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1

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications.  

PubMed

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0 degrees C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent perceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 391 Australian parents of children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Recruitment was through advertising, face-to-face and snowball methods. The survey targeted constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions and previously identified background factors. Structural equation modeling identified 69% of the variance in intentions. The strongest influences were from non-scientifically based attitudes (phobic) (beta=0.55) and subjective norms (husband/partner and doctors) (beta=0.36). Attitudes (beta=0.69) and subjective norms (beta=0.52) were strongly determined by child medication behavior (whether the child took medications easily when febrile) which had a total effect on intentions of beta=0.66. Perceived control, education and number of children had minimal influence on intentions. There is an urgent need for (i) the education of both parents in the benefits of fever and (ii) for doctors to consistently provide parents with evidence-based information. PMID:18974070

Walsh, A; Edwards, H; Fraser, J

2009-06-01

2

[Intention, attitude, subjective norms and perception of control in Spanish adolescents about using Double Dutch].  

PubMed

With adolescence, boys and girls reach their sexual maturity and initiate their sexual encounters. They very frequently adopt risk behaviors as they tend not to use any contraceptive methods. Today's trend in relation to contraceptive methods is to recommend the combined utilization of condom and pill. In comparison to other methods, this last one, known as the Double Dutch (DD) method, has the advantage of preventing pregnancy and STD's, at the same time it increases the efficiency of contraception. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior the purpose of the study was to measure the intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control towards the utilization of the DD method among 15-16 year-old Spanish students and to determine the relationships among these variables. The results indicate that adolescents show favorable intention, attitude and subjective norm toward the utilization of the DD method. They seem to be more worried about pregnancy prevention than about STDs'prevention. Parents seem to be the most important reference people for adolescents, followed by their friends; the results show that at this age, adolescents tend to take into consideration these reference people's opinion. PMID:16231616

Hernández, Oscar; Goulet, Céline; Lampron, Annie

2005-09-01

3

Habit as both a direct cause of intention to use a condom and as a moderator of the attitude-intention and subjective norm-intention relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduates at an American university were asked questions about their attitudes, subjective norms, habits, and intentions towards using a condom during sexual intercourse. Consistent with previous research (Chan and Fishbein, 1993; Trafimow, 1994), intentions were well predicted by attitudes and subjective norms (r = 0.88 and r = 0.73, p < 0.01 in both cases). Intentions were also well predicted

David Trafimow

2000-01-01

4

Perceived behavioural control, subjective norms, attitudes and intention to use condom: A longitudinal cross-lagged design.  

PubMed

Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this investigation was to examine the directionality of the association among condom use, intention, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. The present study investigated the nature of these relationships using a longitudinal cross-lagged design applied to data from a cohort of 958 randomly selected Italian adults. Using structural equation modelling, two cross-lagged panel analyses revealed reciprocal relationships between intention and attitudes and between intention and condom use. Contrary to expectations, baseline subjective norms and perceived behavioural control did not predict subsequent intention to use condom when controlled for the autoregressive effect of intention at T1 on the same variable at T2. Also, perceived behavioural control at T1 did not influence condom use at T2 after controlling for the effect of baseline intention. The possibility of reciprocity was also tested for all relations and significant results were found. The moderation effect of perceived behavioural control on the relationship between intention and condom use was not significant. The differences in age, gender and partnership status were taken into account in the analyses. PMID:24724800

Prati, Gabriele; Mazzoni, Davide; Zani, Bruna

2014-10-01

5

Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

6

Combined Longitudinal Effects of Attitude and Subjective Norms on Student Outcomes in a Web-Enhanced Course: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting the student use of a course management system in a web-enhanced course are investigated using the technology acceptance model. Represented in the present study is the second phase of the analysis, with a focus on the causal relationship of subjective norms to student attitudes towards WebCT and their effect on three dependent…

Sivo, Stephen A.; Pan, Cheng-Chang; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

2007-01-01

7

Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

2011-01-01

8

Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One\\u000a hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude,\\u000a subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence variables (self-identity and group\\u000a norm). Regression analyses supported the TPB predictors of

Katherine M. White; Larne Wellington

2009-01-01

9

Attitude ambivalence, friend norms, and adolescent drug use.  

PubMed

This study assessed the moderating effects of attitudinal ambivalence on adolescent marijuana use in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). With data from the National Survey of Parents and Youth (N?=?1,604), two hierarchical multiple regression models were developed to examine the association of ambivalent attitudes, intentions, and later marijuana use. The first model explored the moderating effect of ambivalence on intentions to use marijuana; the second tested the moderation of ambivalence on actual marijuana use 1 year later. Results across both analyses suggest that ambivalence moderated the association of friend norms and subsequent adolescent marijuana use: friend norms were better predictors of marijuana intentions (??=?0.151, t?=?2.29, p?=?0.02) and subsequent use when adolescents were attitudinally ambivalent about marijuana use (??=?0.071, t?=?2.76, p?=?0.006). These results suggest that preventive programs that affect the certainty with which adolescents holds pro- or antimarijuana attitudes may influence the likelihood of their resistance to, initiation, or continuance of marijuana use. PMID:23404670

Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M

2014-02-01

10

Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

2009-01-01

11

The Role of Religiosity, Religious Norms, Subjective Norms, and Bodily Integrity in Signing an Organ Donor Card  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of religiosity, religious norms, subjective norms, and bodily integrity (the extent to which people think the body should remain unaltered after death) on intent to donate organs postmortem. A total of 4,426 participants from 6 universities completed surveys for this study. The results indicate that religiosity and religious norms had a nonsignificant effect on willingness

Michael T. Stephenson; Susan E. Morgan; Samaria D. Roberts-Perez; Tyler Harrison; Walid Afifi; Shawn D. Long

2008-01-01

12

Re-Examining the Norm Concept in Cephalometrics: Associations Between Subjective Assessments and Deviations from Cephalometric Norms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of agreement between deviations from cephalometric norms and clinicians' subjective assessments of treatment difficulty and success. Six orthodontists subjectively assessed and ranked complete pre- a...

J. Y. De Jesus

2000-01-01

13

Masculine Norms, School Attitudes, and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Gifted Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being an academically gifted boy may mean negotiating masculinity. In this exploratory study, 58 gifted and talented adolescent boys completed the Male Role Norms Inventory–Adolescent (MRNI-A) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children–Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP-A). Correlation results show endorsing traditional masculine norms was positively associated with feelings of competency, confidence, self-reliance, and feeling self-assured. Feelings of inadequacy also decreased

Samuel J. Shepard; Megan Foley Nicpon; James T. Haley; Michael Lind; William Ming Liu

2011-01-01

14

A novel tool to assess community norms and attitudes to multiple and concurrent sexual partnering in rural Zimbabwe: participatory attitudinal ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent sexual partnerships are important in understanding the evolution and maintenance of the HIV heterosexual epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. While it is possible to measure individual attitudes around sensitive behaviours through questionnaire surveys, studies suggest that responses may be subject to social desirability bias and may not reflect community norms. This study used a novel tool to collect data on

Webster Mavhu; Lisa Langhaug; Sophie Pascoe; Jeffrey Dirawo; Graham Hart; Frances Cowan

2011-01-01

15

The role of norms in explaining attitudes, intention and consumption of a common food (fish) in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to apply the conceptual framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain the consumption of a common food (fish) in Vietnam. We seek to understand the role of norms in explaining intention to consume, and descriptive norms is included as extensions of traditional constructs such as attitude, social norms, and perceived behavioral

Ho Huy Tuu; Svein Ottar Olsen; Duong Tri Thao; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh

2008-01-01

16

Bullying and Social Identity: The Effects of Group Norms and Distinctiveness Threat on Attitudes towards Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), an experiment was carried out to determine the extent to which children's attitudes towards bullying could be moderated by in-group norms and perceived threat to group distinctiveness. The study investigated the responses of 120 male primary school students aged 10-13 years from five…

Ojala, Kris; Nesdale, Drew

2004-01-01

17

Injury and the Orchestral Environment: Part II. Organisational Culture, Behavioural Norms, and Attitudes to Injury.  

PubMed

The organisational culture, behavioural norms, and attitudes of a workplace have a profound influence on levels of injury and illness amongst its workers. While this is well established in Work Health and Safety literature, very little research has attempted to understand the influence of organisational culture on injury risk in the orchestral profession. To address this, the current study aimed to investigate the influence of organisational culture on injury outcomes for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case study methodology, in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 freelance and 8 fulltime members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a themes-based "analysis of narrative" approach. The findings indicate that an orchestral culture exists in which musicians see injury as a sign of weakness, failure, and poor musicianship. Such negative perceptions of injury influence musicians to play through considerable levels of pain and continue performing with injuries. Because of perceived judgment from the orchestral group, musicians were found to conceal injuries from colleagues and management staff. Freelance musicians felt that disclosing injuries may lead to decreased work opportunities, and both full-time and casual musicians felt that "opening up" about injury may subject them to group judgment about their technique or musicianship. The study suggests education measures which may be effective at influencing individual behaviours and attitudes as well as cultural change initiatives which could lead to long-term positive health outcomes in the orchestral workplace. PMID:24925177

Rickert, Dale Ll; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

2014-06-01

18

Chinese attitudes, norms, behavioral control and gambling involvement in Macao.  

PubMed

This study tested the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on gambling intention and involvement in a representative Chinese sample in Macao, recruited by a random residential number dialing method. We successfully interviewed 685 respondents, with about one-third of them reporting that they had participated in gambling activities during the 12 months prior to the interview. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that favorable attitudes toward superstition and techniques, poor sense of perceived behavioral control over gambling refusal, and high gambling intention increased vulnerability to excessive gambling involvement. These findings generally support the efficacy of the TPB in explaining gambling intention and involvement among both Chinese gamblers and non-gamblers. Some practical implications of the findings are discussed within the Chinese context. PMID:23179299

Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kowk Kit; Tao, Vivienne Y K

2013-12-01

19

Pupils' Attitudes towards Technical/Vocational Subjects: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory investigation was conducted in a secondary school in Zimbabwe to determine pupils' attitudes toward technical/vocational subjects. It also investigated the relationship of those attitudes to: (1) pupils' perceptions of the world of work; and (2) the pupils' homes. In the first part of the study, 200 pupils completed an attitude

Mandebvu, Onward

20

Psychometric Properties and United States National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

PubMed Central

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Comprised of four subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) and a total scale score, preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure and policies, organizational culture and climate, and first-level leadership. EBPAS scores are also related to service provider characteristics including age, education level, and level of professional development. The present study examined the factor structure, reliability, and norms of EBPAS scores in a sample of 1089 mental health service providers from a nationwide sample drawn from 100 service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study also examines associations of provider demographic characteristics with EBPAS subscale and total scores. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a second-order factor model, and reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged from .91-.67 (total scale = .74). The study establishes national norms for the EBPAS so that comparisons can be drawn for United States local and international studies of attitudes toward evidence-based practices. The results suggest that the factor structure and reliability are likely generalizable to a variety of service provider contexts and different service settings and that EBPAS scales are associated with provider characteristics. Directions for future research are discussed.

Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelley; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2013-01-01

21

Maternal autonomy and attitudes towards gender norms: associations with childhood immunization in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Globally 2.5 million children under-five die from vaccine preventable diseases, and in Nigeria only 23 % of children ages 12-23 months are fully immunized. The international community is promoting gender equality as a means to improve the health and well-being of women and their children. This paper looks at whether measures of gender equality, autonomy and individual attitudes towards gender norms, are associated with a child being fully immunized in Nigeria. Data from currently married women with a child 12-23 months from the 2008 Nigeria demographic and health survey were used to study the influence of autonomy and gender attitudes on whether or not a child is fully immunized. Multivariate logistic regression was used and several key socioeconomic variables were controlled for including wealth and education, which are considered key inputs into gender equality. Findings indicated that household decision-making and attitudes towards wife beating were significantly associated with a child being fully immunized after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Ethnicity, wealth and education were also significant factors. Programmatic and policy implications indicate the potential for the promotion of gender equality as a means to improve child health. Gender equality can be seen as a means to enable women to access life-saving services for their children. PMID:22696106

Singh, Kavita; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort

2013-07-01

22

"Boys Don't Cry": Examination of the Links between Endorsement of Masculine Norms, Self-Stigma, and Help-Seeking Attitudes for Men from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of conformity to dominant U.S. masculine norms as an antecedent to help-seeking attitudes in men has been established using convenience samples made up largely of college-age and European American males. However, the role of conformity to masculine norms on help-seeking attitudes for noncollege-age men or for men from diverse backgrounds…

Vogel, David L.; Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Hubbard, Asale

2011-01-01

23

Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

Hopp, Toby M.

2013-01-01

24

Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Intentions: A Needs Assessment Study of the Influenza Immunization Intentions of Elderly Citizens in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influenza and pneumonia rank among the 5 leading causes of death among persons aged 65 and over. Although immunization has been demonstrated to prevent influenza or reduce its incidence and associated complications among the elderly, it has been largely underutilized. Purpose: This study examined the association of attitudes, perceived norms, and…

Bosompra, Kwadwo; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Ruby, Anne

2004-01-01

25

Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China  

PubMed Central

This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé à un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, à la discrimination perçue au nivea

Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

2009-01-01

26

The Relationship Between Help-Seeking Attitudes and Masculine Norms Among Monozygotic Male-Twins Discordant for Sexual Orientation  

PubMed Central

Objective In general, heterosexual men are less favorable to asking for help compared to women and gay men. This can be problematic if a man avoids professional help when he is experiencing significant psychological distress. Yet, it is unclear to what degree such attitudes among men are due to innate differences or social environments. Studying twins provides one avenue for teasing apart these relationships. Methods We recruited 38 pairs of monozygotic male-twins (MAge 35.87; SD = 9.52) raised together and who were discordant for sexual orientation. They completed a measure of psychological distress (Symptom–Checklist–90–Revised), positive attitudes towards psychological help-seeking behavior, and emphasis with fulfilling traditional masculine norms. Results Contrary to predictions, the heterosexual twins expressed more symptoms of specific distress—Hostility (r = .30), Paranoid Ideation (r = .26), and Psychoticism (r = .24)—compared to their gay co-twins. As predicted, heterosexual men were less favorable to seeking help (r = .25) and expressed greater emphasis on masculine norms (r = .26) compared to their co-twins. Within each group of men, unique aspects of masculine norms were significantly related to attitudes towards psychological help-seeking behavior. Conclusion The findings lend credence to the hypothesis that social environments influence attitudes and behaviors that are stereotypically masculine and potentially detrimental to men’s health.

Sanchez, Francisco J.; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

2014-01-01

27

Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is on the rise globally, particularly among vulnerable populations such as youth and women. Increasing knowledge about toxicant yield from waterpipe tobacco and deleterious health effects points to the potential for a health epidemic. WTS is often viewed as a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. Though the original objective of the research was to explore the social norms and attitudes that lead to waterpipe being a more acceptable form of tobacco smoking for women than cigarettes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the use of a qualitative research methodology resulted in rich data that helped to understand more generally the phenomenon of waterpipe smoking. Both focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used. Participants were recruited to represent genders, various age groups, socioeconomic status, waterpipe smoking status, and residents of urban and rural areas. A total of 81 FGDs and 38 in-depth interviews were conducted in 2007. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. A total of ten themes emerged: socio-cultural norms, gender differences, motivation to smoke, sensory characteristics of waterpipe, metaphors, consumerism, indicators of dependence, comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe, health effect of smoking, and intervention. Results indicated that WTS has socio-cultural dynamics associated with it that are far more pronounced than health considerations. An increased socio-cultural acceptability, the perceived reduced harm and the advent of the fruity Moassel tobacco are among the many reasons for WTS acceptability. Findings point to the need for a unified strategy to address this health issue at all levels of the ecological framework and have important implications for future policy and practice. PMID:24331890

Afifi, Rima; Khalil, Joanna; Fouad, Fouad; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Abu Farhat, Hala; Ayad, Maha; Nakkash, Rima

2013-12-01

28

Career attitudes and subjective career success: tackling gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of gender upon the relation between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective career success, in today's dynamic and changing organizational context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire conducted on 150 graduate and post-graduate distance learning students. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings

Mihaela Enache; Jose M. Sallan; Pep Simo; Vicenç Fernandez

2011-01-01

29

The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are usually neglected in economics, because they are to a large extent enforced through nonmarket interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to work and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people find a new job.

Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

2004-01-01

30

The Role of Social Work Norms in Job Searching and Subjective Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are usually neglected in economics because they are to a large extent enforced through non-market interactions and difficult to isolate empirically. In this paper, we offer a direct measure of the social norm to live off one’s own income and we show that this norm has important economic effects. The stronger the norm, the more quickly unemployed people

Alois Stutzer; Rafael Lalive

2001-01-01

31

Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture  

PubMed Central

Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people’s day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists.

Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

2010-01-01

32

First, Third, and Fifth Grade Children's Attitudes about Gender Norm Violations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This questionnaire study examined elementary school student's knowledge of a number of gender norms as well as some moral and social norms. Participating in the study were 111 first, third, and fifth graders, the majority of whom were white, with a small number of Hispanic and Asian children. The gender roles related to children's play, hair…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

33

Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

2007-01-01

34

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

Lee, Kaman

2011-01-01

35

Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents’ Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents’ environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to environment-related media content is positively associated with Hong Kong youngsters’ subjective

Kaman Lee

2011-01-01

36

Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia  

SciTech Connect

How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

2008-06-05

37

The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

2010-01-01

38

Tongan students’ attitudes towards their subjects in new zealand relative to their academic achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that affective attitudes such as liking of a subject and confidence in one’s ability within a subject predict\\u000a academic performance. Generally, immigrant minority students have positive attitudes and often have low academic performance.\\u000a This study examines the self-efficacy and liking of subjects of New Zealand students and analyses the relationship of those\\u000a attitudes towards academic performance in mathematics,

Mo’ale Otunuku; Gavin T. L. Brown

2007-01-01

39

Tongan Students' Attitudes towards Their Subjects in New Zealand Relative to Their Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that affective attitudes such as liking of a subject and confidence in one's ability within a subject predict academic performance. Generally, immigrant minority students have positive attitudes and often have low academic performance. This study examines the self-efficacy and liking of subjects of New Zealand students and…

Otunuku, Mo'ale; Brown, Gavin T. L.

2007-01-01

40

The Impact of Hispanic and White Group Cues on Attitudes Towards the Violation of Generic Norms  

PubMed Central

While much work in political science has examined the impact of racial cues on individual perceptions, we know little about how individuals evaluate members of minority outgroups on issues that are not linked to stereotypes. We measure the impacts of Hispanic and White cues on individual assessments related to a stereotype-independent norm violation: alcoholism. We test three competing theories – cognition, intergroup emotions, and social identity – using a population-based vignette experiment included in the General Social Survey. Our results contradict much of the literature, but keep with social identity theory's predictions. Hispanic alcoholics, when Hispanics constitute the outgroup, are assessed less negatively than White alcoholics in the ingroup, the latter experiencing what is called the black sheep effect. The black sheep effect occurs when ingroup members are more punitive towards members of the ingroup than the outgroup. However, the black sheep effect does not extend to measures that are more consistent with outgroup stereotypes, such as violence or money mismanagement; Hispanic alcoholics are evaluated more negatively than Whites on these measures. The implication is that the effect of racial cues depends strongly on issue linkages to group stereotypes.

Cranmer, Mirjam; Cranmer, Skyler J.

2013-01-01

41

Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.  

PubMed

Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

2013-08-01

42

Technical Report on the School Subjects Attitude Scales [and] Improving and Extending the School Subjects Attitude Scales [and] Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation of the School Subjects Attitude Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-point school subjects attitude scale, based on the semantic differential technique, was developed after two rounds of factor analysis; it contained 24 bipolar adjectives, each representing one of three factors: evaluation, usefulness, and difficulty. The scale was administered to Alberta (Canada) students in grades 5 and 8, who were…

Nyberg, V. R.; Clarke, S. C. T.

43

Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct  

PubMed Central

This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms.

Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

2010-01-01

44

Attitudes and subjective norms: determinants of parents' intentions to reduce childhood fever with medications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fever is a natural protective response of the host organism. Mild to moderate fevers, up to 40.0C, have immunological benefits and do not need to be reduced. However, parents regularly reduce fever with medications to prevent per- ceived harmful outcomes. This study identified the determinants of parents' intentions to re- duce childhood fever with medications. A com- munity-based cross-sectional survey

A. Walsh; H. Edwards; J. Fraser

2009-01-01

45

Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

2010-01-01

46

WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR MEN'S HOSTILE ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN?: THE INFLUENCE OF HEGEMONIC MALE ROLE NORMS AND MASCULINE GENDER ROLE STRESS  

PubMed Central

This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed.

Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

2011-01-01

47

A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students.  

PubMed

The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use. PMID:24611821

Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick

2014-06-01

48

Teacher Attitudes toward Subject-Specific Acceleration: Instrument Development and Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the research supporting acceleration, some teachers are still hesitant to recommend acceleration for advanced students. The Teacher Attitudes Toward Subject-Specific Acceleration (TATSSA) instrument was designed to uncover the factors that influence teacher decisions to recommend students for subject-specific acceleration. First, we…

Rambo, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2012-01-01

49

An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach  

PubMed Central

Background Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 adult male and female respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age (?35 years and >35 years), and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not indicate their sex. The majority of women (77%) and men (74%) agreed “a man needs other women, even if things with his wife are fine”. Respondents who reported no education (60%) were more likely than those who reported any education (45%) to agree “if a woman is married, she should have sex with her husband whenever he wants to, even if she doesn’t want to” (p?=?0.002). The majority of women (74%) and men (73%) agreed “it is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant”. Respondents who reported no education (81%) were more likely than those who reported any education (72%) to agree with this statement (p?=?0.04). When asked about condom use, the majority of respondents, across both sexes and both age groups, agreed “it would be outrageous for a wife to ask her husband to use a condom” and “women who carry condoms are easy”. There were no statistically significant differences between the two age groups for any of the assessed gender inequitable norms. Conclusion The study reveals differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms among those surveyed in South Sudan when stratified by sex and education. As a new nation seeks to strengthen its health system, these data can inform sexual and reproductive health policies and programming in South Sudan.

2013-01-01

50

Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure…

Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

2010-01-01

51

Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…

Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.

2007-01-01

52

The Effects of Knowledge About Subject Matter on the Performance and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that 1) prospective teachers who have been trained in microplanning will score higher on tests of teacher effectiveness and 2) will not change their attitudes about pupils and teaching in an undesirable direction. Subjects were 20 secondary school social studies majors, 10 who volunteered to take an experimental teacher…

Waimon, Morton D.; And Others

53

Attitudes of subjects at risk and their relatives towards genetic counselling in Huntington's chorea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-two patients suffering from Huntington's chorea (HC) and their spouses, and 91 subjects with an affected parent and their spouses, living in three counties of industrial South Wales, have been studied regarding their knowledge of their inheritance of the disorder. Particular attention was paid to its influence on their attitudes towards child-bearing, telling their children of the risks, and predictive

A Tyler; P S Harper

1983-01-01

54

The Potential of Multivariate Analysis in Assessing Students' Attitude to Curriculum Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding student attitudes to curriculum subjects is central to providing evidence-based options to policy makers in education. Purpose: We illustrate how quantitative approaches used in the social sciences and based on multivariate analysis (categorical Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis and General Linear…

Gaotlhobogwe, Michael; Laugharne, Janet; Durance, Isabelle

2011-01-01

55

Norms of subjective frequency of use and imagery for a sample of 1,916 French nouns.  

