uncertainties - SISO and MIMO Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a precise definition of robustness of channel capacity of additive Gaussian channels, with respect to channel transfer function uncertainty and noise power spectral density uncertainty. Three robust channel capacity problems and their solutions are presented in the frequency domain. I. I NTRODUCTION

Stojan Z. Denic; Charalambos D. Charalambous; Seddik M. Djouadiz

435

Hessian Schatten-norm regularization for linear inverse problems.  

PubMed

We introduce a novel family of invariant, convex, and non-quadratic functionals that we employ to derive regularized solutions of ill-posed linear inverse imaging problems. The proposed regularizers involve the Schatten norms of the Hessian matrix, which are computed at every pixel of the image. They can be viewed as second-order extensions of the popular total-variation (TV) semi-norm since they satisfy the same invariance properties. Meanwhile, by taking advantage of second-order derivatives, they avoid the staircase effect, a common artifact of TV-based reconstructions, and perform well for a wide range of applications. To solve the corresponding optimization problems, we propose an algorithm that is based on a primal-dual formulation. A fundamental ingredient of this algorithm is the projection of matrices onto Schatten norm balls of arbitrary radius. This operation is performed efficiently based on a direct link we provide between vector projections onto lq norm balls and matrix projections onto Schatten norm balls. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods through experimental results on several inverse imaging problems with real and simulated data. PMID:23303692

Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Ward, John Paul; Unser, Michael

2013-01-04

436

Oral frequency norms for 67,979 Spanish words.  

PubMed

Frequency of occurrence is an important attribute of lexical units, and one that is widely used in psychological research and theorization. Although printed frequency norms have long been available for Spanish, and subtitle-based norms have more recently been published, oral frequency norms have not been systematically compiled for a representative set of words. In this study, a corpus of over three million units, representing present-day use of the language in Spain, was used to derive a frequency count of spoken words. The corpus consisted of 913 separate documents that contained transcriptions of oral recordings obtained in a wide variety of situations, mostly radio and television programs. The resulting database, containing absolute and relative frequency values for 67,979 orally produced words, is presented. Validity analyses showed significant correlations of oral frequency with other frequency measures and suggest that oral frequency can predict some types of lexical processing with the same or higher levels of precision, when contrasted with text- or subtitle-based frequencies. In conclusion, we discuss ways in which these oral frequency norms can be put to use. The norms can be downloaded from www.springerlink.com. PMID:21416306

Alonso, María Angeles; Fernandez, Angel; Díez, Emiliano

2011-06-01

437

Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.  

PubMed

In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

Heyer, Gretchen

2012-11-01

438

One-norm geometric quantum discord under decoherence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometric quantum discord is a well-defined measure of quantum correlation if Schatten one-norm (trace norm) is adopted as a distance measure. Here, we analytically investigate the dynamical behavior of the one-norm geometric quantum discord under the effect of decoherence. By starting from arbitrary Bell-diagonal mixed states under Markovian local noise, we provide the decays of the quantum correlation as a function of the decoherence parameters. In particular, we show that the one-norm geometric discord exhibits the possibility of double sudden changes and freezing behavior during its evolution. For nontrivial Bell-diagonal states under simple Markovian channels, these are new features that are in contrast with the Schatten two-norm (Hilbert-Schmidt) geometric discord. The necessary and sufficient conditions for double sudden changes as well as their exact locations in terms of decoherence probabilities are provided. Moreover, we illustrate our results by investigating decoherence in quantum spin chains in the thermodynamic limit.

Montealegre, J. D.; Paula, F. M.; Saguia, A.; Sarandy, M. S.

2013-04-01

439

Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term word association is used in a very particular sense in the psycholinguistic literature. (Generally speaking, subjects respond quicker than normal to the word nurse if it follows a highly associated word such as doctor. ) We will extend the term to provide the basis for a statistical description of a variety of interesting linguistic phenomena, ranging from semantic relations of the doctor\\/nurse type

Kenneth Ward Church; Patrick Hanks

1990-01-01

440

Done 4: analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign.  

