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1

Absence seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... in people under age 20, usually in children ages 6 to 12. They may occur with other types of seizures, such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures), twitches or jerks (myoclonus), or sudden loss of muscle strength (atonic seizures).

2

Daily rhythms of seizure activity and behavior in a model of atypical absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

We studied daily rhythms of chronic seizure activity and behavior in adult rats and mice treated with the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor AY-9944 (AY) during early postnatal development. Chronic atypical absence seizures were verified in the AY-treated animals by the presence of spontaneous 5- to 6-Hz slow spike-wave discharges (SSWDs) in the neocortex. General behavioral activity, as measured by total movements (TM), movement time (MT), ambulatory movement time (AMT), time spent in center of arena (CT), jumps (JFP), and rotational behavior (TURNS), were continuously recorded under a 12-hour light:12-hour dark photocycle. The average SSWD duration in AY-treated rats varied daily, with two peaks occurring at approximately dark phase and light phase onset. Mice treated with AY exhibited significant increases in all behavioral measures during the light and dark phases, with the exception of light-phase CT, which did not differ from that of controls. Consequently, the daily rhythm of total behavioral activity (TM) exhibited a significantly higher mean oscillation (mesor) and amplitude without evidence of phase shift compared with the TM rhythm of controls. The occurrence of SSWD activity in the AY model appears to be subject to regulation by biological timing mechanisms and, furthermore, associated with motor hyperactivity that does not alter the timing of behavioral rhythmicity. PMID:17030024

Stewart, Lee S; Bercovici, Eduard; Shukla, Ruchica; Serbanescu, Irina; Persad, Vasan; Mistry, Niraj; Cortez, Miguel A; Snead, O Carter

2006-12-01

3

Neck myoclonia with absence seizures in an Indian girl.  

PubMed

Absence seizures associated with myoclonic phenomena have been associated with 4 seizure types. Recently, a new seizure type of neck myoclonia with absences was described. We present a case of 9-year-old girl who presented with abnormal head shaking and vacant stare for the past 5 months with an ictal electroencephalograph (EEG) record showing 3-Hz spike-and-wave discharges. The seizures were easily controlled with valproate and clobazam. Neck myoclonia with absences might be a new idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome in development. PMID:24556548

Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Aneja, Satinder

2014-11-01

4

Dynamical intrinsic functional architecture of the brain during absence seizures.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent and temporary brain dysfunction due to discharges of interconnected groups of neurons. The brain of epilepsy patients has a dynamic bifurcation that switches between epileptic and normal states. The dysfunctional state involves large-scale brain networks. It is very important to understand the network mechanisms of seizure initiation, maintenance, and termination in epilepsy. Absence epilepsy provides a unique model for neuroimaging investigation on dynamic evolutions of brain networks over seizure repertoire. By using a dynamic functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses to study absence seizures (AS), we aimed to obtain transition of network properties that account for seizure onset and offset. We measured resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) from children with AS. We used simultaneous EEG to define the preictal, ictal and postictal intervals of seizures. We measured dynamic connectivity maps of the thalamus network and the default mode network (DMN), as well as functional connectome topologies, during the three different seizure intervals. The analysis of dynamic changes of anti-correlation between the thalamus and the DMN is consistent with an inhibitory effect of seizures on the default mode of brain function, which gradually fades out after seizure onset. Also, we observed complex transitions of functional network topology, implicating adaptive reconfiguration of functional brain networks. In conclusion, our work revealed novel insights into modifications in large-scale functional connectome during AS, which may contribute to a better understanding the network mechanisms of state bifurcations in epileptogenesis. PMID:23913255

Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Mantini, Dante; Xu, Qiang; Ji, Gong-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhengge; Chen, Guanghui; Tian, Lei; Jiao, Qing; Zang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guangming

2014-11-01

5

Symptom differences in children with absence seizures versus inattention.  

PubMed

Objective. Differentiation between the diagnoses of absence seizures and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Predominantly Inattentive Type, is frequently confounded by similarities in symptom presentation. The purpose of the present study was to determine symptoms that would distinguish between the disorders.Methods. Prior to diagnosis, parents of children with absence seizures (n=17) or ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type (n=26), were administered the Attention Deficit Disorder Evaluation Scale-Home Version (ADDES-HV). A statistical model was developed based on age, gender, race, and items from the Inattentive Scale of the ADDES-HV.Results. Two items, "does not complete homework" and "does not remain on task," correctly classified 40 of 43 children. Children with absence seizures were rated by their parents as having a low rate of occurrence of these behaviors.Conclusion. Lack of sustained attention distinguished between the groups and was much more prevalent in children with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type. PMID:12662604

Williams, Jane; Sharp, Gregory B.; DelosReyes, Emily; Bates, Stephen; Phillips, Tonya; Lange, Bernadette; Griebel, May L.; Edwards, Mark; Simpson, Pippa

2002-06-01

6

Cortico-thalamic feedback: a key to explain absence seizures Alain Destexhe  

E-print Network

Cortico-thalamic feedback: a key to explain absence seizures Alain Destexhe UNIC, CNRS, Gif important for seizure generation. Computational models have succeeded in proposing plausible mechanisms mechanisms of such seizures involve thalamocortical loops, the particular oscillatory properties of thalamic

Destexhe, Alain

7

Proteomic analysis of c-butyrolactone-treated mouse thalamus reveals dysregulated proteins upon absence seizure  

E-print Network

absence seizure Myung-Jeom Ryu,*, , à Daesoo Kim,§ Un-Beom Kang, Joon Kim,à Hee-Sup Shin, Cheolju Lee Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea Abstract Absence seizure absence seizure was induced by c-butyrolactone (GBL). Differential proteome expression between GBL

Kim, Daesoo

8

Deterministic dynamics of neural activity during absence seizures in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of brain electrical activities in terms of deterministic nonlinear dynamics has recently received much attention. Forbidden ordinal patterns (FOP) is a recently proposed method to investigate the determinism of a dynamical system through the analysis of intrinsic ordinal properties of a nonstationary time series. The advantages of this method in comparison to others include simplicity and low complexity in computation without further model assumptions. In this paper, the FOP of the EEG series of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg was examined to demonstrate evidence of deterministic dynamics during epileptic states. Experiments showed that the number of FOP of the EEG series grew significantly from an interictal to an ictal state via a preictal state. These findings indicated that the deterministic dynamics of neural networks increased significantly in the transition from the interictal to the ictal states and also suggested that the FOP measures of the EEG series could be considered as a predictor of absence seizures.

Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Li, Xiaoli; Dang, Chuangyin; Richards, Douglas A.

2009-04-01

9

Cardiorespiratory Analysis on Children Suffering from Absence and Complex Partial Seizures  

E-print Network

Cardiorespiratory Analysis on Children Suffering from Absence and Complex Partial Seizures Carolina func- tions such as the heart rate and respiration can vary from one type of seizures to another. Complex-partial seizures originating in the temporal lobe for example, are accom- panied by apnoea

10

The Role of T-Type Calcium Channel Genes in Absence Seizures  

PubMed Central

The thalamic relay neurons, reticular thalamic nucleus, and neocortical pyramidal cells form a circuit that sustains oscillatory burst firing, and is regarded as the underlying mechanism of absence seizures. T-type calcium channels play a key role in this circuit. Here, we review the role of T-type calcium channel genes in the development of absence seizures, and emphasize gain or loss of function mutations, and other variations that alter both quantity and quality of transcripts, and methylation status of isoforms of T-type calcium channel proteins might be of equal importance in understanding the pathological mechanism of absence seizures. PMID:24847307

Chen, Yucai; Parker, William Davis; Wang, Keling

2014-01-01

11

Deletion of phospholipase C ?4 in thalamocortical relay nucleus leads to absence seizures  

PubMed Central

Absence seizures are characterized by cortical spike-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalography, often accompanied by a shift in the firing pattern of thalamocortical (TC) neurons from tonic to burst firing driven by T-type Ca2+ currents. We recently demonstrated that the phospholipase C ?4 (PLC?4) pathway tunes the firing mode of TC neurons via the simultaneous regulation of T- and L-type Ca2+ currents, which prompted us to investigate the contribution of TC firing modes to absence seizures. PLC?4-deficient TC neurons were readily shifted to the oscillatory burst firing mode after a slight hyperpolarization of membrane potential. TC-limited knockdown as well as whole-animal knockout of PLC?4 induced spontaneous SWDs with simultaneous behavioral arrests and increased the susceptibility to drug-induced SWDs, indicating that the deletion of thalamic PLC?4 leads to the genesis of absence seizures. The SWDs were effectively suppressed by thalamic infusion of a T-type, but not an L-type, Ca2+ channel blocker. These results reveal a primary role of TC neurons in the genesis of absence seizures and provide strong evidence that an alteration of the firing property of TC neurons is sufficient to generate absence seizures. Our study presents PLC?4-deficient mice as a potential animal model for absence seizures. PMID:19955421

Cheong, Eunji; Zheng, Yihong; Lee, Kyoobin; Lee, Jungryun; Kim, Seongwook; Sanati, Maryam; Lee, Sukyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Shin, Hee-Sup

2009-01-01

12

Human L-ferritin deficiency is characterized by idiopathic generalized seizures and atypical restless leg syndrome  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitously expressed iron storage protein ferritin plays a central role in maintaining cellular iron homeostasis. Cytosolic ferritins are composed of heavy (H) and light (L) subunits that co-assemble into a hollow spherical shell with an internal cavity where iron is stored. The ferroxidase activity of the ferritin H chain is critical to store iron in its Fe3+ oxidation state, while the L chain shows iron nucleation properties. We describe a unique case of a 23-yr-old female patient affected by a homozygous loss of function mutation in the L-ferritin gene, idiopathic generalized seizures, and atypical restless leg syndrome (RLS). We show that L chain ferritin is undetectable in primary fibroblasts from the patient, and thus ferritin consists only of H chains. Increased iron incorporation into the FtH homopolymer leads to reduced cellular iron availability, diminished levels of cytosolic catalase, SOD1 protein levels, enhanced ROS production and higher levels of oxidized proteins. Importantly, key phenotypic features observed in fibroblasts are also mirrored in reprogrammed neurons from the patients fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate for the first time the pathophysiological consequences of L-ferritin deficiency in a human and help to define the concept for a new disease entity hallmarked by idiopathic generalized seizure and atypical RLS. PMID:23940258

Cozzi, Anna; Santambrogio, Paolo; Privitera, Daniela; Broccoli, Vania; Rotundo, Luisa Ida; Garavaglia, Barbara; Benz, Rudolf; Altamura, Sandro; Goede, Jeroen S.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.

2013-01-01

13

Bidirectional Control of Absence Seizures by the Basal Ganglia: A Computational Evidence  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy is believed to be associated with the abnormal interactions between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Besides the direct coupling, anatomical evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex and thalamus also communicate indirectly through an important intermediate bridgebasal ganglia. It has been thus postulated that the basal ganglia might play key roles in the modulation of absence seizures, but the relevant biophysical mechanisms are still not completely established. Using a biophysically based model, we demonstrate here that the typical absence seizure activities can be controlled and modulated by the direct GABAergic projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to either the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) or the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus, through different biophysical mechanisms. Under certain conditions, these two types of seizure control are observed to coexist in the same network. More importantly, due to the competition between the inhibitory SNr-TRN and SNr-SRN pathways, we find that both decreasing and increasing the activation of SNr neurons from the normal level may considerably suppress the generation of spike-and-slow wave discharges in the coexistence region. Overall, these results highlight the bidirectional functional roles of basal ganglia in controlling and modulating absence seizures, and might provide novel insights into the therapeutic treatments of this brain disorder. PMID:24626189

Wang, Tiebin; Jing, Wei; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Luo, Cheng; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Yao, Dezhong

2014-01-01

14

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Seizures KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Emergencies > Seizures Print ... often with a loss or change in consciousness. Seizure Basics Most seizures are caused by abnormal electrical ...

15

Neuron, Vol. 31, 37, July 19, 2001, Copyright 2001 by Cell Press absence-like seizures in GAERS rats, while antagonistsIt Takes T to Tango  

E-print Network

Neuron, Vol. 31, 3­7, July 19, 2001, Copyright 2001 by Cell Press Previews absence-like seizures oscillations including absence of absence epilepsy, such as succinimides (see below;seizures. In this issue-dependent phase-locked firing of thalamic neurons during both sei-absence seizures, suggesting roles for 1g

Huguenard, John R.

16

Cortical focus drives widespread corticothalamic networks during spontaneous absence seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Absence seizures are the most pure form of generalized epilepsy. They are characterized in the electroencephalogram by widespread bilaterally synchronous spike-wave discharges (SWDs), which are the reflections of highly synchronized oscillations in thalamocortical networks. To reveal network mechanisms responsible for the initiation and generalization of the discharges, we studied the interrelationships between multisite cortical and thalamic field potentials recorded during spontaneous SWDs in the freely moving WAG/Rij rat, a genetic model of absence epilepsy. Nonlinear association analysis revealed a consistent cortical "focus" within the peri-oral region of the somatosensory cortex. The SWDs recorded at other cortical sites consistently lagged this focal site, with time delays that increased with electrode distance (corresponding to a mean propagation velocity of 1.4 m/sec). Intra-thalamic relationships were more complex and could not account for the observed cortical propagation pattern. Cortical and thalamic sites interacted bi-directionally, whereas the direction of this coupling could vary throughout one seizure. However, during the first 500 msec, the cortical focus was consistently found to lead the thalamus. These findings argue against the existence of one common subcortical pacemaker for the generation of generalized spike-wave discharges characteristic for absence seizures in the rat. Instead, the results suggest that a cortical focus is the dominant factor in initiating the paroxysmal oscillation within the corticothalamic loops, and that the large-scale synchronization is mediated by ways of an extremely fast intracortical spread of seizure activity. Analogous mechanisms may underlie the pathophysiology of human absence epilepsy. PMID:11850474

Meeren, Hanneke K M; Pijn, Jan Pieter M; Van Luijtelaar, Egidius L J M; Coenen, Anton M L; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H

2002-02-15

17

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart ... age. There may be a family history of epilepsy or seizures. If seizures continue repeatedly after the ...

18

Disulfiram-induced de novo seizures in the absence of ethanol challenge.  

PubMed

The literature on disulfiram-associated seizures is reviewed. A case report of a disulfiram-induced de novo seizure in a 35-year-old man is presented. Possible mechanisms of seizure facilitation are discussed. PMID:6632888

McConchie, R D; Panitz, D R; Sauber, S R; Shapiro, S

1983-07-01

19

Analysis of absence seizure generation using EEG spatial-temporal regularity measures.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures are thought to be generated and to evolve through an underlying anomaly of synchronization in the activity of groups of neuronal populations. The related dynamic scenario of state transitions is revealed by detecting changes in the dynamical properties of Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The recruitment procedure ending with the crisis can be explored through a spatial-temporal plot from which to extract suitable descriptors that are able to monitor and quantify the evolving synchronization level from the EEG tracings. In this paper, a spatial-temporal analysis of EEG recordings based on the concept of permutation entropy (PE) is proposed. The performance of PE are tested on a database of 24 patients affected by absence (generalized) seizures. The results achieved are compared to the dynamical behavior of the EEG of 40 healthy subjects. Being PE a feature which is dependent on two parameters, an extensive study of the sensitivity of the performance of PE with respect to the parameters' setting was carried out on scalp EEG. Once the optimal PE configuration was determined, its ability to detect the different brain states was evaluated. According to the results here presented, it seems that the widely accepted model of "jump" transition to absence seizure should be in some cases coupled (or substituted) by a gradual transition model characteristic of self-organizing networks. Indeed, it appears that the transition to the epileptic status is heralded before the preictal state, ever since the interictal stages. As a matter of fact, within the limits of the analyzed database, the frontal-temporal scalp areas appear constantly associated to PE levels higher compared to the remaining electrodes, whereas the parieto-occipital areas appear associated to lower PE values. The EEG of healthy subjects neither shows any similar dynamic behavior nor exhibits any recurrent portrait in PE topography. PMID:23186273

Mammone, Nadia; Labate, Domenico; Lay-Ekuakille, Aime; Morabito, Francesco C

2012-12-01

20

Activity of ventral medial thalamic neurons during absence seizures and modulation of cortical paroxysms by the nigrothalamic pathway.  