PubMed

Norms of rated subjective frequency of use and imagery on seven-point scales are reported for 1,916 French nouns. Subjective frequency was defined as the rated frequency of occurrence of words in spoken French, and imagery was defined as the rated case with which a word aroused a mental image. The mean, standard deviation, and percentile rank of the frequency and imagery ratings for each item are presented in the Appendix together with their objective frequency of occurrence in Baudot's (1992) dictionary. Interjudge reliability was assessed by calculating the correlation between the mean ratings of items repeated in the booklet, between the mean ratings obtained from odd-numbered and even-numbered respondents, and by computing the Cronbach alpha statistic for each page of the booklet. These reliability estimates were equal to or greater than .92 for frequency and for imagery, confirming the high level of interjudge consistency. Although the estimates provided by female and male participants were highly correlated (r = .97), the former gave a slightly higher frequency rating to the word sample but a slightly lower imagery rating than the latter did. Moreover, female respondents gave slightly more extreme ratings on the frequency and imagery scales. An analysis of the absolute difference between female and male ratings revealed a discrepancy of one half point or more on 20% of the word sample for frequency and 13% for imagery. On both scales, the mean absolute difference between male and female ratings was larger than that obtained by chance alone. This finding highlights the possibility that some words may not be equally familiar to women and men or may not evoke imagery with the same ease in these groups. Validity estimates for the frequency and imagery ratings were derived from correlations with scale values drawn from other normative studies. These correlation coefficients were equal to or greater than .78 for frequency and .86 for imagery, confirming the high level of consistency between this and other studies. An analysis of the relationship between subjective frequency and imagery ratings indicated that these variables are generally uncorrelated but exceptions occur. In the present study the coefficient of the correlation between subjective frequency and imagery was .24. However, when items with extreme mean frequency were excluded from the calculation, the correlation coefficient dropped to .04 and was no longer significant. Imagery ratings from five independent studies were all positively and significantly correlated with Vikis-Freibergs's (1974) frequency estimates, which were obtained from a free-association task. This finding suggests that word association, as a form of cued recall, may be influenced by several stimulus attributes including prior frequency of association and imagery-evoking value. The pattern of correlation between imagery ratings and text-based frequency estimates is not coherent. It reveals significant correlations only in select cases and no consistent polarity of linear relationship. The main contribution of this research is to provide reliable estimates of subjective frequency and imagery value for a word sample that is larger than those included in previous studies. A close examination of the linear relationship among the various sources of frequency and imagery data underscores the risk of confounding these variables in the selection of lexical stimuli for research. PMID:11195718

Desrochers, A; Bergeron, M

2000-12-01

56

Similarities in Attitudes and Norms and the Effect on Bicycle Commuting: Evidence from the Bicycle Cities Davis and Delft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its beneficial effects, many governments encourage bicycle use for commuting. In search of effective strategies, they often study best practices from elsewhere. However, in order to assess the likely success of transferring measures from one city or country to another, an accurate comparison of the bicycling context is needed. This paper explores the similarities and differences in attitudes

Eva Heinen; Susan Handy

2011-01-01

57

Similarities in Attitudes and Norms and the Effect on Bicycle Commuting: Evidence from the Bicycle Cities Davis and Delft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its beneficial effects, many governments encourage bicycle use for commuting. In search of effective strategies, they often study best practices from elsewhere. However, in order to assess the likely success of transferring measures from one city or country to another, an accurate comparison of the bicycling context is needed. This article explores the similarities and differences in attitudes

Eva Heinen; Susan Handy

2012-01-01

58

Adaptation and perceptual norms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

2007-03-01

59

Social Integration: Special Education Teachers' Attitudes and Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study applying the theory of reasoned action found that special education teachers' (N=28) intentions to structure integration opportunities were predicted from measures of attitude and subjective norm; actual reported structuring of opportunities was weakly predicted by intention and the antecedent of attitude. (Author/DB)

Thousand, Jacqueline S.; Burchard, Sara

1990-01-01

60

Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and "Autistic" Traits  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

2013-01-01

61

Attitudes, beliefs and norms relating to contraceptive use among young migrant and non-migrant adults in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

The young urban population of Tanzania is growing rapidly, primarily due to rural-urban migration. More information is needed on the challenges facing young adult urban women and men in using family planning (FP). The purpose of this study is to identify perceptions, interpersonal and familial attitudes, and sociocultural norms regarding FP among young adults (18-25 years) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, comparing responses by sex, marital status and migration status. We conducted 12 focus groups with young adult men and women (n=74) in Dar es Salaam in December 2009. Participants knew of modern contraceptive methods, but had serious concerns about side effects. Single men and women preferred condoms. Female migrants stated that traditional methods were ineffective, yet commonly used in rural areas. Men's desires for more children frequently led female migrants not to use FP, while many married long-term residents used FP discreetly. Single women sometimes received the support of their parents/boyfriends to access and use contraception. Findings highlight differences in experiences among young adult men and women based on their migrant and marital status at the individual, interpersonal and normative levels. Future efforts to promote FP should engage existing social support systems and cultivate new ones in response to barriers. PMID:24156247

Irani, Laili; Speizer, Ilene; Barrington, Clare

2013-01-01

62

Attitudes of subjects at risk and their relatives towards genetic counselling in Huntington's chorea.  

PubMed Central

Ninety-two patients suffering from Huntington's chorea (HC) and their spouses, and 91 subjects with an affected parent and their spouses, living in three counties of industrial South Wales, have been studied regarding their knowledge of their inheritance of the disorder. Particular attention was paid to its influence on their attitudes towards child-bearing, telling their children of the risks, and predictive tests. Only 12% of the patients were known to have received professional advice before completing their families, in contrast to 68% of the sample at risk. It is estimated that 82% of the patients and 60% of the subjects at risk had, or might have, restricted their family size had they known in time. The majority found genetic counselling helpful, but did not necessarily wish to alter their child-bearing plans in consequence. It was clear that information provided by the family alone was usually inadequate and that this applied to the present generation at risk as well as to previous generations. It was concluded that the burden of telling children the risks is too great for most parents and that professional help is needed. The long term impact of genetic counselling on the incidence of the disease is impossible to assess without continued monitoring, but preliminary results are encouraging. Attitudes towards a predictive test reflected much conflict: although 56% overall wished to take one, only 40% of those who were parents wished to know if they were at risk of passing the gene on to their children. Few subjects reported severe social stress on learning of their genetic risks, but about one in four reported experiencing significant anxiety.

Tyler, A; Harper, P S

1983-01-01

63

Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward

Wilson Vincent; Dominic J. Parrott; John L. Peterson

2011-01-01

64

Comparison theorems using general cones for norms of iteration matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove comparison theorems for norms of iteration matrices in splittings of matrices in the setting of proper cones in a finite dimensional real space by considering cone linear absolute norms and cone max norms. Subject to mild additional hypotheses, we show that these comparison theorems can hold only for such norms within the class of cone absolute norms. Finally,

Thomas I. Seidman; Hans Schneider; Marina Arav

2005-01-01

65

The control of space manipulators subject to spacecraft attitude control saturation limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motions of robotic manipulators mounted on spacecraft can disturb the spacecraft's positions and attitude. These disturbances can surpass the ability of the system's attitude control reaction jets to control them, for the disturbances increase as manipulator speeds increase. If the manipulator moves too quickly the resulting disturbances can exceed the saturation levels of the reaction jets, causing excessive spacecraft motions. A method for planning space manipulator's motions is presented, so that tasks can be performed as quickly as possible without saturating the system's attitude control jets.

Dubowsky, S.; Vance, E. E.; Torres, M. A.

1989-01-01

66

A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

2011-01-01

67

Undergraduates' Attitudes and Beliefs about Subject Matter and Pedagogy Measured Periodically in a Reform-Based Mathematics and Science Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design and use of a valid and reliable instrument to measure teacher candidates' attitudes and beliefs about mathematics and science and the teaching of those subjects. Uses the instrument 'Attitudes and Beliefs about the Nature of and Teaching of Mathematics and Science' which was developed for the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher…

McGinnis, J. Randy; Kramer, Steve; Shama, Gilli; Graeber, Anna O.; Parker, Carolyn A.; Watanabe, Ted

2002-01-01

68

The attitudes and perceptions of medical students towards basic science subjects during their clinical years: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the conventional system of medical education, basic subjects are taught in the 1st year with least interdisciplinary interaction. The objective of this study was to explore the students’ perception about content, need and application of basic science subjects during the clinical years of their medical education. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among students randomly after taking their written consent for participation in the study. About 265 completely filled questionnaires were received back and the response was analyzed. Results: Students identified anatomy as the subject with overloaded syllabus (75.4%) and also with maximum clinical application with 50.1% of them considering it the most important basic subject. Students were satisfied with the practical integration of subjects to impart clinical skills, but considered problem based learning a better method of teaching. According to 37%, 43.8% and 33.2% of respondents respectively; anatomy, biochemistry and physiology curriculum should only cover the general concepts to give the working knowledge of the subject. Approximately, 65% of the respondents were able to recall the knowledge of anatomy and physiology while biochemistry was retained by 40%. Conclusions: Overall, the attitudes of students toward basic science subjects were positive. The learning experience for them can be improved significantly by better clinical integration of the subjects.

Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Ashwani K; Verma, Minni; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

2014-01-01

69

Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed.

Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

2011-01-01

70

Constraining autonomy through norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many efforts to understand why and how norms can be incorporated into agents and multi-agent systems, there are still several gaps that must be filled. This paper focuses on one of the most important processes concerned with norms, namely that of norm compliance. However, instead of taking a static view of norms in which norms are straighforwardly complied with,

Fabiola López y López; Michael Luck; Mark d'Inverno

2002-01-01

71

NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS  

PubMed Central

This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding.

Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

2008-01-01

72

Field Guide for the Study of Aspects of Subjective Culture. Illinois Studies of the Economically Disadvantaged, Technical Report Number 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective culture is a human group's characteristic way of perceiving the man-made part of its environment. It includes the group's model attitudes, norms, values, and roles. The study of subjective culture is likely to make a contribution to our understanding of the way various groups in any culture interact with members of other groups. The…

Triandis, Harry C.; Malpass, Roy S.

73

Attitudes Towards End-of-Life Decisions and the Subjective Concepts of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background People have fought for their civil rights, primarily the right to live in dignity. At present, the development of technology in medicine and healthcare led to an apparent paradox: many people are fighting for the right to die. This study was aimed at testing whether different moral principles are associated with different attitudes towards end-of-life decisions for patients with a severe brain damage. Methodology We focused on the ethical decisions about withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in patients with severe brain damage. 202 undergraduate students at the University of Padova were given one description drawn from four profiles describing different pathological states: the permanent vegetative state, the minimally conscious state, the locked-in syndrome, and the terminal illness. Participants were asked to evaluate how dead or how alive the patient was, and how appropriate it was to satisfy the patient's desire. Principal Findings We found that the moral principles in which people believe affect not only people's judgments concerning the appropriateness of the withdrawal of life support, but also the perception of the death status of patients with severe brain injury. In particular, we found that the supporters of the Free Choice (FC) principle perceived the death status of the patients with different pathologies differently: the more people believe in the FC, the more they perceived patients as dead in pathologies where conscious awareness is severely impaired. By contrast, participants who agree with the Sanctity of Life (SL) principle did not show differences across pathologies. Conclusions These results may shed light on the complex aspects of moral consensus for supporting or rejecting end-of-life decisions.

Lotto, Lorella; Manfrinati, Andrea; Rigoni, Davide; Rumiati, Rino; Sartori, Giuseppe; Birbaumer, Niels

2012-01-01

74

A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use.  

PubMed

The practice of waterpipe smoking (hookah) has rapidly increased in popularity among young adults yet burgeoning research suggests that its use is associated with nicotine dependence and other negative smoking-related health consequences. Moreover, descriptive studies indicate that consumers may hold the belief that hookah smoking is safer than smoking cigarettes. The current study extended previous work by conducting a comprehensive assessment of patterns and contexts of hookah use, psychological correlates of use, co-occurring substance use as well as social norms and health perceptions surrounding the practice. Participants were 143 ethnically diverse undergraduate students at a large urban US university. Approximately half of the sample (48%) reported life-time use of hookah and 22% reported use within the past 30days. Relative to cigarette smoking, hookah smoking was associated with less perceived harm and addiction potential and higher social approval. Participants who reported life-time hookah use, as compared to those who did not, perceived less associated harm, had a greater number of friends who had tried and approved of hookah, were more likely to use cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol and in higher frequencies and quantities and were at higher risk for problem tobacco and alcohol use. Among participants who were not current smokers, those with hookah experience were more likely to endorse intent to try a cigarette soon. Hookah users did not differ from non-users on measures of trait anxiety, depression and impulsivity though they were more likely to drink alcohol for coping, social and enhancement purposes than non-users. Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking. PMID:23934006

Heinz, Adrienne J; Giedgowd, Grace E; Crane, Natania A; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Braun, Ashley R; Olejarska, Natalia A; Kassel, Jon D

2013-11-01

75

Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

2011-01-01

76

Biology, Norms, and Personality: A Developmental Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus concerns psychobiological risk factors in the development of antisocial behavior among male and female subjects. Using longitudinal data, violent and nonviolent criminal offences were studied in relation to childhood vulnerability indicators, norm-breaking behavior in adolescence, and to personality traits and biochemical measures in adult age. Subsequently, levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were studied as related to personality

Britt af Klinteberg

1996-01-01

77

Development, social norms, and assignment to task  

PubMed Central

Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks.

Fafchamps, Marcel

2011-01-01

78

Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

79

Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal.  

PubMed

A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their in-group over the Black and Roma out-groups on the SSS measure, social preferences and positive as well as negative trait attributions. Generally, the Black and Roma showed equal SSS, preferences and trait attribution for their in-group and the high status White out-group, but not the other low-status out-group. With age White children generally demonstrated higher SSS for Black and Roma, preferred them more and attributed more positive traits. For low-status groups, an age effect was found only for Black children who preferred the Roma more with age and attributed more positive traits. Changes on preferences and trait attribution depending on age-group were mediated by SSS. It is concluded that minority group's SSS does not parallel the objective status hierarchy but, rather, is a dynamic reorganisation of group's relative positions serving strategies to cope with their minority condition. PMID:24673333

Feddes, Allard R; Monteiro, Maria-Benedicta; Justo, Mariline G

2014-06-01

80

Attitude stability of a spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays on a stationary orbit around an asteroid subjected to gravity gradient torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the gravity field of an asteroid with the second order and degree harmonics C 20 and C 22, the attitude stability of a spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays on a stationary orbit subjected to the fourth-order gravity gradient torque is investigated in this paper. The sufficient conditions of attitude stability of the spacecraft are obtained, the effect of the direction of the flexible solar arrays and some special cases are discussed. Taking the asteroids 4769 Castalia, 25143 Itokawa and the imaginary asteroids as examples, the attitude stability domains, determined by the sufficient conditions, of the spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits around them are presented. It is found that the attitude stability domains of the spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays are evidently different when the solar arrays are installed in different directions; the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has the significant influence on the attitude stability domains of the spacecrafts with flexible appendages moving on stationary orbits; in the certain case, the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has no influence on the attitude stability domains of the rigid spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits, but in the other cases, the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has also the significant influence on the attitude stability domains of the rigid spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits; whether the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids are considered or not, the effect of flexible appendages decreases the attitude stability domains.

Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhao, Chang-Yin

2014-03-01

81

Attitude stability of a spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays on a stationary orbit around an asteroid subjected to gravity gradient torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the gravity field of an asteroid with the second order and degree harmonics C 20 and C 22, the attitude stability of a spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays on a stationary orbit subjected to the fourth-order gravity gradient torque is investigated in this paper. The sufficient conditions of attitude stability of the spacecraft are obtained, the effect of the direction of the flexible solar arrays and some special cases are discussed. Taking the asteroids 4769 Castalia, 25143 Itokawa and the imaginary asteroids as examples, the attitude stability domains, determined by the sufficient conditions, of the spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits around them are presented. It is found that the attitude stability domains of the spacecraft with two flexible solar arrays are evidently different when the solar arrays are installed in different directions; the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has the significant influence on the attitude stability domains of the spacecrafts with flexible appendages moving on stationary orbits; in the certain case, the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has no influence on the attitude stability domains of the rigid spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits, but in the other cases, the effect of the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids has also the significant influence on the attitude stability domains of the rigid spacecrafts moving on stationary orbits; whether the harmonics C 20 and C 22 of the asteroids are considered or not, the effect of flexible appendages decreases the attitude stability domains.

Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhao, Chang-Yin

2014-06-01

82

Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

83

[Molecular-genetic and epidemiologic examination of personnel subjected to occupational irradiation in Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Sarov). Report 3. Genetic characteristics of adaptive norm].  

PubMed

Was undertaken the effort to define the limits of the adaptive norms and of high risk groups in regard to the work connected with fissile materials (FM), radioactive materials (RM) and ionizing radiation sources (IRS). In view of the aforementioned goal it was made a comparative evaluation of the individual radiosensitivity measurements and anthropometric indicators in the cohort formed from VNIIEF personnel, which was exposed to a constant occupational gamma-neutron irradiation, as well as the non-irradiated cohort. There were analyzed the dispersion dependencies on height, on chest and on head circumference and heterozygosis by 9 loci. It was found that the minimum chest circumference dispersion is observed in people with average heterozygosis equal to 3 (at the 95% credibility). The minimum head circumference and height dispersion is observed in people with average heterozygosis equal to 3-5. The largest jitter in metric indicators is characteristic for people with heterozygosis 2. The highest radiosensitivity is typical for such individuals as well. It was formulated the assumption that this category of people present the limit heterozygosis case. So, additional research looking at people with the limit heterozygosis values (2 and 7; 8) is required, in order to define individual radiosensitivity limits. PMID:19004326

Korzeneva, I B; Malinina, T V; Afanas'ev, K I; Zaichkina, S I; Dubrova, Iu E; Skorodumova, E N; Samsonova, V F; Volkova, I V; Shishova, R T; Shcherbakova, I L

2008-01-01

84

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions toward Nuclear Energy before and after Chernobyl in a Longitudinal within-subjects Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward nuclear energy in the Netherlands were investigated within a sample of Dutch citizens two months before the Chernobyl accident, one month after the accident, six months after the accident, and one year and seven months after the accident. One month after the accident, analyses revealed more unfavorable attitudes which became less antinuclear five months

Bas Verplanken

1989-01-01

85

Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm

Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

2013-01-01

86

Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.  

PubMed

Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

87

Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect.

Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

2010-01-01

88

Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

2013-01-01

89

Autonomous Norm Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of new goals: the case of norms It is generally acknowledged that norms and normative action em phasise autonomy on the side of decision. But what about the autonomous formation of normative goals? In a recent paper (Dignum & Conte 1997), the treatment of goal- acquisition in the Agent Theory (AT) literature was found ina dequate, some formal

Rosaria Conte; Cristiano Castelfranchi; Frank Dignum

1998-01-01

90

Twisted Alexander norms give lower bounds on the Thurston norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce twisted Alexander norms of a compact connected orientable 3-manifold with first Betti number bigger than one generalizing norms of McMullen and Turaev. We show that twisted Alexander norms give lower bounds on the Thurston norm of a 3-manifold. Using these we completely determine the Thurston norm of many 3-manifolds which can not be determined by norms of McMullen

Stefan Friedl; Taehee Kim

2005-01-01

91

Effect of Trunk Sagittal Attitude on Shoulder, Thorax and Pelvis Three-Dimensional Kinematics in Able-Bodied Subjects during Gait  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

Leardini, Alberto; Berti, Lisa; Begon, Mickael; Allard, Paul

2013-01-01

92

Is Russia Out of Step with European Norms? Assessing Russia's Relationship to European Identity, Values and Norms Through the Issue of Self-Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the question of European identity in Russian foreign policy through the notion of European norms. By considering attitudes towards the death penalty, it identifies different strands of thought in the Russian elite, and argues that an assertive Europeanism is now dominant as Russia seeks to be an equal participant in the development of common norms. However, there

James Headley

2012-01-01

93

Attitudes toward older people and coworkers' intention to work with older employees: a Taiwanese study.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the employment of Taiwanese older workers (aged 60 and above). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires from a sample of full-time employees (N= 258). We found that: (1) positive attitudes toward older people in general, perceived subjective norm, and traditional Chinese cultural values were all related to stronger intentions to work with older employees; (2) the model derived from the theory of reasoned action emerged the best model accounting for behavioral intention among competing structural models. The associations of positive attitudes and subjective norm with intention were found after controlling for demographics, cultural values, and personal contact experiences with older people. Our results highlight the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform public and organizational policies to better promote and manage the careers of older employees in an aging, economically developing society. PMID:21261137

Lu, Luo

2010-01-01

94

Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research  

PubMed Central

This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm.

Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

2010-01-01

95

The influence of the International Baccalaureate experimental science program format on classroom learning environment and student attitudes toward the subject of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the classroom learning environments and science attitudes of students in three IB Higher Level science classrooms. The study sample consisted of 82 twelfth grade IB science students and three IB Higher Level science teachers. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to generate assertions toward the development of a grounded theory on accelerated curriculum effects on the classroom learning environment. The four research questions that guided this investigation are: (1) What are the shared characteristics of IB Higher Level experimental science instructors? (2) What instructional methods do instructors use to implement the IB Higher Level experimental science program and why do the instructors use these methods? (3) What are the students' perceptions about the classroom learning environment in IB Higher Level experimental science courses? (4) Does a relationship exist between student perceptions of the classroom learning environment and student attitudes toward the subject of science in IB Higher Level experimental science courses? The qualitative data sources were field notes from classroom observations, teacher interview transcripts, and relevant documents. These data sources were analyzed by constant comparison analysis. Assertions were generated about the educational and professional qualifications of the Higher Level science instructors and the teaching methods used to implement the IB science curriculum. Quantitative data sources consisted of student responses to the Preferred and Actual Forms of the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Attitude Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA). Student responses to the Preferred and Actual Forms of the ICEQ were analyzed with paired t-tests and one way analyses of variance to determine the students' perceptions about the science classroom environment. Correlation tests were used to examine the relationship between learning environment dimensions and student science attitudes. The significant findings of this study were the Higher Level science teachers were supportive facilitators with strong educational backgrounds. However, the science teachers demonstrated teaching behaviors associated with teaching to the IB science exit examinations. The ICEQ findings revealed the IB science students preferred more personalized teacher-student interactions. The correlation results suggested more positive science attitudes may result in greater participation in IB Higher Level physics classes.

Raiford, Lisa Renee

96

Preschool Children's Attitudes about Deviations from Gender-Role Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 3- to 7-year old children's knowledge about gender roles and moral and social norms, their beliefs about the possibility of violating these roles and norms, and their attitudes about children who do. The gender role norms were grouped into several categories: toys, games, play styles, adult occupations, adult parental roles,…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen; Russ, Lisa S.

97

Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding  

PubMed Central

This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly.

Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

2014-01-01

98

Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

99

Perceived Peer Norms and Sexual Intentions Among African American Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research was to examine whether perceived peer dating and sexual experience norms are related to attitudes toward dating and sexual behavior and to precoital and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. Participants included 1,046 African American youth aged 9-12 years (M = 10.57 years). Youth completed a…

Wallace, Scyatta A.; Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex

2008-01-01

100

Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

Grow, Richard T.

1980-01-01

101

Vitrification of NORM wastes  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification of wastes is a relatively new application of none of man`s oldest manufacturing processes. During the past 25 years it has been developed and accepted internationally for immobilizing the most highly radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel. By the year 2005, there will be nine operating high-level radioactive vitrification plants. Many of the technical ``lessons learned`` from this international program can be applied to much less hazardous materials such as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). With the deployment of low capital and operating cost systems, vitrification should become a broadly applied process for treating a large variety of wastes. In many situations, the wastes can be transformed into marketable products. This paper will present a general description of waste vitrification, summarize some of its key advantages, provide some test data for a small sample of one NORM, and suggest how this process may be applied to NORM.

Chapman, C.

1994-05-01

102

Attitudes toward Genetic Research Review: Results from a National Survey of Professionals involved in Human Subjects Protection  

PubMed Central

The recent expansion of human genetics research has raised complex ethical and regulatory issues. However, few published reports describe the views of professionals involved in human subjects protection (HSP) regarding the risks and benefits of genetic research. This anonymous, web-based study elicited the opinions of 208 HSP professionals about review of genetic research. The majority of respondents felt that different guidance is needed for various aspects of genetic protocol review compared with other types of human subjects research. Importantly, opinions were divided on specific genetic research issues such as what constitutes human subjects research, when to re-consent, and the likelihood and risks of research participant identification. Findings from this study illustrate the need for a collaborative approach to ethics oversight in the conduct and review of genetic research.

Lemke, Amy A.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Edwards, Karen L.; Starks, Helene; Wiesner, Georgia L.

2010-01-01

103

The price of sin: The effects of social norms on markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence for the effects of social norms on markets by studying ''sin'' stocks—publicly traded companies involved in producing alcohol, tobacco, and gaming. We hypothesize that there is a societal norm against funding operations that promote vice and that some investors, particularly institutions subject to norms, pay a financial cost in abstaining from these stocks. Consistent with this hypothesis,

Harrison Hong; Marcin Kacperczyk

2006-01-01

104

Social norms and human cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of social norms is one of the big unsolved problems in social cognitive science. Although no other concept is invoked more frequently in the social sciences, we still know little about how social norms are formed, the forces determining their content, and the cognitive and emotional requirements that enable a species to establish and enforce social norms. In

Ernst Fehr; Urs Fischbacher

2004-01-01

105

Persuasion, Frames and Norm Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructivist theorists view norms as shared understandings that reflect `legitimate social purpose'. Because the focus is on the ideational building blocks that undergird a community's shared understandings, rather than material forces, persuasive communication is considered fundamentally important to norm-building. In practice, this means that frames are crafted by norm entrepreneurs so as to resonate with audiences. However, the constructivist empirical

RODGER A. PAYNE

2001-01-01

106

Norms and Mathematical Proficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 8-page article (PDF) Kastberg and Frye explain how sociomathematical norms can improve students' mathematical proficiency. The article focuses on a 6th grade class working through a ratio comparison problem. In this classroom students had been encouraged to question and challenge their own solutions as well as peer's solutions, leading to deeper mathematical understanding through valuing the differences in problem solving and reasoning.

Kastberg, Signe E.; Frye, R. S.