PubMed

College students commonly believe their peers engage in higher levels of dangerous drinking than is actually the case. Social norms marketing campaigns attempt to correct these misperceptions, decrease the perceived normative pressure to drink, and thereby drive down high-risk alcohol consumption. In this case study, we critically examined "Done 4," an unsuccessful social norms marketing campaign conducted as part of a comprehensive prevention trial at a large urban university. As part of this analysis, undergraduate marketing students were shown the principal print advertisement used in the campaign and asked to complete an advertising analysis questionnaire. The results of this case study suggest that the advertisement was poorly constructed, which decreased its effectiveness and led to confusion about the social norms message. We discuss implications of these findings for future prevention campaigns and new research. PMID:15590342

Russell, Cristel Antonia; Clapp, John D; Dejong, William

2005-01-01

441

Relationship among values, beliefs, norms and ecological behaviour.  

PubMed

The present study focuses mainly on the relationship between psychological constructs and ecological behaviour. Empirical analysis links personal values, ecological beliefs, consequences of environmental conditions, denial of ecological obligation, environmental control, personal norms and environment protection behaviour. Survey data from a path analysis of a Spanish sample of 403 individuals were used, showing that ecological beliefs, personal norms and eco-altruistic values have become the main psychological explanatory variables of environment protective behaviour. Ecological beliefs, when measured by the New Ecological Paradigm Scale, affected ecological behaviour decisively. Environmental and altruistic values were shown to be related to moral obligation, and a basic variable to understand behaviour. Personal norm mediated the effects of values and environmental control on ecological behaviour. PMID:18940060

González López, Antonio; Amérigo Cuervo-Arango, María

2008-11-01

442

Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience.

Kwan, Christine M. L.; Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

443

L1-norm-based common spatial patterns.  

PubMed

Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a commonly used method of spatial filtering for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The formulation of the CSP criterion is based on variance using L2-norm, which implies that CSP is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust version of CSP, called CSP-L1, by maximizing the ratio of filtered dispersion of one class to the other class, both of which are formulated by using L1-norm rather than L2-norm. The spatial filters of CSP-L1 are obtained by introducing an iterative algorithm, which is easy to implement and is theoretically justified. CSP-L1 is robust to outliers. Experiment results on a toy example and datasets of BCI competitions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:22147288

Wang, Haixian; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Wenming

2011-11-29

444

Influence of social norms, perceived playfulness and online shopping anxiety on customers' adoption of online retail shopping : An empirical study in the Turkish context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The previous studies examining the role of subjective norm (SN), online shopping anxiety (ANX) and perceived playfulness (PPL) in predicting the consumer's adoption of online shopping yielded fragmented and inconsistent findings. Also, a high proportion of these findings assessing the regarded behaviour of consumers in the West cannot be directly applied to a cross-cultural context. The purpose of

Hakan Çelik

2011-01-01

445

Attitudes and Health Behavior in Diverse Populations: Drunk Driving, Alcohol Use, Binge Eating, Marijuana Use, and Cigarette Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different health behaviors (cigarette use, alcohol use, binge eating, illicit drug use, and drunk driving) were studied prospectively in 5 different groups of subjects. Associations between attitudes toward these behaviors and the behaviors themselves were investigated over at least 2 waves of measurement. Findings revealed that attitudes predicted behavior nonspuriously in 2 instances: alcohol use and marijuana use. Attitudes

Alan W. Stacy; Peter M. Bentler; Brian R. Flay

1994-01-01

446

Attitudes and Behavior Toward Human Rights Across Different Contexts the Role of Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Political Ideology, and Religiosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were carried out to examine attitudes and behavior toward human rights. ‘Universal’ human rights implies that there should be cross-situational consistency in attitudes and behavior toward human rights. An alternative interpretation is that attitudes and behavior toward human rights may shift across contexts, as a function of ideology. We reasoned that Canadian subjects would be more critical of