PubMed

Absence seizures are characterized by bilaterally synchronous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in the electroencephalogram, which reflect abnormal oscillations in corticothalamic networks. Although it was suggested that basal ganglia could modulate, via their feedback circuits to the cerebral cortex, the occurrence of SWDs, the cellular and network mechanisms underlying such a subcortical control of absence seizures remain unknown. The GABAergic projections from substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) to thalamocortical neurons of the ventral medial (VM) thalamic nucleus provide a potent network for the control of absence seizures by basal ganglia. The present in vivo study provides the first description of the activity of VM thalamic neurons during seizures in the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg, a well established model of absence epilepsy. Cortical paroxysms were accompanied in VM thalamic neurons by rhythmic bursts of action potentials. Pharmacological blockade of excitatory inputs of nigrothalamic neurons led to a transient interruption of SWDs, correlated with a change in the activity of thalamic cells, which was increased in frequency and converted into a sustained arrhythmic firing pattern. Simultaneously, cortical neurons exhibited a decrease in their firing rate that was associated with an increase in membrane polarization and a decrease in input resistance. These new findings demonstrate that an inhibition of SNR neurons changes the activity of their thalamic targets, which in turn could affect cortical neurons excitability and, consequently, the generation of cortical epileptic discharges. Thus, the nigro-thalamo-cortical pathway may provide an on-line system control of absence seizures. PMID:17251435

Paz, Jeanne Tamar; Chavez, Mario; Saillet, Sandrine; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Charpier, Stphane

2007-01-24

21

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

orig. 05 10 PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Seizures What is a seizure? A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how ... care team ? Try to remain calm Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

22

A patient with altered mental status and possible seizure reveals an atypical aortic dissection upon workup.  

PubMed

Aortic dissection occurs when a tear occurs in the inner muscle wall lining of the aorta, allowing blood to split the muscle layers of the aortic wall apart. It is classically characterized by pain that starts in the upper chest, which then radiates to the upper back and is tearing or ripping in quality. Our objective is to present a case followed by a brief literature review of aortic dissection and uncommon but important features that may be demonstrated. In this report, we present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was transported to the emergency department with an acute episode of altered mental status, presenting as a possible stroke with possible seizures. The patient's only complaint was mild low back pain. Physical examination revealed disorientation to time with no other neurologic deficits or abnormal findings. Results from initial noncontrast head computed tomography, chest radiograph, and laboratory studies were all normal, except for an elevated D-dimer and serum creatinine. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a type A aortic dissection. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room where the aortic valve and a portion of the ascending aorta were replaced. The patient did well and was discharged from the hospital 5 days later without any permanent sequalae. Aortic dissection is both rare and life threatening and may present with atypical signs. It is important to note that patients may show no signs of typical features or may even display other symptoms based on other branches from the aorta that have been occluded. PMID:24360026

Lawal, Olufolahan J; Dhindsa, Harinder S; Loyd, Joshua W

2014-05-01

23

A case of atypical tardive seizure activity during an initial ECT titration series.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used in this country for more than 70 years, is still the most effective treatment in all of psychiatry, and is considered a very safe procedure to have under general anesthesia. Although most patients tolerate this procedure very well without complications, prolonged and/or tardive seizures or even status epilepticus can develop, which is a rare but serious complication of ECT. Tardive seizures are typically associated with electroencephalographic evidence of ictal activity and motor manifestations of the tonic-clonic activity. Whereas there are instances of nonconvulsive status epilepticus after ECT, this is the first report of a patient developing autonomic and motor manifestations of a tardive seizure without electroencephalographic evidence of seizure activity during the initial titration series to establish seizure threshold for a course of ECT. PMID:23845940

Thisayakorn, Paul; Karim, Yasser; Yamada, Thoru; McCormick, Laurie M

2014-03-01

24

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Getting Kids Ready for School Backpack Safety Ebola: What to Know Vaccines Your Child Needs Educators: Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us First Aid: Seizures KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ...

25

?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

2014-07-15

26

Synaptic hyperexcitability of deep layer neocortical cells in a genetic model of absence seizures.  

PubMed

We used sharp-electrode, intracellular recordings in an in vitro brain slice preparation to study the excitability of neocortical neurons located in the deep layers (>900 microm from the pia) of epileptic (180-210-days old) Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) and age-matched, non-epileptic control (NEC) rats. Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats represent a genetic model of absence seizures associated with generalized spike and wave (SW) discharges in vivo. When filled with neurobiotin, these neurons had a typical pyramidal shape with extensive apical and basal dendritic trees; moreover, WAG/Rij and NEC cells had similar fundamental electrophysiological and repetitive firing properties. Sequences of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and hyperpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were induced in both the strains by electrical stimuli delivered to the underlying white matter or within the neocortex; however, in 24 of 55 regularly firing WAG/Rij cells but only in 2 of 25 NEC neurons, we identified a late EPSP that (1) led to action potential discharge and (2) was abolished by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 3,3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate (20 microM; n = 8/8 WAG/Rij cells). Finally, we found that the fast and slow components of the stimulus-induced IPSPs recorded during the application of glutamatergic receptor antagonists had similar reversal potentials in the two strains, while the peak conductance of the fast IPSP was significantly reduced in WAG/Rij cells. These findings document an increase in synaptic excitability that is mediated by NMDA receptors, in epileptic WAG/Rij rat neurons located in neocortical deep layers. We propose that this mechanism may be instrumental for initiating and maintaining generalized SW discharges in vivo. PMID:16436191

D'Antuono, M; Inaba, Y; Biagini, G; D'Arcangelo, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

2006-02-01

27

Non-linear analysis of epileptic seizures I. Correlation-dimension measurements for absence epilepsy and near-periodic signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The study of six absence seizures from two patients confirmed the efficacy, in the search for low correlation dimensions,\\u000a of using scaled-structure analysis, combined with the appropriate checking procedures. The analysis is directed towards characterizing\\u000a an attractor not only by its correlation dimension, but also by its quality and by the probability for genuine identification.\\u000a For near-periodic dynamics, we

Roger Cerf; M. El Amri; El Hassan El Ouasdad; E. Hirsch

1999-01-01

28

Reduced GABA B receptor subunit expression and paired-pulse depression in a genetic model of absence seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neocortical networks play a major role in the genesis of generalized spike-and-wave (SW) discharges associated with absence seizures in humans and in animal models, including genetically predisposed WAG\\/Rij rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in GABAB receptors contribute to neocortical hyperexcitability in these animals. By using Real-Time PCR we found that mRNA levels for most GABAB(1) subunits are

D. Merlo; C. Mollinari; Y. Inaba; A. Cardinale; A. M. Rinaldi; M. DAntuono; G. DArcangelo; V. Tancredi; D. Ragsdale; M. Avoli

2007-01-01

29

GABAB receptors as a common target for hypothermia and spike and wave seizures: intersecting mechanisms of thermoregulation and absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

In the current study the link among the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced absence-like seizures and concomitant decreases in the core temperature, as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during rewarming from deep hypothermia produced by a drug-free protocol were investigated. During the rewarming period after deep cooling, most Wistar rats suffered from bilaterally synchronous spike and waves with no or mild behavioral correlates. Spike and wave seizures were temperature-dependent and were initially registered when body temperature (Tb) reached 25-27C, but mostly during the mild hypothermia of 0.3-1.3C (Tb of 36.3-37.3C). In chemical absence models, spike and wave discharges were also closely accompanied by mild systemic hypothermia, as both PTZ- and GHB-induced temperature decreases ranged from about 1-1.4C respectively, together with EEG markers of absence activity. Thus, throughout the different experimental designs, the occurrence of spike and wave discharges was always related to a mild (0.3-1.4C) decrease of Tb. Benzodiazepine diazepam as the GABAA-positive allosteric modulator and CGP 62349 as the selective antagonist of GABAB receptors were used to determine if their well-known anticonvulsant properties also affect hypothermia elicited by these drugs. Finally, during the course of spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, another selective GABAB-blocking agent, CGP 35348, was used to elucidate if GABAB inhibitory system could be critically implicated in the generation of hypothermia-dependent spike and waves. Diazepam prevented both the PTZ-induced hypothermia and electrographic absence seizures, but these two beneficial effects did not occur in the GHB model. Even though diazepam delayed GHB-induced maximal temperature decrease, the GHB effects remained highly significant. The GABAB antagonist CGP 62349 completely prevented hypothermia as well as absence seizures in both chemical models. Likewise, spike and wave discharges, registered during the spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, were completely prevented by CGP 35348. These findings show that systemic hypothermia should definitely be regarded as a marker of GABAB receptor activation. Moreover, the results of this study clearly show that initial mild temperature decrease should be considered as strong absence-provoking factor. Hypothermia-induced nonconvulsive seizures also highlight the importance of continuous EEG monitoring in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Since every change in peripheral or systemic temperature ultimately must be perceived by preoptic region of the anterior hypothalamus as the primary thermoregulatory and sleep-inducing center, the preoptic thermosensitive neurons in general and warm-sensitive neurons in particular, simply have to be regarded as the most probable candidate for connected thermoregulatory and absence generating mechanisms. Therefore, additional studies are needed to confirm their potential role in the generation and propagation of absence seizures. PMID:23415784

Ostoji?, Z S; Ili?, T V; Veskovi?, S M; Andjus, P R

2013-05-15

30

Absence of femoral cortical thickening in long-term bisphosphonate users: Implications for atypical femur fractures  

PubMed Central

The radiographs of patients on long term bisphosphonates with atypical femur fractures demonstrate markedly thick cortices at the site of the fracture. We conducted a prospective clinical study to determine if cortical thickening is increased in long term bisphosphonate users. We recruited 43 patients who had taken bisphosphonates for more than 5 years. A group of 45 healthy volunteers and 12 patients recently diagnosed with osteoporosis served as controls. We measured the cortical thickening as the ratio of femoral cortical thickness to diameter of the femur, and looked for cortical beaking. No difference in the cortical thickness ratio was observed between long term bisphosphonate users and osteoporotic controls (0.53 vs. 0.54, p= 0.659). No cases of cortical beaking were seen and no increase in thigh pain was observed. The power of the study was 95% to detect a 10% difference in cortical thickness ratio. We conclude that long term bisphosphonate use does not produce a generalized increase in subtrochanteric femoral cortical thickening in the majority of patients. PMID:24468718

Chen, Foster; Wang, Zhong; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

2014-01-01

31

Absence seizures in C3H\\/HeJ and knockout mice caused by mutation of the AMPA receptor subunit Gria4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absence epilepsy, characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWD) in the electroencephalogram, arises from aberrations within the circuitry of the cerebral cortex and thalamus that regulates awareness. The inbred mouse strain C3H\\/HeJ is prone to absence seizures, with a major susceptibility locus, spkw1, accounting for most of the phenotype. Here we find that spkw1 is associated with a hypomorphic retroviral-like insertion mutation

Barbara Beyer; Charlotte Deleuze; Verity A. Letts; Connie L. Mahaffey; Rebecca M. Boumil; Timothy A. Lew; John R. Huguenard; Wayne N. Frankel

2008-01-01

32

Pathway-specific action of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in sensory thalamus and its relevance to absence seizures.  

PubMed

The systemic injection of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) elicits spike and wave discharges (SWDs), the EEG hallmark of absence seizures, and represents a well established, widely used pharmacological model of this nonconvulsive epilepsy. Despite this experimental use of GHB, as well as its therapeutic use in narcolepsy and its increasing abuse, however, the precise cellular mechanisms underlying the different pharmacological actions of this drug are still unclear. Because sensory thalamic nuclei play a key role in the generation of SWDs and sleep rhythms, and because direct injection of GHB in the ventrobasal (VB) thalamus elicits SWDs, we investigated GHB effects on corticothalamic EPSCs and GABAergic IPSCs in VB thalamocortical (TC) neurons. GHB (250 microm-10 mm) reversibly decreased the amplitude of electrically evoked EPSCs and GABAA IPSCs via activation of GABAB receptors; however, approximately 60% of the IPSCs were insensitive to low (250 microm-1.0 mm) GHB concentrations. The putative GHB receptor antagonist NSC 382 applied alone had a number of unspecific effects, whereas it either had no action on, or further increased, the GHB-elicited effects on synaptic currents. Low GHB concentrations (250 microm) were also effective in increasing absence-like intrathalamic oscillations evoked by cortical afferent stimulation. These results indicate that low concentrations of GHB, similar to the brain concentrations that evoke SWDs in vivo, differentially affect excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents in TC neurons and promote absence-like intrathalamic oscillations. Furthermore, the present data strengthen previous suggestions on the GHB mechanism of sleep promotion and will help focus future studies on the cellular mechanisms underlying its abuse. PMID:14673012

Gervasi, Nicolas; Monnier, Zohreh; Vincent, Pierre; Paupardin-Tritsch, Daniele; Hughes, Stuart W; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Leresche, Nathalie

2003-12-10

33

Long-Term Valproate Treatment Increases Brain Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Seizure Expression in a Genetic Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which valproate, one of the most widely prescribed anti-epileptic drugs, suppresses seizures have not been fully elucidated but may involve up-regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We investigated the effects of valproate treatment in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) on brain NPY mRNA expression and seizure control. GAERS were administered either valproate (42 mg.kg?1 hr?1) or saline continuously for 5 days. Electroencephalograms were recorded for 24 hrs on treatment days 1, 3 and 5 and the percentage of time spent in seizure activity was analysed. NPY mRNA expression was measured in different brain regions using qPCR. Valproate treatment suppressed seizures by 80% in GAERS (p<0.05) and increased NPY mRNA expression in the thalamus (p<0.05) compared to saline treatment. These results demonstrate that long-term valproate treatment results in an upregulation of thalamic expression of NPY implicating this as a potential contributor to the mechanism by which valproate suppresses absence seizures. PMID:24039965

van Raay, Leena; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; O'Brien, Terence J.; Morris, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

34

Dopey's seizure.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. PMID:10452923

Dan, B; Christiaens, F

1999-06-01

35

Absence of Residual Microcalcifications in Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Diagnosed via Stereotactic Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: Is Surgical Excision Obviated?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the underestimation rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) on vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB), and to examine the correlation between residual microcalcifications and the underestimation rate of ADH. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 27 women (mean age, 49.29.2 years) who underwent additional excision for ADH via VABB for microcalcifications observed by using mammography. The mammographic findings, histopathologic diagnosis of all VABB and surgical specimens, and association of malignancy with residual microcalcifications were evaluated. The underestimation rate of ADH was also calculated. Results Of the 27 women with microcalcifications, nine were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); thus, the underestimation rate was 33.3% (9/27). There was no difference in age (p=0.40) and extent of microcalcifications (p=0.10) when comparing benign and malignant cases. Six of 17 patients (35.3%) with remaining calcifications after VABB were upgraded to DCIS, and three of 10 patients (30%) with no residual calcifications after VABB were upgraded (p=1.00). Conclusion The underestimation rate of ADH on VABB was 33.3%. Furthermore, 30% of patients with no remaining calcifications were upgraded to DCIS. Therefore, we conclude that all ADH cases diagnosed via VABB should be excised regardless of the presence of residual microcalcifications. PMID:25320625

Youn, Inyoung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

2014-01-01

36

Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, whereas activation of mGlu2/3 and mGlu4 receptors produces the opposite effect. Here, we have extended the study to mGlu5 receptors, which are known to be highly expressed within the cortico-thalamo-cortical network. We used presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and aged-matched ACI rats. WAG/Rij rats showed a reduction in the mGlu5 receptor protein levels and in the mGlu5-receptor mediated stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the ventrobasal thalamus, whereas the expression of mGlu5 receptors was increased in the somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, these changes preceded the onset of the epileptic phenotype, being already visible in pre-symptomatic WAG/Rij rats. SWDs in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats were not influenced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors with MTEP (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but were significantly decreased by mGlu5 receptor potentiation with the novel enhancer, VU0360172 (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), without affecting motor behaviour. The effect of VU0360172 was prevented by co-treatment with MTEP. These findings suggest that changes in mGlu5 receptors might lie at the core of the absence-seizure prone phenotype of WAG/Rij rats, and that mGlu5 receptor enhancers are potential candidates to the treatment of absence epilepsy. PMID:22705340

D'Amore, V.; Santolini, I.; van Rijn, C.M.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Prete, A.; Conn, P.J.; Lindsley, C.W.; Zhou, Y.; Vinson, P.N.; Rodriguez, A.L.; Jones, C.K.; Stauffer, S.R.; Nicoletti, F.; van Luijtelaar, G.; Ngomba, R.T.