2013-08-01

107

Comparison of patients' and health care professionals' attitudes towards advance directives.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify and compare the attitudes of patients and health care professionals towards advance directives. Advance directives promote recognition of the patient's autonomy, letting the individual exercise a certain measure of control over life-sustaining care and treatment in the eventuality of becoming incompetent. DESIGN: Attitudes to advance directives were evaluated using a 44-item self-reported questionnaire. It yields an overall score as well as five factor scores: autonomy, beneficence, justice, external norms, and the affective dimension. SETTING: Health care institutions in the province of Québec, Canada. Survey sample: The sampling consisted of 921 subjects: 123 patients, 167 physicians, 340 nurses and 291 administrators of health care institutions. RESULTS: Although the general attitude of each population was favourable to the expression of autonomy, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that physicians attached less importance to this subscale than did other populations (p < .001). Above all, they favoured legal external norms and beneficence. Physicians and administrators also attached less importance to the affective dimension than did patients and nurses. Specifically, physicians' attitudes towards advance directives were shown to be less positive than patients' attitudes. CONCLUSION: More attention should be given to the importance of adequately informing patients about advance directives because they may not represent an adequate means for patients to assert their autonomy.

Blondeau, D; Valois, P; Keyserlingk, E W; Hebert, M; Lavoie, M

1998-01-01

108

Experimental Test of Social Norms Theory in a Real-World Drinking Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory’s limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Method: Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. Results: We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small.

Johnson, Mark B.

2012-01-01

109

Teacher Candidates' Attitudes and Beliefs of Subject Matter and Pedagogy Measured throughout Their Reform-Based Mathematics and Science Teacher Preparation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the use of a valid and reliable instrument, "Attitudes and Beliefs About the Nature of and the Teaching of Mathematics and Science," to measure teacher candidates' attitudes and beliefs about the nature of mathematics and science teaching. This paper examines how teacher candidates felt over 3 years. Teacher candidates were from…

McGinnis, J. Randy; Parker, Carolyn

110

Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.  

PubMed

The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

2013-07-01

111

A Social Norms Approach to Drug Prevention in Schools in Ireland: Results from a Pre Development Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that social norms interventions, which aim to educate individuals and groups on their actual attitudinal and behavioural norms relating to alcohol, cigarette and drug use,incur some success in reducing positive attitudes to substance use and rates of substance use. The research aimed to investigate the extent of misperceptions…

Culleton, Leigheann Ryan; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Foley, Michelle

2013-01-01

112

Attitude Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…

Norland, Emmalou

1995-01-01

113

Absolute Norms on C n  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the absolute normalized norms on Cn. We show that the set of all absolute normalized norms on Cn is in one-to-one correspondence with the set ?n of all continuous convex functions on ?n with some suitable conditions, where ?n={(s1,…,sn?1)?Rn?1; s1+s2+···+sn?1?1, si?0 (1?i?n?1)}. As some applications, we show that an absolute norm on Cn is strictly

Kichi-Suke Saito; Mikio Kato; Yasuji Takahashi

2000-01-01

114

The Haskell norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

Advocate, Dev L.

115

Intoeing: a developmental norm.  

PubMed

Intoeing, often referred to as pigeon-toes, is a frequent reason for referral to the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon's practice. Parents and grandparents are concerned about the appearance of the legs and a history of frequent tripping and falling. Many of the "abnormalities" that these children present with are variations of normal development of the lower extremities and include flat footedness, and torsional or angular "deformity." The approach of the specialist team is to identify the source of the intoeing, to rule out neuromuscular dysfunction or other serious conditions, and to counsel the family on anticipatory guidance of the natural history of intoeing. The focus of this article is intoeing, associated examination techniques, and nursing considerations of education and treatment. An understanding of musculoskeletal developmental norms, the clinical examination for intoeing, and the current recommendations for treatment will enable the provider to educate and accurately inform families. PMID:12024629

Ryan, D J

2001-01-01

116

Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

1990-01-01

117

Current Approaches to Norms Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dialogue session was a continuation of a debate about norms and the application of normative standards to wilder- ness management that has taken place throughout the 1990s at national meetings and in the research literature. Researchers who have made significant contributions to the normative approach to wilderness recreation management presented three approaches to the norm problem. Doug Whittaker and

John L. Heywood

118

Issues related to setting exemption levels for oil and gas NORM  

SciTech Connect

In the absence of any federal regulations that specifically address the handling and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), individual states have taken responsibility for developing their own regulatory programs for NORM. A key issue in developing NORM rules is defining exemption levels--specific levels or concentrations that determine which waste materials are subject to controlled management. In general, states have drawn upon existing standards and guidelines for similar waste types in establishing exemption levels for NORM. Simply adopting these standards may not be appropriate for oil and gas NORM for several reasons. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee has summarized the issues involved in setting exemption levels in a report titled ``Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM): Issues from the Oil and Gas Point of View''. The committee has also recommended a set of exemption levels for controlled practices and for remediation activities on the basis of the issues discussed.

Blunt, D. L.; Gooden, D. S.; Smith, K. P.

1999-11-12

119

Beliefs and Attitudes Associated With the Intention to Not Accept the Diagnosis of Depression Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Negative attitudes and beliefs about depression treatment may prevent many young adults from accepting a diagnosis and treatment for depression. We undertook a study to determine the association between depressive symptom severity, beliefs about and attitudes toward treatment, subjective social norms, and past behavior on the intent not to accept a physician’s diagnosis of depression. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10,962 persons aged 16 to 29 years who participated and had positive screening results on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score in an Internet-based public health depression screening program. Participants reported whether they would accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Based on the theory of reasoned action, we developed a multivariate model of the factors that predict intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression. RESULTS Twenty-six percent of the participants stated their intent not to accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Disagreeing that medications are effective in treating depression (strongly disagree, odds ratio ( OR ) = 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.6–9.3), that there is a biological cause for depression (strongly disagree, OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3–2.7), and agreeing that you would be embarrassed if your friends knew you had depression were associated with the intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression (strongly agree, OR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.8–2.9). Beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and past behavior explained most of the variance in this model (84%). CONCLUSIONS Negative beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and lack of past helpful treatment experiences are associated with the intent to not accept the diagnosis of depression and may contribute to low rates of treatment among young adults.

Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Houston, Thomas K.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E.

2005-01-01

120

Games, Groups, Norms, and Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The origin and evolution of social norms, social institutions (including religions), and moral systems involve an interplay\\u000a among processes played out on diverse scales of space, time, and complexity. Such norms, social institutions and systems (collectively\\u000a referred to here as institutions) emerge from the collective actions of individuals, and feed back to influence those behaviors,\\u000a but on much faster time

Simon Levin

121

Norm inequalities in operator ideals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new technique for proving norm inequalities in operator ideals with a unitarily invariant norm. Among the well-known inequalities which can be proved with this technique are the Löwner–Heinz inequality, inequalities relating various operator means and the Corach–Porta–Recht inequality. We prove two general inequalities and from them we derive several inequalities by specialization, many of

Gabriel Larotonda

2008-01-01

122

The influence of the International Baccalaureate experimental science program format on classroom learning environment and student attitudes toward the subject of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the classroom learning environments and science attitudes of students in three IB Higher Level science classrooms. The study sample consisted of 82 twelfth grade IB science students and three IB Higher Level science teachers. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to generate assertions toward the development of a grounded theory on accelerated curriculum effects on the

Lisa Renee Raiford

1998-01-01

123

Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries  

PubMed Central

Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms.

Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bogels, Susan

2010-01-01

124

Words with attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional notion of word meaning used in natural language processing is literal or lexical meaning as used in dictionaries and lexicons. This relatively objective notion of lexical meaning is different from more subjective notions of emotive or affective meaning. Our aim is to come to grips with subjective aspects of meaning expressed in written texts, such as the attitudes

Jaap Kamps; Maarten Marx

2002-01-01

125

A Study of the Sex Role Attitudes of Incarcerated Juvenile Delinquents toward Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined sex-role attitudes toward women of incarcerated White male (n=30) and Black male (n=30) juvenile delinquents. Found significant differences in sex role attitudes toward women between first-born and later-born juvenile delinquents and sex role attitudes toward women relative to available norms. (Author/CM)

Roundtree, George A.; And Others

1990-01-01

126

A Test of Turk's Theory of Norm Resistance Using Observational Data on Police-Suspect Encounters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turk's theory of norm resistance explains how authority-subject relations can be structured in manners that have different probabilities of overt conflict (norm resistance). Building on previous research by Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf, this study uses data collected as part of an observational study of the police in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St.…

Weidner, Robert R.; Terrill, William

2005-01-01

127

Norm Formation or Conditioning? A Study in Divergence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the idea that social norms are not permanently incorporated into a person's personality. The author presents the argument that in a group situation subjects are conditioned toward similarity while afterward, the individual's behavior gradually returns to an "operant level". Tests show this argument to be essentially true.…

Williams, J. Sherwood; And Others

1975-01-01

128

[Self-concept of school-age children: the norm in Kaohsiung].  

PubMed

This study has two objectives: (1) to establish the norm of three graphical projective tests (Children's Social-Self Test, Children's Attitude Inventory and Children's Self-Concept Inventory), and (2) to explore the influence of sex, order of birth, social economic status of family, and leadership of class that effect self-concept of the school-age children. These subjects are selected from elementary schools in Kaohsiung, twenty-two classes are drawn out from each grade by systemic-random sampling. Then two classes are drawn out from 22 classes at random to arrange retest for reliability. The total subjects are 6207 students. From October 1987 to June 1988, six researchers are divided into three group to conduct the test. Besides establishing the norm, we find results from analysis of data as follow: 1. The reliability and validity of three graphical projective tests are good, they can be used for assessing the self-concept of school-age children. 2. The grade, sex, order of birth, social economic status of family, leadership of class all influence the self-concept of school-age children. 3. The self-concept and the grade has negative correlation. 4. The self-concept and the social economic status of family has positive correlation. 5. The girls have higher self-concept than the boys. 6. The order of first-born or second-born has higher self-concept than the others. 7. The ones who are leaders of class have higher self-concept than the others. PMID:2778858

Chin, C C; Liu, Y Y; Ka, J K

1989-05-01

129

Descriptive and injunctive social norms' interactive role in gambling behavior.  

PubMed

Social norms have a fundamental impact on behavior, yet little research has examined social norms regarding gambling and no research has examined possible interaction effects. The current study examined the interaction between perceived approval of gambling by others (i.e., injunctive norms) and perceived prevalence of gambling by others (i.e., descriptive norms) on the respondent's gambling frequency and problems, in a sample of relatively frequent gamblers. The current study examined 2 distinct reference groups: 1 close in proximity (i.e., family and friends) and 1 distally located (i.e., other students). The sample consisted of 252 undergraduates who gambled at least twice a month. Two interactions were observed on gambling frequency based on the proximity of the reference groups; however, only descriptive norms significantly predicted gambling problems. When the reference group was closer in proximity, the positive relationship between perceptions of family and friends' gambling frequency and the individual's own gambling was stronger for individuals who believed that their friends and family members highly approved of gambling. When the reference group was distally located, differences in respondents' gambling frequency emerged only in contexts in which they perceived other students to gamble infrequently. Specifically, when respondents perceived that other students gambled infrequently and disapproved of gambling, respondents gambled the most frequently. The results suggest that individuals are influenced by their perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors, regardless of proximity, and that these perceptions of others' behavior are strongly associated with gambling problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955677

Meisel, Matthew K; Goodie, Adam S

2014-06-01

130

03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Norm Pattiz

2010-09-01

131

03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz  

ScienceCinema

The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

132

Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

2011-01-01

133

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

134

Cooperation norms in multiple-stage punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the interplay between cooperation norms and people's punishment behavior in a social-dilemma game with multiple punishment stages. By combining multiple punishment stages with self- contained episodes of interaction, we are able to disentangle the e ects of retaliation and norm-related punishment. An additional treatment provides information on the norms bystanders use in judging punish- ment actions. Partly con

Andreas Nicklisch; Irenaeus Wolff

2010-01-01

135

Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norms are tabulated for the Bender Gestalt Test, based on a group of 62 male and 73 female junior high school students in Utah. These norms are designed to fill a gap in norms which now range from 3 years through adult. The students in this group were aged 12 through 14. Standard Bender Gestalt cards were used. The tests were administered…

Grow, Richard T.

136

Birth cohort effects on adolescent alcohol use: The influence of social norms from 1976-2007  

PubMed Central

Context The substantial changes adolescent alcohol use prevalence over time suggests that population-level environmental factors are important determinants of use, yet the potential influence of such environmental factors is inadequately understood. Objective The present study investigated whether adolescents in birth cohorts and/or time periods characterized by restrictive social norms towards alcohol were at decreased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking, controlling for individual attitudes (disapproval) towards use. Design Aggregated data from thirty-two annual national surveys of U.S. high school students. Participants A total of 1,032,052 students contributed data from 1976 through 2007. Exposure The social norm was measured by creating scores for each time period and birth cohort indicating the proportion disapproving of weekend binge drinking. Outcomes Frequency of past-year alcohol use and any instance of binge drinking (5+ drinks) in the past two-weeks, analyzed using multi-level models clustering individuals within time periods and birth cohorts. Period- and cohort-specific social norm scores were modeled as predictors, controlling for individual attitudes and demographics. Results Individuals who matured in birth cohorts with more restrictive social norms were less likely to use alcohol compared to individuals who matured in cohorts with more permissive norms; each 5% increase in the cohort-specific disapproval was associated with a 12% decrease in the odds of past-year alcohol use (OR=0.88, 99% C.I. 0.87-0.89). The effects of cohort-specific disapproval were notably stronger among White than non-White adolescents. Conclusions The present study documents the importance of considering time-varying population-level risk factors in the study of adolescent alcohol use, and indicates that even after an individual’s personal attitudes are accounted for, risk is shaped by cohort effects whereby the norms within the cohort contribute to the risk of adolescent alcohol use.

Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

2012-01-01

137

Preconditions of Voluntary Tax Compliance: Knowledge and Evaluation of Taxation, Norms, Fairness, and Motivation to Cooperate.  

PubMed

Taxpayers' willingness to cooperate with the state and its institutions in general, and their willingness to pay taxes in particular, depend on a variety of variables. While economists stress the relevance of external variables such as tax rate, income and probability of audits and severity of fines, psychological research shows that internal variables are of similar importance. We present a comprehensive review on the relevance of citizens' knowledge of tax law, their attitudes towards the government and taxation, personal norms, perceived social norms and fairness, as well as motivational tendencies to comply, and discuss possibilities for strategic intervention to increase tax compliance. PMID:22428111

Hofmann, Eva; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

2008-01-01

138

A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

This paper responds to the call for culturally relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low income community in Mumbai, India (2008–2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities.

Schensul, Stephen L.; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

2011-01-01

139

Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude.  

PubMed

This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. PMID:20832438

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

2010-12-01

140

The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.  

PubMed

This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. PMID:22732053

Phua, Joe J

2013-03-01

141

[Cleanliness Norms 1964-1975].  

PubMed

In 1964 the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach made a first survey taking stock of norms concerning cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany. At that time, 78% of respondents thought that the vogue among young people of cultivating an unkempt look was past or on the wane (Table 1.). Today we know that this fashion was an indicator of more serious desires for change in many different areas like politics, sexual morality, education and that its high point was still to come. In the fall of 1975 a second survey, modelled on the one of 1964, was conducted. Again, it concentrated on norms, not on behavior. As expected, norms have changed over this period but not in a one-directional or simple manner. In general, people are much more large-minded about children's looks: neat, clean school-dress, properly combed hair, clean shoes, all this and also holding their things in order has become less important in 1975 (Table 2). To carry a clean handkerchief is becoming oldfashioned (Table 3). On the other hand, principles of bringing-up children have not loosened concerning personal hygiene - brushing ones teeth, washing hands, feet, and neck, clean fingernails (Table 4). On one item related to protection of the environment, namely throwing around waste paper, standards have even become more strict (Table 5). With regard to school-leavers, norms of personal hygiene have generally become more strict (Table 6). As living standards have gone up and the number of full bathrooms has risen from 42% to 75% of households, norms of personal hygiene have also increased: one warm bath a week seemed enough to 56% of adults in 1964, but to only 32% in 1975 (Table 7). Also standards for changing underwear have changed a lot: in 1964 only 12% of respondents said "every day", in 1975 48% said so (Table 8). Even more stringent norms are applied to young women (Tables 9/10). For comparison: 1964 there were automatic washing machines in 16%, 1975 in 79% of households. Answers to questions which qualities men value especially in women and which qualities women value especially in men show a decrease in valutation of "cleanliness". These results can be interpreted in different ways (Tables 11/12). It seems, however, that "cleanliness" is not going out as a cultural value. We have found that young people today do not consider clean dress important but that they are probably better washed under their purposely neglected clothing than young people were ten years ago. As a nation, Germans still consider cleanliness to be a articularly German virtue, 1975 even more so than 1964 (Table 13). An association test, first made in March 1976, confirms this: When they hear "Germany", 68% of Germans think of "cleanliness" (Table 14). PMID:1015044

Noelle-Neumann, E

1976-01-01

142

Do different types of social identity moderate the association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among college students?  

PubMed

Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university's student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. PMID:24836160

Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-09-01

143

Instrument Attitude Precision Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan

2004-01-01

144

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

145

Measures of Condom and Safer Sex Social Norms and Stigma Towards HIV/AIDS Among Beijing MSM.  

PubMed

Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior. PMID:24057931

Hu, Yifei; Lu, Hongyan; Raymond, H Fisher; Sun, Yanming; Sun, Jiangping; Jia, Yujiang; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; Xiao, Yan; McFarland, Willi; Ruan, Yuhua

2014-06-01

146

Norm-observable operator models.  

PubMed

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are one of the most popular and successful statistical models for time series. Observable operator models (OOMs) are generalizations of HMMs that exhibit several attractive advantages. In particular, a variety of highly efficient, constructive, and asymptotically correct learning algorithms are available for OOMs. However, the OOM theory suffers from the negative probability problem (NPP): a given, learned OOM may sometimes predict negative probabilities for certain events. It was recently shown that it is undecidable whether a given OOM will eventually produce such negative values. We propose a novel variant of OOMs, called norm-observable operator models (NOOMs), which avoid the NPP by design. Like OOMs, NOOMs use a set of linear operators to update system states. But differing from OOMs, they represent probabilities by the square of the norm of system states, thus precluding negative probability values. While being free of the NPP, NOOMs retain most advantages of OOMs. For example, NOOMs also capture (some) processes that cannot be modeled by HMMs. More importantly, in principle, NOOMs can be learned from data in a constructive way, and the learned models are asymptotically correct. We also prove that NOOMs capture all Markov chain (MC) describable processes. This letter presents the mathematical foundations of NOOMs, discusses the expressiveness of the model class, and explains how a NOOM can be estimated from data constructively. PMID:20141473

Zhao, Ming-Jie; Jaeger, Herbert

2010-07-01

147

Unitarily invariant norms related to factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $\\\\M$ be a semi-finite factor and let $\\\\J(\\\\M)$ be the set of operators $T$ in $\\\\M$ such that $T=ETE$ for some finite projection $E$. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\\\J(\\\\M)$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\\\J(\\\\M)$ coincides

Junsheng Fang; Don Hadwin

2007-01-01

148

Some Extensions of Migrativity for Triangular Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce and describe continuou s triangular norms that are mi- grative with respect to another fixed t-normT0, in particular to the three prototypesTM, TP and TL. Depending on characteristic properties ofT0, classes of nilpotent and strict mi- grative t-norms are naturally formed. In these cases the cha racterization and construction is carried out by solving functional

Imre J. Rudas; John von Neumann

149

A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

2009-01-01

150

A Model for Optimal Reaction Norms: The Case of the Pregnant Garter Snake and Her Temperature?Sensitive Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model to test Osgood's (1978) proposition that viviparous snakes have optimal reaction norms for temperature- sensitive meristic traits, such as scale counts. Our model predicts that traits that are subject to temperature effects during development will evolve a flat or U-shaped reaction norm (average scale count as a function of developmental temperature). We tested this prediction by

Stevan J. Arnold; Charles R. Peterson

2002-01-01

151

Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

2006-01-01

152

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design…

Fabiano, Patricia M.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan; Linkenbach, Jeff; Stark, Christopher

2003-01-01

153

Parenting attitudes, foster parenting attitudes, and motivations of adoptive and nonadoptive foster parent trainees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes and motivations of adoptive and nonadoptive foster parent trainees toward parenting and foster parenting. Subjects were 44 adoptive female participants and 149 nonadoptive female trainees. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance revealed significant differences between adoptive and nonadoptive trainees in parenting attitudes, foster parenting attitudes, and motivations for foster parenting. Inspection of adjusted

Renee Gillis-Arnold; Sedahlia Jasper Crase; Dahlia F. Stockdale; Mack C. Shelley

1998-01-01

154

The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

Bray, Nathaniel J.

2010-01-01

155

The attitudes toward transgendered individuals scale: psychometric properties.  

PubMed

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals are sexual and gender minorities subject to stigma in a heteronormative culture with binary gender role norms. Although much research has examined sexual stigma in the form of homophobia, or negative attitudes and reactions to homosexuals and homosexuality, little is known about the stigma experienced by transgendered individuals. Transgendered people are those whose gender identity (sense of oneself as a man or a woman) or gender expression (expression of oneself as a man or a woman in behavior, manner, and/or dress) differ from conventional expectations for their physical sex. Although a scale exists to measure transphobia or negative attitudes and reactions to transgendered individuals, it includes items tapping into overt behavioral expression of this stigma, or gender-bashing, and fails to identify or define transgendered persons as the attitudinal target of the items. A new scale was developed and evaluated in an effort to assess transgender-related stigma, separately from discrimination and violence, among members of the general population. Using two separate samples of college students ranging in age from 18-64 years, exploratory (N = 134) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 237) were performed. The resulting 20-item, self-report measure demonstrated a single-factor structure, high internal consistency reliability, and evidence of convergent and discriminant construct validity. PMID:22810996

Walch, Susan E; Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Francisco, Jacquelyn; Stitt, Rashunda L; Shingler, Kimberly A

2012-10-01

156

Origins of the ethical attitude.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to explore the genesis of the capacity for an ethical attitude, personally and professionally. As analysts working in intimate clinical settings, ethics is at the foundation of our professional lives, as it is at the foundation of our humanity and what it is we struggle towards in our own personal development. The ethical attitude presupposes special responsibilities that we choose to adopt in relation to another. Thus, a parallel situation pertains between caregiver and child and between analyst and patient: they are not equal partners, but nevertheless are in a situation of mutuality, shared subjectivity, and reciprocal influence. The basic premise of this paper is that the analytic attitude is an ethical attitude, and that the ethical attitude is a developmental achievement, and as such it may reach beyond the depressive position. PMID:11471333

Solomon, H M

2001-07-01

157

A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

1971-01-01

158

Attitudes Towards the Role of Women in Cuban Women Attending a Community College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number

Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner

1982-01-01

159

Beliefs and Norms in the Mathematics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate that by coordinating sociological and psychological perspectives we can explain how changes in beliefs might be initiated and fostered in mathematics classrooms. In particular, we examine: 1) the coordination of students’ beliefs about mathematical activity and classroom social norms and 2) the coordination of specifically mathematical beliefs and classroom sociomathematical norms.

Erna Yackel; Chris Rasmussen

160

Sociomathematical Norms, Argumentation, and Autonomy in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a way of interpreting mathematics classrooms, by advancing the notion of sociomathematical norms, to account for how students develop mathematical beliefs and values and how they become intellectually autonomous in mathematics. Includes episodes from a second-grade classroom to clarify the processes by which sociomathematical norms are…

Yackel, Erna; Cobb, Paul

1996-01-01

161

Resolution of the Communication Discrepancy Issue in Attitude Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A controversial issue in the area of attitude change revolves around the question of whether greater discrepancies between communication position and attitude of the subject yield greater or lesser change. Recent research has tended to demonstrate that th...

J. O. Whittaker

1966-01-01

162

Client and Counselor Attitudes Toward the Use of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Attitudes, perceived social norms and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1083 clients from outpatient, methadone and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, while their counterparts in residential and outpatient settings had neutral or negative assessments. Across modalities, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions toward the use of buprenorphine were relatively neutral. Assessments of clonidine and ibogaine were negative for clients and counselors in all settings. Social normative influences were dominant across settings and medications in determining counselor and client intentions to use medications, suggesting that perceptions about beliefs of peers may play a critical role in use of medications to treat opiate dependence.

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E.; Thomas, Cindy P.; McCarty, Dennis

2009-01-01

163

Attitudes About Childlessness in the United StatesCorrelates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About one fifth of adults disagreed with prescriptive norms that favor parenthood over

Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox; Gretchen Pendell

2007-01-01

164

Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

2004-01-01

165

Dental Students' Attitudes toward the Handicapped Scale (DSATHS): A Standardized Instrument for Assessing Dental Students' Attitudes toward the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of an instrument for assessing dental students' attitudes toward the handicapped is presented. This instrument is easily administered (approximately 10 minutes) and scored, and possesses sound psychometric properties. Norms were derived from 826 students in 8 regionally-distributed dental schools. Content validity of…

Lee, Mickey M.; Sonis, Andrew L.

166

Motion models in attitude estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.

Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.