Fathali M. Moghaddam; Vuk Vuksanovic

1990-01-01

447

Descriptive Drinking Norms: For Whom Does Reference Group Matter?*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Perceived descriptive drinking norms often differ from actual norms and are positively related to personal consumption. However, it is not clear how normative perceptions vary with specificity of the reference group. Are drinking norms more accurate and more closely related to drinking behavior as reference group specificity increases? Do these relationships vary as a function of participant demographics? The present study examined the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking behavior by ethnicity (Asian or White), sex, and fraternity/sorority status. Method: Participants were 2,699 (58% female) White (75%) or Asian (25%) undergraduates from two universities who reported their own alcohol use and perceived descriptive norms for eight reference groups: "typical student"; same sex, ethnicity, or fraternity/sorority status; and all combinations of these three factors. Results: Participants generally reported the highest perceived norms for the most distal reference group (typical student), with perceptions becoming more accurate as individuals' similarity to the reference group increased. Despite increased accuracy, participants perceived that all reference groups drank more than was actually the case. Across specific subgroups (fraternity/sorority members and men) different patterns emerged. Fraternity/sorority members reliably reported higher estimates of drinking for reference groups that included fraternity/ sorority status, and, to a lesser extent, men reported higher estimates for reference groups that included men. Conclusions: The results suggest that interventions targeting normative misperceptions may need to provide feedback based on participant demography or group membership. Although reference group-specific feedback may be important for some subgroups, typical student feedback provides the largest normative discrepancy for the majority of students.

Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Pedersen, Eric r.; Montoya, Heidi; Hodge, Kimberley; Desai, Sruti; Hummer, Justin F.; Walter, Theresa

2011-01-01

448

Young children enforce social norms selectively depending on the violator's group affiliation.  

PubMed

To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children enforce social norms on all people equally, or only on ingroup members who presumably know and respect the norm. We looked at both moral norms involving harm and conventional game norms involving rule violations. Three-year-old children actively protested violation of moral norms equally for ingroup and outgroup individuals, but they enforced conventional game norms for ingroup members only. Despite their ingroup favoritism, young children nevertheless hold ingroup members to standards whose violation they tolerate from outsiders. PMID:22766522

Schmidt, Marco F H; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

2012-07-04

449

ATTITUDE LEARNING IN CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING UPON ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR WITH 60 4TH AND 5TH GRADE MIDDLE-CLASS SS IN RELATION TO 2 HYPOTHESES: (1) THAT TREATMENT WILL MEDIATE OVERT RESPONSES TOWARD THE \\

C. JOAN EARLY

1968-01-01

450

The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three…

Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

2011-01-01

451

The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem.  

PubMed

We formalize an algorithm for solving the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L(1) projection and L(1) regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics. PMID:23024460

Brooks, J P; Dulá, J H

2012-04-10

452

Social Norms and the Paradox of Elections’ Turnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

People vote although their marginal gain from voting is zero.We contribute to the resolution of this paradox by presentinga model for equilibrium configuration of attitudes regardingthe decision to vote. Each individual is seen as an element ofa social network, within which pairs of individuals expressideas and attitudes, exerting mutual influence. We model therole of such networks in propagating the mutual

João Amaro de Matos; Pedro P. Barros

2004-01-01

453

Hellenic (Greek) gender attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from 1,120 residents of Athens, Greece, we used structural equation modeling to confirm the existence of three\\u000a types of gender attitudes: (1) egalitarian housework attitudes, (2) acceptance of females in traditionally male occupations,\\u000a and (3) acceptance of males in traditionally female occupations. There was more acceptance of females in traditionally male\\u000a occupations than of males in traditionally female

Anastasios C. Marcos; Stephen J. Bahr

2001-01-01

454

Implicit attitudes and psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 15 years have witnessed an ever-growing interest in the role of implicit attitudes in mental and health-related problems\\u000a and disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to this research area. More specifically, the\\u000a following issues will be addressed: 1) Why do researchers consider implicit attitudes to be of interest? 2) In what way

Jorg Huijding

2006-01-01

455

Ethnic Attitudes of Elementary School Children Toward Blacks and East Indians and the Effect of a Cultural Program on These Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to test the validity of the contact theory with elementary school children, to examine the attitudes of White Canadian fifth- and sixth-graders toward Black and East Indians, and the effect of a cultural program based on Triandis' theory of subjective culture of these attitudes.\\u000aThe ethnic attitudes of 180 students (boys=85; girls=85) in two high density

M. Ahmed Ijaz

1980-01-01

456

Attitudes Toward Women's Right To Self-Determination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hypotheses, that young subjects would express more positive attitudes toward women's right to self determination than older subjects and that more women than men would do so, were supported by the author's research reported in this article. (Author/HMV)

Greenhouse, Phyllis; Rosenthal, Esther

1974-01-01

457

Attitudes Towards Modifications in the Orthographic Representation of Modern Greek.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey investigated the attitudes of educated Greeks about possible modifications in the orthographic representation of written Greek. Subjects were 82 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts program in English Language and Literature offered at the University of Cyprus. The subjects were administered a 20-item Likert-type questionnaire…

Papapavlou, Andreas N.