2013-01-01

37

A novel approach for imaging brain-behaviour relationships in mice reveals unexpected metabolic patterns during seizures in the absence of tissue plasminogen activator  

PubMed Central

Medically-refractory seizures cause inflammation and neurodegeneration. Seizure initiation thresholds have been linked in mice to the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); mice lacking tPA exhibit resistance to seizure induction, and the ensuing inflammation and neurodegeneration are similarly suppressed. Seizure foci in humans can be examined using PET employing 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) as a tracer to visualize metabolic dysfunction. However, there currently exist no such methods in mice to correlate measures of brain activation with behaviour. Using a novel method for small animal PET data analysis, we examine patterns of 18FDG uptake in wild type and tPA-/- mice and find that they correlate with the severity of drug-induced seizure initiation. Furthermore, we report unexpected activations that may underlie the tPA modulation of seizure susceptibility. The methods described here should be applicable to other mouse models of human neurological disease. PMID:17707126

Mirrione, Martine M.; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, Dave L.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Tsirka, Stella E.

2007-01-01

38

Video game induced seizures.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but some had typical absence seizures and myoclonic jerks while playing video games. In this series, 30% with idiopathic generalised epilepsy had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Overall, 70% of patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy were photosensitive to intermittent photic stimulation and the mechanism of seizure provocation was probably similar to that of television induced seizures, although sensitivity to specific patterns was sometimes important. Two children had self induced video game seizures. Non-photic factors such as excitement, fatigue, sleep deprivation, cognitive processing, and diurnal variation in susceptibility seemed to be important seizure precipitants, particularly in non-photo-sensitive patients. Twenty nine per cent of patients had partial (mainly occipital) video game associated seizures. Occipital spikes were common in the EEG of these patients. Photosensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation may have been important in two patients but in the others, who all played arcade video games, other mechanisms need to be considered. Video game associated seizures are a feature of several epileptic syndromes and differ in precipitants and appropriate management. PMID:8057115

Ferrie, C D; De Marco, P; Grunewald, R A; Giannakodimos, S; Panayiotopoulos, C P

1994-01-01

39

Lamotrigine in typical absence epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamotrigine (LTG) is an anti-epileptic drug effective in partial seizures and generalized epilepsy. There is growing evidence of the usefulness of LTG in childhood (CAE) or juvenile (JAE) absences resistant to previous treatment. In this study all patients were identified using strict diagnostic criteria and subdivided into two groups. (1) Eight patients affected by absence seizures resistant to valproic acid

Sabrina Buoni; Salvatore Grosso; Alberto Fois

1999-01-01

40

Febrile Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... There is no evidence that short febrile seizures cause brain damage. Certain children who have febrile seizures face an increased risk of developing epilepsy. These children include those who have cerebral palsy, delayed development, or other neurological abnormalities, or who ...

41

Levetiracetam in Absence Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of levetiracetam therapy in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Twenty-one participants (11 male, 10 female) with typical absence seizures were enrolled in this prospective study from seven centres in Italy. The mean age and age range at time of enrolment into

Verrotti, Alberto; Cerminara, Caterina; Domizio, Sergio; Mohn, Angelika; Franzoni, Emilio; Coppola, Giangennaro; Zamponi, Nelia; Parisi, Pasquale; Iannetti, Paola; Curatolo, Paolo

2008-01-01

42

Seizure Prediction  

PubMed Central

There is mounting evidence that seizures are preceded by characteristic changes in the EEG that are detectable minutes before seizure onset. Using novel signal analysis techniques, researchers are beginning to characterize the transition from the interictal to the ictal state in quantitative terms. This research has led to the development of automated seizure prediction algorithms. Active debate persists regarding the interpretation of research results, methods of signal analysis, as well as experimental and statistical methods for testing seizure prediction algorithms. Developments in this field have led to new theories on the mechanism of seizure development and resolution. The ability to predict seizures could lead the way to novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:18488065

Sackellares, J Chris

2008-01-01

43

Benign rolandic epilepsy: atypical features are very common.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of atypical clinical and electrographic features in children with benign rolandic epilepsy. A retrospective case series design was employed in the setting of a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Forty-two children with benign rolandic epilepsy were seen through our neurology department between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 1993. Their charts were reviewed for atypical clinical features, imaging studies and results, total number of seizures at initial presentation and last follow-up, and use of anticonvulsants. Atypical clinical features included status epilepticus, developmental delay, daytime-only seizures, screaming as a seizure component, and postictal Todd's paresis. All children had at least one electroencephalogram, and these records were reviewed for atypical electrographic features such as unusual location, atypical spike morphology, and abnormal background. Atypical clinical features were seen in 50% of patients and atypical electrographic features in 31%. Computed tomographic scans were performed in 15 patients and were consistently normal. Treatment with anticonvulsant medication was initiated in 40%. Although patients with atypical features did not have an increased seizure frequency, they were more likely to undergo imaging studies (P < .01) and to be commenced on anticonvulsant medication (P < .02). Our experience suggests that atypical clinical and electrographic features are the rule rather than the exception in benign rolandic epilepsy. Further work must be done to develop a reliable definition of this common entity. PMID:8576555

Wirrell, E C; Camfield, P R; Gordon, K E; Dooley, J M; Camfield, C S

1995-11-01

44

Febrile seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... does not mean that your child is not getting the proper care. Occasionally, a health care provider will prescribe diazepam to prevent or treat febrile seizures that occur more than once. However, no medication ...

45

Atypical Moles  

MedlinePLUS

... These moles are larger than common moles , with borders that are irregular and poorly defined. Atypical moles ... shades on a pink background. They have irregular borders that may include notches. They may fade into ...

46

Atypical pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

Walking pneumonia; Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis . 2007;44:S27- ...

47

Using recurrence plot for determinism analysis of EEG recordings in genetic absence epilepsy rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveUnderstanding the transition of brain activity towards an absence seizure is a challenging task. In this paper, we use recurrence quantification analysis to indicate the deterministic dynamics of EEG series at the seizure-free, pre-seizure and seizure states in genetic absence epilepsy rats.

Gaoxiang Ouyang; Xiaoli Li; Chuangyin Dang; Douglas A. Richards

2008-01-01

48

Controlling Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

49

A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear  

E-print Network

A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear Brain Modeling- dictions with regards to seizure phenomena. We show that mapping the structure of the nonlinear bifurcation--clonic and absence seizures are pre- dicted and interrelated by the global bifurcation diagram of the model

Breakspear, Michael

50

Febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

2014-01-01

51

Febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

Chung, Sajun

2014-09-01

52

First Aid for Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Epilepsy Share Compartir First Aid for Seizures First aid for seizures involves responding in ways ... him until full awareness has returned. Consider a seizure an emergency and call 911 if any of ...

53

Antiabsence Effects of Safranal in Acute Experimental Seizure Models: EEG and Autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. We examined the effect of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus, in acute experimental animal models of generalized absence seizures. METHODS. the effect of acute systemic administration of safranal on latency to seizure onset as well as spike and wave discharches (SWD) duration following pharmacologically- induced absence seizures was investigated in wild- type mice. We further characterized its effects

Hamid R. Sadeghnia; Miguel A. Cortez; Dick Liu; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

2008-01-01

54

Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures  

SciTech Connect

The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

1985-05-01

55

Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both

Shafer, Patricia Osborne

2007-01-01

56

Atypical seizure-like activity in cortical reverberating networks in vitro can be caused by LPS-induced inflammation: a multi-electrode array study from a hundred neurons  

PubMed Central

We show here that a mild sterile inflammation induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a neuron/astrocyte/microglial cortical network, modulates neuronal excitability and can initiate long-duration burst events resembling epileptiform seizures, a recognized feature of various central nervous neurodegenerative, neurological and acute systemic diseases associated with neuroinflammation. To study this action, we simultaneously analyzed the reverberating bursting activity of a hundred neurons by using in vitro multi-electrode array methods. ?5 h after LPS application, we observed a net increase in the average number of spikes elicited in engaged cells and within each burst, but no changes neither in spike waveforms nor in burst rate. This effect was characterized by a slow, twofold exponential increase of the burst duration and the appearance of rarely occurring long burst events that were never seen during control recordings. These changes and the time-course of microglia-released proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), were blocked by pre-treatment with 50 nM minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory agent which was inactive when applied alone. Assay experiments also revealed that application of 60 pM exogenous TNF-? after 1215 h, produced non-washable changes of neuronal excitability, completely different from those induced by LPS, suggesting that TNF-? release alone was not responsible for our observed findings. Our results indicate that the link between neuroinflammation and hyperexcitability can be unveiled by studying the long-term activity of in vitro neuronal/astrocyte/microglial networks. PMID:25404893

Gullo, Francesca; Amadeo, Alida; Donvito, Giulia; Lecchi, Marzia; Costa, Barbara; Constanti, Andrew; Wanke, Enzo

2014-01-01

57

JAMA Patient Page: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 seizure, you may be diagnosed as having epilepsy , meaning you are prone to seizures. Types of ... Treatment Medication. If you are diagnosed as having epilepsy, you will likely be prescribed 1 or more ...

58

Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary

Murray, Kenneth T.

59

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grnewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

60

A unifying explanation of primary generalized seizures through nonlinear brain modeling and bifurcation analysis  

E-print Network

A unifying explanation of primary generalized seizures through nonlinear brain modeling predictions with regards to seizure phenomena. We show that mapping the structure of the nonlinear bifurcation-clonic and absence seizures are predicted and interrelated by the global bifurcation diagram of the model's dynamics

61

Athletes with seizure disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports. PMID:22236820

Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

2012-01-01

62

Early onset myasthenia gravis with atypical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14 year old boy with atypical myasthenia gravis is reported. The interesting features of the case were the onset in fi rst decade with progressive weakness of limb muscles simulating limb girdle myopathy, presence of bilateral symmetrical non fl uctuating external ophthalmoplegia with ptosis and the absence of diplopia. Differential response to choline esterase inhibitors was clinically apparent. In

Agarwal P; Chapagain U; Deewan KR; Rana PVS

2008-01-01

63

Recurrent seizures in tramadol intoxication: implications for therapy based on 100 patients.  

PubMed

Tramadol is an atypical opioid analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. Despite being a GABA(A) agonist, seizures are a prominent complication with its therapeutic use, abuse or overdose. For patients who have had a tramadol-induced seizure, the likelihood of recurrent seizures and the need for emergent anticonvulsant prophylaxis is unknown. However, treatment of patients with anticonvulsants prophylactically may cause adverse effects and increased morbidity in tramadol poisoning. We studied the outcome and frequency of recurrent seizures in tramadol-intoxicated patients in an attempt to determine the need for prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy. This was a retrospective cohort study of tramadol-intoxicated patients who had at least one seizure. Patients' age, sex, cause(s) of intoxication, route of poisoning, dose or number of capsules or tablets taken, vital signs, other signs or symptoms, numbers of seizures, length of stay, co-ingestions and past medical history were ascertained. Exactly 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two per cent were men, and 50% were between 21 and 30 years old. By our standard clinical protocol, none were treated with seizure prophylaxis after their first seizure. Only 7% had recurrent seizures and all patients recovered without sequelae. Because of the low risk of multiple seizures in tramadol poisoning and the lack of morbidity in patients who do seize, it appears to be unnecessary to administer prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy in patients with tramadol poisoning, even if they have an initial seizure. PMID:22364547

Shadnia, Shahin; Brent, Jeffrey; Mousavi-Fatemi, Khatereh; Hafezi, Peyman; Soltaninejad, Kambiz

2012-08-01

64

Reduced expression of IA channels is associated with postischemic seizures in hyperglycemic rats.  

PubMed

Poststroke seizures are considered to be the major cause of epilepsy in the elderly. The mechanisms of poststroke seizures remain unclear. A history of diabetes mellitus has been identified as an independent predictor of acute poststroke seizures in stroke patients. The present study sought to reveal the mechanisms for the development of postischemic seizures under hyperglycemic conditions. Transient forebrain ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by using the four-vessel occlusion method. At the normal blood glucose level, seizures occurred in ?50% of rats after 25 min of ischemia. However, in rats with hyperglycemia, the incidence rate of postischemic seizures was significantly increased to 100%. The occurrence of postischemic seizures was not correlated with the severity of brain damage in hyperglycemic rats. Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic agent, could neither prevent postischemic seizures nor alleviate the exacerbated brain damage in the presence of hyperglycemia. K(+) channels play a critical role in controlling neuronal excitability. The expression of A-type K(+) channel subunit Kv4.2 in the hippocampus and the cortex was significantly reduced in hyperglycemic rats with seizures compared with those without seizures. These results suggest that the reduction of Kv4.2 expression could contribute to the development of postischemic seizures in hyperglycemia. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25043828

Lei, Zhigang; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Yanling; Cui, Qiliang; Xu, Zhiqiang; Xu, Zao C

2014-12-01

65

Generalized tonic-clonic seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... grand mal seizure. The terms seizure , convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

66

[Epilepsy with generalized convulsive seizures on awakening (epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures "around sleep")].  

PubMed

Seventy patients with idiopathic epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) on awakening were analyzed. In 30% of patients, seizures occurred with the same frequency or less often only on falling asleep. Two groups of patients were specified: with isolated GTCS on awakening and with a combination of the latter with myoclonia and absences. Awakening as a factor provoking seizures can be significant not only for night sleep but also for day sleep, mostly in patients with isolated GTCS. This allows to define the syndrome as an epilepsy with GTCS "around sleep". At the same time, there were 6 patients with clinical and EEG features of symptomatic epilepsy. Heterogeneity of the syndrome with GTCS "around sleep" is also related to the mental state of patients and their response to AED: carbamazepine is more effective in patients with isolated GTCS and valproate in those with the combination of GTCS with myoclonia and absences. PMID:18454092

Karlov, V A; Ozherel'eva, Iu V

2008-01-01

67

Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric ?-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (Ih) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their consistency with the experimental data and the previous model.

Koppert, M. M. J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F. H.; Viergever, M. A.