1994-01-01

167

Sequential gyroless attitude and attitude-rate estimation from vector observations 1 1 Paper IAF 97.A2.07 presented at the 48th International Astronautical Congress 6–10 October, 1997, Turin, Italy. This paper is declared a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential nonlinear estimator is presented for satellite attitude and attitude-rate, which utilizes vector observations in a gyroless setting. The estimator is based on a recently introduced, third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation. Possessing an extremely simple kinematics, the third-order parameters render the resulting estimator highly computationally efficient. Employing tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is

Yaakov Oshman; F. Landis Markley

2000-01-01

168

Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime was examined in three studies. In Study 1,73 items about guns were administered to subjects to determine if the construct “Gun Attitudes” contained sub-constructs, possibly causing the confusion in the literature on gun attitudes and fear of crime. Nine factors were revealed, which were grouped into Socio-cultural and Personal Indices.

Linda Heath; Marie Mackay Murphy

1997-01-01

169

Nasalance norms in Greek adults.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction. PMID:21668367

Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

2011-08-01

170

Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

Markley, F. Landis

2003-01-01

171

Social norms for intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674

Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M

2013-01-01

172

Efficient L1\\/Lq Norm Regularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sparse learning has recently received increasing attention in many areas\\u000aincluding machine learning, statistics, and applied mathematics. The mixed-norm\\u000aregularization based on the L1\\/Lq norm with q > 1 is attractive in many\\u000aapplications of regression and classification in that it facilitates group\\u000asparsity in the model. The resulting optimization problem is, however,\\u000achallenging to solve due to the structure

Jun Liu; Jieping Ye

2010-01-01

173

The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007  

PubMed Central

Aims Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time period. Design Combined analysis of nationally-representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the U.S. conducted 1976–2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. Setting In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the U.S. Participants 986,003 adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12 Measurements Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Findings Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana, and other characteristics. For example, compared to birth cohorts in which most (87–90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where less than half (42–46.9%) disapproved (99% C.I. 2.75, 4.53). Conclusions Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms.

Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

2011-01-01

174

Unbiased invariant minimum norm estimation in generalized growth curve model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the generalized growth curve model Y=?i=1mXiBiZi?+UE subject to R(Xm)?R(Xm-1)???R(X1), where Bi are the matrices of unknown regression coefficients, Xi,Zi and U are known covariate matrices, i=1,2,…,m, and E splits into a number of independently and identically distributed subvectors with mean zero and unknown covariance matrix ?. An unbiased invariant minimum norm quadratic estimator (MINQE(U,I)) of tr(C?) is

Xiaoyong Wu; Guohua Zou; Jianwei Chen

2006-01-01

175

Regulating Gender Performances: Power and Gender Norms in Faculty Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…

Lester, Jaime

2011-01-01

176

Approximation of Fuzzy Normed Space-Valued Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, generalized fuzzy norms are defined on a set of objects endowed with a structure of linear space. The relationships between these fuzzy norms and fuzzy metrics and between these fuzzy norms and the topological structures on the base linear space are analyzed. Approximation theorems for mappings with values in such fuzzy J-normed spaces are also proved.

Gole?, Ioan; Gole?, Ionu?

2007-09-01

177

Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning require careful evaluation of the patient’s cephalometric values and comparison to known population cephalometric means or norms. Despite the availability of several published studies on Saudi cephalometric norms, Caucasian norms are still referred to when Saudi patients are treated. To reach a consensus between these studies and to establish more accurately cephalometric norms for Saudis,

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2011-01-01

178

1-norm support vector novelty detection and its sparseness.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a 1-norm support vector novelty detection (SVND) method and discusses its sparseness. 1-norm SVND is formulated as a linear programming problem and uses two techniques for inducing sparseness, or the 1-norm regularization and the hinge loss function. We also find two upper bounds on the sparseness of 1-norm SVND, or exact support vector (ESV) and kernel Gram matrix rank bounds. The ESV bound indicates that 1-norm SVND has a sparser representation model than SVND. The kernel Gram matrix rank bound can loosely estimate the sparseness of 1-norm SVND. Experimental results show that 1-norm SVND is feasible and effective. PMID:23994511

Zhang, Li; Zhou, WeiDa

2013-12-01

179

Effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice among Muslim women in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

Based on the authors' interview survey for 275 Muslim women of an ethnically divergent community in Amman, Jordan, this study examined the psychosocial effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice, using the normative interpretations of legal provisions in Islam (hukm). The categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) reduced the eight items regarding family planning and contraception use to two factors, i.e. the pressures of childbearing and acceptability of contraception use, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Even though the majority of the female subjects were conservative rather than innovative in terms of reproduction norms and significant interrelations were observed between their reproduction norms and contraception practice, approximately 70% of the female subjects who were closely in consonance with the normative interpretations of their religious leader had used contraception. It is thus indicated that religious leaders may play significant roles in increase of contraception practice among Muslim women. PMID:16854689

Sueyoshi, S; Al-Khozahe, H O; Ohtsuka, R

2006-06-01

180

Alexander and Thurston norms of fibered 3-manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a 3-manifold M, McMullen derived from the Alexander polynomial of M a norm on H^1(M, R) called the Alexander norm. He showed that the Thurston norm on H^1(M, R), which measures the complexity of a dual surface, is an upper bound for the Alexander norm. He asked if these two norms were equal on all of H^1(M,R) when M

Nathan M. Dunfield

1999-01-01

181

Soft Tissue Esthetic Norms for Mahabubnagar Population of Southern India  

PubMed Central

Aims: The Aim of the study was to establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for skeletal and dental relationships amongst the Mahabubnagar adult population. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (30 Males & 30 Females) subjects from different part of Mahabubnagar in the age group 18-25 Years (Mean age 21.3 Years) were selected at random for the study and lateral cephalograms were taken. All the cephalograms were traced by two operators using conventional hand tracing. The parameters used in the study were taken from Arnett and Bergman soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA). Overall 46 measurements including 40 linear, 6 angular parameters were used. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated. The difference between males and females were evaluated using student t-test. Results: The values obtained from the study showed significant difference in most of the parameters from that of Arnett et al., norms and between males and females within Mahabubnagar population. Conclusion: Males had thicker soft tissue structures, acute nasolabial angle, increased facial lengths and heights, increased midface deficiency, recessive lower face, more convex profile and less upright mandibular incisors than females within Mahabubnagar population.

Sinojiya, Jay; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Pyata, Jaipal Reddy; Mallikarjun, Vankre; Reddy, C. Manjunatha

2014-01-01

182

The role of individual correlates and class norms in defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

This study investigates possible individual and class correlates of defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying, in a sample of 1,825 Italian primary school (mean age=10 years 1 month) and middle school (mean age=13 years 2 months) students. The findings of a series of multilevel regression models show that both individual (e.g., provictim attitudes and perceived peer pressure for intervention) and class characteristics (e.g., class provictim attitudes, peer injunctive norms, and descriptive norms) help explain defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. These results significantly expand previous findings in this field, by demonstrating the need for a social-ecological approach to the study of the different aspects of bullying. Implications for antibullying programs are discussed. PMID:22880944

Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Vieno, Alessio

2012-11-01

183

On the derivative of the Perron vector whose infinity norm is fixed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent paper the authors studied the derivaties of the Perron vector at an n × n essentially nonnegative and irreducible matrix A when the Perron vector is subjected to the normalization that one of its components is held a fixed constant in a neighbourhood of A or that the pth norm of the of the eigenvector is held

Emeric Deutsch; Neumann Michael

1987-01-01

184

Fisher discriminant analysis with l1-norm.  

PubMed

Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a classical subspace learning technique of extracting discriminative features for pattern recognition problems. The formulation of the Fisher criterion is based on the L2-norm, which makes LDA prone to being affected by the presence of outliers. In this paper, we propose a new method, termed LDA-L1, by maximizing the ratio of the between-class dispersion to the within-class dispersion using the L1-norm rather than the L2-norm. LDA-L1 is robust to outliers, and is solved by an iterative algorithm proposed. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and is theoretically shown to arrive at a locally maximal point. LDA-L1 does not suffer from the problems of small sample size and rank limit as existed in the conventional LDA. Experiment results of image recognition confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23912504

Wang, Haixian; Lu, Xuesong; Hu, Zilan; Zheng, Wenming

2014-06-01

185

Optimized norm-conserving Vanderbilt pseudopotentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully nonlocal two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotentials are shown to be compatible with a systematic approach to the optimization of convergence with the size of the plane-wave basis. A reformulation of the optimization is developed, including the ability to apply it to positive-energy atomic scattering states and to enforce greater continuity in the pseudopotential. The generalization of norm conservation to multiple projectors is reviewed and recast for the present purposes. Comparisons among the results of all-electron and one- and two-projector norm-conserving pseudopotential calculations of lattice constants and bulk moduli are made for a group of solids chosen to represent a variety of types of bonding and a sampling of the periodic table.

Hamann, D. R.

2013-08-01

186

Optimal diagonal-norm SBP operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal boundary closures are derived for first derivative, finite difference operators of order 2, 4, 6 and 8. The closures are based on a diagonal-norm summation-by-parts (SBP) framework, thereby guaranteeing linear stability on piecewise curvilinear multi-block grids and entropy stability for nonlinear equations that support a convex extension. The new closures are developed by enriching conventional approaches with additional boundary closure stencils and non-equidistant grid distributions at the domain boundaries. Greatly improved accuracy is achieved near the boundaries, as compared with traditional diagonal-norm operators of the same order. The superior accuracy of the new optimal diagonal-norm SBP operators is demonstrated for linear hyperbolic systems in one dimension and for the nonlinear compressible Euler equations in two dimensions.

Mattsson, Ken; Almquist, Martin; Carpenter, Mark H.

2014-05-01

187

Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-NationallyValues, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual antecedents at the national level. Structural equation modeling analyses of a 27-country sample provide

Shaul Oreg; Tally Katz-Gerro

2006-01-01

188

Are social norms campaigns really magic bullets? assessing the effects of students' misperceptions on drinking behavior.  

PubMed

In an attempt to curb excessive drinking on college campuses, many universities have turned to "social norms" marketing campaigns. Despite widespread acceptance among health educators, empirical results are clouded by measurement problems. This study, based on a random sample of 550 students, examined the effects of misperceptions of friends' and typical college students' drinking on one's drinking behavior. Results indicate that drinking behavior is positively related to perceptions of friends' drinking as suggested by the theory of planned behavior, which emphasizes subjective as opposed to social norms. PMID:14527868

Campo, Shelly; Brossard, Dominique; Frazer, M Somjen; Marchell, Timothy; Lewis, Deborah; Talbot, Janis

2003-01-01

189

An Historical and Sociological Description and Presentation of Selected-Subject Attitudes of the Class of 1957, U. S. Military Academy, West Point, as it Approaches the Twentieth Anniversary of Its Graduation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the methodology and results of surveys conducted in 1967 and 1977 to develop data concerning the Class of 1957, USMA, it also reports reactions to statements designed to elicit attitudes and opinions concerning a number of national a...

W. L. Golden

1977-01-01

190

Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health.

Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

2013-01-01

191

Ethnography of Communication: Cultural Codes and Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary tasks of the ethnographic researcher are to discover, describe, and comparatively analyze different speech communities' ways of speaking. Two general abstractions occurring in ethnographic analyses are normative and cultural. Communicative norms are formulated in analyzing and explaining the "patterned use of speech." Analysis of…

Carbaugh, Donal

192

A Failed Norms Social Marketing Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this article we test the efficacy of an inten- sive norms social marketing campaign to reduce heavy drinking among college students living in a residence hall. Method: We employed a pre- test-posttest nonequivalent comparison group design. The study was con- ducted in two (experimental and comparison) comparable residence halls located in a large urban public university. We attempted

JOHN D. CLAPP; JAMES E. LANGE; CRISTEL RUSSELL; ROBERT B. VOAS

193

Load Balancing in the Lp Norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the load balancing problem, there is a set of servers, and jobs arrive sequentially. Each job can be run on some subset of the servers, and must be assigned to one of them in an online fashion. Traditionally, the assignment of jobs to servers is measured by the L? norm; in other words, an assignment of jobs to servers

Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azart; Edward F. Grove; Ming-yang Kao; P. Krishnan; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1995-01-01

194

Criterion vs. Norm-referenced Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A norm-referenced evaluation system, which evaluates the student in comparison to his peers, is rejected in favor of a criterion-referenced system. The latter, which rates the performance of a student on an absolute standard, makes for an individualized approach. Two kinds of tests are distinguished, the formative, administered during the course…

Pimsleur, Paul

1975-01-01

195

Some norm inequalities concerning generalized inverses, 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend to the von Neumann–Schatten classes Cp and norms ?·?p, where 2?p

P. J. Maher

2007-01-01

196

Norm Internalisation in Human and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, principles of architectures relating to normative agents are evaluated with regard to the question whether and to what extend results of empirical research are incorporated in the architecture. In the human sciences, internalisation is a crucial element within the concept of norms. Internalisation distinguishes normative behaviour regulation from mere coercion. The aim of this article is to

Martin Neumann

2010-01-01

197

Contradictory sexual norms and expectations for young people in rural Northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs are socially constructed and subject to social change. Sexual activity is constrained by clear norms of school pupil abstinence, female sexual respectability and taboos around the discussion of sex. However, these norms are incompatible with several widely held expectations: that sexual activity is inevitable unless prevented, sex is a female resource to be exploited, restrictions on sexual activity are relaxed at festivals, and masculine esteem is boosted through sexual experience. Differential commitment to these norms and expectations reflects conflicts between generations and genders. Young people appear to manage the contradictions in these norms by concealing their sexual relationships. This almost certainly contributes to their short duration and the high levels of partner change, since relationships are not reinforced through social recognition and there is little scope to develop intimacy through non-sexual contacts. PMID:16139937

Wight, Daniel; Plummer, Mary L; Mshana, Gerry; Wamoyi, Joyce; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A

2006-02-01

198

Measuring attitude with a gradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores using a gravity gradiometer to measure the attitude of a satellite, given that the gravity field is accurately known. Since gradiometers actually measure a combination of the gradient and attitude rate and acceleration terms, the answer is far from obvious. The paper demonstrates that it can be done and at microradian accuracy. The technique employed is dynamic estimation, based on the momentum biased Euler equations. The satellite is assumed nominally planet pointed, and subject to control, gravity gradient, and partly radom drag torques. The attitude estimator is unusual. While the standard method of feeding back measurement residuals is used, the feedback gain matrix isn't derived from Kalman theory. instead, it's chosen to minimize a measure of the terminal covariance of the error in the estimate. This depends on the gain matrix and the power spectra of all the process and measurement noises. An integration is required over multiple solutions of Lyapunov equations.

Sonnabend, David; Gardner, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

199

Interpolation norms between row and column spaces and the norm problem for elementary operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the class of transformers acting as X ! R AtXBt dµ(t) on the space of bounded Hilbert space operators we give formulae for its norm on the Hilbert- Schmidt class whenever R kAtkp kBtkp dµ(t) < 1 for some p > 0. We also estimate from bellow its norm on the other Schatten classes. This answers a question of

Danko R. Jocic

200

L1-norm and L2-norm neuroimaging methods in reconstructing extended cortical sources from EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported a new sparse neuroimaging method (i.e. VB-SCCD) using the L1-norm optimization technology to solve EEG inverse problems. The new method distinguishes itself from other reported L1-norm methods since it explores the sparseness in a transform domain rather than in the original source domain. In the present study, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study to compare

Lei Ding

2009-01-01

201

A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

2000-01-01

202

Mercury toxicity in the Amazon: contrast sensitivity and color discrimination of subjects exposed to mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured visual performance in achromatic and chromatic spatial tasks of mercury-exposed subjects and compared the results with norms obtained from healthy individuals of similar age. Data were obtained for a group of 28 mercury-exposed subjects, comprising 20 Amazonian gold miners, 2 inhabitants of Amazonian riverside com- munities, and 6 laboratory technicians, who asked for medical care. Statistical norms were

A. R. Rodrigues; C. R. B. Souza; A. M. Braga; P. S. S. Rodrigues; A. T. Silveira; E. T. B. Damin; M. I. T. Côrtes; A. J. O. Castro; G. A. Mello; J. L. F. Vieira; M. C. N. Pinheiro; D. F. Ventura; L. C. L. Silveira

2007-01-01

203

Knowledge and Attitudes About Colon Cancer Screening Among African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using standard text analysis. Results Most participants who were age eligible for CRC screening were nonadherent according to national guidelines. Themes included low CRC knowledge, low perceived norms, high barriers, and other screening beliefs. Conclusion Lack of knowledge, low perceived risk, and attitudes about CRC screening may be important targets for interventions in low-income African American patients.

James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

2013-01-01

204

Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

Baumgartner, Ted A.

2009-01-01

205

Potential Applications of Social Norms Theory to Academic Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the mid-1990s, social norms theory has become prevalent in student development literature and research. Subsequently, social norms interventions to change student behavior have spread across campuses nationwide through marketing campaigns. Theorists and practitioners have applied the social norms approach to primarily health-related student…

Demetriou, Cynthia

2005-01-01

206

On the Normed Space of Equivalence Classes of Fuzzy Numbers  

PubMed Central

We study the norm induced by the supremum metric on the space of fuzzy numbers. And then we propose a method for constructing a norm on the quotient space of fuzzy numbers. This norm is very natural and works well with the induced metric on the quotient space.

Lu, Chongxia; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

207

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the

S. J. Winters; K. P. Smith

1999-01-01

208

From Innovation to Social Norm: Bounded Normative Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correction: Every innovation begins as a deviation from existing social norms. Given the strong effect of social norms and pressure, how can any innovation ever diffuse to the point where it becomes a new social norm? The seeming paradox of how a minority can influence the majority has not been explained well by prevailing social science theory. Computer simulations of

D. LAWRENCE KINCAID

2004-01-01

209

Norming C*-Algebras by C*-Subalgebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and investigate the notion of a norming C*-subalgebra of C*-algebra. We characterize when von Neumann algebras norm B(H), and construct various examples of abelian and hyperfinite norming subalgebras. We then apply these results to von Neumann algebra cohomology theory and the bounded projection problem for von Neumann algebras.

Florin Pop; Allan M. Sinclair; Roger R. Smith

2000-01-01

210

[Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].  

PubMed

This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem. PMID:23681384

Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

2013-01-01

211

Singular Vectors for Moisture-Measuring Norms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In dynamic meteorology, singular vectors (SVs) are the structures that maximize a given norm of a forecast perturbation given a tangent linear model and a quadratic constraint on the initial perturbation. That constraint is a prescription of the value of either the same or a different norm applied to the initial perturbations. In the sense that SVs maximize the forecast perturbations according to a specified measure, they may be considered as optimal perturbations. SVs are used to characterize predictability, to identify and correct possible initial errors given forecast errors, to create a set of significant perturbations for ensemble forecasting, or to determine locations for observation targeting. They are a specific application of generally defined singular vectors in mathematics.

Errico, Ronald M.; Raeder, Kevin; Ehrendorfer, Martin

2002-01-01

212

An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2011-01-01

213

Bayesian L1Norm Sparse Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Bayesian framework for learning the optimal regularization parameter in the L1-norm penalized least-mean-square (LMS) problem, also known as LASSO (R. Tibshirani, 1996) or basis pursuit (S.S. Chen et al., 1998). The setting of the regularization parameter is critical for deriving a correct solution. In most existing methods, the scalar regularization parameter is often determined in a heuristic

Yuanqing Lin; Daniel D. Lee

2006-01-01

214

SCHWARZ'S LEMMA IN NORMED LINEAR SPACES*  

PubMed Central

In this paper we show that any Fréchet holomorphic function mapping the open unit ball of one normed linear space into the closed unit ball of another must be a linear mapping if the Fréchet derivative of the function at zero is a surjective isometry. From this fact we deduce a Banach-Stone theorem for operator algebras which generalizes that of R. V. Kadison.

Harris, Lawrence A.

1969-01-01

215

Conceptions of property rights and norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social norm literature in law and economics fails to account for the differences between the two major conceptions of\\u000a property rights. The differences between the two conceptions affect people’s utility function by affecting how increases in\\u000a property rights are perceived. This paper discusses how the modern, in rem, conception evolved from an older, in personam, conception; it also discusses

Derek K. Yonai

2007-01-01

216

Further experience with the Body Attitude Test.  

PubMed

The Body Attitude Test (BAT) questionnaire was specifically developed for the assessment of patients with eating disorders. To test its usefulness, the BAT was administered together with other self-report measures (Body Shape Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Body Attitude Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) in 69 anorectic, 26 bulimic patients and 165 female university students. The results indicate that the negative body attitude expressed on the BAT is related to other signs of negative body experience. The BAT differentiates between clinical and non-clinical subjects and between anorectics and bulimics. PMID:14655849

Probst, M; Van Coppenolle, H; Vandereycken, W

1997-06-01

217

Willingness to drink as a function of peer offers and peer norms in early adolescence.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents' willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middleschool students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two followups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 404-414, 2014). PMID:24766752

Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

2014-05-01

218

Accident-prone norms: implications for clinical laboratories. A methods for examining groups norms and interaction networks.  

PubMed

Employee accidents are a costly problem for clinical laboratories. Consequently, investigation and prevention of accidents are integral parts of the clinical laboratory manager's job. There are a wide variety of traditional modes of accident research; however, they usually do not include investigations of work group norms and interaction networks. Group norms that contradict formal safety norms can arise in clinical laboratory work groups. These accident-prone norms often result in problematic procedures and activities. Examples of these accident-prone norms include: failure to use safety equipment, failure to follow safety procedures, alcohol or drug use on the job, failure to pass on information about equipment problems, and failure to report job-related accidents. These norms are frequently transmitted through interaction networks. Sociometric techniques can provide insights about the networks and can be used to develop solutions to accident-prone norms. PMID:10111319

Pruchansky, N R; Gallagher, P M

1991-01-01

219

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

2010-01-01

220

Racial Differences in Sexual and Fertility Attitudes in an Urban Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (neighborhood N=77; individual N=951), we consider the extent to which African American youth maintain sexual and fertility-related norms that support early sexual activity and childbearing and examine the robustness of racial differences in sexual attitudes to controls for…

Browning, Christopher R.; Burrington, Lori A.

2006-01-01

221

Measuring attitudes towards smoking in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the development of indices using baseline data from the Evaluation Survey for the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). The indices are designed to measure two primary attitude constructs that relate to smoking behavior: beliefs about smoking as a public health problem (SPHP); and norms and values concerning smoking (NVS). Two general approaches to index con- struction,

S. Martin Taylor; Nancy A. Ross; Charles H. Goldsmith; Mark P. Zanna; Michael Lock

1998-01-01

222

Mental Health and Substance Use: A Qualitative Study of Resident Assistants' Attitudes and Referral Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described mental health and substance use referral practices of resident assistants (RAs). Interviews were conducted with 48 RAs at three campuses. RAs generally had positive attitudes toward helping residents, and believed that existing norms supported their referral actions. However, many perceived referring residents to be…

Reingle, Jennifer; Thombs, Dennis; Osborn, Cynthia; Saffian, Steven; Oltersdorf, Dan

2010-01-01

223

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

224

Condom use among low-literate, rural females in Ethiopia: the role of vulnerability to HIV infection, condom attitude, and self-efficacy.  

PubMed

To date, studies on psychosocial determinants of condom use among adolescents in Africa have mainly focused on more literate urban youth. In this study, we investigated the psychosocial determinants of condom use among low-literate females in rural Ethiopia. Moreover, some controversy exists on the role of perceived vulnerability to HIV infection to promote HIV preventive behavior in Africa, which we also tried to clarify in this study. In this study, 200 rural females participated, aged 13-24, from the Amhara Highland in Ethiopia. Using data collectors who interviewed the low-literate females with a structured questionnaire, we assessed perceived vulnerability to HIV infection, response efficacy of condom use, self-efficacy, attitude to condom use, and subjective norm to condom use. Moreover, we assessed intended and actual condom use. Compared to non-users of condoms, users of condoms scored significantly higher on all psychosocial determinants. Regression analysis indicated that vulnerability, condom attitude, and self-efficacy were significantly related to intended condom use. Attitude, vulnerability, and response-efficacy were significantly related to actual condom use. Among low-literate females in rural Ethiopia, psychosocial determinants were strongly related to intended and actual condom use, which indicates the usability of psychosocial models of condom use among low-literate females. PMID:20635249

Bogale, G W; Boer, H; Seydel, E R

2010-07-01

225

Norm Breaking in Crowd — Athermal Phase Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard order-disorder phase transition in the Ising model is described in terms of rates of processes of spin flips. This formulation allows to extend numerous results on phase transition for sciences other than physics of magnetism. We apply it to the problem of norm breaking. Two strategies: to cooperate or to defect, form an analogy to two spin orientations. An example is a crowd at an exit, where to defect means to push others, and to cooperate is to move slowly together.

Malarz, Krzysztof; Korff, Ruediger; Ku?akowski, Krzysztof

226

A Generalized Approach to Portfolio Optimization: Improving Performance by Constraining Portfolio Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a general framework for nding portfolios that perform well out-of-sample in the presence of estimation error. This framework relies on solving the traditional minimum-variance problem but subject to the additional constraint that the norm of the portfolio-weight vector be smaller than a given threshold. We show that our framework nests as special cases the shrinkage approaches of Jagannathan

Victor DeMiguel; Lorenzo Garlappi; Francisco J. Nogales; Raman Uppal

2009-01-01

227

Transmission of social attitudes.  