458

Changes in Attitudes toward Education during Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study, conducted with 125 female student teachers in Israel, attempted to determine if one year of teacher training altered subjects' attitudes toward traditionalism/progressivism in education and if this change was influenced by the subjects' initial open or closed belief system, as measured by Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale. (SJL)|

Kremer, Liya; Moore, Michael

1978-01-01

459

Selection of Reference Group. Perceived Reference Group Permissiveness, and Personal Permissiveness Attitudes and Behavior: A Study of Two Consecutive Panels (1967-1971; 1970-1974)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measurement was made (Both longitudinally and cross-sectionally) of reference group selection with regard to sexual standards, perceived reference group norms with respect to premarital sexual permissiveness and the relationship of these variables to premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Results are discussed. (Author)|

Walsh, Robert H.; And Others

1976-01-01

460

Sex, sex roles, and sexual attitudes: figure gender in the Draw-A-Person test revisited.  

PubMed

A study of 116 subjects examined the relationships among subject sex, experimenter sex, sex roles, and sexual attitudes as predictors of drawing the same-sex figure on the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). Results indicate that subject and experimenter sex are consistent and significant predictors of picture sex. Masculinity and sexual attitudes also predict but only for female picture attributes. The subjects' response to current, historically determined attitudes toward gender and gender roles must be seen as strong influences on the sex of the drawn picture. A model of some determinants of the sex of the drawn figure is offered. PMID:8656330

Houston, A N; Terwilliger, R

1995-10-01

461

Online Video Contest Effects on Brand and Ad Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates how online video contests (OVCs) affect brand image, as measured by brand and advertisement attitudes. After conducting a pre-test to discover an appropriate product for the Generation Y target market, we ran an experiment examining OVCs, television, and magazine ad’s effects on multi-item measures of brand and advertisement attitudes. One hundred twenty-one subjects were randomly assigned to

Daniel A. Janis

2010-01-01

462

ATTITUDES TOWARD TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL PARENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies investigated attitudes toward traditional parents (stay-at-home mothers and employed fathers) and nontra- ditional parents (stay-at-home fathers and employed mothers) among adult men and women. Using a between-subjects design, Study 1 found that nontraditional parents were liked significantly less than traditional parents. Participants also believed that stay-at-home fathers were not regarded highly by others. Study 2 replicated these results

Victoria L. Brescoll; Eric Luis Uhlmann

2005-01-01

463

On Computing the Induced Norm of Sampled Data Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

By sampled data systems we mean systems with continuous time inputs and outputs, but where some state variables evolve in continuous time, and others evolve in discrete time. This paper presents a method for computing the induced norm of sampled data systems where these are considered as operators relating square integrable signals.

Pierre Kabamba; Shinji Hara

1990-01-01

464

An Iteratively Reweighted Norm Algorithm for Total Variation Regularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total variation (TV) regularization has become a popular method for a wide variety of image restoration problems, including denoising and deconvolution. Recently, a number of authors have noted the advantages, including superior performance with certain non-Gaussian noise, of replacing the standard lscr2 data fidelity term with an lscr1 norm. We propose a simple but very flexible and computationally efficient method,

P. Rodriguez; Brendt Wohlberg

2006-01-01

465

Median filter with absolute value norm spatial regularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a novel formulation for computing median filter with spatial regularization as minimizing a cost function composed of absolute value norms. We turn this cost minimization into an equivalent linear programming (LP) and solve its dual LP as a minimum cost flow (MCF) problem. The MCF is solved over a graph constructed for an input image, and the primal

Nilanjan Ray

2011-01-01

466

Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

Lundin, Mattias

2011-01-01

467

Overall, and Specific Life Satisfaction Domains: Preliminary Iranian Students Norms  