2011-08-01

68

A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old boy presented with fever not responding to antibiotic therapy and elevated blood urea and serum creatinine levels. The patient developed microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia during the hospital stay. Kidney biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The patient had sufficient urine output, normal blood pressure, and no evidence of peripheral edema during the whole course of his disease. Serum levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M was elevated, indicating the possible role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in inducing atypical HUS in this patient. The patient underwent hemodialysis with dramatic response. He was discharged with normal kidney function after a few days. Kidney function and platelet count were normal 12 months after the initial presentation. This case report shows that atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome could have unusual presentations such as the absence of oliguria, hypertension, and edema, with rapid recovery and good prognosis. PMID:25001143

Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Derakhshan, Ali; Shorafa, Eslam; Mojtahedi, Yusof; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein

2014-07-01

69

Absent posterior alpha rhythm: An indirect indicator of seizure disorder?  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis: Absence of normal posterior alpha rhythm is an indirect indicator of seizure disorder. Materials and Methods: Study group consists of 116 child and adolescent patients in the age range of 5-17 years, with established history of seizure disorder. Follow-up cases of seizure disorder formed first comparison group, patients with a history of pseudo-seizures formed second comparison group and patients with a history of headache formed the third comparison group. Results: In significant 48.3% (56) patients within the study group there was no visible alpha rhythm. Whereas, this absent alpha rhythm criteria was seen in only 11.2% (4) patients in first and 15% (8) patients in second and in only 6.1% (2) patients in third comparison groups. Discussion: Absent alpha rhythm- a criterion seems to have a certain amount of specificity for electroencephalograms (EEGs) with seizure disorder patients. Presence of seizure activity and absence of alpha activity in EEG significantly correlated to each other (Significant at < 0.01 level). Absent alpha rhythm appears to be a state marker rather than a trait marker of seizure disorder. PMID:24574560

Aich, Tapas Kumar

2014-01-01

70

Seizures and Epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... you can be confused and disoriented. Sometimes a child may have a seizure during an illness with ... of a healthcare provider to make sure the child gets proper nutrition. This document is for informational ...

71

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 ... deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ataxia neuropathy spectrum benign familial ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification fucosidosis juvenile myoclonic ...

72

Methylxanthines, Seizures, and Excitotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Clinical evidence, in particular the wide use of theophylline as a bronchodilator, suggests that methylxanthines can cause\\u000a seizures in patients without known underlying epilepsy. Theophylline is also known to be an added risk factor for seizure\\u000a exacerbation in patients with epilepsy. The proconvulsant activity of methylxanthines can best be explained by their antagonizing\\u000a the brains own anticonvulsant adenosine. Recent evidence

Detlev Boison

73

Atypical vitamin B6 deficiency: a rare cause of unexplained neonatal and infantile epilepsies.  

PubMed

ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes. We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes. PMID:24114605

Baumgart, Anna; Spiczak, Sarah von; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Mller, Rikke S; Boor, Rainer; Muhle, Hiltrud; Jhn, Johanna A; Klitten, Laura L; Hjalgrim, Helle; Lindhout, Dick; Stephani, Ulrich; van Kempen, Marjan J A; Helbig, Ingo

2014-05-01

74

Atypical autoerotic deaths  

SciTech Connect

So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of death are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.

Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. (Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-06-01

75

Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic

Devinsky, Orrin

2006-01-01

76

Reflex seizures in Rett syndrome.  

PubMed

Reflex seizures are a rare phenomenon among epileptic patients, in which an epileptic discharge is triggered by various kinds of stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile or gustatory). Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome patients (up to 70%), but to the authors' knowledge, no pressure or eating-triggered seizures have yet been reported in Rett children. We describe three epileptic Rett patients with reflex seizures, triggered by food intake or proprioception. One patient with congenital Rett Sd. developed infantile epileptic spasms at around seven months and two patients with classic Rett Sd. presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures at around five years. Reflex seizures appeared when the patients were teenagers. The congenital-Rett patient presented eating-triggered seizures at the beginning of almost every meal, demonstrated by EEG recording. Both classic Rett patients showed self-provoked pressure -triggered attacks, influenced by stress or excitement. Non-triggered seizures were controlled with carbamazepine or valproate, but reflex seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Risperidone partially improved self-provoked seizures. When reflex seizures are suspected, reproducing the trigger during EEG recording is fundamental; however, self-provoked seizures depend largely on the patient's will. Optimal therapy (though not always possible) consists of avoiding the trigger. Stress modifiers such as risperidone may help control self-provoked seizures. PMID:22258043

Roche Martnez, Ana; Alonso Colmenero, M Itziar; Gomes Pereira, Andreia; Sanmart Vilaplana, Francesc X; Armstrong Morn, Judith; Pineda Marfa, Merc

2011-12-01

77

Teaching about Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a six-step model to help teachers develop curriculum related to the Fourth Amendment (search and seizure). The model focuses on determining values and attitudes, defining valid and unreasonable search and seizure, recognizing a valid warrant, and using film to teach about search and seizure. Journal available from the American Bar

Kelly, Cynthia A.

1978-01-01

78

Adaptive Epileptic Seizure Prediction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractCurrent epileptic seizure prediction algorithms are generally based on the knowledge of seizure occurring time and analyze the electroencephalogram,(EEG) recordings retro- spectively. It is then obvious that, although these analyses provide evidence of brain activity changes prior to epileptic seizures, they cannot be applied to develop implantable devices for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, we describe an adaptive

Leon D. Iasemidis; Deng-Shan Shiau; Wanpracha Chaovalitwongse; J. Chris Sackellares; Panos M. Pardalos; Jose C. Principe; Paul R. Carney; Awadhesh Prasad; Balaji Veeramani; Konstantinos Tsakalis

2003-01-01

79

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures.  

PubMed

Cannabis sativa has been associated with contradictory effects upon seizure states despite its medicinal use by numerous people with epilepsy. We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures, suggesting that earlier, small-scale clinical trials examining CBD effects in people with epilepsy warrant renewed attention. Here, we report the effects of pure CBD (1, 10 and 100mg/kg) in two other established rodent seizure models, the acute pilocarpine model of temporal lobe seizure and the penicillin model of partial seizure. Seizure activity was video recorded and scored offline using model-specific seizure severity scales. In the pilocarpine model CBD (all doses) significantly reduced the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe seizures. In the penicillin model, CBD (? 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the percentage mortality as a result of seizures; CBD (all doses) also decreased the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe tonic-clonic seizures. These results extend the anti-convulsant profile of CBD; when combined with a reported absence of psychoactive effects, this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies. PMID:22520455

Jones, Nicholas A; Glyn, Sarah E; Akiyama, Satoshi; Hill, Thomas D M; Hill, Andrew J; Weston, Samantha E; Burnett, Matthew D A; Yamasaki, Yuki; Stephens, Gary J; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

2012-06-01

80

The outlook for adults with epileptic seizure(s) associated with cerebral cavernous malformations or arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are common: their asymptomatic prevalence on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is 1 in 625 and 1 in 2,000, respectively. The risk of epileptic seizure(s) for people with AVMs and CCMs affects their domestic, social, and professional lives, and may influence their decisions about treatment. This article summarizes the seizure risks for people with AVMs and CCMs, gleaned from published original articles indexed in OVID Medline and Embase before 1 January 2012. In the absence of prior intracranial hemorrhage and nonhemorrhagic focal neurologic deficit, a population-based study in Scotland, United Kingdom, found that the 5-year risks of first seizure were 8% for AVM and 4% for CCM; presentation with intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficit raised this risk for AVM (23%) but not for CCM (6%). Features associated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures for CCM are lesion multiplicity and cortical CCM location, whereas for AVM the most consistently reported associations are younger age, temporal location, cortical involvement, and nidus diameter >3 cm. In the absence of prior intracranial hemorrhage and nonhemorrhagic focal neurologic deficit, the 5-year risk of developing epilepsy following a first seizure is 58% for AVM and 94% for CCM, though there is no difference in the chance of achieving 2-year seizure freedom in this time frame (45% AVM vs. 47% CCM). Observational case series describe encouraging differences in seizure frequency before and after AVM and CCM treatment, but the shortage of studies demonstrating dramatic effects in comparison to concurrent control groups justifies the need for more controlled studies, ideally with randomized treatment allocation when the benefits of AVM or CCM treatment are uncertain. PMID:22946719

Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

2012-09-01

81

Recent advances in febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Febrile seizures are the most common seizures of childhood. A family history of febrile seizures is common, and the disorder is genetically heterogenous. While guidelines are available for management of simple febrile seizures, the management of complex febrile seizures is individualised. After a febrile seizure, it is important to rule out CNS infection and the decision to perform a lumbar puncture should be based on the clinical condition of the child. Neuroimaging and EEG are not required immediately in workup for simple or complex febrile seizures. Recurrence of febrile seizures may be managed at home by the parents with benzodiazepines. If the recurrences are multiple or prolonged and parents are unable to give home treatment, intermittent benzodiazepine prophylaxis may be given. Continuous antiepileptic prophylaxis may be given only to the children where intermittent prophylaxis has failed. Febrile seizures are also associated with increased risk of epilepsy, but this cannot be prevented by any form of treatment. There is also an increased risk of mesial temporal sclerosis, but whether this is an effect or cause of febrile seizures is as yet unclear. There is no increase in neurological handicaps or mortality following febrile seizures. PMID:25103013

Mittal, Rekha

2014-09-01

82

Anoxic-epileptic seizures: observational study of epileptic seizures induced by syncopes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe a large series of children with anoxic-epileptic seizures (AES)that is, epileptic seizures induced by syncopes. Methods: Retrospective case-note review in a tertiary paediatric neurology unit. For all 27 children seen with a definite diagnosis of AES between 1972 and 2002, a review of clinical histories, videotapes, and EEG/ECG studies was undertaken. Main outcome measures were: age of onset, frequency and type of syncopes; age of onset and frequency of AES; type and duration of induced epileptic seizures; effect of treatment of syncopal and epileptic components. Results: Median age of onset of syncopes was 8 months (range 0.2120), frequency 2 in total to 40/day, median total ?200. Syncopes were predominantly reflex asystolic (RAS), prolonged expiratory apnoea (cyanotic breath-holding spells), or of mixed or uncertain origin; there was one each of ear piercing and hair grooming vasovagal syncope and one of compulsive Valsalva. Median age of onset of AES was 17 months (range 7120), frequency from total 1 to 3/day, median total 3. The epileptic component was almost always bilateral clonic; three had additional epilepsy, one each with complex partial seizures, myoclonic absences, and febrile seizures plus. Median duration of epileptic component was 5 minutes (range 0.540, mean 11). Cardiac pacing prevented RAS in two patients: most other anti-syncope therapies were ineffective. Diazepam terminated the epileptic component in 6/8. Valproate or carbamazepine abolished AES in 5/7 without influencing syncope frequency. Conclusions: Although uncommon compared with simple syncopes, syncope triggered epileptic seizures (AES) are an important treatable basis of status epilepticus. PMID:16159903

Horrocks, I; Nechay, A; Stephenson, J; Zuberi, S

2005-01-01

83

Re: Atypical Antipsychotic Use in Treating Adolescents and Young Adults with Develop mental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedlander and others note that, even with their clinic's conservative prescrip- tion practices, one-half the individuals in the sample were taking atypical antipsy- choticseven when psychotic symp- toms were not documented. We agree with the authors that, in the absence of clearly identified psychiatric disorders for which these medications are indi- cated, the practice of using either typical or atypical

Elspeth A Bradley; Yona Lunsky; Robin W Brooks-Hill

2002-01-01

84

High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations

Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

2004-01-01

85

Gliomas and seizures.  

PubMed

Glial neoplasms account for nearly 50% of all adult primary brain tumors. They originate from glial cells in the brain and/or spinal cord and include low-grade diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic-astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Of all brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and is characterized by rapid glial cell growth, resistance to radio- and chemo- therapies, and relentless infiltration and spreading throughout the central nervous system (CNS). In glioblastomas, primary tumor growth and CNS invasion are associated with the activation of complex structural molecular and metabolic changes within the tumor tissue, which profoundly affect the surrounding neuronal networks and may in part explain induction of epilepsy. In fact, epileptic seizures are very common among patients with glial tumors, reaching nearly 50% in glioblastoma patients and almost 90% in low-grade astrocytomas. The overall hypothesis presented here discusses the possibility that the aberrant tumor cell metabolism may act directly on neuronal network, and this leads to seizure susceptibility. Further invasion and growth of the malignant glial cells exacerbate this initial pathologic state which promotes recurrent seizures (epileptogenesis). PMID:22959996

Prakash, O; Lukiw, W J; Peruzzi, F; Reiss, K; Musto, A E

2012-11-01

86

Chemical-genetic attenuation of focal neocortical seizures.  

PubMed

Focal epilepsy is commonly pharmacoresistant, and resective surgery is often contraindicated by proximity to eloquent cortex. Many patients have no effective treatment options. Gene therapy allows cell-type specific inhibition of neuronal excitability, but on-demand seizure suppression has only been achieved with optogenetics, which requires invasive light delivery. Here we test a combined chemical-genetic approach to achieve localized suppression of neuronal excitability in a seizure focus, using viral expression of the modified muscarinic receptor hM4Di. hM4Di has no effect in the absence of its selective, normally inactive and orally bioavailable agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Systemic administration of CNO suppresses focal seizures evoked by two different chemoconvulsants, pilocarpine and picrotoxin. CNO also has a robust anti-seizure effect in a chronic model of focal neocortical epilepsy. Chemical-genetic seizure attenuation holds promise as a novel approach to treat intractable focal epilepsy while minimizing disruption of normal circuit function in untransduced brain regions or in the absence of the specific ligand. PMID:24866701

Ktzel, Dennis; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Schorge, Stephanie; Walker, Matthew C; Kullmann, Dimitri M

2014-01-01

87

Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on

Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

2007-01-01

88

Analyzing autonomic activity in neonatal seizures  

E-print Network

Recent studies suggest that seizures in the newborn occur more often than previously appreciated. The effect of neonatal seizures remain unclear, however. Do seizures in the newborn cause brain injury, are they a consequence ...

Ramaswamy, Priya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

89

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Lyons, Valerie

2009-09-16

90

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

91

The acute and chronic effect of vagus nerve stimulation in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acute and chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). This is a validated model for absence epilepsy, characterized by frequent spontaneous absences concomitant with spike and wave discharges (SWD) on the EEG. Although absences are a benign form of seizures, it is

Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere; Kristl Vonck; P Hese van; Wytse Wadman; Paul Boon

2005-01-01

92

Automated epileptic seizure onset detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to abnormal or excessive neuronal activity in the brain. An estimated 50 million people around the world suffer from this condition, and it is classified as the second most serious neurological disease known to humanity, after stroke. With early and accurate detection of seizures, doctors can gain valuable

Arvind Dorai; Kumaraswamy Ponnambalam

2010-01-01

93

Alcohol withdrawal seizures.  

PubMed

The topic of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), including delirium tremens and especially seizures, is reviewed. From mice and rat studies, it is known that both N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in AWS. During alcohol intoxication chronic adaptations of NMDA and GABA receptors occur, and during alcohol withdrawal a hyperexcitable state develops. In studies on humans, during intoxication the NMDA receptors are activated and mediate tonic inhibition. In withdrawal, a rebound activation of these receptors occurs. Both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, especially the alpha2 subunit of GABA-A receptors, are also likely involved. Homocysteine increases with active drinking, and in withdrawal, excitotoxicity likely is induced by a further increase in homocysteine, viewed as a risk factor for AWS and also as a screening tool. The dopamine transporter gene is also associated with AWS. Characteristics involves changes in the ECG, especially an increase in QT interval, and EEG changes, including abnormal quantified EEG, at times periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, and especially seizures, usually occurring 6-48h after the cessation of drinking. Therapy has emphasized benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and lorazepam, but more standard antiepileptic drugs, like carbamazepine and topiramate, are also effective and safe. PMID:19249388

Hughes, John R

2009-06-01

94

Atypical neuroleptics: compulsive disorders.  

PubMed

Compulsive disorders are known adverse effects of dopamine agonists. Atypical neuroleptics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone) have also been implicated in cases of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating and shopping, with sometimes serious social and familial consequences. The compulsive disorders improved or ceased when the neuroleptic was withdrawn or replaced. Patients must be informed of these possible adverse effects and monitored for behavioural changes. If such disorders occur, they can be managed by withdrawing the drug, reducing the dosage, or switching to another neuroleptic. PMID:24669386

2014-02-01

95

Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.60.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

2014-01-01

96

Bupropion seizure proportion among new-onset generalized seizures and drug related seizures presenting to an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication with seizures as its major side effect. This drug can produce seizures with an overdose. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative importance of this medication as the etiology of new-onset seizures relative to other drugs and new-onset seizures in general. The study design was a retrospective case series.