PubMed Central

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-01-01

228

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that h...

F. L. Markley J. L. Crassidis Y. Cheng

2005-01-01

229

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

Bruhn, C.M.M.

1986-01-01

230

Attitudes toward psychotropic medications.  

PubMed

Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401

Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N

2012-04-01

231

The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian.  

PubMed

We developed affective norms for 1,121 Italian words in order to provide researchers with a highly controlled tool for the study of verbal processing. This database was developed from translations of the 1,034 English words present in the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999) and from words taken from Italian semantic norms (Montefinese, Ambrosini, Fairfield, & Mammarella, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 440-461, 2013). Participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a Web survey procedure. Participants also provided evaluations of three subjective psycholinguistic indexes (familiarity, imageability, and concreteness), and five objective psycholinguistic indexes (e.g., word frequency) were also included in the resulting database in order to further characterize the Italian words. We obtained a typical quadratic relation between valence and arousal, in line with previous findings. We also tested the reliability of the present ANEW adaptation for Italian by comparing it to previous affective databases and performing split-half correlations for each variable. We found high split-half correlations within our sample and high correlations between our ratings and those of previous studies, confirming the validity of the adaptation of ANEW for Italian. This database of affective norms provides a tool for future research about the effects of emotion on human cognition. PMID:24150921

Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

2014-09-01

232

Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults  

PubMed Central

Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant), Belgium). Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males) were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb) = 3.47?0.56× height (m). After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60?ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) of FeNO (ppb) for the total sample was 13.54 ± 4.87 (5.00–26.00). For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00?ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00?ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms.

Rouatbi, Sonia; Chouchene, Mohamed Ali; Sfaxi, Ines; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed; Tabka, Zouhair; Ben Saad, Helmi

2014-01-01

233

Creating Local Norms To Evaluate Students in a Norm-Referenced Statewide Testing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed average performance changes between tested grades for Hawaiian students who took the Stanford Achievement Test from 1992 to 1996. These local norms for Hawaii provide tools to improve the understanding of the performance of Hawaiian students relative to their mainland counterparts. (SLD)

Gronna, Sarah S.; Jenkins, Amelia A.; Chin-Chance, Selvin A.

1998-01-01

234

Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

2010-01-01

235

Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

Speer, Rita D.

236

A set of semantic norms for German and Italian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological community frequently investigates semantic norms of properties produced by native speakers after being presented\\u000a concept words, and these norms are of great value for a wide variety of psychological experiments. This paper presents a new\\u000a set of norms that includes a collection of properties from a production experiment for the German and the Italian languages.\\u000a Stimuli consisted of

Gerhard Kremer; Marco Baroni

2011-01-01

237

L0-Norm-Based Sparse Representation Through Alternate Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple and robust method for finding sparse rep- resentations in overcomplete transforms, based on minimiza- tion of the L0-norm. Our method is better than current solu- tions based on minimization of the L1-norm in terms of energy compaction. These results strongly question the equivalence of minimizing both norms in real conditions. We also show application to in-painting

Luis Mancera; Javier Portilla

2006-01-01

238

NORM: compact model order reduction of weakly nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a compact Nonlinear model Order Reduction Method (NORM) that is applicable for time-invariant and time-varying weakly nonlinear systems. NORM is suitable for reducing a class of weakly nonlinear systems that can be well characterized by low order Volterra functional series. Unlike existing projection based reduction methods [6]-[8], NORM begins with the general matrix-form Volterra nonlinear transfer functions

Peng Li; Lawrence T. Pileggi

2003-01-01

239

Alexander and Thurston norms of fibered 3-manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a 3-manifold M, McMullen derived from the Alexander polynomial of M a\\u000anorm on H^1(M, R) called the Alexander norm. He showed that the Thurston norm\\u000aon H^1(M, R), which measures the complexity of a dual surface, is an upper\\u000abound for the Alexander norm. He asked if these two norms were equal on all of\\u000aH^1(M,R) when M

Nathan M. Dunfield

1999-01-01

240

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

241

Promotional Timetables: An Exploratory Investigation of Age Norms for Promotional Expectations and Their Association with Job Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores age norms for promotional expectations and assesses whether they carry psychological consequences. Collected data from male subjects (n=833) who answered a Quality of Employment Survey (QES). Normativity in promotion expectations was found in work life span, but was not associated with job well-being when other relevant factors were…

Lashbrook, Jeff

1996-01-01

242

Differential Effects of Norm-Referenced and Self-Referenced Feedback on Performance Expectancies, Attributions, and Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that the deleterious effects of failure might be attenuated when failure is expressed in self-referenced terms relative to the individual's known level of ability as assessed by other measures was investigated. In this study, 128 undergraduate subjects received feedback described as either norm-referenced or as self-referenced.…

McColskey, Wendy; Leary, Mark R.

1985-01-01

243

A Model for Developing Local Norms with a Standardized Achievement Measure for Use with Local Program Evaluation: Procedures and Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) and problems associated with inappropriate norms were investigated in eleven senior high schools in Phoenix, Arizona. CTBS validity was assessed in three ways: (1) correlation between test scores and number of courses taken in that subject; (2) correlation between CTBS scores and…

Arter, Judith A.; Estes, Gary D.

244

The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

2000-11-08

245

Improving Elementary School Students' Attitudes toward Voluntary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined a program for improving attitudes toward reading. Subjects were 19 kindergarten, 39 first-grade, 17 second-grade, and 29 sixth-grade students in a middle class southwestern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. Reading attitude problems were documented through parent/student surveys and observations. Students' reading was prioritized in…

Haverty, Lisa; And Others

246

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

247

Attitudes to and use of baby walkers in Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The

M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall

1995-01-01

248

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

249

Attitude-Behavior Consistency: An Individual Difference Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of self-monitoring and self-reported variability in cross-situational behavior to identify persons most likely to manifest covariation between their attitudes and behaviors was investigated. In the first session, subjects (N=102) completed Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale, assessed their religious attitudes and indicated the extent to which…

Olson, James M.; And Others

250

The Motherhood Inventory: A Questionnaire for Studying Attitudes Toward Motherhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.

251

Mission impossible?: Can anything be done about attitudes to science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to consider a number of issues relating to research in the area of high school pupils’ attitudes to science. Teachers appear to consider that pupils’ attitudes to science, and to what is being studied in science lessons, exert a profound influence on levels of engagement with the subject. Yet, perhaps because of the difficulties

Judith M. Ramsden

1998-01-01

252

Attitudes about School of Academically Talented Seventh Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses an investigation describing attitudes about school for a national sample of academically talented seventh graders. In particular, it considered how much students liked selected school subjects and how much they thought they would like particular college majors. The purpose of the study was to compare the attitudes of males…

Stocking, Vicki B.; And Others

253

Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

2006-01-01

254

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

255

Awareness of implicit attitudes.  

PubMed

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of implicit attitudes toward 5 social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across 4 studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2-4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants' predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. Altogether, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M; Hirsh, Holen K; Blair, Irene V

2014-06-01

256

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes.

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

257

The role of attitude functions, efficacy, anticipated emotions, and relationship status on college students' condom use intentions.  

PubMed

Conducted from the reasoned action perspective, previous research related to condom use generally included a limited number of variables and treated attitudes and self-efficacy as unidimensional constructs. Informed by attitude functions theory and health literature on condom use and anticipated emotions, this project aims to provide a more detailed understanding of college students' intentions to use condoms during sexual intercourse. Results show that relationship status moderated the relationships between several psychological variables and condom use intentions. For female college students negative anticipated emotions were a stronger predictor of condom use intentions for those in monogamous relationships for three months or longer than for those in other relationships or not in a relationship. On the other hand, subjective norms were a stronger predictor of intentions for those in other types of relationship or not in a relationship than for those in a monogamous relationship for three months or longer. For male participants, sexual sensation was a more important, negative predictor of condom use intentions among those in monogamous relationships for three months or longer (versus other relationship status or not in a relationship). Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22946831

Wang, Xiao

2013-01-01

258

Effects of Valence and Extremity of eWOM on Attitude toward the Brand and Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine the influence of valence and extremity of consumer product reviews on attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the website. Each experiment was a one factor (valence\\/extremity: extremely negative, moderately negative, extremely positive) between-subjects design with a control group. Results in both studies showed that although extremely positive reviews increased attitude toward the brand,

Mira Lee; Shelly Rodgers; Mikyoung Kim

2009-01-01

259

Attitudes of Young Adults toward Children. Research Report #4-85.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed were the attitudes toward children of 246 college freshmen. A shortened version of the Situational Attitude Scale-Adults/Children (SAS-A/C) was used to obtain indications of subjects' attitudes toward five hypothetical situations representing levels of social distance. The situations were: (1) having a person as a houseguest for a week;…

Carney, Patricia T.; Sedlacek, William E.

260

Tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we set up a representation theorem for tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property in terms of Ky Fan norms. Examples of tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property include unitarily invariant norms on finite factors (type II1 factors and Mn(C)) and symmetric gauge norms

Junsheng Fang; Don Hadwin; Eric Nordgren; Junhao Shen

2008-01-01

261

Matrix norms and rapid mixing for spin systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a systematic development of the application of matrix norms to rapid mixing in spin systems. We show that rapid mixing of both random update Glauber dynamics and systematic scan Glauber dynamics occurs if any matrix norm of the associated dependency matrix is less than 1. We give improved analysis for the case in which the diagonal of the

Martin E. Dyer; Leslie Ann Goldberg; Mark Jerrum

2007-01-01

262

NORM scale safely disposed of by fracturing well  

SciTech Connect

Fracturing technology has helped operators, offshore Louisiana, to pump naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contaminated wastes into nonproducing wells. Louisiana is one of the few states that currently have specific regulations that govern disposal of NORM. A clearly designed disposal method is required because NORM contamination is a potential health hazard, a waste management problem, and a possible public relations problem for the industry. When gas and oil are produced, NORM traces are also produced. Over time, NORM is deposited in scale and sludges, which then contaminate equipment, production tubulars, production vessels, and other industry facilities. The contaminated waste is usually collected in drums and stored for future disposal. A planning team of operating and service company engineers was formed to plan and carry out a disposal operation in an offshore well. The team planned to fracture a formation and then pump NORM into it. Before start-up, the operator had to secure approval from the Mineral Management Service (MMS). MMS approved the procedures, but only after the team demonstrated that: The disposal fracture would be short; NORM-contaminated particles would into migrate within the disposal sand; and Below-ground accumulation of NORM-contaminated solids would not pose a health hazard at the platform.

Gardiner, N.H. (Halliburton Energy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1994-05-23

263

Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

2008-01-01

264

Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute score…

Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

2011-01-01

265

CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

2010-01-01

266

The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

267

Gender Inequality, Endogenous Cultural Norms and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more

Victor Hiller

2008-01-01

268

The role of leaders in shaping formal team norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and tested a multilevel model of norm formation. Both leader expectations and staff expectations had a significant impact on the norms that teams adopted around collaborative problem solving. In addition, there was an interaction between the expectations of the leader and the staff. We found that when staff initially held low expectations of collaborative problem solving behaviors, leaders

Simon Taggar; Robert Ellis

2007-01-01

269

A robust mixed-norm adaptive filter algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new member of the family of mixed-norm stochastic gradient adaptive filter algorithms for system identification applications based upon a convex function of the error norms that underlie the least mean square (LMS) and least absolute difference (LAD) algorithms. A scalar parameter controls the mixture and relates, approximately, to the probability that the instantaneous desired response of the

Jonathon Chambers; Apostolos Avlonitis

1997-01-01

270

Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's

Veil

1998-01-01

271

Norms in Mixed Sex and Mixed Race Work Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norms determine regular patterns of behavior and influence members' identification with a group. They are also a proximate way to predict and understand behavior in diverse work groups but, surprisingly, have not been extensively examined in this context. After reviewing research on group norms and the psychology of prejudice, I suggest that reaping the benefits of the increased range of

Jennifer A. Chatman

2010-01-01

272

Identity and Norm Diffusion in the Convention against Torture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does state identity play a role in why governments enter into international agreements? Given the centrality of identity in the definition of norms, international agreements that incorporate norms should be especially likely to attract states with the relevant identities. To operationalize identity, we use the founding charters of international organizations. Region and domestic regime type are the most common forms

Jay Goodliffe; Darren Hawkins; James Raymond Vreeland

273

Changing norms about gender inequality in education : evidence from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a recent household survey for two cohorts of married women, this paper examines norms about gender equality in education for children and adults. Among the main findings are that gender education gap norms have changed: younger generations of women are more positive about female vs. male education, both as pertaining to child and adult education outcomes. Perhaps the strongest

Maitreyi Bordia Das; Niels-Hugo Blunch

2007-01-01

274

A piecewise linear approximation procedure for Lp norm curve fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous applications of fitting a linear function to a set of observed points using an objective of minimizing the norm of the error vector in some sense. This paper is concerned with the Lp norm criterion, which for p greater than 1 is equivalent to an unconstrained nonlinear convex minimization problem. Many standard nonlinear algorithms exist to solve

Michael G. Sklar; Ronald D. Armstrong

1995-01-01

275

Polygonal approximation of planar curves in the L1 norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for obtaining a polygonal approximation in the L1, norm of a plane curve of arbitrary shape is presented. The L1 error norm in any segment is not to exceed a pre-assigned value. The given curve is first digitized and the algorithm is then applied to the discrete points. The algorithm uses linear programming techniques which makes it efficient

NABIH N. ABDELMALEK

1986-01-01

276

Social and sociomathematical norms in an advanced undergraduate mathematics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends analyses of social interaction patterns that have been successful at characterizing elementary and secondary school classrooms to the learning and teaching of undergraduate mathematics. Using data from a classroom teaching experiment in differential equations as an example, we document the social and sociomathematical norms regarding explanation and discuss how these norms were constituted in this specific case.

Erna Yackel; Chris Rasmussen; Karen King

2000-01-01

277

The Haagerup Norm on the Tensor Product of Operator Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proved that the (analogy of the) Haagerup norm on the tenser product of submodules of B(H) over a von Neumann algebra T ? B(H) is injective. If R ? S ? B (H) are von Neumann algebras with S injective and T = R? ? S, then the natural map fromS?TSS equipped with the Haagerup norm to CB(R,

B. Magajna

1995-01-01

278

Psycholinguistic norms and face naming times for photographs of celebrities in French.  

PubMed

A set of 105 photographs of celebrities has been standardized in French on distinctiveness, proper name agreement, face agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), and subjective frequency. Statistics on the collected variables for photographs are provided. The relationships between these variables have been analyzed. Face naming latencies have also been collected for the photographs of celebrities, and several multiple regression analyses have been carried out on naming latencies and percentages of tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomena. Themain determinants of naming speed included AoA, face agreement, and name agreement. In addition, AoA, together with distinctiveness and face agreement, reliably predicted the percentages of TOTs. The norms, photographs of the celebrities, and spoken naming latencies corresponding to the celebrities are available on the Internet at norms.celebrities.googlepages.com and should be of great use to researchers interested in the processing of famous people. PMID:18411536

Bonin, Patrick; Perret, Cyril; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Mermillod, Martial

2008-02-01

279

L1-norm and L2-norm neuroimaging methods in reconstructing extended cortical sources from EEG.  

PubMed

We have previously reported a new sparse neuroimaging method (i.e. VB-SCCD) using the L1-norm optimization technology to solve EEG inverse problems. The new method distinguishes itself from other reported L1-norm methods since it explores the sparseness in a transform domain rather than in the original source domain. In the present study, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study to compare the performance of VB-SCCD and other two popular L2-norm neuroimaging methods (i.e. wMNE and cLORETA) in reconstructing extended cortical neural electrical activations. Our simulation data suggests that the VB-SCCD method is able to reconstruct extended cortical sources with the overall high accuracy. It has significantly higher accuracy, less number of false alarms and less number of missing sources when studying complex brain activations (up to 5 simultaneous sources). This new sparse neuroimaging method is thus promising to have many valuable applications in neuroscience and neurology problems. It is also applicable to MEG neuroimaging. PMID:19964567

Ding, Lei

2009-01-01

280

Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.  

PubMed

Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies. PMID:18493030

Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

2008-08-01

281

Spread of two linked social norms on complex interaction networks.  

PubMed

In this paper, we study the spread of social norms, such as rules and customs that are components of human cultures. We consider the spread of two social norms, which are linked through individual behaviors. Spreading social norms depend not only on the social network structure, but also on the learning system. We consider four social network structures: (1) complete mixing, in which each individual interacts with the others at random, (2) lattice, in which each individual interacts with its neighbors with some probability and with the others at random, (3) power-law network, in which a few influential people have more social contacts than the others, and (4) random graph network, in which the number of contacts follows a Poisson distribution. Using the lattice model, we also investigate the effect of the small-world phenomenon on the dynamics of social norms. In our models, each individual learns a social norm by trial and error (individual learning) and also imitates the other's social norm (social learning). We investigate how social network structure and learning systems affect the spread of two linked social norms. Our main results are: (1) Social learning does not lead to coexistence of social norms. Individual learning produces coexistence, and the dynamics of coexistence depend on which social norms are learned individually. (2) Social norms spread fastest in the power-law network model, followed by the random graph model, the complete mixing model, the two-dimensional lattice model and the one-dimensional lattice. (3) We see a "small world effect" in the one-dimensional model, but not in two dimensions. PMID:15276000

Nakamaru, Mayuko; Levin, Simon A

2004-09-01

282

Death penalty attitudes and conviction proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward the death penalty are consistently predictive of jurors' verdicts in criminal trials. Two studies were conducted to find out why. In Study 1, eligible jurors viewed a videotape showing conflicting testimony by a prosecution and defense witness in an assault case. “Death-qualified” subjects (those permitted to serve on capital juries) interpreted testimony in a manner more favorable to

William C. Thompson; Claudia L. Cowan; Phoebe C. Ellsworth; Joan C. Harringtonw

1984-01-01

283

Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

2003-08-01

284

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

1999-10-26

285

A Canon, a Norm and an Attitude--Ideological Dimensions in Foreign Language Education in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of China's policy, "making the ancient serve the present and foreign things serve China," introduced by Mao Ze-dong, is intended to provoke further discussion of the ideological dimension of foreign language education (FLE) in China. Some observers suggest that this has been an important guiding doctrine in FLE since 1949, both…

Feng, Anwei

286

Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

2008-01-01

287

Students' Attitudes Toward Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a random sample survey of 737 college students' attitudes toward computers. Less than 7% had never used computers, and those who used them most were most positive in their attitudes. Data were factor analyzed, and instruments are included. (JDH)

Arndt, Stephan; And Others

1985-01-01

288

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

289

Calibration of attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.

Potapenko, E. M.

1986-04-01

290

Management Attitudes toward Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

291

Matching humanitarian norms with cold, hard interests: the making of refugee policies in Mexico and Honduras, 1980-89.  

PubMed

Humanitarian norms and institutions should be considered when analyzing the development and state of national policy. Mexico and Honduras, for example, have provided physical security, health care, and education to most Guatemalans and Salvadorans seeking asylum. In neither case, however, are Mexico's and Honduras' economic and political interests being best served. National interest initially forced the deportation or massacre of these refugees, in the case of Honduras, in the early 1980s. In the absence of change in neither national interests nor attitude, these refugees owe their current treatment to the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These cases support this paper's argument that national policy is shaped over time by interaction with international norm-promoting institutions. In the interest of minimizing costs and risk, policymakers and governments tend to adapt institutionally developed and internationally accepted policies to suit their needs. National policy is not developed solely on the basis of calculations of national interest outside of internationally accepted norms. This paper demonstrates the ability to empirically test the nature of forces guiding the development of national policy. PMID:12343989

Hartigan, K

1992-01-01

292

Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393

Krempien, Jennifer Luella; Barr, Susan Irene

2012-01-01

293

Children's norm enforcement in their interactions with peers.  

PubMed

This study investigates how children negotiate social norms with peers. In Study 1, 48 pairs of 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 96) and in Study 2, 48 pairs of 5- and 7-year-olds (N = 96) were presented with sorting tasks with conflicting instructions (one child by color, the other by shape) or identical instructions. Three-year-olds differed from older children: They were less selective for the contexts in which they enforced norms, and they (as well as the older children to a lesser extent) used grammatical constructions objectifying the norms ("It works like this" rather than "You must do it like this"). These results suggested that children's understanding of social norms becomes more flexible during the preschool years. PMID:24138135

Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Engemann, Denis A; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

2014-01-01

294

Differential Games with Information Time Lag: Norm-Invariant Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of differential games with information lag is applied to an encounter between norm-invariant systems. The problem is solved in closed form to illustrate some of the effects of the information time lag. (Author)

M. D. Ciletti

1971-01-01

295

Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline-Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)-was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L.

2008-08-01

296

Two-Point Codes on Norm-Trace Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the Weierstrass semigroup of a pair of rational points on Norm-Trace curves. We use this semigroup to improve the lower bound on the minimum distance of two-point algebraic geometry codes arising from these curves.

Carlos Munuera; Guilherme C. Tizziotti; Fernando Torres

2008-01-01

297

Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

2009-01-01

298

Dimensions and correlates of negative attitudes toward female survivors of sexual violence in Eastern DRC.  

PubMed

The aim of the study described in this article is to examine the dimensions and correlates of attitudes toward survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Four dimensions of attitudes were identified: victim responsibility, victim denigration, victim credibility, and deservingness. Gender roles attitudes represented the most significant correlate of attitudes toward survivors in this population. Other significant correlates of overall attitudes toward survivors included current employment, province of residence, knowledge about the SV law, awareness about where to go for information on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and the perceived prevalence of SV in own community. There are differences and communalities in the variables associated with the various dimensions of attitudes. For example, sex of the respondent and discussion of SGBV with others were only significantly associated with the tendency to ascribe responsibility to the victim. The findings indicate that changing negative gender norms should be central to efforts aimed at promoting accepting attitudes toward survivors. Furthermore, addressing the various dimensions of attitudes toward survivors may require different strategies. PMID:24366960

Babalola, Stella O

2014-06-01

299

Sexism in Education? A Study of Future Teachers' Attitudes Toward Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main question investigated by this study was whether future teachers' attitudes toward women were significantly different from the attitudes of other college students. The subjects of this research were college students divided into two groups--education majors and majors in other subjects. A Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered…

Panko, Jessie Symington

300

Attitudes towards organic foods and risk\\/benefit perception associated with pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 947 subjects completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and beliefs towards the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. A section of the questionnaire was aimed at assessing the role of trust on perception of risks and benefits associated with pesticides on foods. The subjects tended to hold positive attitudes towards eating fruits and vegetables produced by organic agriculture.

Anna Saba; Federico Messina

2003-01-01

301

Attitude toward Chemistry: A Semantic Differential Instrument for Assessing Curriculum Impacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a 20-item semantic differential assessment instrument for measuring student attitudes toward the subject of chemistry is described (Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory-ASCI). Instrument subscales and survey items pertain to interest and utility, anxiety, intellectual accessibility, emotional satisfaction, and…

Bauer, Christopher F.

2008-01-01

302

[Clinical nurses attitude towards alcoholic patients].  

PubMed

This psychometric study aims to evaluate the attitudes of nurses working in a hospital network towards alcoholic patients. Research participants were 71 nurses from Public Hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia. Data were collected through the Seaman Mannello scale (Nurses' Attitudes Towards Alcohol and Alcoholism), which consists of five subscales. According to the research results, nurses agree that alcoholic patients' life in unpleasant, so that they are not their preferred patients. They believe these patients deserve nursing care like everybody else but disclose indifference towards feeling comfortable about this care, although they affirm their willingness to help the patient. Nurses perceive alcoholics as sensitive persons and think that alcohol consumption turns normal persons fragile and silly, which is risky since they conceptualize alcoholics as serious and unrecoverable patients. These data illustrate that the nurses' attitudes reflect their personal and professional context and probably their nursing education about this subject. PMID:15303197

Navarrete, Pilar Reyes; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

2004-01-01

303

Strongly Lacunary Ward Continuity in 2-Normed Spaces  

PubMed Central

A function f defined on a subset E of a 2-normed space X is strongly lacunary ward continuous if it preserves strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy sequences of points in E; that is, (f(xk)) is a strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy sequence whenever (xk) is strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy. In this paper, not only strongly lacunary ward continuity, but also some other kinds of continuities are investigated in 2-normed spaces.

Cakalli, Huseyin; Ersan, Sibel

2014-01-01

304

Constraint rule-based programming of norms for electronic institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Norms constitute a powerful coordination mechanism,among heterogeneous agents. In this paper, we propose means to specify and ex- plicitly manage the normative positions of agents (permissions, prohibi- tions and obligations), with which distinct deontic notions and their rela- tionships can be captured. Our rule-based formalism includes constraints for more expressiveness and precision and allows the norm-oriented pro- gramming,of electronic

Andrés García-camino; Juan A. Rodríguez-aguilar; Carles Sierra; Wamberto Weber Vasconcelos

2009-01-01

305

Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451 girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS Cigarette and hookah smokers had significant differences with nonsmokers in two social norms: “Perceived smoking by important characters” [odds ratio (OR) = 1.35 in cigarette smokers and 1.58 in hookah smokers; P < 0.001] and “smoking makes gatherings friendly” (OR = 3.62 in cigarette smokers and 6.16 in hookah smokers; P < 0.001). Furthermore, cigarette and hookah smoking were significantly associated with having smoking friends. CONCLUSION Highlighting the social norms leading to cigarette and hookah smoking may help policy makers develop comprehensive interventions to prevent smoking among adolescents.

Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram; Teimori, Soheila; Amirpour, Afshin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

306

Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity.

Hutchings, J A

2011-01-01

307

Medical Students' Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition.

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; Konig, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

308

Information and Attitudes toward Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

1979-01-01

309

Attitude control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.

Vonpragenau, G. L.; Rupp, C. C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

310

A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Differential Complexity and Response Style in Measuring Attitudes Toward People With Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report investigated a potentially complex relationship between cognitive complexity and attitudes towards people with disabilities in a 3-part study using two undergraduate student samples. In Study 1 (n = 126), subjects' responses to the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP-O) were not significantly correlated with the Repertory Grid Test (RGT). This finding suggests no relationship between attitudes and a

Michael J. Millington; Douglas C. Strohmer; Chris A. Reid; Paul M. Spengler

1996-01-01

311

GPS Based Attitude Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final technical report describes the research performed by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on GPS Based Attitude Determination for spacecraft over the period 01 September 1993 - 31 August 1995. T...

P. Axelrad

1995-01-01

312

Ring Laser Attitude System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of effort carried out on this program was to fabricate a two-axis Ring Laser Gyro Attitude System complete with electronics which would be usable as instrumentation on a 100 g rocket sled.

F. Vescial; P. L. Anthony

1976-01-01

313

Student attitudes to physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reported is a summary of the responses of 363 college science and engineering students to a questionnaire designed to determine their attitude towards physics. The majority of students found physics moderately interesting.

Briggs, B. H.

2005-11-03

314

College Norms for the Leary Interpersonal Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes to the normative data pool for the Leary Interpersonal Checklist by presenting scores for 246 female and 228 male college students. These data include standard scores for DOM and LOV (dominance and love, loosely) as subjects rated self, mother, father, and ideal. (Author)

Lees-Haley, Paul R.

1981-01-01

315

Public awareness and attitudes toward palliative care in Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organisation recognises palliative care as a global public health issue and this is reflected at strategic level. Despite this, palliative care may not be universally welcomed. Surveys over the last decade have suggested that the general public have a lack of knowledge and negative perceptions towards palliative care. A detailed and comprehensive understanding of public views is needed in order to target education and policy campaigns and to manage future needs, expectations and resourcing of end of life care. The aim of this study was to establish the current levels of awareness and attitudes towards palliative care among the general public in Northern Ireland. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey with a population of 3,557 individuals aged over 17 years was performed. Information was collected using a structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items. Open questions were subject to content analysis; closed questions were subject to descriptive statistics with inferential testing as appropriate. Results A total of 600 responses were obtained (response rate 17%). Responses indicated limited knowledge about palliative care. Female gender and previous experience influenced awareness in a positive direction. Respondents who worked in healthcare themselves or who had a close relative or friend who had used a palliative care service were more aware of palliative care and the availability of different palliative care services. Findings reveal the preferred place of care was the family home. The main barriers to raising awareness were fear, lack of interaction with health services and perception of lack of resources. A number of strategies to enhance awareness, access and community involvement in palliative care were suggested. Conclusions Public awareness of the concept of palliative care and of service availability remains insufficient for widespread effective and appropriate palliative care to be accepted as the norm. In particular, those without previous family-related experiences lack awareness. This has implications for palliative care service provision and policy. An increased awareness of palliative care is needed, in order to improve knowledge of and access to services when required, empower individuals, involve communities and ultimately to realise the objectives contained within international strategies for palliative and end-of-life care.

2013-01-01

316

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

317

A Study of Mexican Attitudes toward Learning and Teaching English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico assessed Mexican attitudes toward United States bilingual education. Subjects interviewed were 129 English-speaking Mexicans, aged from 12 to 66, most of them middle class. Forty percent were students. The interviews focused on the subjects' backgrounds, why and how they learned English, and how Mexican…

Slaughter, Charles H.

318

Changes in Attitudes toward Education during Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted with 125 female student teachers in Israel, attempted to determine if one year of teacher training altered subjects' attitudes toward traditionalism/progressivism in education and if this change was influenced by the subjects' initial open or closed belief system, as measured by Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale. (SJL)

Kremer, Liya; Moore, Michael

1978-01-01

319

Public attitudes to the disease concept of alcoholism.  

PubMed

Proponents of the disease concept of alcoholism have argued that its dissemination among the general public will promote humanitarian attitudes toward alcoholics. This claim was subjected to empirical scrutiny. A quota sample of 200 members of the general public completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs about alcoholism and attitudes toward alcoholics. As predicted, the majority of respondents endorsed a disease formulation. However, examination of the data using correlational and factor analytic techniques indicated that two humanitarian views--expressing sympathetic attitudes toward alcoholics and regarding them as deserving of public funds--were largely independent of endorsing a disease view. PMID:3429071

Crawford, J; Heather, N

1987-11-01

320

Subjective Well-Being among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

2006-01-01

321

Oral-diadochokinesis rates across languages: English and Hebrew norms.  

PubMed

Oro-facial and speech motor control disorders represent a variety of speech and language pathologies. Early identification of such problems is important and carries clinical implications. A common and simple tool for gauging the presence and severity of speech motor control impairments is oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK). Surprisingly, norms for adult performance are missing from the literature. The goals of this study were: (1) to establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for (young to middle-age) adult English speakers, by collecting data from the literature (five studies, N=141); (2) to investigate the possible effect of language (and culture) on oral-DDK performance, by analyzing studies conducted in other languages (five studies, N=140), alongside the English norm; and (3) to find a new norm for adult Hebrew speakers, by testing 115 speakers. We first offer an English norm with a mean of 6.2syllables/s (SD=.8), and a lower boundary of 5.4syllables/s that can be used to indicate possible abnormality. Next, we found significant differences between four tested languages (English, Portuguese, Farsi and Greek) in oral-DDK rates. Results suggest the need to set language and culture sensitive norms for the application of the oral-DDK task world-wide. Finally, we found the oral-DDK performance for adult Hebrew speakers to be 6.4syllables/s (SD=.8), not significantly different than the English norms. This implies possible phonological similarities between English and Hebrew. We further note that no gender effects were found in our study. We recommend using oral-DDK as an important tool in the speech language pathologist's arsenal. Yet, application of this task should be done carefully, comparing individual performance to a set norm within the specific language. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (1) identify the Speech-Language Pathologist assessment process using the oral-DDK task, by comparing an individual performance to the present English norm, (2) describe the impact of language on oral-DDK performance, and (3) accurately detect Hebrew speakers' patients using this tool. PMID:24630145

Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

2014-01-01

322

[Changes in test norms of spelling achievement and nonverbal intelligence].  

PubMed

The norms of the spelling test R-T Form C "Moselfahrt" (Althoff et al. 1974) from the year 1968 and of the nonverbal intelligence test CFT 20 (form A/part 1) from the year 1977 (Weiss 1987) are evaluated for their actual validity. In 1995, both original tests were being administered to an epidemiological sample (N = 592) of adolescents and young adults in the age of 16 to 30 years having passed at least their obligatory amount of school years. These results are being compared to those of the original norm samples. Using the norms for the CFT 20 from 1977 adolescents and young adults achieve in the year 1995 a mean IQ of 110.8 points, equaling a yearly IQ-gain of 0.6 IQ-points. This exceeds the expected gain of 0.33 IQ-points annually according to the literature and indicates a distinct change of norms. There were no significant gender differences found. The distribution of mistakes in the spelling test R-T "Moselfahrt" compared to the original norm sample from 1968 changes considerably as well and requires revised test norms. With an increase from 9-11 mistakes (depending on the age norm) to 19.8 mistakes the mean amount of mistakes is almost being doubled. Extremely high numbers of mistakes occurred more frequent and could not be differentiated according to the old norms. Using the original norms from 1968 in the year of 1995 12.4% of the sample achieve with a T-score of 20 the lower limit of the measured value scale and the overall mean has decreased by 1.2 standard deviations to T-score = 38.48% of the sample reach a result that equates percentage 10 or less which is interpreted as insufficient school mark. Women's mean spelling achievement is significantly better than men's. Causes and implications of this scissors-like development of deteriorated spelling achievement and increased nonverbal intelligence are being discussed. Tables containing the new standardization scores are included in the appendix. PMID:12050936

Zerahn-Hartung, Claudia; Strehlow, Ulrich; Haffner, Johann; Pfüller, Ute; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

2002-04-01

323

Attitude orientation control for a spinning satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of the Air Force, Headquarters Space Systems Division, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently involved in litigation with Hughes Aircraft Company over the alledged infringement of the 'Williams patent,' which describes a method for attitude control of a spin-stabilized vehicle. Summarized here is pre-1960 RAND work on this subject and information obtained from RAND personnel knowledgeable on this subject. It was concluded that there is no RAND documentation that directly parallels the 'Williams patent' concept. Also, the TIROS II magnetic torque attitude control method is reviewed. The TIROS II meteorological satellite, launched on November 23, 1960, incorporated a magnetic actuation system for spin axis orientation control. The activation system was ground controlled to orient the satellite spin axis to obtain the desired pointing direction for optical and infrared sensor subsystems.

Frost, Gerald

324

Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.  

PubMed

In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

Heyer, Gretchen

2012-11-01

325

Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry  

PubMed Central

Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

2012-01-01

326

Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

2012-03-01

327

Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term word association is used in a very particular sense in the psycholinguistic literature. (Generally speaking, subjects respond quicker than normal to the word nurse if it follows a highly associated word such as doctor. ) We will extend the term to provide the basis for a statistical description of a variety of interesting linguistic phenomena, ranging from semantic relations of the doctor\\/nurse type

Kenneth Ward Church; Patrick Hanks

1990-01-01

328

The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

2011-01-01

329

Defining the Subject of Consent in DNA Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of population-specific genomic research has prompted calls for invention of informed consent protocols that would treat entire social groups as research subjects as well as endow such groups with authority as agents of consent. Critics of such an unconventional ethical norm of “group consent” fear the rhetorical effects of approaching social groups with offers to participate in dialogues

Gordon R. Mitchell; Kelly Happe

2001-01-01

330

The Impact of Knowledge, Norms, and Self-Efficacy on Intentions to Engage in AIDS-Preventive Behaviors among Young Incarcerated African American Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, condom use, self-efficacy, and intentions to practice HIV-safe behaviors among 52 young incarcerated African-American males. Although overall knowledge and intent to practice safe sex were moderate, transmission knowledge was low. Peer and subjective norms support condom use. (SLD)

Belgrave, Faye Z.; And Others

1993-01-01

331

An Investigation of One-week Reliability of the Michigan Restricted Association Norms. Analysis of Meaning with Restricted Association Tests Report Number 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the reliability of four tasks of the Michigan Restricted Association Norms--Superordinates, Parts, Following Words, and Free Associations--30 subjects were asked to respond to 33 stimulus items under each of the four instructions and to perform identical tasks 7-14 days later. Comparisons of the intra-individual reliability and…

Gekoski, William L.

332

Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience.

Kwan, Christine M. L.; Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.

2011-01-01

333

Evaluating theory-based evaluation: information, norms, and adherence.  

PubMed

Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social interventions--the marriage permits us to advance knowledge by making use of both success and failures. We briefly review well-established principles within the field of program evaluation, well-established processes involved in changing social norms and social-norm adherence, the outcome of several program evaluations focusing on smoking prevention, pro-environmental behavior, and rape prevention and, using the principle of learning from our failures, examine why these programs often do not perform as expected. Finally, we discuss the promise of learning from our collective experiences to develop a cumulative science of program evaluation and to improve the performance of extant and future interventions. PMID:22277114

Jacobs, W Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio José

2012-08-01

334

From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

2004-01-01

335

The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem  

PubMed Central

We formalize an algorithm for solving the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L1 projection and L1 regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics.

Dula, J.H.

2012-01-01

336

Attitude estimation and maneuvering for autonomous obstacle avoidance by miniature air vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the Euler-Rodrigues symmetric parameters (attitude quaternion) to describe vehicle orientation, we develop a multiplicative, nonlinear (extended) variation of the Kalman filter (MEKF) to fuse data from low-cost sensors. The sensor suite is comprised of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and a GPS receiver. In contrast to the common approach of using the complete vehicle attitude as the quantities to be estimated, our filter states consist of the three components of an attitude error vector. In parallel with the time update of the attitude error estimate, we utilize the gyroscope measurements for the time propagation of the attitude quaternion. The accelerometer and the GPS sensors are used independently for the measurement update portion of the Kalman filter. For both sensors, a vector arithmetic approach is used to determine the attitude error vector. Following each measurement update, a multiplicative reset operation moves the attitude error information from the filter state into the attitude estimate. This reset operation utilizes quaternion algebra to implicitly maintain the unity-norm constraint. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our attitude estimation algorithm through flight simulations and flight tests of aggressive maneuvers such as loops and small-radius circles. We implement an approach to acrobatic maneuvering for miniature air vehicles (MAVs) using time-parameterized attitude trajectory generation and an associated attitude tracking control law. We designed two methodologies, polynomial and trigonometric, for creating functions that specify pitch and roll angles as a function of time. For both approaches, the functions are constrained by the maneuver boundary conditions of aircraft position and velocity. We construct a trajectory tracking feedback control law to regulate aircraft orientation throughout the maneuvers. The trajectory generation algorithm was used to construct several maneuvers and trajectory tracking control law successfully executed the maneuvers in the flight simulator. In addition to the simulation results, MAV flight tests verified the performance of the maneuver generation and control. To achieve obstacle avoidance maneuvering, the time parameterized trajectories were converted to spatially parameterized paths, which allowed for inertial reference frame position error to be included in the control law feedback loop. We develop a novel method to achieve the spatial parameterization using a prediction and correction approach. Additionally, the first derivative of position of the desired path is modified using a corrective parameter scheme prior to being used in the control. Using the path position error and the corrected derivative, we utilize a unit-norm quaternion framework to implement a proportional-derivative (PD) control law. This control law was demonstrated in simulation and hardware on maneuvers designed specifically to avoid obstacles, namely the Immelmann and the Close-Q, as well as a basic loop.

Hall, James K.

337

Developmental instrument supplies accurate attitude and attitude-rate data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three orthogonal-plane projection provides accuracy of readout of both attitude and attitude-rate information in an easily interpreted, uncluttered arrangement where blind navigation of a moving body is involved. The longitudinal length of the projection is constant, and independent of the pitch and roll attitudes of the moving body.

1966-01-01

338

Utilization of Attitude Maps in Evaluating Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various methods have been performed to identify teachers' attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers' attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was…

Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

2008-01-01

339

SMM attitude control recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the way in which the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS) onboard computer of the NASA Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) laboratory was reprogrammed, to restore attitude control for the SMM, after fuse failures permanently disabled all three of the MACS primary reaction wheels. Algorithms were developed which provided both a thermal- and power-safe, spin-stabilized mode and three-axis sun pointing, using the damaged primary wheels' backup skew wheel in a momentum-bias control scheme. Magnetic torquing was used in these algorithms for angular momentum vector magnitude and directional control.

Hoffman, H. C.; Donohue, J. H.; Flatley, T. W.

1981-01-01

340

Satellite attitude control simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

1973-01-01

341

Attitudes in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than half of all students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in regular education classes. Because LD student numbers are increasing, the ability of classroom teachers to accommodate these students is being challenged. The success of inclusion depends on many factors, including the attitudes of professional educators and the quality of instruction they offer their students. This article presents the findings of a survey that was conducted to assess how teachers' attitudes about inclusion of learning disabled students affects their use of accommodations.

Biddle, Susan

2006-03-01

342

The other side of the coin: oxytocin decreases the adherence to fairness norms  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in prosocial behaviors such as trust and generosity. Yet, these effects appear to strongly depend on characteristics of the situation and the people with whom we interact or make decisions. Norms and rules can facilitate and guide our actions, with fairness being a particularly salient and fundamental norm. The current study investigated the effects of intranasal OXT administration on fairness considerations in social decision-making in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. After having received 24 IU of OXT or placebo (PLC), participants completed a one-shot Dictator Game (DG) and played the role of the responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG), in which an unfair offer of eight coins for the proposer and two coins for the responder is paired with either a fair-(5:5) or no-alternative (8:2). Rejection rates were higher when a fair alternative had been available than when there was no alternative to an unfair offer. Importantly, OXT did not de-or increase rejection rates overall, but reduced the sensitivity to contextual fairness, i.e., the context of alternatives in which an offer was made. As dictators, participants allocated less coins to the recipient when given OXT than when given PLC, indicating a decline in generosity. These results suggest that OXT decreases the adherence to fairness norms in social settings where others are likely to be perceived as not belonging to one's ingroup. While our findings do not support the prosocial conception of OXT, they corroborate recent ideas that the effects of OXT are more nuanced than assumed in the past.

Radke, Sina; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.

2012-01-01

343

On the Minimum Norm Solution of Linear Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper describes a new technique to find the minimum norm solution of alinear program. The main idea is to reformulate this problem as an unconstrained minimizationproblem with a convex and smooth objective function. The minimization of thisobjective function can be carried out by a Newton-type method which is shown to be globallyconvergent. Furthermore, under certain assumptions, this Newton-type

Christian Kanzow; Houduo Qi; Liquin Qi

2000-01-01

344

(How) do norms guide Presidency behaviour in EU negotiations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes stock of the growing body of research on the European Union (EU) Presidency, a vital player in EU negotiations. The paper also suggests new avenues of research, among which we prioritize one issue cluster: we ask under what conditions and in what way (following which social logic) norms guide Presidency behaviour? Our focus is directed towards the

Arne Niemann; Jeannette Mak

2010-01-01

345

State Norms for the North Carolina Testing Program. 1999 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a reference for those interested in conducting comparative studies about North Carolina tests. It includes norms tables and other basic statistical information for all state-developed tests (state-mandated and local option tests where baseline data are available) that were administered during the current accountability…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability/Testing.

346

Changing Values and Norms in Portuguese Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this paper is to identify emerging changes in the values and norms related to governance and management in Portuguese higher education and to identify how different kinds of stakeholders perceive these changes. The University Autonomy Act (1988) and the Polytechnics Autonomy Act (1990) by transferring greater responsibility…

Magalhaes, Antonio M.; Amaral, Alberto

2007-01-01

347

Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

2012-01-01

348

The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

Horowitz, Irwin A.

1971-01-01

349

Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

2010-01-01

350

Norming Clinical Questionnaires with Multiple Regression: The Pain Cognition List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article…

Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

2005-01-01

351

Norm Formation, Social Conformity, and the Confederating Function of Humor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observed the ways in which norm formation and social conformity are engaged in the joke setting. Despite the "cautious" operational definition of the convergence concept, the basic finding of convergence nevertheless seems fairly absolute and pertinent to the individual's day-to-day social relations. (Author/BL)

Khoury, Robert M.

1985-01-01

352

Some classes of t-norms and fuzzy metric spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, V. Gregori, S. Morillas and A. Sapena have discussed [On a class of completable fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (2010), 2193-2205] the so-called strong fuzzy metrics when looking for a class of completable fuzzy metric spaces in the sense of A. George and P. Veeramani and state the question of finding a non-strong fuzzy metric space for a continuous t-norm different from the minimum. Later on, J. Gutiérrez García and S. Romaguera solved this question [Examples of non-strong fuzzy metrics, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 162 (2011) 91-93] by means of two examples for the product and the Lukasiewicz t-norm, respectively. In this direction they posed to find further examples of non-strong fuzzy metrics for continuous t-norm that are greater than the product but different from minimum. In this paper we obtain, among others facts on t-norms and fuzzy metric spaces, an example of this kind.

Castro-Company, Francisco; Tirado, Pedro

2012-09-01

353

Division of Chemical Education: Condensed Norms: ACS Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Condensed norms are presented for the most recent American Chemical Society examinations. These are the polymer chemistry form 1978, organic chemistry form 1978, physical chemistry form 1976 I, brief qualitative analysis form 1977B, and brief organic chemistry form 1977B examinations. (BB)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

1979-01-01

354

Traditional Norms of Schooling and the Issue of Organization Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational change will be a major theme of the school reform movement. Despite restructuring efforts, schools are still operated on the factory system model. Using the social norms concept, this paper examines schools as informal organizations and advocates staff development as an essential key for changing informal relationships (roles)…

Keedy, John L.

1990-01-01

355

Total energy norm in NWP closure parameter optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the use of total energy norm in improving numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forecast skill. The Ensemble Prediction and Parameter Estimation System (EPPES) is utilized to estimate ECHAM5 atmospheric GCM closure parameters related to clouds and precipitation. The target criterion in the optimization is the total energy norm of three-day forecast error with respect to the ECMWF operational analyses. The results are summarized as follows: (i) forecast error growth in terms of energy norm is slower in the optimized than in the default model up to day ten forecasts (and beyond), (ii) headline forecast skill scores are improved in the training sample as well as in independent samples, (iii) the decrease of the forecast error energy norm at day three is mainly because of smaller kinetic energy error in the tropics, and (iv) this impact is spread into mid-latitudes at longer ranges and appears as smaller forecast error of potential energy. The interpretation of these results is that the parameter optimization has reduced the model error so that the forecasts remain longer in the vicinity of the analyzed state.

Ollinaho, P.; Järvinen, H.; Bauer, P.; Laine, M.; Bechtold, P.; Susiluoto, J.; Haario, H.

2013-12-01

356

Motor Performance Norms for Georgia Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of 2,546 Georgia children, researchers have established state norms for 8 measures of physical fitness at 3 grade levels. Motor test score percentile rankings for boys and girls in the second, fourth, and sixth grades are given (in 22 tables) for the following tests: (1) jump and reach; (2) sit ups; (3) shape-o-ball (measuring shape…

Harris, I. David, Comp.; And Others

357

BEST APPROXIMATION FOR NONCONVEX SET IN q-NORMED SPACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some existence results on best approximation are proved with- out starshaped subset and affine mapping in the set up ofq-normed space. First, we consider the closed subset and then weakly compact subsets for said purpose. Our results improve the result of Mukherjee and Som (11) and Jungck and Sessa (7) and some known results (4), (9), (12) are obtained as

HEMANT KUMAR NASHINE

358

Technical Change and the Evolution of Class Conscious Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a variant of the Michl-Baldani (2000) model of technical change as a strategic choice, this paper describes alternative foundations for the achievement of “positive class consciousness” The first is based on the Folk Theorem(s) of repeated games, while the second views the robust establishment of certain norms as the prerequisite for such conciousness.

Peter Hans Matthews

2000-01-01

359

Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

2010-01-01

360

Fuzzy ?-Hyperideals in ?-Hypersemirings by Using Triangular Norms  

PubMed Central

The concept of ?-semihyperrings was introduced by Dehkordi and Davvaz as a generalization of semirings, semihyperrings, and ?-semiring. In this paper, by using the notion of triangular norms, we define the concept of triangular fuzzy sub-?-semihyperrings as well as triangular fuzzy ?-hyperideals of a ?-semihyperring, and we study a few results in this respect.

Ersoy, B. A.; Davvaz, B.; Onar, S.; Leoreanu-Fotea, V.

2014-01-01

361

Adult Israeli Community Norms for the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aim is to establish Israeli norms for the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). A nationwide representative sample of 510 community respondents (age range 35–65, 51.4% women) completed the Hebrew version of the BSI. The data showed high internal reliabilities for the 9 BSI scales, as well as for their total score, indicated by the General Severity Index (GSI). Higher

Ora Gilbar; Hasida Ben-Zur

2002-01-01

362

Deference in Indians' decision making: introjected goals or injunctive norms?  

PubMed

We examine the claim that Indians are more likely than Americans to act deferentially in the presence of authority figures and explore 2 possible psychological mechanisms for this cultural difference: introjected goals and injunctive norms. Studies 1 and 2 showed that after reflecting upon an authority's expectations, Indians were more likely than Americans to make clothing and course choices consistent with the authority's expectations, but there was no such cultural difference for peers' expectations. Study 3 showed that merely activating the concept of authority figures, without highlighting specific expectations, was sufficient to influence Indians' choices but not their evaluations. Examining a more basic distinction underlying introjected goals versus injunctive norms, Study 4 showed that authority primes influenced Indians' sense of what they should do but not what they want to do. Study 5 showed that, inconsistent with the internalized goal mechanism, the effect of explicit authority primes did not increase after brief delays. However, Indian participants who were less likely to accommodate to the salient authority experienced more guilt across delay conditions, which supported the injunctive norms mechanism. The findings suggest that manipulating injunctive norms can be an effective means for inducing or eliminating deferential behaviors in Indian settings. PMID:22149457

Savani, Krishna; Morris, Michael W; Naidu, N V R

2012-04-01

363

Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

2012-01-01

364

A Case-Based Reasoning Approach for Norm Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing organisational centred multi-agent systems regulate agents' activities. However, population/environmental changes may lead to a poor fulfilment of system's goals, and therefore, adapting the whole organisation becomes key. In this paper, we propose to use Case-Based Reasoning learning to adapt norms that regulate agents' behaviour. Moreover, we empirically evaluate this approach in a P2P scenario.