PubMed Central

Background: The WHOQOL-BREF is one of the best-known instruments that have been developed for cross-cultural comparisons of quality of life and currently it is available in more than 40 languages. Current study was done to provide: (1) the psychometrics properties of the Iranian version of WHOQOL-BREF and (2) the norm scores for satisfaction with life overall and satisfaction with specific Life domains of Iranian students. Methods: A sample of 1000 Iranian undergraduate students, (Males= 490 and Females= 510) were pooled using multi-stage random method and asked to complete the Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF. Results: The results of current study indicated that a good internal consistency (? = 0.89) for WHOQOL-BREF (26 items) as well as four domain ratings. Our findings also showed no floor or ceiling effect for the 4 domains as well overall QOL and general health facets. Moreover, General norms for the satisfaction with life overall, general health and satisfaction with specific life domains (physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships, and environmental support) were obtained using WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion: The Iranian version of WHOQOL-BREF was deemed reliable in assessing the quality of life of a student population in Iran. Our results of calculating and presenting norm scores for satisfaction ratings can be used as preliminary Iranian students’ norms for those researchers who are interested in measuring and interpreting satisfaction ratings using WHOQOL-BREF.

Mazaheri, M

2010-01-01

468

Robust regulation in the presence of norm-bounded uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider robust regulation (against steps and sinusoids) in the presence of unstructured uncertainty. The unstructured uncertainty is norm bounded by a constant that is given a priori. This problem is equivalent to a certain multiobjective problem where one objective is robust regulation and the other is the standard objective of H? suboptimal control. It is shown that a solution

J. Abedor; K. Nagpal; P. P. Khargonekar; K. Poolla

1995-01-01

469

Mesh diagram cephalometric norms for Americans of African descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish cephalometric norms for African-American males and females, to compare these measurements with the findings of Alexander's ?Alabama analysis,” and to construct mesh templates for various age groups. The sample we evaluated included 71 African-Americans, divided into four groups: girls (8 to 12 years), boys (8 to 12 years), adolescent females (13 to

Kathy L Bailey; Reginald W Taylor

1998-01-01

470

Regularized super-resolution image reconstruction employing robust error norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution image is reconstructed from a sequence of subpixel shifted, aliased low-resolution frames, by means of stochastic regularized super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction. The Tukey (T), Lorentzian (L), and Huber (H) cost functions are employed for the data-fidelity term. The performance of the particular error norms, in SR image reconstruction, is presented. Actually, their employment in SR reconstruction is preceded by dilating and scaling their influence functions to make them as similar as possible. Thus, the direct comparison of these norms in rejecting outliers takes place. The bilateral total variation (BTV) regularization is incorporated as a priori knowledge about the solution. The outliers effect is significantly reduced, and the high-frequency edge structures of the reconstructed image are preserved. The proposed TTV, LTV, and HTV methods are directly compared with a former SR method that employs the L1-norm in the data-fidelity term for synthesized and real sequences of frames. In the simulated experiments, noiseless frames as well as frames corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise are employed. Experimental results verify the robust statistics theory. Thus, the Tukey method performs best, while the L1-norm technique performs inferiorly to the proposed techniques.

Panagiotopoulou, Antigoni; Anastassopoulos, Vassilis

2009-11-01

471

Norms for College Students. Health Related Physical Fitness Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an analysis of a normative study done to determine physical fitness norms of college age young adults. Data for this normative study were collected under the supervision of 24 coinvestigators who were affiliated with institutions distributed in all regions of the United States. The study presents the derivation of the…

Pate, Russell R.

472

Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others

1995-01-01

473

Norms and Standards for Management Education through Distance Mode.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the norms and standards for management education through distance mode that were considered and approved by the Distance Education Council (India) at its 12th meeting held on December 22, 1996. The document contains the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Curriculum Design; (3) Eligibility Criteria; (4)…

Rausaria, R. R.; Lele, Nalini A.; Bhushan, Bharat

474

Norm-of-Reaction: Definition and misinterpretation of animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a phenotype is due to an interaction of the genotype with the environment. Two terms have been used to describe the outcome of this interaction, the norm-of-reaction and the reaction range. The first represents the theoretically limitless distribution of the phenotypes that may be expressed by a given genotype. The reaction range implies an upper and lower

Steve A. Platt; Charles A. Sanislow

1988-01-01

475

Public Mechanisms to Support Compliance to an Environmental Norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two regimes to support compliance to an environmental norm are compared. Under the first, compliance to the rule is mandatory and is supported by a fine on noncompliance. Under the second, compliance is voluntary and is supported by the government efforts to reduce the cost of compliance. Satisfaction of the necessary and sufficient condition under which a voluntary compliance regime

John K. Stranlund

1995-01-01

476

Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

Miller, Kathleen E.