Gene R Pesola; Jagannadha Avasarala

2002-01-01

97

Automated seizure detection using EKG.  

PubMed

Changes in heart rate, most often increases, are associated with the onset of epileptic seizures and may be used in lieu of cortical activity for automated seizure detection. The feasibility of this aim was tested on 241 clinical seizures from 81 subjects admitted to several Epilepsy Centers for invasive monitoring for evaluation for epilepsy surgery. The performance of the EKG-based seizure detection algorithm was compared to that of a validated algorithm applied to electrocorticogram (ECoG). With the most sensitive detection settings [threshold T: 1.15; duration D: 0 s], 5/241 seizures (2%) were undetected (false negatives) and with the highest [T: 1.3; D: 5 s] settings, the number of false negative detections rose to 34 (14%). The rate of potential false positive (PFP) detections was 9.5/h with the lowest and 1.1/h with the highest T, D settings. Visual review of 336 ECoG segments associated with PFPs revealed that 120 (36%) were associated with seizures, 127 (38%) with bursts of epileptiform discharges and only 87 (26%) were true false positives. Electrocardiographic (EKG)-based seizure onset detection preceded clinical onset by 0.8 s with the lowest and followed it by 13.8 s with the highest T, D settings. Automated EKG-based seizure detection is feasible and has potential clinical utility given its ease of acquisition, processing, high signal/noise and ergonomic advantages viz-a-viz EEG (electroencephalogram) or ECoG. Its use as an "electronic" seizure diary will remedy in part, the inaccuracies of those generated by patients/care-givers in a cost-effective manner. PMID:24475899

Osorio, Ivan

2014-03-01

98

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection. Seizures in AERRPS are almost exclusively of localized origin, whose semiology includes eye deviation, hemifacial twitching, hemiclonic convulsion, and autonomic manifestations. Partial seizures are brief, but

Hiroshi Sakuma

2009-01-01

99

Seizures in Infants and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the most frequent causes of seizure disorders in young children and the classification of different seizure types. It discusses current therapies, including alternatives to medication. Emergency response to seizures is covered a well as non-epileptic episodes that may resemble seizures. Epilepsy's potential impact on the

McBrien, Dianne M.; Bonthius, Daniel J.

2000-01-01

100

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Seizures in Alzheimer Disease  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Seizures in Alzheimer Disease Who, When, and How Common? Nikolaos Scarmeas) are frequent and include seizures, syncope, and episodes of inattention or confusion. The incidence of seizures-onset unprovoked seizures. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Three academic centers. Patients: Four

101

Atypical causes of cholestasis  

PubMed Central

Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have silent progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

2014-01-01

102

A typically atypical tenosynovitis.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman developed tenosynovitis of the right second digit without a history of injury or animal bites. Apart from high titer anti-nuclear antibodies, serological studies were unremarkable. Tuberculin test and interferon gamma release assay were both negative. Several immunosuppressive therapies led only to partial relief of symptoms. Of note, clinical symptoms worsened significantly after introduction of adalimumab therapy. Tenosynovectomy was performed revealing a granulomatous inflammatory process. Seven weeks later, Mycobacterium malmoense could be cultured from the surgical specimen. A four drug antibiotic regimen was started and immunosuppressive therapy discontinued resulting in complete clinical remission. Our case highlights non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) tenosynovitis as an important differential diagnosis of atypical arthritis. A negative tuberculin skin test as well as negative Ziehl-Neelsen stain does not argue against NTM infection. In fact, mycobacterial culture for extended periods remains the gold standard for diagnosis. PMID:20582608

Sahinbegovic, Enijad; Arco, Gunther; Cavallaro, Alexander; Sder, Stephan; Schrner, Christoph; Schett, Georg; Harrer, Thomas; Zwerina, Jochen

2013-03-01

103

Atypical causes of cholestasis.  

PubMed

Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have "silent" progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

2014-07-28

104

Game-related seizures presenting with two types of clinical features.  

PubMed

We evaluated 22 patients with epileptic seizures in which the seizures were triggered by various games or game-related materials. Based on whether spontaneous seizure coexisted or not, these 22 patients were divided into two groups. Ten patients who experienced seizures exclusively while playing or watching specific games were referred to as Group I, while 12 patients that had both game-induced and spontaneous seizures were classified as Group II. The patients in Group I had a middle-age onset (39.1 years) with a male predominance (90%). The electroencephalogram (EEG) or brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed non-specific abnormalities in 60%, and the partial onset seizure was recognized in 30% of patients. Antiepileptic drugs had uncertain benefits in this group. In Group II, patients had a male predominance (67%), with onset during adolescence (16.3 years). Most of them had generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and absences, and 42% showed epileptiform discharge on EEG. These 12 patients were categorized into idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Although photosensitivity was an important factor, higher mental activity seemed to be significant precipitants of seizures in Group II. Antiepileptic drugs were necessary and valproic acid alone or combined with clonazepam was effective in this group. The results showed that game-related seizures are not a unique and homogeneous syndrome and may consist of different mechanisms. Teenage onset, coexistent spontaneous seizure, and associated idiopathic generalized epilepsies were crucial factors in the determination of antiepileptic drug therapy. Moreover, avoiding the related games altogether may be a more productive preventive measure. PMID:16406611

Chuang, Yao-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Shang-Der; Huang, Chi-Ren

2006-03-01

105

Bone microenvironment modulated seizure treatments  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Novel etiology underlying certain types of seizures and migraines is presented, whereby changes in endocrine levels result in changes in osteoclast activity levels which in turn result in elevated extracellular Ca2+ levels which in turn result in systemic alterations in nerves muscles, including increased nerve membrane depolarization, enhanced calcium channel mediated neurotransmitter release, and increased muscle contractility via sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel mediated tropomyosin block removal, which in turn result in increased seizure risk in people with low seizure thresholds. Treatment methods are provided that modulate the bone microenvironment to provide an etiology based seizure treatment method that simultaneously reduces nerve sensitivity and muscle contractility. Preferred embodiments include use of SERMs such as raloxifene, testosterone, estrogen, calcimimetics such as cinacalcet, RANKL inhibitors such as denosumab, and bisphosphonate such as risedronate.

2012-06-12

106

Understanding the TXA seizure connection  

E-print Network

Transexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has been used successfully to prevent blood loss during major surgery. However, as its usage has increased, there have been growing reports of postsurgical seizure events ...

Schwinn, Debra A.

107

Seizures in juvenile Huntington's disease: frequency and characterization in a multicenter cohort.  

PubMed

Little is known about the epilepsy that often occurs in the juvenile form of Huntington's disease (HD), but is absent from the adult-onset form. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the seizures in juvenile HD (JHD) subjects with regard to frequency, semiology, defining EEG characteristics, and response to antiepileptic agents. A multicenter, retrospective cohort was identified by database query and/or chart review. Data on age of HD onset, primary HD manifestations, number of CAG repeats, the presence or absence of seizures, seizure type(s), antiepileptic drugs used, subjects' response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and EEG results were assembled, where available. Ninety subjects with genetically confirmed JHD were included. Seizures were present in 38% of subjects and were more likely to occur with younger ages of HD onset. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were the most common seizure type, followed by tonic, myoclonic, and staring spells. Multiple seizure types commonly occurred within the same individual. Data on EEG findings and AED usage are presented. Seizure risk in JHD increases with younger age of HD onset. Our ability to draw firm conclusions about defining EEG characteristics and response to AEDs was limited by the retrospective nature of the study. Future prospective studies are required. PMID:23124580

Cloud, Leslie J; Rosenblatt, Adam; Margolis, Russel L; Ross, Christopher A; Pillai, Jagan A; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Tully, Hannah M; Bird, Thomas; Panegyres, Peter K; Nichter, Charles A; Higgins, Donald S; Helmers, Sandra L; Factor, Stewart A; Jones, Randi; Testa, Claudia M

2012-12-01

108

Epileptic Seizures in AD Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic seizures have long been recognised as a complication of the clinical syndrome of Alzheimers disease, particularly\\u000a in advanced disease, but have hitherto been viewed essentially as epiphenomena of the neurodegenerative process. Progress\\u000a with animal models of Alzheimers disease has suggested that this view may be incorrect, and that seizures may be a reflection\\u000a of pathophysiological processes similar to or

A. J. Larner

2010-01-01

109

Absence of the septum pellucidum. Overlapping clinical syndromes.  

PubMed

A patient with absence of the septum pellucidum, optic hypoplasia, congenital nystagmus, hemiatrophy, and seizures fulfilled clinical and radiological criteria for diagnosis of both septo-optic dysplasia and the syndrome of absent septum pellucidum with porencephalies. The anatomical and clinical similarities between these two syndromes suggest a common embryological basis. Their simultaneous presence in this case further supports this explanation. Clinically mild forms of both septo-optic dysplasia and the syndrome of absent septum pellucidum with porencephalies are now detected with the aid of computed tomographic scanning in patients with unexplained hemiatrophy, congenital nystagmus, seizures, and short stature. PMID:4026611

Morgan, S A; Emsellem, H A; Sandler, J R

1985-08-01

110

Massively multiplayer online role-playing game-induced seizures: a neglected health problem in Internet addiction.  

PubMed

As the Internet has become rapidly and widely integrated into society, Internet addiction has become a growing psychosocial problem. However, epileptic seizure, another out-of-the-ordinary health problem, is often neglected in this regard. Ten patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing the newest genre of electronic games -- Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) -- were investigated. Patients were predominantly male young adults, and most of the events were generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and absences. These patients should be categorized into idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Even though photosensitivity was an important factor, behavioral and higher mental activities also seemed to be significant seizure precipitants. Results demonstrated that MMORPG-induced seizures were not analogous to the ordinary video game-induced seizures. Significantly, an epileptic seizure warning did not always appear on the websites of MMORPGs and instructions for the software. While the prevalence of MMORPG-induced seizures remains unknown, it may exceed our expectations and impact our society. Not only for clinical neurologists but also for the primary physicians, educators, sociologists, and global online game publishers, there should be an awareness of this special form of reflex seizures in order to provide an appropriate health warning to MMORPG players. PMID:16901249

Chuang, Yao-Chung

2006-08-01

111

A-type rotator properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the measurement of rotational velocities, and the different samples available for A-type stars. The distributions of rotational velocities, their evolution with time and link with chemical peculiarities are reviewed. Effects of gravity darkening are also detailed.

Royer, F.

2014-11-01

112

Histologically atypical Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Infection with Pneumocystis carinii typically results in a pneumonia which histologically is seen to consist of an eosinophilic foamy alveolar exudate associated with a mild plasma cell interstitial infiltrate. Special stains show that cysts of P carinii lie within the alveolar exudate. Atypical histological appearances may occasionally be seen, including a granulomatous pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage. In these patients the clinical presentation may be atypical and results of investigations negative unless lung biopsies are performed and tissue obtained for histological examination. METHODS--The incidence and mode of presentation of histologically atypical pneumocystis pneumonia was studied in a cohort of HIV-I antibody positive patients. RESULTS--Over a 30 month period 138 patients had pneumocystis pneumonia, of whom eight (6%) had atypical histological appearances which were diagnosed (after negative bronchoalveolar lavage) by open lung biopsy in five, percutaneous biopsy in one, and at post mortem examination in two. Atypical appearances included granulomatous inflammation in four patients, "pneumocystoma" in two (one also had extrapulmonary pneumocystosis), bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia in one patient, diffuse alveolar damage and subpleural cysts in one (who also had intrapulmonary cytomegalovirus infection), and extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in two patients. CONCLUSIONS--Various atypical histological appearances may be seen in pneumocystis pneumonia. Lung biopsy (either percutaneous or open) should be considered when bronchoalveolar lavage is repeatedly negative and evidence of P carinii should be sought, by use of special stains, in all lung biopsy material from HIV-I antibody positive patients. Images PMID:8256247

Foley, N. M.; Griffiths, M. H.; Miller, R. F.

1993-01-01

113

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently, without unquestionable demonstration of efficiency. There is a high risk of post-transplant recurrence, except in MCP-HUS. Case reports and two phase II trials show an impressive efficacy of the complement C5 blocker eculizumab, suggesting it will be the next standard of care. Except for patients treated by intensive plasmatherapy or eculizumab, the worst prognosis is in factor H-HUS, as mortality can reach 20% and 50% of survivors do not recover renal function. Half of factor I-HUS progress to end-stage renal failure. Conversely, most patients with MCP-HUS have preserved renal function. Anti-factor H antibodies-HUS has favourable outcome if treated early. PMID:21902819

2011-01-01

114

Atypical cellular disorders.  

PubMed

Some immunologic diseases are characterized by profound loss or primary dysfunction of a given population of cells. The atypical cellular disorders discussed here all bear some similarities in that abnormal proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages or dendritic cells result in lymphadenopathy, skin rashes, bone lesions and infiltrations of nearly any other organ system. What are the similarities and the differences between Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai-Dorfman disease, and Castleman's disease (CD)? Studies on LCH have some advantages since it was described before the others, and organized clinical trials have been done since the 1980s. The understanding of SHML benefited from a registry maintained by Drs. Rosai and Dorfman. CD was described fifty years ago and for one subtype has the most clearly defined etiology (HHV-8 infection) of the three atypical cellular disorders discussed here. In Section I, Dr. Kenneth McClain examines the unanswered question of whether LCH is a malignant clonal disorder or an inflammatory response triggered by aberrant cytokine expression or a virus. Advocates of the malignant proliferation theory rest their case primarily on the following two points: Clonality of the CD1a+ Langerhans cells was demonstrated by analysis of the human androgen receptor in patients with single bone lesions (Low Risk) or multisystem disease including spleen, liver, bone marrow, or lung (High Risk). Although no consistent chromosomal abnormalities have been reported, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been defined by comparative genomic hybridization. Those in the "inflammatory response" camp note that non-clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in adult pulmonary LCH also have LOH by the same method. The pathologic cells have not been successfully grown in culture or immune-deficient mice and don't have a "malignant" morphology. While the basic scientific arguments continue, important advances in the treatment of LCH have been made by international collaborations of the Histiocyte Society. Risk groups have been clearly defined and the response to therapy after the initial 6 weeks is known to be the strongest prognostic variable for outcome. In Section II, Dr. Yasodha Natkunam reviews the features of SHML, which most often presents as painless cervical lymphadenopathy, although many patients can have extranodal involvement as well. These sites include the skin, respiratory tract, bone, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. The diagnosis rests on finding intact lymphocytes in the cytoplasm of activated macrophages as well as accumulation of mature plasma cells. Hemolytic or non-hemolytic anemias, hypergammaglobulinemia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentatin rate (ESR) are often found with SHML. An intriguing finding of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 viral proteins in SHML has been reported in several patients, but needs further study. SHML associated with lymphoproliferations triggered by defects in apoptosis are discussed since this mechanism may provide a clue to the etiology. Therapy for SHML varies greatly in reported case series. Many patients have spontaneous regression or resolution after surgical removal of isolated node groups. Others with systemic involvement may benefit from chemotherapy, but no clinical trials have been done. In Section III, Dr. Steven Swerdlow clarifies key features of the four types of CD. Localized cases are divided into the hyaline vascular type and plasma cell type. Both are usually cured by surgical excision and have symptoms mainly of a mass lesion, although the latter often also has constitutional symptoms. The two types are distinguished largely by the nature of the follicles and the number of interfollicular plasma cells. Interleukin (IL)-6 expression is increased in the plasma cell type. Multicentric CD of the plasmablastic type is most often found in HIV-positive patients with coincident HHV-8 infection. Many have lymphomas or Kaposi sarcomas. Other cases of multicentric CD are also mo

McClain, Kenneth L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Swerdlow, Steven H

2004-01-01

115

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2012-04-01

116

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2013-04-01

117

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2011-04-01

118

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2010-04-01

119

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2014-04-01

120

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2014-04-01

121

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2012-04-01

122

Pathological pattern formation and cortical propagation of epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

Pathological pattern formation and cortical propagation of epileptic seizures Mark A. Kramer1 a seizure. The model and observational results agree in two important respects during seizure: (i: mesoscopic cortical dynamics; dynamical systems theory; electrocorticogram; epilepsy; seizures; pattern

Kramer, Mark A.