Campos, Jordi; López-Sánchez, Maite; Esteva, Marc

365

High and Low Classroom Norms as Performance Goals. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible advantages and disadvantages of using local or national educational achievement norms as standards for classroom performance are weighed against the more common situation wherein students are involved in face-to-face competition with their classroom peers. This introductory discussion concludes that the motivational value of "average…

Clifford, Margaret M.

366

On positively differentiable curves with values in normed linear spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a theorem that characterizes continuous normed linear space-valued curves allowing differentiable parameterizations with non-zero derivatives as those curves, all the points of which are regular (in Choquet's sense). We also state an equivalent geometric condition not involving any homeomorphisms. This extends a theorem due to Choquet, who proved a similar result for curves with values in Euclidean spaces.

Jakub Duda

2006-01-01

367

Mesh diagram cephalometric norms for Americans of African descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish cephalometric norms for African-American males and females, to compare these measurements with the findings of Alexander's ?Alabama analysis,” and to construct mesh templates for various age groups. The sample we evaluated included 71 African-Americans, divided into four groups: girls (8 to 12 years), boys (8 to 12 years), adolescent females (13 to

Kathy L Bailey; Reginald W Taylor

1998-01-01

368

Suitability of Neuropsychological Test Norms with Black Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inasmuch as blacks and other ethnic minorities have not been included in normative studies of most neuropsychological tests, the validity of these measures with these populations is questionable. The present study examined the suitability of selected neuropsychological test norms with 100 "normal" (Mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

Knuckle, Essie Proax; Campbell, Alfonso L.

369

Evolving norms at the intersection of health and trade.  

PubMed

There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policy making as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them?-?particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO)?-?have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance?-?the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade?-?we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly twenty-five years. Our analytic framework focuses on the actors that advance, defend, and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively into their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

2014-06-01

370

Homo Socionicus: a Case Study of Simulation Models of Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a survey of normative agent-based social simulation models. These models are examined from the perspective of the foundations of social theory. Agent-based modelling contributes to the research program of methodological individualism. Norms are a central concept in the role theoretic concept of action in the tradition of Durkheim and Parsons. This paper investigates to what extend normative

Martin Neumann

2008-01-01

371

On positively differentiable curves with values in normed linear spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove a theorem that characterizes continuous normed linear space-valued curves allowing differentiable parameterizations with non-zero derivatives as those curves, all the points of which are regular (in Choquet's sense). We also state an equivalent geometric condition not involving any homeomorphisms. This extends a theorem due to Choquet, who proved a similar result for curves with values in Euclidean spaces.

Duda, Jakub

2006-08-01

372

Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

Lundin, Mattias

2011-01-01

373

Developing Attitudes towards Science Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe the development of measures used to examine pupils’ attitudes towards science. In particular, separate measures for attitudes towards the following areas were developed: learning science in school, practical work in science, science outside of school, importance of science, self?concept in science, and future participation in science. In developing these measures, criticisms of previous attitude studies

Per Kind; Karen Jones; Partick Barmby

2007-01-01

374

Robust frequency-domain elastic Full Waveform Inversion: which norm?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full waveform inversion (FWI) is becoming a powerful and efficient tool to derive high resolution models of subsurface visco-elastic parameters at different scales. In the frequency-domain (FD), 2D FWI is computationally affordable from both modeling and inversion viewpoints, because the inversion can be limited to few discrete frequencies when applied to wide-aperture acquisition geometries. However, FWI is an ill-posed data-fitting procedure that is sensitive to noise, inaccuracies of the starting model and definition of multi-parameter classes. The impact of the noise in FD FWI, when applied to decimated data sets, has been marginally illustrated in the past. We investigate here the sensitivities and performances of different minimization functionals, such as the least-square norm (L2), the least-absolute-values norm (L1), and some combinations of both (the Huber and the so-called Hybrid criteria), using realistic onshore and offshore synthetic case studies. The minimization functionals are implemented in a massively-parallel, 2D elastic FD FWI algorithm for imaging P- and S-wave velocities (VP and VS). Results show that the L1 norm provides the most reliable models, even when only few discrete frequencies are used in the inversion and when outliers pollute the data. The L2 norm can provide reliable results in the presence of uniform white noise if the data redundancy is increased by refining the frequency sampling interval in the inversion, at the expense of the computational efficiency. The Huber and the Hybrid criteria are shown to be sensitive to a threshold, which controls the transition between the L1 and L2 behaviors, and which requires tedious trial-and-error investigations for reliable estimation. The L1 norm provides a robust alternative to the L2 norm for the inversion of decimated data sets in the framework of efficient FD FWI. Synthetic onshore SEG/EAGE overthrust model experiment. Body and surface waves are jointly inverted. (a-b) true VP and VS models. Final FWI (c) VP and (d) VS models obtained by successive L2 inversions of two frequency groups of 3 frequencies each : (1.7, 2.0, 3.5) and (3.5, 4.8, 7.2) Hz. (e-f) Same as (c-d) for L1 norm. (g-h) Same as (c-d) for two groups of 9 frequencies each. The bandwidth of each frequency group is the same as in (c-f) but the frequency interval was refined. The computational time is three time higher than for (c-f).

Brossier, R.; Operto, S. O.; Virieux, J.

2009-12-01

375

Thoughts on Attitude Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

Reid, Norman

2006-01-01

376

Nurses' Attitudes toward Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether nurses' attitudes toward suicide are based on clinical specialty, age, and degree completed. Findings from 184 nurses revealed no significant differences between clinical specialty groups. Age and degree were significant only on Right to Die scale. Older nurses and those with advanced degrees were more likely to agree with…

Alston, Maude H.; Robinson, Beverly H.

1992-01-01

377

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

378

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Dietz, Tracy

379

Attitudes toward Rape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the perception of rape has been studied intensely in recent years, most scales focus on rape myths as the content domain. The need exists for a more general instrument which would include items from a variety of sources, e.g., attitudes toward rape awareness, sexual history, age, virginity, community support, etc., in addition to the myth of…

Larsen, Knud S.; Long, Ed

380

Academics, Activities, Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Oklahoma high school is striving to integrate activities, attitudes, and academics. The school broadens curriculum by involving students in its performance, governance, service, and instruction via sports activities, job-related organizations, course-related clubs, membership groups, and school-service and government clubs open to all students.…

Lannert, Grace

2000-01-01

381

Got an Attitude Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon se...

1999-01-01

382

Age and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses age differences in public attitudes toward public schools from recent Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll. For example, the biggest problem facing schools identified by those 50 and older is discipline, whereas those between 18 and 29 identified finance. Both age groups strongly support public schools. (PKP)

Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

2003-01-01

383

Measures of Political Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is a compilation and evaluation of 95 attitude scales for survey research. An introductory chapter outlines the fifteen chapters, discusses the background and rationale of the project, and details the major criteria for scale construction used to evaluate the scales reviewed in the volume. Chapter 2 contains a historical summary of…

Robinson, John P.; And Others

384

Evaluating Attitudes from Texts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper an example is given how the theory of knowledge graphs and the theory of social atoms can be used to evaluate the attitudes that actors have with respect to each other as far is evident from a text.

C. Hoede

1999-01-01

385

Attitude Is Everything  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

Hunt, Jazelle

2009-01-01

386

Safety: An Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

Smith, Harry T.

1978-01-01

387

Science Center and Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya

2013-01-01

388

Okay, So How are Translation Norms Negotiated? A Question for Gideon Toury and Theo Hermans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a question that remains largely unanswered in papers by Toury and Hermans on translation and norms: how, where, and by whom are translation norms negotiated. Explains some of the advantages that ensue from taking the term negotiation seriously. (SM)

Pym, Anthony

1998-01-01

389

Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

1981-01-01

390

Geographical variation in attitudes towards smoking: findings from the COMMIT communities.  

PubMed

This paper examines the links between attitudes towards cigarette smoking and the social environments of communities involved in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Our objective is to identify sources of social-geographic variation in smoking attitudes and norms which can hinder or enhance public health efforts to reduce tobacco use. The analysis had two stages: (1) place (measured as region and community) was identified as an important main effect accounting for individual variation in smoking attitudes independent of smoking status and personal characteristics; (2) case studies of COMMIT sites in North Carolina, Iowa, Washington, New Jersey and New Mexico were conducted to reveal features of the local milieux which could account for variations in smoking attitudes. Some of the place characteristics that we suggest are linked to local attitudes include economic reliance on the tobacco industry, libertarian political orientations, socio-economic conditions, legislative context and ethnic composition. Given the effects of regional and community attributes on individual attitudes towards smoking, we conclude that public health efforts to control smoking should continue to be targeted beyond individual smokers to the broader social environment. PMID:9522430

Ross, N A; Taylor, S M

1998-03-01

391

Does Individualism Help Explain Differences in Employers' Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Disability Across Chinese and American Cities?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with disabilities can jeopardize such individuals' well-being and recovery through denial of employment and community isolation. By shaping social norms that define group membership, the construct of individualism may partially explain differences in stigmatizing attitudes across cultures. Further, widespread globalization has brought intensely individualistic social practices to certain segments of non-Western cultures. This paper examines whether the construct of individualism can help to explain cross-cultural differences in stigmatizing attitudes observed between American and Chinese employers. Design Employers (N = 879) from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago provided information on their attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities, and Path Analyses were conducted to examine potential mediating relationships. Results Path analyses indicated that vertical individualism, along with perceived responsibility for acquiring a condition, partially mediated the relationship between culture and employers' negative attitudes about job candidates with disabilities. Conclusion These results suggested that greater espousal of competitive and individualist values may drive stigmatizing attitudes across cultures.

Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall A.; Tsang, Hector W.H.; Shi, Kan; Corrigan, Patrick W.

2011-01-01

392

Attitudes of Racial Identity and Self-Esteem of Black Students: An Exploratory Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the relationship between attitudes of racial identity and self-esteem with 166 Black college students. Subjects completed two measures, which showed that preencounter and immersion attitudes (as depicted in Cross' racial identity model, 1971) tend to be associated with low self-esteem. (Author/BH)

Parham, Thomas A.; Helms, Janet E.

1985-01-01

393

The Effect of a Student-Designed Data Collection: Project on Attitudes toward Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often enter an introductory statistics class with less than positive attitudes about the subject. They tend to believe statistics is difficult and irrelevant to their lives. Observational evidence from previous studies suggests including projects in a statistics course may enhance students' attitudes toward statistics. This study examines…

Carnell, Lisa J.

2008-01-01

394

Attitudes toward old people: The development of a scale and an examination of correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports on the development of a Likert scale for assessing attitudes toward old people and discusses empirical relations found between such attitudes and other attitudinal and personality variables. Three samples of college undergraduates served as subjects  a scale containing items making unfavorable reference to old people and a scale containing matched favorably worded items [were constructed]  no

N. Kogan

1961-01-01

395

The Community Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale: The Development of a Psychometric Assessment Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the nature of individual attitudes toward sex offenders. Because the term "sex offender" tends to evoke strong emotions, and given that open-ended self reports tend to be highly subjective, particularly in the context of such pointed terminology, this study sought to develop an attitude

Church, Wesley T., II; Wakeman, Emily E.; Miller, Sarah L.; Clements, Carl B.; Sun, Fei

2008-01-01

396

Why Choose French? Boys' and Girls' Attitudes at the Option Stage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of secondary students' attitudes toward French as a second language in two schools analyzed how students' choice or rejection of the subject was related to career choice, sex, social class, travel in France, and success in French. A secondary intent was to refine attitude study techniques. (MSE)

Powell, Robert; Littlewood, Peter

1983-01-01

397

How kids view cops The nature of juvenile attitudes toward the police  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades there has been increasing interest in the attitudes of adults toward the police. There has only been limited interest in the attitudes of juveniles, even though they comprise a significant proportion of the population subject to police contact and arrests. The present study, using data collected through a survey administered to a sample of urban

Yolander. G. Hurst; James Frank

2000-01-01

398

Consumer attitudes toward the use of gene technology in tomato production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey researches indicated that gene technology applied to the food sector is considered less useful than other applications. Recently, theoretical approaches, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), have been applied to assess attitudes towards using gene technology in food production. A study (n=1000 subjects), aimed at assessing beliefs and attitudes towards

Anna Saba; Marco Vassallo

2002-01-01

399

Attitudes of Primary Initial Teacher Training Students to Special Educational Needs and Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Joseph Mintz explores the importance of developing positive attitudes to SEN and Inclusion among primary teacher trainees. The research reported indicates that student attitudes towards SEN/Inclusion were generally positive, but that such views are fluid and subject to change during a course of training. The article reinforces the…

Mintz, Joseph

2007-01-01

400

Effects of Attitudes toward Women and Women in Management on Perceived Communication Competencies of Women Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationship among attitudes toward women in general, attitudes toward women as managers, and perceptions of the communication competencies of women managers. Subjects, 178 employees from various types of organizations, completed the Positive Regard Scale (PRS), the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS), and the Communication…

Berryman-Fink, Cynthia; Wheeless, Virginia Eman

401

The Effect of Language Attitudes on Kenyan Stakeholder Involvement in Mother Tongue Policy Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the relationship between language attitudes and the involvement of Sabaot stakeholders in the implementation of the Kenyan language-in-education policy (mother tongue [MT] as subject). Attitudes were vitally important for how the policy was interpreted, the extent to which stakeholders invested their time and the way in which…

Jones, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

402

Effects of an educational program on public attitudes towards mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Psychiatric Association promotes global anti-stigma programs. However, evaluation research is crucial to developing effective programs. The present study examined the effects of a lecture on mental health on public attitudes towards mental illness. Subjects were recruited from individuals employed by private companies and the government. Attitudes towards mental illness were measured using the Mental Illness and Disorder Understanding

GORO TANAKA; TAKEO OGAWA; HIROYUKI INADOMI; YASUKI KIKUCHI; YASUYUKI OHTA

2003-01-01

403

Attitude change and behavior change: a field experiment investigating responses to an alternative electric rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the ability of a persuasive communications and consumer-education campaign to produce attitude change and behavior change. The study involved a field experiment investigating the responses of residential consumers to an alternative electric rate designed to reduce the amount of electricity used during the utility's hours of peak demand. Knowledge and attitudes of treatment group subjects were experimentally

Baumgartner

1987-01-01

404

Predicting Young American and Chinese Consumers’ Mobile Viral Attitudes, Intents, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two surveys of college students were conducted in the U.S. and China in 2010 to compare young American and Chinese consumers’ mobile viral attitudes, intents, and behavior. The study integrated the theory of planned behavior, Technology Acceptance Model, and Palka and colleagues’ (2009) model. Structural model testing results confirmed the chain of viral attitude to intent to actual behavior. Subjective

Hongwei Yang; Liuning Zhou; Hui Liu

2012-01-01

405

Tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we set up a representation theorem for tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property in terms of Ky Fan norms. Examples of tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property include unitarily invariant norms on finite factors (type ${\\\\rm II}\\\\sb 1$ factors and $M_n(\\\\cc)$) and symmetric

Junsheng Fang; Don Hadwin; Eric Nordgren; Junhao Shen

2007-01-01

406

Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment  

PubMed Central

The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.

Cesario, Sandra K.

2003-01-01

407

Norms for the Depression Adjective Check Lists: Age group and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents norms for male and female adults and for male and female adolescents for the Depression Adjective Check Lists, Form E. Adult norms are derived from a national survey (area probability sampling) of 3,005 Ss (mean age 44.5 yrs), and adolescent norms are from a convenience sample of 622 12–27 yr olds. (3 ref)

Bernard Lubin; Eugene E. Levitt

1979-01-01

408

The convergence of an MED iterative algorithm for the kurtosis norm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wiggins (1978) proposed the minimum entropy deconvolution (MED) which has become one of the most important deconvolution methods. He gave a varimax norm V and an MED iterative procedure. Later, Chacin presented the kurtosis norm. In this paper, the authors prove the global convergence of the MED iterative procedure with respect to the varimax norm for the single channel and

Cheng-Shu Wang; Jin Tang

1991-01-01

409

Non-Traditional Socio-Mathematical Norms in Undergraduate Real Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds upon the framework of classroom norms (Cobb, Wood, & Yackel, 1993) and socio-mathematical norms (Cobb & Yackel, 1996) to understand how non-traditional socio-mathematical norms influence student reasoning and transitions to advanced mathematical thinking in undergraduate real analysis. The research involves a qualitative…

Dawkins, Paul Christian

2009-01-01

410

Navigating the Interdependence Dilemma: Attachment Goals and the Use of Communal Norms With Potential Close Others  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies investigated attachment in the context of new relationship development. Anxiously attached individuals overwhelmingly used communal norms and avoided using exchange norms when interacting with a potential close other; however, when a potential close other used communal norms, anxious individuals experienced increased interpersonal anxiety. Anxious individuals also used discrete communal behaviors to diagnose relationship potential. By contrast, secure individuals

Jennifer A. Bartz; John E. Lydon

2006-01-01

411

A Successful Social Norms Campaign to Reduce Alcohol Misuse Among College Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examines the impact of a social norms intervention to reduce alcohol misuse among student-athletes. The intervention was designed to reduce harmful misperceptions of peer norms and, in turn, reduce personal risk. Method: A comprehensive set of interventions communicating accurate local norms regarding alco- hol use targeted student-athletes at an undergraduate college. An anony- mous survey of all

H. WESLEY PERKINS; DAVID W

412

Norms about Nonmarital Pregnancy and Willingness to Provide Resources to Unwed Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contested social norms underlie public concern about adults' and teenagers' nonmarital pregnancy. The original, vignette-based National Pregnancy Norms Survey (N = 812) measures these norms and related sanctions. Descriptive analyses report embarrassment at the prospect of a nonmarital pregnancy by age and gender of hypothetical prospective…

Mollborn, Stefanie

2009-01-01

413

A comparative analysis of Texas and Louisiana Oil-field NORM Waste Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) Waste Policies for the nation's oil and gas producing states have been in existence since the 1980's, when Louisiana was the first state to develop a NORM regulatory program in 1989. Since that time, expectations for NORM Waste Policies have evolved, as Health, Safety, Environment, and Social responsibility (HSE & SR) grows increasingly important to

Germaine P Johnson

2011-01-01

414

Estimating Lorenz Curve for Iran by Using Continuous L1 Norm Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the L1 norm of continuous functions and corresponding continuous estimation of regression parameters are defined. The continuous L1 norm estimation problem of one and two parameters linear models in continuous case are solved. We proceed to use the functional form and parameters of probability distribution function of income to exactly determine the L1 norm approximation of the

Bijan Bidabad

2005-01-01

415

EQUIVALENCE OF NORMS ON OPERATOR SPACE TENSOR PRODUCTS OF C-ALGEBRAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Haagerup norm kk h on the tensor product A B of two C-algebras A and B is shown to be Banach space equivalent to either the Banach space projective norm kk or the operator space projective norm kk ^ if and only if either A or B is nite dimensional or A and B are innite dimensional and subhomogeneous.

AJAY KUMAR; ALLAN M. SINCLAIR

416

On Building an A-Posteriori Index from Survey Data: A Case for Educational Planners' Assessment of Attitudes towards an Educational Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To simplify data from a large survey, it is desirable to classify subjects according to their attitudes toward certain issues, as measured by questions in the survey. Responses to 12 questions were identified as indicative of attitudes toward deschooling education. These attitudes were explained by means of patterns exhibited within the responses…

Vazquez-Abad, Jesus; DePauw, Karen

417

An Integrated Model of Legal and Moral Reasoning and Rule-Violating Behavior: The Role of Legal Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal socialization theory predicts that attitudes mediate the relation between legal reasoning and rule-violating behavior\\u000a [Cohn, E. S., & White, S. O. (1990). Legal Socialization: A Study of Norms and Rules. New York: Springer-Verlag]. Moral development theory predicts that moral reasoning predicts rule-violating behavior directly\\u000a as well as indirectly [Blasi, A. (1980). Bridging moral cognition and moral action: A critical

Ellen S. Cohn; Donald Bucolo; Cesar J. Rebellon; Karen Van Gundy

2010-01-01

418

Reduced rank regression via adaptive nuclear norm penalization  

PubMed Central

Summary We propose an adaptive nuclear norm penalization approach for low-rank matrix approximation, and use it to develop a new reduced rank estimation method for high-dimensional multivariate regression. The adaptive nuclear norm is defined as the weighted sum of the singular values of the matrix, and it is generally non-convex under the natural restriction that the weight decreases with the singular value. However, we show that the proposed non-convex penalized regression method has a global optimal solution obtained from an adaptively soft-thresholded singular value decomposition. The method is computationally efficient, and the resulting solution path is continuous. The rank consistency of and prediction/estimation performance bounds for the estimator are established for a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Simulation studies and an application in genetics demonstrate its efficacy.

Chen, Kun; Dong, Hongbo; Chan, Kung-Sik

2014-01-01

419

Generalization of norm optimal ILC for nonlinear systems with constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a generalization of norm optimal iterative learning control (ILC) for nonlinear systems with constraints. The conventional norm optimal ILC for linear time invariant systems formulates an update equation as a closed form solution of the minimization of a quadratic cost function. In this cost function the next trial's tracking error is approximated by implicitly adding a correction to the model. The proposed approach makes two adaptations to the conventional approach: the model correction is explicitly estimated, and the cost function is minimized using a direct optimal control approach resulting in nonlinear programming problems. An efficient solution strategy for such problems is developed, using a sparse implementation of an interior point method, such that long data records can be efficiently processed. The proposed approach is validated experimentally.

Volckaert, Marnix; Diehl, Moritz; Swevers, Jan

2013-08-01

420

Kolkata Paise Restaurant Problem and the Cyclically Fair Norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we revisit the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem by allowing for a more general (but common) preference of the n customers defined over the set of n restaurants. This generalization allows for the possibility that each pure strategy Nash equilibrium differs from the Pareto efficient allocation. By assuming that n is small and by allowing for mutual interaction across all customers we design strategies to sustain cyclically fair norm as a sub-game perfect equilibrium of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem. We have a cyclically fair norm if n strategically different Pareto efficient strategies are sequentially sustained in a way such that each customer gets serviced in all the n restaurants exactly once between periods 1 and n and then again the same process is repeated between periods (n+1) and 2n and so on.

Banerjee, Priyodorshi; Mitra, Manipushpak; Mukherjee, Conan

421

Modeling the deficiency of the Euclidean coordinate norm on the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravity field effect with respect to Earth referenced coordinate systems has been a long term task to model in Geodesy. This task received higher importance during recent decades due to a relative abundance of gravity field direct and indirect data and in association to the use of hybrid measuring systems like INS (Inertial Navigation Systems). The paper is focussed on the variable metric space that Geodesy is subjected to due to the Earth's gravity field, which has been approximated in various modeling forms. The particular objective in the present work is to provide estimations of the expected variation of the Euclidean norm along and across plumb-line on the Earth's surface in strongly varying gravity fields and at altitudes for most frequent INS types.

Bartha, G.; Doufexopoulou, M. G.; Massinas, B. A.

2009-04-01

422

Smoothing Newton Method for Minimizing the Sum of  p Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the problem of minimizing the sum of p-norms, where p is a fixed real number in the interval [1,2]. This nondifferentiable problem arises in many applications, including the VLSI\\u000a (very-large-scale-integration) layout problem, the facilities location problem and the Steiner minimum tree problem under\\u000a a given topology. In this paper, we establish the optimality conditions, duality and uniqueness results for

S. H. Pan; Y. X. Jiang

2008-01-01

423

Injunctive Norms and Problem Gambling among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationships among injunctive norms and college student gambling. In study 1 we evaluated the accuracy\\u000a of perceptions of other students’ approval of gambling and the relationship between perceived approval and gambling behavior.\\u000a In study 2 we evaluated gambling behavior as a function of perceptions of approval of other students, friends, and family.\\u000a In study 1, which

Clayton Neighbors; Ty W. Lostutter; Ursula Whiteside; Nicole Fossos; Denise D. Walker; Mary E. Larimer

2007-01-01

424

Acceptance and expectance: Cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people's views of “normal” use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16–20; 21–34; 35–44; 45–64; and 65–82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27). Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people's acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people's perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages, and regularly leads to consumption above the recommended levels for low risk to health. This calls for public health attention that promotes low risk drinking in the social context and aims to prevent and reduce serious alcohol-related harm and health problems across the population.