2008-01-01

477

Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l_1(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l_1^0(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

Helemskii, A. Ya

2013-07-01

478

Stages of Ethical Reasoning and Moral Norms of Carib Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ethical development was investigated in a cross-cultural context by examining both the cognitive structure of ethical reasoning and the content of perceived moral norms in black Carib boys of British Honduras in the framework of stage theory. (Author/JM)|

Gorsuch, Richard L.; Barnes, M. Louise

1973-01-01

479

Between Law and Social Norms: The Evolution of Global Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?It is commonplace that economic globalization poses new challenges to legal theory. But instead of responding to these challenges, legal scholars often get caught up in heated yet purely abstract discussions of positivist and legal pluralist conceptions of the law. Meanwhile, economics-based theories such as “Law and Social Norms” have much less difficulty in analysing the newly arising forms of

GRALF-PETER CALLIESS; MORITZ RENNER

2009-01-01

480

Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change.

J A Hutchings

2011-01-01

481

Energy norm a posteriori error estimation for discontinuous Galerkin methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a residual-based a posteriori error estimate of a natural mesh dependent energy norm of the error in a family of discontinuous Galerkin approximations of elliptic problems. The theory is developed for an elliptic model problem in two and three spatial dimensions and general nonconvex polygonal domains are allowed. We also present some illustrating numerical examples.

Roland Becker; Peter Hansbo; Mats G. Larson

2003-01-01

482

Deference in Indians' decision making: introjected goals or injunctive norms?  

PubMed

We examine the claim that Indians are more likely than Americans to act deferentially in the presence of authority figures and explore 2 possible psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: introjected goals and injunctive norms. Studies 1 and 2 showed that after reflecting upon an authority's expectations, Indians were more likely than Americans to make clothing and course choices consistent with the authority's expectations, but there was no such cultural difference for peers' expectations. Study 3 showed that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians' choices but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying introjected goals versus injunctive norms, Study 4 showed that authority primes influenced Indians' sense of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 5 showed that, inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism, the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays. However, Indian participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, which supported the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms can be an effective means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings. PMID:22149457

Savani, Krishna; Morris, Michael W; Naidu, N V R

2011-12-12

483

Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

2010-01-01

484

Measuring Vocational Interests: A Call for Multi-Sample Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unemployed managers (n=95) completed the Vocational Interest Survey for Australia. Compared to a sample of secondary students, they had higher interest in vocational activities; they were able to discriminate more dimensions of vocational interests than a nonmanagerial sample did. Multisample norming was recommended. (SK)

Simons, Roland; Goddard, Richard; Patton, Wendy

2000-01-01

485

An iterative mixed1 norm image restoration algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper; we propose an iterative mired norm im- age restoration algorithm. A functional which combines the least mean squares (LMS) and the least mean fourth (LMF) functionals is proposed. A function of the kurtosis: is used to determine the relative importance between the LA8 and the LMF functionals. An iterative algorithm is utilized for ob- taining a solution

Min-Cheol Hong; Tania Stathaki; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

486

Transfer and Changing Linguistic Norms in Jersey Norman French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to investigate a case of transfer within the context of language death. By examining data from Jersey Norman French (known to its speakers as Jerriais) it illustrates the difficulty in determining linguistic norms for this relatively undocumented variety and suggests possible strategies to overcome this problem. The study…

Jones, Mari C.

2005-01-01

487

Input\\/output norms in general linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper bounds on the induced norm of the input\\/output operators in linear systems with L2 input and output signals, are provided. The main idea is to transform the original problem into a parametized set of indefinite LQ optimization problems. Using the classical maximum principle, the existence of solutions to the latter is equivalent to the solvability of a boundary value

GILEAD TADMOR

1990-01-01

488

Police perceptions and the norming of institutional corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the phenomenon of corruption in major urban police departments in the United States and explores the tendency in most to tolerate corruption at damaging levels. It presents a model of the “normed corruption” dynamic and posits that corruption much like other organizational problems such as police shootings, auto chases, abuse of sick time, etc., can be controlled

Robert J. McCormack

1996-01-01

489

Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

Miller, Kathleen E.