123

SULFOLANE EFFECTS ON AUDIOGENIC, PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AFTERDISCHARGE SEIZURE ACTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfolane dosages that alter seizure susceptibility were determined using audiogenic (AG), pentylenetrazol (PTZ) and hippocampal afterdischarge (AD) seizure models. The presence of AG seizures and potentiation of PTZ seizures were investigated in rats injected IP with 0, 200, 400...

124

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2010-04-01

125

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2013-04-01

126

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2011-04-01

127

Atypical Headbanging Presentation of Idiopathic Sleep Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder: Three Cases with Video-Polysomnographic Documentation  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To describe three cases of sleep related, idiopathic rhythmic movement disorder (RMD) with atypical headbanging, consisting of head punching and head slapping. Methods: Three consecutive patients (2 males [11 and 13 years old) and one female [22 years old]) presented with atypical headbanging of 6 years, 7 years, and 17 years duration. In 2 cases, typical rhythmic headbanging (with use of the head) shifted after 3-4 years to atypical headbanging, with frontal head punching that was quasi-rhythmic. In one case, atypical headbanging (head-slapping) was the initial and only RMD. There was no injury from the headbanging. Prenatal, perinatal, developmental, behavioral-psychological, medical-neurological, and family histories were negative. Clinical evaluations and nocturnal video-polysomnography with seizure montage were performed on all patients. Results: Atypical headbanging was documented in all 3 cases; episodes always emerged late in the sleep cycle: from N2 sleep in 11 episodes, from REM sleep in 4 episodes, and from N1 sleep in 1 episode. Epileptiform activity was not detected. Clonazepam therapy was substantially effective in 1 case but not effective in 2 cases. Conclusions: These 3 cases of idiopathic atypical headbanging expand the literature on this RMD variant, as to our knowledge only one previously documented case has been reported. Citation: Yeh SB; Schenck CH. Atypical headbanging presentation of idiopathic sleep related rhythmic movement disorder: three cases with video-polysomnographic documentation. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):403-411. PMID:22893771

Yeh, Shih-Bin; Schenck, Carlos H.

2012-01-01

128

Absence Epilepsy in Tottering Mutant Mice Is Associated with Calcium Channel Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations at the mouse tottering (tg) locus cause a delayed-onset, recessive neurological disorder resulting in ataxia, motor seizures, and behavioral absence seizures resembling petit mal epilepsy in humans. A more severe allele, leaner (tgla), also shows a slow, selective degeneration of cerebellar neurons. By positional cloning, we have identified an ?1A voltage-sensitive calcium channel gene that is mutated in tg

Colin F Fletcher; Cathleen M Lutz; T. Norene O'Sullivan; John D Shaughnessy; Richard Hawkes; Wayne N Frankel; Neal G Copeland; Nancy A Jenkins

1996-01-01

129

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction methods  

E-print Network

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction The unpredictability of seizures is a central problem for all patients suffering from uncontrolled epilepsy. Recently, numerous methods have been suggested that claim to predict from the EEG the onset of epileptic seizures

Timmer, Jens

130

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging Imaging the seizure onset zone with stereo-electroencephalography  

E-print Network

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging 1 Imaging the seizure onset zone 52 05 98 Running title: Seizure onset zone imaging Total number of words in the text: 5841 Revision in "Brain 2011;134(Pt 10):2898-911" DOI : 10.1093/brain/awr238 #12;David et al.: Seizure onset

Boyer, Edmond

131

Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals  

E-print Network

Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals. Bardakjian oversaw the review of this article. Abstract--Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian

Besio, Walter G.

132

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2012-04-01

133

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1  

E-print Network

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Page 1 of 20 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Submitted by Nicolas Roy University) 393 8351 Email nroy@usc.edu Date: April 27, 2010 Work performed at USC #12;Veterinary Seizure Detector

Levi, Anthony F. J.

134

Automatic Seizure Detection Incorporating Structural Information  

E-print Network

Automatic Seizure Detection Incorporating Structural Information Borbala Hunyadi1,2 , Maarten De.suykens,sabine.vanhuffel}@esat.kuleuven.be wim.vanpaesschen@uz.kuleuven.ac.be Abstract. Traditional seizure detection algorithms act on single of the seizure. Two differ- ent approaches aiming at including such structural information into the data

135

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2011-04-01

136

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2010-04-01

137

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2013-04-01

138

An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

139

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2014-04-01

140

Dealing with Sickness Absence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absences planned in advance do not necessarily cause the employer undue problems with regard to organization of work. Perhaps work sharing can be instituted or if the period of absence is comparatively short, for example a holiday, perhaps the less urgent work can be permitted to accumulate and be tackled as and when there are spare resources elsewhere.

John Muir

1994-01-01

141

Search and Seizure in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although problems of drug abuse, bomb threats, theft, and concealed weapons sometimes make search and seizure necessary, the student's rights must be protected through proper legal procedures. The article presents guidelines for conducting locker and personal searches and for educating students, teachers, and administrators on student rights. (DS)

Hickok, Angelia B.

1980-01-01

142

Inferring Seizure Frequency From Brief EEG Recordings  

PubMed Central

Routine EEGs remain a cornerstone test in caring for people with epilepsy. Although rare, a self-limited seizure (clinical or electrographic only) may be observed during such brief EEGs. The implications of observing a seizure in this situation, especially with respect to inferring the underlying seizure frequency, are unclear. The issue is complicated by the inaccuracy of patient-reported estimations of seizure frequency. The treating clinician is often left to wonder whether the single seizure indicates very frequent seizures, or if it is of lesser significance. We applied standard concepts of probabilistic inference to a simple model of seizure incidence to provide some guidance for clinicians facing this situation. Our analysis establishes upper and lower bounds on the seizure rate implied by observing a single seizure during routine EEG. Not surprisingly, with additional information regarding the expected seizure rate, these bounds can be further constrained. This framework should aid the clinician in applying a more principled approach toward decision making in the setting of a single seizure on a routine EEG. PMID:23545768

Westover, M. Brandon; Bianchi, Matt T.; Shafi, Mouhsin; Hoch, Daniel B.; Cole, Andrew J.; Chiappa, Keith; Cash, Sydney S.

2012-01-01

143

Compression-ratio-based seizure detection.  

PubMed

For wireless seizure monitoring devices seizure detection and data compression are two critical tasks that need to be carefully designed against a very tight power budget to maximize the battery life. These two tasks are usually considered separately and algorithms for each are developed separately. In this paper, we consider having a single low-power algorithm for implementing both seizure detection and data compression. Towards that end, we investigated compression ratio (CR) as a seizure marker and show that the seizure detection can be achieved as a by-product of compression with no additional cost, and thus overall system power can be reduced. We show that the proposed method, the CR-based seizure detection has promising performance with 88% seizure detection accuracy, and 5.5 false positives per hour (FPh) without any computation overhead. PMID:24109861

Sha, Chung-Lin; Kim, Taehoon; Artan, N Sertac; Chao, H Jonathan

2013-01-01

144

Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

2013-09-01

145

Atypical lesions in relapsed leprosy.  

PubMed

Relapsed cases of leprosy are not common in patients treated regularly with the recommended polychemotherapeutical schemes. Relapses must be readily identified and distinguished from reactions. This article reports a clinical case of relapse in leprosy, with atypical and exuberant skin changes in patient treated for eleven years with a paucibacillary scheme. PMID:25184924

Raiol, Theisla Kely Azevedo; Volpato, Solange Emanuelle; Guimares, Patrcia de Barros; Lopes, Maria Luciana Andrade de Almeida; Takano, Daniela Mayumi; Santana, Jaci Maria

2014-01-01

146

Equine atypical myopathy: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atypical myopathy (AM) is an acute rhabdomyolysis syndrome that occurs at irregular intervals in grazing equines. An increasing number of outbreaks have been reported in recent years, including some from countries where the disease has not previously been diagnosed. In this review, clinical and other details of outbreaks of AM are analysed to better define its epidemiological profile. Potential aetiologies

Dominique-M. Votion; Didier Serteyn

2008-01-01

147

Proneurotrophins, Seizures, and Neuronal Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Neurons respond to numerous factors in their environment that influence their survival and function during development and in the mature brain. Among these factors, the neurotrophins have been shown to support neuronal survival and function, acting primarily through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. However, recent studies have established that the uncleaved neurotrophin precursors, the proneurotrophins, can be secreted and induce apoptosis via the p75 neurotrophin receptor, suggesting that the balance of secreted mature and proneurotrophins has a critical impact on neuronal survival or death. Epileptic seizures elicit increases in both proneurotrophin secretion and p75NTR expression, shifting the balance of these factors toward signaling cell death. This review will discuss the evidence that this ligand-receptor system plays an important role in neuronal loss following seizures. PMID:20360602

Friedman, Wilma J.

2010-01-01

148

Mathematical modeling of encephalogram dynamics during epileptic seizure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of constructing a compact mathematical model representing various fragments of electroencephalograms (EEGs) during epileptic absence seizures is considered. Such a model would be useful for solving a number of practical tasks related to the clustering of time series, seeking for relationships between various leads, separating norm and pathology, etc. It is shown that an adequate model that takes into account the EEG structure can be constructed using nonuniform embedding. The dimensionality, degree of nonlinearity, and lags are selected based on an objective numerical criterion.

Sysoeva, M. V.; Sysoev, I. V.

2012-02-01

149

Patterns of human local cerebral glucose metabolism during epileptic seizures  

SciTech Connect

Ictal patterns of local cerebral metabolic rate have been studied in epileptic patients by positron computed tomography with /sup 18/F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Partial seizures were associated with activation of anatomic structures unique to each patient studied. Ictal increases and decreases in local cerebral metabolism were observed. Scans performed during generalized convulsions induced by electroshock demonstrated a diffuse ictal increase and postictal decrease in cerebral metabolism. Petit mal absences were associated with a diffuse increase in cerebral metabolic rate. The ictal fluorodeoxyglucose patterns obtained from patients do not resemble autoradiographic patterns obtained from common experimental animal models of epilepsy.

Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

1982-10-01

150

NMDA antagonists for refractory seizures.  

PubMed

Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) poses significant challenge, with a variety of novel therapeutics employed. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists in the control of RSE. We performed a systematic review of all the literature, with all articles pulled from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to September 2013), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature. Two reviewers independently identified all manuscripts pertaining to the administration of NMDA receptor antagonists in humans for the purpose of controlling refractory seizures. Secondary outcome of adverse NMDA antagonist effects and patient outcome was assessed. Two reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology. Our search strategy produced a total of 759 citations. Twenty-three articles, 16 manuscripts, and seven meeting proceedings, were considered for the review with all utilizing ketamine for seizure control. Only three studies were prospective studies. Fifteen and nine studies pertained to adults and pediatrics, respectively. Across all studies, of the 110 adult patients described, ketamine was attributed to electroencephalogram seizure response in 56.5 %, with a 63.5 % response in the 52 pediatric patients described. Adverse events related to ketamine were rare. Outcomes were poorly documented in the majority of the studies. There currently exists Oxford level 4, GRADE C evidence to support the use of ketamine for refractory seizures in the adult and pediatric populations. Further prospective study of early ketamine administration is warranted. PMID:24519081

Zeiler, F A; Teitelbaum, J; Gillman, L M; West, M

2014-06-01

151

Differential Seizure Response in Two Models of Cortical Heterotopia  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are linked to epilepsy in humans. MCD encompass a broad spectrum of malformations, which occur as the principal pathology or a secondary disruption. Recently, Rosen et al. (2012) reported that BXD29-Trl4lps-2J/J mice have subcortical nodular heterotopias with partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (p-ACC). Additionally Ramos and colleagues (2008) demonstrated that C57BL/10J mice exhibit cortical heterotopias with no additional cortical abnormalities. We examined the seizure susceptibility of these mice to determine if the presence (BXD29-Trl4lps-2J/J) or absence (C57BL/10J) of p-ACC, in strains with MCD, confers a differential response to chemi-convulsive treatment. Our results indicate that C57BL/10J mice with layer I heterotopia are more susceptible, whereas BXD29-Trl4lps-2J/J mice with more severe subcortical nodular heterotopia and p-ACC are more resistant to seizure behavior induced by pentylenetetrazole. These data suggest that p-ACC may confer seizure resistance in models of MCD. PMID:23201443

Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Ibanez, Natalia; Roberts, Jessica; Ramos, Raddy; Rosen, Glenn D.

2013-01-01

152

Tardive or Atypical Tourette's Disorder in a Population with Down Syndrome?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a population of 425 individuals with Down's syndrome, 5 persons (1.2%) were identified as having Tourette's disorder. The lack of interrelationship between Down's syndrome and Tourette's disorder argues against an atypical Tourette's disorder. Diagnoses of tardive Tourette's disorder were based on absence of family history of Tourette's, late

Myers, Beverly; Pueschel, Siegfried M.

1995-01-01

153

On the neural basis of atypical visual perception in autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder described by behavioral symptoms, evident before the age of three, that can be divided into three groups: abnormalities in social interaction and play (e.g. problems in making eye contact), atypical communicative skills (e.g. absence or limited use of gestures and facial expressions and delayed language development), and stereotyped and repetitive patterns

M. W. G. Vandenbroucke

2008-01-01

154

Control of Epileptic Seizures: Models of Chaotic Oscillator Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to understand basic functional mechanisms that can produce epileptic seizures, and strategies for seizure suppression and control, we discuss some key features of theoretical models of networks of coupled chaotic oscillators that produce seizure-like events and bear striking similarities to dynamics of epileptic seizures. We show that a plausible cause of seizures is a pathological feedback in

Kostas Tsakalis; Niranjan Chakravarthy; Leon Iasemidis

2005-01-01

155

Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to

O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

2007-01-01

156

Seizure frequency and characteristics in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures have not historically been considered a major component of Down syndrome. We examined the prevalence of epileptic seizures in 350 children and adolescents with Down syndrome evaluated at a regional center between 1985 and 1997. Results showed that 28 patients (8%) had epileptic seizures: 13 (47%) partial seizures; 9 (32%) infantile spasms, and 6 (21%) generalized tonicclonic seizures. In

Hadassa Goldberg-Stern; Richard H. Strawsburg; Bonnie Patterson; Fran Hickey; Mary Bare; Natan Gadoth; Ton J. Degrauw

2001-01-01

157

Atypical histiocytic granuloma of tongue.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of a painless ulcer on the dorsum of the tongue. He was a chronic smoker since the age of 15 years. The ulcer was well-defined, non-tender and indurated. An incisional biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of atypical histiocytic granuloma was made after histopathological examination. The lesion resolved spontaneously after the incisional biopsy and the patient was on follow-up for 6 months and no recurrences were observed. Here we report a rare case of atypical histiocytic granuloma. Hence, it must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of ulcers on the tongue. PMID:23737581

Dominic, Augustine; Sundaresh, K J; Manish, N; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

158

Localization of seizure onset area from intracranial non-seizure EEG by exploiting locally enhanced synchrony  

E-print Network

For as many as 30% of epilepsy patients, seizures are poorly controlled with medication alone. For some of these patients surgery may be an option: the brain region responsible for seizure onset may be removed surgically. ...

Cash, Sydney

159

SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP  

PubMed Central

The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508

Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

2010-01-01

160

[Epileptic seizures: effects on cardiac function].  