Curtis, Tine; Crespigny, Charlotte De; Delmar, Charlotte

2011-01-01

425

Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval (disapproval by the student body) and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data came from nationally representative samples of 8th (N = 16,051), 10th (N = 13,251), and 12th (N = 8,797) grade students, attending 150, 140, and 142 schools, respectively. These students participated in the Monitoring

Revathy Kumar; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston; John E. Schulenberg; Jerald G. Bachman

2002-01-01

426

The H -1 -norm of tubular neighbourhoods of curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the H^{-1}-norm of the function 1 on tubular neighbourhoods of\\u000acurves in R^2. We take the limit of small thickness epsilon, and we prove two\\u000adifferent asymptotic results. The first is an asymptotic development for a\\u000afixed curve in the limit epsilon to 0, containing contributions from the length\\u000aof the curve (at order epsilon^3), the ends (epsilon^4),

Yves van Gennip; Mark A. Peletier

2009-01-01

427

The H^{-1}-norm of tubular neighbourhoods of curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the H^{-1}-norm of the function 1 on tubular neighbourhoods of curves in R^2. We take the limit of small thickness epsilon, and we prove two different asymptotic results. The first is an asymptotic development for a fixed curve in the limit epsilon to 0, containing contributions from the length of the curve (at order epsilon^3), the ends (epsilon^4),

Yves van Gennip; Mark A. Peletier

2009-01-01

428

Spectral Radii of Fixed Frobenius Norm Perturbations of Nonnegative Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract LetA be ann?n nonnegative matrix. In this paper we consider the problems of maximizing the spectral radii of (i) A +X and (ii) A +D, whereX is a realn?n matrix whose Frobenius norm is restricted to be 1 and where D is as X, but is further constrained to be a diagonal ma- trix. As for both problems the

Lixing Han; Michael Neumann; Michael J. Tsatsomeros

1999-01-01

429

Estimating the subjective risks of driving simulator accidents.  

PubMed

We examine the subjective risks of driving behavior using a controlled virtual reality experiment. Use of a driving simulator allows us to observe choices over risky alternatives that are presented to the individual in a naturalistic manner, with many of the cues one would find in the field. However, the use of a simulator allows us the type of controls one expects from a laboratory environment. The subject was tasked with making a left-hand turn into incoming traffic, and the experimenter controlled the headways of oncoming traffic. Subjects were rewarded for making a successful turn, and lost income if they crashed. The experimental design provided opportunities for subjects to develop subjective beliefs about when it would be safe to turn, and it also elicited their attitudes towards risk. A simple structural model explains behavior, and showed evidence of heterogeneity in both the subjective beliefs that subjects formed and their risk attitudes. We find that subjective beliefs change with experience in the task and the driver's skill. A significant difference was observed in the perceived probability to successfully turn among the inexperienced drivers who did and did not crash even though there was no significant difference in drivers' risk attitudes among the two groups. We use experimental economics to design controlled, incentive compatible tasks that provide an opportunity to evaluate the impact on driver safety of subject's subjective beliefs about when it would be safe to turn as well as their attitudes towards risk. This method could be used to help insurance companies determine risk premia associated with risk attitudes or beliefs of crashing, to better incentivize safe driving. PMID:24129322

Dixit, Vinayak; Harrison, Glenn W; Rutström, E Elisabet

2014-01-01

430

The Acquisition of Information Across Cultures: I. Persuasive Role-Play, Counterargument, and Attitude Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Subjects participated in counterattitudinal role-play, following a condition in which the persuasiveness of their prior role-play had been systematically varied. Measures of attitude, both immediately following role-play and also after Ss read a communica...

J. L. McCullough H. B. Pepinsky

1969-01-01

431

Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

1997-07-01

432

[Improvement of the supply norms for ships carrying combat missions in peace-time].  

PubMed

The authors developed the projects of norms of supplying of ships of Northern Fleet by medical reinforcement groups. Norms are added by the medicals which are in the log-book of pharmaceuticals and necessary for the sudden problems. The third norm is added by the traumatologic set. Modern diagnostic equipment is also added to the norms. The authors came to conclusion that the forehanded planning of requirement of medical supply for medical reinforcement groups allows to create an adequate norms of supplying of medical reinforcement groups in the Northern Fleet. PMID:21770346

Khankevich, Iu R; Dobrovol'ski?, A V

2011-02-01

433

Reading between the lines: Societal norms in Sierra Leonean readers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A content analysis of primary school readers of Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/75-1978/79 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. Compared to the 1964 readers, the first indigenous readers developed circa 1977 contained markedly greater emphasis on traditional norms, though modernity norms continued to dominate, and substantially less emphasis on Efficacy (a central aspect of modernity) and on Non-parochial Affiliation. This closely corresponded with the intent of the National Plan to continue on a modernizing course employing the traditional norms of Manual Labor and Social Cohesion in a grassroots effort to develop the agricultural sector, with nationalism in a less important role. Apart from lesser emphasis on Efficacy and underemphasis on the Value of Education which were discordant with national goals, the 1977 readers seem to provide children and teachers with a fairly accurate image of the national ethos. This may help to account for the generally positive relationship that has been found between schooling and economic development.

Brams, Patricia

1980-12-01

434

Sparse principal component analysis by choice of norm  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen the developments of several methods for sparse principal component analysis due to its importance in the analysis of high dimensional data. Despite the demonstration of their usefulness in practical applications, they are limited in terms of lack of orthogonality in the loadings (coefficients) of different principal components, the existence of correlation in the principal components, the expensive computation needed, and the lack of theoretical results such as consistency in high-dimensional situations. In this paper, we propose a new sparse principal component analysis method by introducing a new norm to replace the usual norm in traditional eigenvalue problems, and propose an efficient iterative algorithm to solve the optimization problems. With this method, we can efficiently obtain uncorrelated principal components or orthogonal loadings, and achieve the goal of explaining a high percentage of variations with sparse linear combinations. Due to the strict convexity of the new norm, we can prove the convergence of the iterative method and provide the detailed characterization of the limits. We also prove that the obtained principal component is consistent for a single component model in high dimensional situations. As illustration, we apply this method to real gene expression data with competitive results.

Luo, Ruiyan; Zhao, Hongyu

2012-01-01

435

Attitudes Underlying Corneal Donation in a Group of Trainee Allied Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

Background The focus of this study was to investigate factors that may influence personal willingness to register consent to donate corneal tissue upon death using the theory of planned behaviour in a relatively ethnically homogenous group of trainee allied health professionals. The attainment of this knowledge will be of paramount importance in relation to potential interventions that are designed to change donation-related behaviour. Methods A questionnaire-based study was undertaken with 92 pre-registration nurses (mean age 24.0 years (standard deviation ±5.6 years); female:male ?=?89:3) enrolled at a University in Northern Ireland. Intention to register consent to donate corneal tissue upon death was assessed using both direct and belief-based measures found in the theory of planned behaviour. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographic information, with correlation and regression analyses being used to identify factors influencing intentions. Results The majority of participants were religious (94.6%, n?=?87) and mostly Protestant (58.7%, n?=?54) or Catholic (35.9%, n?=?33). Generally speaking, the theory of planned behaviour accounted for 84% of the variance in intention to register consent. In relation to the constructs found in the theory of planned behaviour, attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of intention to register consent, with subjective norm being the second strongest predictor. Perceived behavioural control did not significantly predict intention to register consent. Conclusions The theory of planned behaviour has allowed an understanding of the factors that influence the personal intentions of a group of future allied health professionals from the same ethnic group to register consent to donate their corneal tissue.

McGlade, Donal; McClenahan, Carol; Pierscionek, Barbara

2012-01-01

436

The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

1993-01-01

437

The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

2012-01-01

438

Factors Affecting Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had

Kimberly J. Sahlstrom; Elizabeth L. Jeglic

2008-01-01

439

Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

Randall, Teresa

2011-01-01

440

Attitudes Toward Risk: Experimental Measurement in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward risk were measures in 240 households using two methods: an interview method eliciting certainty equivalents and an experimental gambling approach with real payoffs which, at their maximum, exceeded monthly incomes of unskilled laborers. The interview method is subject to interviewer bias and its results were totally inconsistent with the experimental measures of risk aversion. Experimental measures indicate that,

Hans P. Binswanger

1980-01-01

441

Reading in tertiary education: undergraduate student practices and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a study of undergraduate student use of, and attitudes toward, textbooks and other assigned reading. More than 1200 students of various subjects at three Swedish universities were surveyed. Most students said reading played an important role in learning generally and attributed positive characteristics to their textbooks. However, students' self-reported reading behaviour was at odds

Diane Pecorari; Philip Shaw; Aileen Irvine; Hans Malmström; Špela Mežek

2012-01-01

442

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

443

Sources of Politico-Economic Attitudes: Students' Introspections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our aim is to shed more light on university students' sources of attitudes towards the market economy, social inequality, and the responsibilities of the state. Analyzing survey data of almost 500 students at a German university, we identify those sources the subjects report to be important in the process of forming their politico-economic…

Lange, Astrid; Pitsoulis, Athanassios

2013-01-01

444

Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. DESIGN: In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. RESULTS: The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in snack food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. CONCLUSIONS: Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food. PMID:23738741

Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

2013-06-01

445

The social side of sanctions: personal and social norms as moderators of deterrence.  

PubMed

In a survey of Australian citizens (valid N = 1,406), personal and social norms were found to moderate effects of deterrence on tax evasion. Personal, internalized norms of tax honesty were negatively related to tax evasion and moderated the effects of deterrence variables (i.e., sanction severity), suggesting deterrence effects only when individual ethics were weak. Perceived social norms, beyond those internalized as personal norms, were not directly related to tax evasion but moderated the effects of sanction severity. Only when social norms were seen as strongly in favor of tax honesty was sanction severity negatively related to tax evasion. This result held only for respondents who did not identify strongly as Australians. Hence, when internalized, norms delimit effects of deterrence; when considered external to one's self norms boost deterrence effects, giving social meaning to formal sanctions. PMID:15638209

Wenzel, Michael

2004-10-01

446

Attitude control of tethered spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for achieving attitude control of single-body and multibody, tethered spacecraft are examined. The design considerations for attitude control and the generation of control torques are described. Two dimensional tether attach point motion is utilized to produce torque about two axes and the third axis is controlled with either a control moment gyro or a reaction wheel. The ability to perform attitude control of a tethered spacecraft is evaluated in the Kinetic Isolation Tether Experiment (KITE). It is observed that the KITE/SPARTAN design bandwidth is adequate to fully utilize the capability of attitude sensors with accuracies in the 1-arcsec range.

Lemke, L. G.; Powell, J. D.; He, X.

1986-01-01

447

Nursing students' attitudes toward science in the nursing curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.

Maroo, Jill Deanne

448

Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the Implicit Association Test: a literature review.  

PubMed

Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. PMID:24316588

Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

2014-02-01

449

Attitudes and Attitude Change in Special Education: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve papers address issues of attitudes towards handicapped persons. The authors were invited to summarize and critically evaluate the literature in their area of expertise, including their own research. Contributions touch on measurement and methodological issues as well as other topics. The following papers are included: "Attitudes and…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

450

Explaining Fertility Norms in the Netherlands: The Influence of Sociodemographics, Family Networks, and Life Course Events on Pronatalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study advances our understanding of fertility norms by examining whether fertility norms remain stable over time. In addition, this article also investigates whether these norms are influenced by (a) sociodemographic background characteristics; (b) fertility norms of close family members: partners, siblings, parents, and children; and (c)…

Noordhuizen, Suzanne; de Graaf, Paul M.; Sieben, Inge

2011-01-01

451

Upgrading Technology towards the Status of a High School Matriculation Subject: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 43 Israeli students investigated their attitudes toward technology education as a high school subject. It was attractive as an elective course for its contribution to creative, hands-on, and practical thinking skills. The course changed student attitudes toward technology. (SK)

Verner, Igor M.; Waks, Shlomo; Kolberg, Eli

1997-01-01

452

Attitude sensor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design, construction, testing, and successful flight of the Attitude Sensor Package. The payload was assembled on a standard HITCHHIKER experiment mounting plate, and made extensive use of the carrier's power and data handling capabilities. The side mounted HITCHHIKER version was chosen, since this configuration provided the best viewing conditions for the instruments. The combustion was successfully flown on board Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-52), in October 1992. The payload was one of the 14 experiments of the In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Program (Phase 1) of the European Space Agency.

Aceti, R.; Trischberger, M.; Underwood, P. J.; Pomilia, A.; Cosi, M.; Boldrini, F.

1993-01-01

453

Attitudes toward the unconscious.  

PubMed

As a keynote to a conference bringing together psychoanalysts and analytical psychologists, this paper addresses different mythic attitudes toward the unconscious, starting with the caricatures of Oedipus and Narcissus that the author feels Jung and Freud originally projected onto each other in the course of their quarrel. He moves on to the fairytale-like stories of Perseus and Beauty and the Beast to discover more complex images of the stance taken in relation to the unconscious by present-day analysts working within both the Jungian and the Freudian traditions. PMID:9062086

Beebe, J

1997-01-01

454

An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

Smith, K.P.

1992-12-01

455

How to improve forecasting with bred vectors by using the geometric norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of the norm type (Euclidean, maximum, geometric,...) has a great impact on the construction of ensembles of bred vectors. In particular, using the geometric norm obtains a set of bred vectors, the so-called logarithmic bred vectors, with interesting properties. We have recently shown in [1] that among a spectrum of norms (including the Euclidean one) the geometric norm maximizes the statistical diversity of the ensemble while, at the same time, enhances the projection of the bred vectors on the linearly most unstable direction (the leading Lyapunov vector). Moreover, the geometric norm is also optimal in providing the least fluctuating ensemble dimension among the spectrum of norms considered. We carry out numerical experiments in the Lorenz-96 model assimilating noisy observations with a 3D-Var scheme. We compare the performance of forecasts using ensembles of bred vectors constructed with either the Euclidean norm or the geometric one. Our results, for several lead times and observational standard deviations, indicate that the geometric norm usually outperforms the Euclidean norm, in terms of root mean square error of the ensemble mean forecast. Finally, we give theoretical support to our results, which are expected to be generic for chaotic spatially extended systems. [1] D. Pazó, J. M. López, and M. A. Rodríguez, Maximizing the statistical diversity of an ensemble of bred vectors by using the geometric norm, J. Atmos. Sci. 68, 1507 (2011).

Pazó, D.; López, J. M.; Rodríguez, M. A.

2012-04-01

456

Attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for hereditary cancer is subject to on-going debate, particularly among\\u000a professionals. This study evaluates the attitude towards PGD and attitude-associated characteristics of those concerned: family\\u000a members with a hereditary cancer predisposition. Forty-eight Von Hippel-Lindau and 18 Li–Fraumeni Syndrome families were identified\\u000a via the 9 family cancer clinics in the Netherlands. In total, 216

Chantal Lammens; Eveline Bleiker; Neil Aaronson; Annette Vriends; Margreet Ausems; Maaike Jansweijer; Anja Wagner; Rolf Sijmons; A. M. W. van den Ouweland; Rob van der Luijt; Liesbeth Spruijt; Encarna Gómez García; Mariëlle Ruijs; Senno Verhoef

2009-01-01

457

Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

Maddi, Salvatore R.

458

What do attitudes tell you?  

PubMed

Increasing employee productivity and efficiency is a goal for every medical group administrator. By allowing employees the opportunity to voice their opinions anonymously, management can gain accurate and valuable information on employee attitudes. The author demonstrates, through a case study, how an attitude survey can provide specifics on the strengths and weaknesses of a group, thus giving direction to initiate needed changes. PMID:10267994

Hausle, E A

1984-01-01

459

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

460

Adolescent Attitudes and Cutaneous Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In trying to understand the attitudes of adolescents about their skin or any other problem physicians must honestly examine attitudes toward the adolescent. Physicians must accept and understand that adolescence is the age of the final unfolding of the personality. Presented at the 12th National Conference on Physicians and Schools, Chicago, 1969.…

Zeller, William W.

1970-01-01

461

Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

462

Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

2009-01-01

463

Calibration of attitude control sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an onboard computer.

Potapenko, Ye. M.

1987-05-01

464

Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate-elementary education majors at a small, rural south-central U.S. university toward gifted students. Gagne's and Nadeau's (Gagne, 1991) opinions about the gifted and their education was used. The respondents held…

Troxclair, Debra A.

2013-01-01

465

Dogmatism and Attitudes Toward Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and an Adoption Attitude Scale administered to 113 college students study supports hypothesis that among males dogmatism and intolerance toward areas relating to adoption would be positively correlated. Negative correlation for females suggests that emphasis on maternal role makes adoption attitudes exception to…

Dembroski, Betty G.; Johnson Dale L.

1969-01-01

466

Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

1998-01-01

467

Attitude Consistency Among American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes of youth (ages 14-21) toward fertility expectations and women's roles are examined for consistency (e.g., whether high career expectations are correlated with a desire for fewer children). Approximately 12,000 White, Black, and Hispanic youth rated their attitudes toward statements that a woman's place is in the home, employment of wives…

Mott, Frank L.; Mott, Susan H.

468

Image coding with an Linfinity norm and confidence interval criteria.  

PubMed

A new image coding technique based on an Linfinity-norm criterion and exploiting statistical properties of the reconstruction error is investigated. The original image is preprocessed, quantized, encoded, and reconstructed within a given confidence interval. Two important classes of preprocessing, namely linear prediction and iterated filterbanks, are used. The approach is also shown to be compatible with previous techniques. The approach allows a great flexibility in that it can perform lossless coding as well as a controlled lossy one: specifications are typically that only p% the reconstructed pixels are different from the original ones. PMID:18276280

Karray, L; Duhamel, P; Rioul, O

1998-01-01

469

Eating disorder examination questionnaire: norms for young adolescent girls.  

PubMed

This paper reports young adolescent female norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The standardization sample was comprised of 808 girls aged between 12 and 14 years from three single-sex schools (one private and two state schools). Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks for raw EDE-Q subscale scores are presented. Prevalence figures for key eating disorder behaviors over the previous two weeks were as follows: 4% self-induced vomiting; 1% laxative misuse; 0.4% diuretic misuse; and 8% regular binge eating. PMID:11341255

Carter, J C; Stewart, D A; Fairburn, C G

2001-05-01

470

Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

Treder, A. J.

1980-01-01

471

North-American Norms for Name Disagreement: Pictorial Stimuli Naming Discrepancies  

PubMed Central

Pictorial stimuli are commonly used by scientists to explore central processes; including memory, attention, and language. Pictures that have been collected and put into sets for these purposes often contain visual ambiguities that lead to name disagreement amongst subjects. In the present work, we propose new norms which reflect these sources of name disagreement, and we apply this method to two sets of pictures: the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (S&V) set and the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS). Naming responses of the presented pictures were classified within response categories based on whether they were correct, incorrect, or equivocal. To characterize the naming strategy where an alternative name was being used, responses were further divided into different sub-categories that reflected various sources of name disagreement. Naming strategies were also compared across the two sets of stimuli. Results showed that the pictures of the S&V set and the BOSS were more likely to elicit alternative specific and equivocal names, respectively. It was also found that the use of incorrect names was not significantly different across stimulus sets but that errors were more likely caused by visual ambiguity in the S&V set and by a misuse of names in the BOSS. Norms for name disagreement presented in this paper are useful for subsequent research for their categorization and elucidation of name disagreement that occurs when choosing visual stimuli from one or both stimulus sets. The sources of disagreement should be examined carefully as they help to provide an explanation of errors and inconsistencies of many concepts during picture naming tasks.

O'Sullivan, Mary; Lepage, Martin; Bouras, Maria; Montreuil, Tina; Brodeur, Mathieu B.

2012-01-01

472

Dynamic Assessment of Binocular Eye Movement Coordination: Norms and Functional Implications  

PubMed Central

Alignment of the two eyes is controlled by a finely tuned, fast acting system with components within the brain. Assessment of binocular alignment has classically been done statically. Eye positions are assessed in primary position and at eccentric angles to interpret the functional status of the oculomotor nerves and muscles. However, assessment of dynamic eye alignment, the coordination of the eyes during eye movements, has been less commonly carried out and has not been formalized with population norms. Clinicians are aware of slow eye movement dynamic alignment changes, such as that clinically observed in Intranuclear Ophthalmoplegia. But assessment of eye alignment during rapid eye movements, such as saccade or pursuit has not been part of neuro-ophthalmologic assessment. With the advent of inexpensive, high resolution recording systems, both eyes can be simultaneously recorded and their coordination during movement compared. Thus, we now have an opportunity to provide a laboratory based objective measurement of a gamut of binocular coordination systems. Recent research in humans has demonstrated increased variability of binocular coordination during divided attention. Variability is an interesting statistic that can be sensitively assessed in the velocity domain without extensive gaze position recalibration procedures during recording over long intervals. Variability can thus be used as a robust, long-term eye movement parameter with minimal intrusiveness to the subject. It is proposed that population studies of binocular coordination during eye movements be carried out to determine neurologic norms so that conditions such as brain injury and others can be assessed with a functional tool with objective parameters.

Viirre, Erik

2014-01-01

473

The Bender Gestalt test for 5- to 15-year old Brazilian children: norms and validity.  

PubMed

Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil. PMID:9196555

Brito, G N; Santos, T R

1996-11-01

474

Shifting loyalties: reconsidering psychology's subject matter.  

PubMed

Schwarz (IPBS: Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 43:3, 2009) cogently demonstrates that in conjunction with scientific conventionalism psychology has developed a rather deficient view of their subject matter: the human being. Psychology based on an impoverished notion of empirical has rendered subjectivity or 'the measuring apparatus man' invisible. As his story implicitly demonstrates, psychologists supported by a positivistic view of science (in part to be empirical) and notion of 'objectivity' have learned to trust their 'rigorous' methods instead of their participants as capable of revealing important and interesting phenomena. If we are going to take subjectivity and experience seriously there should be a cultivation of a new attitude or orientation regarding psychology's subject matter (i.e., the human being) and science. This commentary discusses Mark Freeman's (2007) argument that the first requirement of science should be 'fidelity to the phenomena' and elaborates on the implications for psychology grounded in this view of science. PMID:19568821

Beckstead, Zachary

2009-09-01

475

Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation (“cheating”). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one’s neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of antisocial behavior, and (3) decreased expectation of punishment of antisocial behavior. Consideration of these mechanisms and of norm psychology will help us to understand how neighborhoods can descend into an antisocial culture and get stuck there.

Pepper, Gillian V.; Nettle, Daniel

2014-01-01

476

Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation ("cheating"). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one's neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of antisocial behavior, and (3) decreased expectation of punishment of antisocial behavior. Consideration of these mechanisms and of norm psychology will help us to understand how neighborhoods can descend into an antisocial culture and get stuck there. PMID:25071983

Schroeder, Kari Britt; Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

2014-01-01

477

Norms governing urban African American adolescents' sexual and substance-using behavior  

PubMed Central

Using a probability-based neighborhood sample of urban African American youth and a sample of their close friends (N = 202), we conducted a one-year longitudinal study to examine key questions regarding sexual and drug using norms. The results provide validation of social norms governing sexual behavior, condom use, and substance use among friendship groups. These norms had strong to moderate homogeneity; and both normative strength and homogeneity were relatively stable over a one-year period independent of changes in group membership. The data further suggest that sex and substance using norms may operate as a normative set. Similar to studies of adults, we identified three distinct “norm-based” social strata in our sample. Together, our findings suggest that the norms investigated are valid targets for health promotion efforts, and such efforts may benefit from tailoring programs to the normative sets that make up the different social strata in a given adolescent community.

Dolcini, M. Margaret; Catania, Joseph A.; Harper, Gary W.; Watson, Susan E.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Towner, Senna L.

2013-01-01

478

On resistant Lp-Norm Estimation by means of iteratively reweighted least Squares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The L1-norm estimation is a resistant estimation method and therefore used for the detection of gross errors in geodetic measurement data. Alternatively, other Lp-norms have been suggested in literature for resistant parameter estimation. A common numerical solution method for Lp-norm estimation is the method of iteratively reweighted least squares. Procedural manners for a successful application of this method are considered. A modification of the method is given, which reduces the number of iterations significantly. By means of a simulation the applicability of the mentioned methods and the success of different Lp-norms in the detection of gross errors are tested. It shows that solving the L1-norm numerically may be unsuccessful and that instead a resistant Lp-norm is to be recommended, which is comparably successful in the detection of gross errors and can successfully be solved numerically by the presented modification of iteratively reweighted least squares.

Marx, Christian

2013-03-01

479

Robust elastic frequency-domain full-waveform inversion using the L1 norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic frequency-domain full-waveform inversion is here applied to a realistic synthetic offshore model to study the behavior of the least-squares and least-absolute-value norms, in the presence of noisy multi-component seismic data. As expected, the inversion results show that the L 2 norm is highly sensitive to non-Gaussian errors in the data and gives rise to high amplitude artifacts in the reconstructed models. The L 1 norm shows more robust behavior, whatever the noise characteristics, and allows convergence towards acceptable models, for both the compressional-wave and shear-wave velocity models. This study highlights the sensitivity of the full-waveform inversion results for the chosen norm in the case of noisy data. The marginally used L 1 norm reveals a robust alternative to the L 2 norm for frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of weakly redundant data.

Brossier, R.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

2009-10-01

480

Studies in Reaction to Disability. XII: Structure of Attitudes toward the Physically Disabled; Disability Factor Scales--Amputation, Blindness, Cosmetic Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To describe and to develop instruments to measure attitudes toward amputees, the blind, and those with cosmetic conditions, three groups of subjects responded to one of three large pools of items tapping attitudes toward the three disability conditions. Three new groups of about 500 subjects of diverse demographic characteristics were given one of…

Siller, Jerome; And Others

481

Effects of soundscapes on perceived crowding and encounter norms.  

PubMed

Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. PMID:21604165

Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

2011-07-01