2008-01-01

490

Support for environmental protection: The role of moral norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is presented that traces support for environmental protection to a social-psychological process involving the activation of moral norms against harming innocent people. In a preliminary test of the model's social-psychological hypotheses, judgments about the moral obligations of industry with respect to hazardous chemicals were found to depend both on awareness of harmful consequences to people and on

Paul C. Stern; Thomas Dietz; J. Stanley Black

1985-01-01

491

Knowledge and relationships: when cooperation is the norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that structural changes in a knowledge economy mean that managers will increasingly seek to make cooperative relationships the norm in their organisations. However, they are hampered in their attempts to do so by organisation designs that institutionalise the dominant assumption about human intentionality, which sees people and their relationships as motivated by self-interest. We argue that the self-interest

Janine Nahapiet; Lynda Gratton; Hector O Rocha

2005-01-01

492

ELECTROMAGNETIC TOPOLOGY: MEASUREMENTS AND NORMS OF SCATTERING PARAMETERS OF SUBSHIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattering matrices of subshields and their norms have been used to relate the internal signals of an enclosed volume to an electromagnetic source environment. Both the line and aperture penetrations are included in the scattering matrix formulation. Experimental and analytical methods are proposed for the determination of the elements of the scattering matrices corresponding to these penetrations. These methods can,

F. C. Yang Dikewood; C. E. Baum

1986-01-01

493

Evolution of International Norms and Values for Transboundary Groundwater Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the fact that the largest number of cases of shared water occur in aquifers, it is surprising that so little is written about this. The Trialogue Model of Governance assumes interfaces between three actor-clusters; Governance, Science and Society. International law plays a significant role in facilitating the quality of these interfaces by codifying norms and values to the extent

Raya Marina Stephan

494

Terrorism, counter-terrorism and norms in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorism and counter-terrorism measures have undermined the norms, rules and institutions that underpin security in Africa. Through the use of indiscriminate violence, terrorism has maimed and killed innocent people, threatened jobs and various social activities, and dented democratic processes of resolving conflict in society. Similarly, military and legislative counter-terrorism measures have caused the deaths of innocent people, undermined democratic governance

Samuel M Makinda

2006-01-01

495

Sanitation norms in rural areas: a cross-cultural comparison.  

PubMed

Mortality rates have sharply decreased throughout the world in the twentieth century. While the communicable diseases that had been the principal killers of mankind have been largely brought under control, the enteric and other diseases, which are directly related to sanitation practices, have not been affected. Improvement in health status in the developing nations, especially in isolated rural areas, will hinge on changes in sanitation norms. Modification of these norms must be based on an awareness of what they are and of the values that are associated with them. Sanitation norms in rural areas of three countries--in the southeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic--are reviewed on the basis of a study in which essentially the same survey instrument was used in the three samples. Sanitation norms relating to the source of water and storage for household use are compared, as are personal hygiene practices and patterns for the disposal of liquid wastes, garbage, and other solid wastes. Selected attitudinal values are also examined. PMID:667407

Belcher, J C

1978-01-01

496

On The Marriage of Lp-norms and Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies on time series are based on two categories of distance functions. The first category consists of the Lp-norms. They are metric distance functions but cannot support local time shifting. The second category con- sists of distance functions which are capable of handling local time shifting but are non- metric. The first contribution of this paper is the proposal

Lei Chen; Raymond T. Ng

2004-01-01

497

Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

1992-06-01

498

Subjective Factors in Clinicians' Judgments of Insanity: Comparison of a Hypothetical Case and an Actual Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of three survey studies, we investigated psychiatrists' and clinical psychologists' responses to questions about the insanity defense. We found that subjects' ideology and background were predictive of their attitude toward the insanity defense in general and that this general attitude was, in turn, predictive of how subjects responded to a particular, hypothetical case. In a national sample

Robert J. Homant; Daniel B. Kennedy

1987-01-01

499

Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existin...

J. A. Veil

1998-01-01

500

Analytical Model for Radial Injection of NORM with a Step-Function Source*.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents information on a model used to analyze the underground injection of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This model uses a step function contaminant source, which models intermittent NORM injection in a co...

G. P. Williams D. Tomasko K. Smith D. Blunt

1997-01-01