PubMed

Sudden loss of consciousness can be caused by syncope or epileptic seizure, which therefore requires a diagnostic work-up including cardiological and neurological examinations. Thus, in clinical practice cooperation of these two medical specialties is common and of high relevance. Seizures may lead to cardiac arrhythmia or ictal asystole, and "sudden unexpected death in epilepsy" (SUDEP) is an important field of epilepsy research. Cardiac channelopathies such as long QT syndrome may be associated with seizures, suggesting a possible link between cardiac and cerebral channelopathy. We here review in detail cardiac effects due to epileptic seizures as well as possible pathogenetic correlations between cardiac and epileptic diseases. PMID:21302206

Burghaus, L; Fink, G R; Erdmann, E; Mller-Ehmsen, J

2011-02-01

161

Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and seizures have now been identified. PMID:22377486

Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

2012-01-01

162

Cognitive dysfunction after experimental febrile seizures.  

PubMed

While the majority of children with febrile seizures have an excellent prognosis, a small percentage are later discovered to have cognitive impairment. Whether the febrile seizures produce the cognitive deficits or the febrile seizures are a marker or the result of underlying brain pathology is not clear from the clinical literature. We evaluated hippocampal and prefrontal cortex function in adult rats with a prior history of experimental febrile seizures as rat pups. All of the rat pups had MRI brain scans following the seizures. Rats subjected to experimental febrile seizures were found to have moderate deficits in working and reference memory and strategy shifting in the Morris water maze test. A possible basis for these hippocampal deficits involved abnormal firing rate and poor stability of hippocampal CA1 place cells, neurons involved in encoding and retrieval of spatial information. Additional derangements of interneuron firing in the CA1 hippocampal circuit suggested a complex network dysfunction in the rats. MRI T2 values in the hippocampus were significantly elevated in 50% of seizure-experiencing rats. Learning and memory functions of these T2-positive rats were significantly worse than those of T2-negative cohorts and of controls. We conclude that cognitive dysfunction involving the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex networks occur following experimental febrile seizures and that the MRI provides a potential biomarker for hippocampal deficits in a model of prolonged human febrile seizures. PMID:19000675

Dub, Cline M; Zhou, Jun-Li; Hamamura, Mark; Zhao, Qian; Ring, Alex; Abrahams, Jennifer; McIntyre, Katherine; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Shatskih, Tatiana; Baram, Tallie Z; Holmes, Gregory L

2009-01-01

163

Infantile hypophosphatasia without bone deformities presenting with severe pyridoxine-resistant seizures.  

PubMed

An infant carrying a heterozygous c.43_46delACTA and a heterozygous c.668 G>A mutation in the ALPL gene with hypophosphatasia in the absence of bone deformities presented with therapy-resistant seizures. Pyridoxal phosphate was extremely high in CSF and plasma. Pyridoxine treatment had only a transient effect and the severe encephalopathy was fatal. Repeated brain MRIs showed progressive cerebral damage. The precise metabolic cause of the seizures remains unknown and pyridoxine treatment apparently does not cure the epilepsy. PMID:24100244

de Roo, Marieke G A; Abeling, Nico G G M; Majoie, Charles B; Bosch, Annet M; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Cobben, Jan M; Duran, Marinus; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

2014-03-01

164

Effect of trained Seizure Alert Dogs on frequency of tonicclonic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that dogs can be trained to recognize specific changes preceding an epileptic seizure in humans. Such dogs can provide an overt signal that acts as a useful warning to the human. Early observations suggested that seizure frequency might also be reduced. We report a prospective study of 10 consecutive referrals to our Seizure Alert Dogs service

Margaret Huyton; Helen Coyle

2002-01-01

165

Closed-loop seizure prediction and prevention in rats with kainate-induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown that continuous or intermittent electrical stimulation of the brain can reduce or prevent the occurrence of epileptic seizures in humans and animal models. However, there have been relatively few studies that assess the effects of stimulation delivered just prior to seizure onset. Here we use a kainate-induced seizure model in the rat to test a closed-loop

Dane W. Grasse; Suganya Karunakaran; Karen A. Moxon

2011-01-01

166

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

... 2014-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2014-04-01

167

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2010-10-01

168

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2010-10-01

169

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2014-01-01

170

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2010-04-01

171

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2013-01-01

172

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2013-04-01

173

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2013-10-01

174

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2010-04-01

175

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2013-04-01

176

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2012-10-01

177

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2014-04-01

178

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

...2014-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2014-04-01

179

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2012-04-01

180

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2011-10-01

181

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2011-04-01

182

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2011-01-01

183

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2012-01-01

184

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2011-10-01

185

Epileptic Seizure Detection by Means of Genetically Programmed Artificial Features  

E-print Network

Epileptic Seizure Detection by Means of Genetically Programmed Artificial Features Hiram Firpi of epileptic seizure onset. The algorithm was evaluated in three patients and validation experiments were, pattern analysis General Terms: Algorithms, Design Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure detection, feature

Fernandez, Thomas

186

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2010-01-01

187

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2011-04-01

188

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2013-04-01

189

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2010-04-01

190

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2013-10-01

191

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2012-10-01

192

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2011-04-01

193

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2012-04-01

194

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2012-04-01

195

Chemical toxins that cause seizures.  

PubMed

Seizurogenic chemicals include a variety of toxic agents, including chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and natural toxins. Chemical weapons such as sarin and VX, and pesticides such as parathion and carbaryl cause hyperstimulation of cholinergic receptors and an increase in excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamatergic hyperstimulation can occur after exposure to excitatory amino acid toxins such as the marine toxin domoic acid. Other pesticides such as lindane and strychnine do not affect excitatory neurotransmission directly, but rather, they block the inhibitory regulation of neurotransmission by antagonism of inhibitory GABA and glycine synapses. In this paper, chemicals that cause seizures by a variety of molecular mechanisms and pathways are discussed. PMID:23085523

Jett, David A

2012-12-01

196

Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

197

Refractory absence epilepsy and glut1 deficiency syndrome: a new case report and literature review.  

PubMed

We report a 12-year-old female patient with a mild phenotype of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1D). The clinical picture was characterized by refractory absence epilepsy, migraine, and learning disabilities. Absence seizures appeared at the age of 4 years, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showed irregular discharges of diffuse epileptic abnormalities. During the follow-up, seizures became drug resistant, cognitive evaluation revealed learning difficulties, and the patient complained migraine episodes. The evidence of seizure worsening before meals and the drug resistance suggested a Glut1D. Molecular analysis of SLC2A1 gene showed the presence of a pathogenic de novo mutation of the gene in heterozygosity (p.Ala275Thr, c.823G?>?A). Our case and the review of literature data on patients with Glut1D and absences provide a combination of clinical and EEG keys that should prompt the genetic analysis. The Glut1D should be suspected when absence seizures are associated with at least one among: irregular ictal EEG discharges, mild mental retardation, migraine, microcephaly, drug resistance, and worsening during fasting. An early diagnosis allows to establish one of the available ketogenic regimens which could modify the natural history of this treatable condition. PMID:24892788

Ragona, Francesca; Matricardi, Sara; Castellotti, Barbara; Patrini, Mara; Freri, Elena; Binelli, Simona; Granata, Tiziana

2014-10-01

198

Interictal Cardiorespiratory Variability in Temporal Lobe and Absence Epilepsy in Childhood  

E-print Network

. In a different type of epilepsy, namely absence epilepsy (AE), seizures do not seem to have any particular effect possibly be explained by a different connectivity in the brain when compared to normal subjects. Furthermore, these distortions might play a key role in the pathophysiology of sudden unexpected death

199

Privacy and Property, Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan for grades 4-6 which illustrates the concepts of privacy, property, and search and seizure. Calls upon students to recognize that individual property and society's need for security may conflict. Uses seven cases to help students learn and identify legal search and seizure procedures. (GEA)

Greenawald, Dale; Clarke, Phyllis

1988-01-01

200

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph attempts to provide clear understanding of the standards presented by the Supreme Court in "New Jersey v. T.L.O." relative to search and seizure in public schools, and suggests practical ways of applying search and seizure law to situations in the school setting. ("T.L.O." are the initials of the anonymous student.) After an

Rossow, Lawrence F.

201

Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

2012-01-01

202

Seizure or syncope: Lessons over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed

Volney L. Sheen

203

Detecting the onset of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizure is a phenomenon occurring in a large percentage of the population in every country of the world. It represents a distinctive indicator of an abnormality in the central nervous system. The main indicators in the EEG that predict a seizure are the presence of focal or multifocal receptive spikes or sharp waves (or both) and focal mono-rhythmic discharges. In

A. Zapata-Ferrer; L. R. Maya; A. Gaona Gonzalez; M. A. A. Pantaleon; M. C. Garcia; N. M. Nasab; R. H. Valencia; M. V. Herrera

1999-01-01

204

Electroconvulsive treatment for nonepileptic seizure disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its striking prevalence among females, the paroxysmal disorder presenting with nonepileptic seizures was termed hysteria in premodern times. In our time, the disorder has remained widely misunderstood and mistreated. The diagnostic early history of painful traumatic events as the source of the nonepileptic seizures is hidden by the shame of the victim and remains ignored. Early effective psychotherapeutic

Dietrich Blumer; Steven Rice; Bola Adamolekun

2009-01-01

205

Chaotic time series analyses of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of seizure events, typical of everyday clinical practice, were tested for possible chaos. After a careful elimination of spurious effects, evidence of chaos was found in two seizure events. This was confirmed by direct examination of exponential separation of initially nearby states in low-dimensional trajectory recoveries. The resulting Lyapunov exponent calculation provides a clear indication of chaos in

G. W. Frank; T. Lookman; M. A. H. Nerenberg; C. Essex; J. Lemieux; W. Blume

1990-01-01

206

Anticonvulsants for soman-induced seizure activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes studies of anticonvulsants for the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent soman: a basic research effort to understand how different pharmacological classes of compounds influence the expression of seizure produced by soman in rats, and a drug screening effort to determine whether clinically useful antiepileptics can modulate soman-induced seizures in rats. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used in these studies.

Tsung-Ming Shih; John H. McDonough; Irwin Koplovitz

1999-01-01

207

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2010-10-01

208

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2012-10-01

209

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

...Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2014-10-01

210

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2011-10-01

211

Search and Seizure in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under

Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

2007-01-01

212

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2013-10-01

213

Toward new paradigms of seizure detection  

PubMed Central

Great effort has been made toward defining and characterizing the pre-ictal state. Many studies have pursued the idea that there are recognizable electrographic (EEG-based) features that occur before overt clinical seizure activity. However, development of reliable EEG-based seizure detection and prediction algorithms has been difficult. In this review, we discuss the concepts of seizure detection vs. prediction and the pre-ictal clinical milieu and EEG milieu. We proceed to discuss novel concepts of seizure detection based on the pre-ictal physiological milieu; in particular, we indicate some early evidence for the hypothesis that pre-ictal cell swelling/extracellular space constriction can be detected with novel optical methods. Development and validation of optical seizure detection technology could provide an entirely new translational approach for the many patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:23246145

Binder, Devin K.; Haut, Sheryl R.

2012-01-01

214

Helicopter mishap attributed to single seizure.  

PubMed

A case report is presented of a 36-year-old U.S. Coast Guard aviator who had a single seizure while operating a helicopter on the ground. His seizure activity produced a loss of consciousness during which he pushed the cyclic to the left anterior quadrant that resulted in a ground mishap. No risk factors were identified in an extensive neurological workup. The current guidance for handling seizures in military aviation personnel is reviewed, along with considerations for treatment. Although the military aviation selection process carefully screens applicants for seizure history and potential, occasional seizures in the aviation population remain possible. Such events may result in military aircraft mishaps despite careful risk factor surveillance, as demonstrated by this case. PMID:18419038

Simon, Esan; Watts, Darron; Bohnker, Bruce K

2008-03-01

215

Towards a Probabilistic Definition of Seizures  

E-print Network

This writing: a) Draws attention to the intricacies inherent to the pursuit of a universal seizure definition even when powerful, well understood signal analysis methods are utilized to this end; b) Identifies this aim as a multi-objective optimization problem and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of adopting or rejecting a unitary seizure definition; c) Introduces a Probabilistic Measure of Seizure Activity to manage this thorny issue. The challenges posed by the attempt to define seizures unitarily may be partly related to their fractal properties and understood through a simplistic analogy to the so-called "Richardson effect". A revision of the time-honored conceptualization of seizures may be warranted to further advance epileptology.

Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.09.009

2011-01-01

216

Developmental Milestones in Toddlers with Atypical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attainment of developmental milestones was examined and compared in 162 infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities, including Down Syndrome (n = 26), Cerebral Palsy (n = 19), Global Developmental Delay (n = 22), Premature birth (n = 66), and Seizure Disorder (n = 29). Toddlers in the Seizures Disorder group began crawling at a

Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.

2011-01-01

217

Neuronal ensemble synchrony during human focal seizures.  

PubMed

Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (?40-60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ?3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50-100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ?20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (?80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (?130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

Truccolo, Wilson; Ahmed, Omar J; Harrison, Matthew T; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S

2014-07-23

218

Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal  

PubMed Central

Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar ectopic pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term atypical teratoma. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

1963-01-01

219

Tolerance to seizure induced by kainic acid is produced in a specific period of zebrafish development.  

PubMed

During brain development, the electrical disturbance promoted by a seizure can have several consequences, because it can disturb a set of steps extremely regulated needed to the correct brain maturation. Animal modeling of seizure is invaluable to contribute to the mechanistic understanding of punctual seizure event, and those that triggered in an immature neural network could alter the mature brain physiology. In the present study we observed that the exposure to kainic acid diluted directly in water of zebrafish decreased the locomotor activity at 7days post-fertilization (dpf) animals and increased at 15dpf, despite the absence of more specific seizure features. Pre-exposure to kainic acid (500?M) diluted in water at 7dpf animals reduced the susceptibility to a second exposure 2months later by intraperitoneal injection. The current data suggest that these different responses are associated with neuronal maturation process and open a question about the window of development that are crucial to long lasting effects related to seizure in this animal model. PMID:24743104

Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

2014-12-01

220

Evidence of Absence software  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

2014-01-01

221

Atypical and Typical Antipsychotics in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of antipsychotic medications within the school-age population is rapidly increasing. Although typical antipsychotics may be used in rare cases, this influx is largely secondary to the availability of the atypical antipsychotics. Reduction of possible adverse effects and increased efficacy represent the primary basis for the atypical

Noggle, Chad A.; Dean, Raymond S.

2009-01-01

222

Course and treatment of atypical depression.  

PubMed

Atypical depression is the most common form of depression in outpatients, but compared with melancholia, little is known about its comorbidity, course, and treatment. Beyond the well-characterized constellation of symptoms that define atypical depression (mood reactivity, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, hyperphagia, and rejection sensitivity), specific Axis I and II comorbid conditions may differentiate atypical from other depressed patients. Similarly, age at onset, duration of episodes, frequency of relapses and recurrences, and frequency of complete remission in atypical depression may be different. It has not even been established if atypical depression is a stable subtype or if it is just one of several forms of depression that an individual may express during a lifetime of recurrent depressions. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are superior to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) for the treatment of atypical depression, but few studies have compared MAOIs to the newer generation of antidepressants (SSRIs, bupropion, venlafaxine, nefazodone, and mirtazapine). Because of the favorable benefit/risk ratio, clinicians tend to use these newer antidepressants for all outpatients, including those with atypical depression, even though the literature is limited. A review and critique of the relevant literature on atypical depression will be presented. PMID:9840192

Nierenberg, A A; Alpert, J E; Pava, J; Rosenbaum, J F; Fava, M

1998-01-01

223

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures.  

PubMed

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection. Seizures in AERRPS are almost exclusively of localized origin, whose semiology includes eye deviation, hemifacial twitching, hemiclonic convulsion, and autonomic manifestations. Partial seizures are brief, but repeat with increasing frequency and develop status epilepticus at nadir. They are extremely pharmaco-resistant and are only suppressed by intravenous administration of high-dose barbiturates. Although acute seizures are hardly controlled, patients gradually recover with decreasing seizure frequency and continuously evolve into post-encephalitic epilepsy without latent period. Residual cognitive impairment is common. Electroencephalograms in active stage demonstrate electrical seizure activities and interictal periodic discharges. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals late cerebral atrophy with limited signal abnormality. Persistent fever during active stage, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and up-regulation of neopterin raise the hypothesis that inflammatory process is involved in this condition. Furthermore, early production of autoantibody against NMDA receptor 2B in serum and CSF, although its disease specificity is still in controversy, is suggestive of autoimmune etiology. Exploration for definite clinical marker is currently in progress. PMID:19327924

Sakuma, Hiroshi

2009-08-01

224

Inhomogeneous Cortical Synchronization and Partial Epileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: Interictal synchronization clusters have recently been described in several publications using diverse techniques, including neurophysiological recordings and fMRI, in patients suffering from epilepsy. However, little is known about the role of these hyper-synchronous areas during seizures. In this work, we report an analysis of synchronization clusters jointly with several network measures during seizure activity; we then discuss our findings in the context of prior literature. Methods: Subdural activity was recorded by electrocorticography (with 60 electrodes placed at temporal and parietal lobe locations) in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy with partial seizures with and without secondary generalization (SG). Both interictal and ictal activities (during four seizures) were investigated and characterized using local synchronization and complex network methodology. The modularity, density of links, average clustering coefficient, and average path lengths were calculated to obtain information about the dynamics of the global network. Functional connectivity changes during the seizures were compared with the time evolution of highly synchronized areas. Results: Our findings reveal temporal changes in local synchronization areas during seizures and a tight relationship between the cortical locations of these areas and the patterns of their evolution over time. Seizure evolution and SG appear to be driven by two different underlying mechanisms. PMID:25309507

Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pastor, Jesus Eduardo; de Sola, Rafael G.; Ortega, Guillermo J.

2014-01-01

225

Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

2012-12-01

226

Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control  

SciTech Connect

The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

2009-07-02

227

On the nature of seizure dynamics.  

PubMed

Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between 'normal' and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

Jirsa, Viktor K; Stacey, William C; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe

2014-08-01

228

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

229

Ictal Vomiting in Partial Seizures of Temporal Lobe Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 3 cases presenting ictal vomiting during partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. Two patients had complex partial seizures accompanying vomiting characteristics. Ictal vomiting occurred early in the course of the seizure when rhythmic discharges involved predominantly the left hemispere, the language dominance hemispere. The other patient had ictal vomiting in simple partial seizures which originated from the right

Chien Chen; Der-Jen Yen; Chun-Hing Yiu; Yang-Hsin Shih; Hsiang-Yu Yu; Ming-Shung Su

1999-01-01

230

Continuous Assessment of Epileptic Seizures with Wrist-worn Biosensors  

E-print Network

Continuous Assessment of Epileptic Seizures with Wrist-worn Biosensors by Ming-Zher Poh Bachelor;Continuous Assessment of Epileptic Seizures with Wrist-worn Biosensors by Ming-Zher Poh Submitted seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows

231

Change of seizure frequency in pregnant epileptic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pregnancy on seizure frequency was monitored prospectively in 136 pregnancies of 122 epileptic women. Pregnancy did not influence the seizure frequency in 68 pregnancies (50%). In 50 pregnancies (37%) the number of seizures increased during pregnancy or puerperium. The seizure frequency decreased in 18 pregnancies (13%). In 34 out of 50 pregnancies (68%) the increase was associated

D Schmidt; R Canger; G Avanzini; D Battino; C Cusi; G Beck-Mannagetta; S Koch; D Rating; D Janz

1983-01-01

232

Amyloid ?-Related Central Nervous System Angiitis Presenting With an Isolated Seizure.  

PubMed

Amyloid beta-related angiitis (ABRA) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a very rare inflammatory disorder that causes destruction of CNS arteries and subsequent neuronal injury. Most patients with ABRA are old and present with cognitive dysfunction and stroke; however, some patients may present atypically. In this article, we report a 44-year-old man who presented with a first-time seizure but was otherwise neurologically intact and denied any headache. Brain MRI showed right hemispheric and bilateral medial frontal lobe hyperintensities and microhemorrhages that were most suspicious for a mass lesion. An extensive diagnostic evaluation including CSF analysis and catheter angiography was unremarkable. A brain biopsy with specific stains for amyloid surprisingly demonstrated ABRA and led to immunosuppressive treatment. The patient has remained neurologically intact and seizure-free 1 year after presentation. This case demonstrates that ABRA can occur in young patients without headache or neurologic deficits, and should be considered in patients with new-onset seizures and mass lesions. It also reinforces the need to consider a brain biopsy in patients with idiopathic brain lesions and negative non-invasive testing, as it is virtually impossible to confirm the diagnosis of ABRA otherwise. PMID:24707337

Ishii, Makoto; Lavi, Ehud; Kamel, Hooman; Gupta, Ajay; Iadecola, Costantino; Navi, Babak B

2014-04-01

233

Letting a typical mouse judge whether mouse social interactions are atypical  

PubMed Central

LAY ABSTRACT Diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a qualitative assessment of social aptitude: one person judging whether another person interacts in a typical way. Quantitative or computerized assessment of social aptitude cannot substitute for this subjective judgment. We hypothesized that mice could be used to make a similar judgment if they prefer typical over atypical social interactions with mouse models relevant to ASD. We used typical C57BL/6 (B6) mice as judges and evaluated their preference for a chamber containing a typical or an atypical mouse. For our atypical mice, we chose two strains with well-documented social phenotypes, as well a mutant line with abnormal social behavior and seizures. Overall, we observed a characteristic pattern of behavior over the course of 30 minutes, with the judges preferring the typical mouse chamber to the atypical mouse chamber during the last 10 minutes of the test. When we evaluated the individual stimulus pairings, two of the three showed a similar pattern as the overall results, and the other stimulus comparison showed a trend for a preference for the typical mouse chamber across the entire test. We repeated the experiments using the 129S6 strain of typical mice as judges and found a much less strong preference pattern across time. These data suggest that a characteristic pattern of exploration in B6 mice can distinguish some socially atypical animals from controls. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a qualitative assessment of social aptitude: one person judging whether another person interacts in a typical way. We hypothesized that mice could be used to make a similar judgment if they prefer typical over atypical social interactions with mouse models relevant to ASD. We used wildtype C57BL/6 (B6) mice as judges and evaluated their preference for a chamber containing a typical (B6 or 129S6) or an atypical mouse. For our atypical mouse stimuli, we chose two inbred strains with well-documented social phenotypes (BTBR and BALB/c), as well a mutant line with abnormal social behavior and seizures (Gabrb3 +/?). Overall, we observed a stimulus by time interaction (P < 0.0001), with B6 mice preferring the typical mouse chamber during the last 10 minutes of the 30-minute test. For two of the individual stimulus pairings, we observed a similar chamber by time interaction (BALB/c vs. 129S6, P = 0.0007; Gabrb3 +/? vs. 129S6, P = 0.033). For the third stimulus pairing, we found a trend for preference of the typical mouse across time (BTBR vs. B6, P = 0.051). We repeated the experiments using 129S6 mice as judges and found a significant overall interaction (P = 0.034), but only one stimulus pairing reached significance on its own (BALB/c vs. 129S6, P = 0.0021). These data suggest that a characteristic pattern of exploration in B6 mice can distinguish some socially atypical animals from controls. PMID:23436806

Shah, Charisma R.; Forsberg, Carl Gunnar; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

2013-01-01

234

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS Summer School  

E-print Network

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Epilepsy · A group of CNS disorders · Associated with sudden transient seizure episodes - Abnormal motor · Genetic forms are rare (account for Seizure definitions · Clonic

Kalueff, Allan V.

235

Patient-specific seizure onset detection  

E-print Network

Approximately one percent of the world's population exhibits symptoms of epilepsy, a serious disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes those affected to experiencing recurrent seizures. The risk of injury ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2003-01-01

236

Seizures in Adults (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... malformations in the brain (The Basics) Patient information: Brain cancer (The Basics) Patient information: Brain metastases (The Basics) ... materials. Patient information: Seizures (The Basics) Patient information: Brain cancer (The Basics) Patient information: Head injury in children ...

237

Analysis of Epileptic Seizures with Complex Network  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

238

Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

1993-01-01

239

Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC  

MedlinePLUS

... of pupillary dilatation. Jerking may begin in one area of body, arm, leg, or face. The seizure cant ... awake and aware. Jerking may proceed from one area of the body to another and sometimes spreads to become a ...

240

Infection or Inflammation and ICU Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective treatment of seizures associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection and inflammation depends on rapid diagnosis\\u000a and early attainment of bactericidal activity in the cerebrospinal fluid with appropriate antimicrobial agents, or appropriate\\u000a management of vasculitis-induced cerebral complications. Despite the rarity of these disorders, there is nothing specific\\u000a regarding the management in the intensive care unit of seizures in these

Wendy C. Ziai

241

Alcohol-Related Seizures in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half of patients presenting with ARS

Zachary Webb

242

[Absence status with unilateral EEG predominance (apropos of a personal case report)].  

PubMed

The authors describe a 33-year-old woman who, from the age of 15 years, presented many generalized epileptic seizures per year starting with right-sided adversion or gyration, several times per month long absences and occasional absence status lasting up to 3 days. In this patient, the hyperpnoea provoked a clinically typical absence status with 3 c/sec rhythmic continuous spike-and-wave discharges which were more evident on the left frontal regions of the scalp. This electro-clinical picture is compared to similar cases described in the literature and its nosological specificity is discussed. PMID:6528076

Aguglia, U; Tinuper, P; Farnarier, G; Gastaut, H

1984-12-01

243

Seizure or syncope: lessons over time.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed left temporal slowing with sharp features. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI revealed two moderately enhancing focal lesions within the left frontal and temporal regions. These findings raised the possibility of an underlying seizure focus. Repeat imaging studies of this patient 1 month later, however, demonstrated resolution of these findings and an area of encephalomalacia, consistent with a traumatic coup contrecoup injury. A repeat EEG was normal. Therefore, the cause of the loss of consciousness was due to syncope with the consequent head injury giving rise to an isolated seizure. Understanding the underlying cause of a seizure is important in dictating treatment. In this setting the patient was not initiated on seizure medication and has done well. PMID:22245277

Sheen, Volney L

2012-03-01

244

High-frequency network activity, global increase in neuronal activity, and synchrony expansion precede epileptic seizures in vitro.  

PubMed

How seizures start is a major question in epilepsy research. Preictal EEG changes occur in both human patients and animal models, but their underlying mechanisms and relationship with seizure initiation remain unknown. Here we demonstrate the existence, in the hippocampal CA1 region, of a preictal state characterized by the progressive and global increase in neuronal activity associated with a widespread buildup of low-amplitude high-frequency activity (HFA) (>100 Hz) and reduction in system complexity. HFA is generated by the firing of neurons, mainly pyramidal cells, at much lower frequencies. Individual cycles of HFA are generated by the near-synchronous (within approximately 5 ms) firing of small numbers of pyramidal cells. The presence of HFA in the low-calcium model implicates nonsynaptic synchronization; the presence of very similar HFA in the high-potassium model shows that it does not depend on an absence of synaptic transmission. Immediately before seizure onset, CA1 is in a state of high sensitivity in which weak depolarizing or synchronizing perturbations can trigger seizures. Transition to seizure is characterized by a rapid expansion and fusion of the neuronal populations responsible for HFA, associated with a progressive slowing of HFA, leading to a single, massive, hypersynchronous cluster generating the high-amplitude low-frequency activity of the seizure. PMID:20410121

Jiruska, Premysl; Csicsvari, Jozsef; Powell, Andrew D; Fox, John E; Chang, Wei-Chih; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Li, Xiaoli; Palus, Milan; Bujan, Alejandro F; Dearden, Richard W; Jefferys, John G R

2010-04-21

245

Chemical profiling of different hashish seizures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical methodology: a case report.  

PubMed

Limited information is available regarding the methodology required to characterize hashish seizures for assessing the presence or the absence of a chemical link between two seizures. This casework report presents the methodology applied for assessing that two different police seizures were coming from the same block before this latter one was split. The chemical signature was extracted using GC-MS analysis and the implemented methodology consists in a study of intra- and inter-variability distributions based on the measurement of the chemical profiles similarity using a number of hashish seizures and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Different statistical scenarios (i.e., a combination of data pretreatment techniques and selection of target compounds) were tested to find the most discriminating one. Seven compounds showing high discrimination capabilities were selected on which a specific statistical data pretreatment was applied. Based on the results, the statistical model built for comparing the hashish seizures leads to low error rates. Therefore, the implemented methodology is suitable for the chemical profiling of hashish seizures. PMID:24008198

Cadola, Liv; Brosus, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre

2013-10-10

246

FGF-2 Overexpression Increases Excitability and Seizure Susceptibility but Decreases Seizure-Induced Cell Loss  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has multiple, pleiotropic effects on the nervous system that include neurogenesis, neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Thus, alteration in FGF-2 expression patterns may have a profound impact in brain function, both in normal physiology and in pathology. Here, we used FGF-2 transgenic mice (TgFGF2) to study the effects of endogenous FGF-2 overexpression on susceptibility to seizures and to the pathological consequences of seizures. TgFGF2 mice display increased FGF-2 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. Increased density of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles was observed in the hippocampus of TgFGF2 mice, and electrophysiological data (input/output curves and patch-clamp recordings in CA1) confirmed an increase in excitatory inputs in CA1, suggesting the presence of a latent hyperexcitability. Indeed, TgFGF2 mice displayed increased susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, in that latency to generalized seizure onset was reduced, whereas behavioral seizure scores and lethality were increased. Finally, WT and TgFGF2 mice with similar seizure scores were used for examining seizure-induced cellular consequences. Neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, cell damage (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B, silver impregnation and anti-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry) was significantly lower in TgFGF2 mice, especially in the areas of overexpression (CA1 and CA3), indicating reduction of seizure-induced necrosis and apoptosis. These data suggest that FGF-2 may be implicated in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring ictogenesis but reducing seizure-induced cell death. PMID:19052202

Zucchini, Silvia; Buzzi, Andrea; Barbieri, Mario; Rodi, Donata; Paradiso, Beatrice; Binaschi, Anna; Coffin, J. Douglas; Marzola, Andrea; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Belluzzi, Ottorino

2008-01-01

247

Fgf-2 overexpression increases excitability and seizure susceptibility but decreases seizure-induced cell loss.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has multiple, pleiotropic effects on the nervous system that include neurogenesis, neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Thus, alteration in FGF-2 expression patterns may have a profound impact in brain function, both in normal physiology and in pathology. Here, we used FGF-2 transgenic mice (TgFGF2) to study the effects of endogenous FGF-2 overexpression on susceptibility to seizures and to the pathological consequences of seizures. TgFGF2 mice display increased FGF-2 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. Increased density of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles was observed in the hippocampus of TgFGF2 mice, and electrophysiological data (input/output curves and patch-clamp recordings in CA1) confirmed an increase in excitatory inputs in CA1, suggesting the presence of a latent hyperexcitability. Indeed, TgFGF2 mice displayed increased susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, in that latency to generalized seizure onset was reduced, whereas behavioral seizure scores and lethality were increased. Finally, WT and TgFGF2 mice with similar seizure scores were used for examining seizure-induced cellular consequences. Neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, cell damage (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B, silver impregnation and anti-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry) was significantly lower in TgFGF2 mice, especially in the areas of overexpression (CA1 and CA3), indicating reduction of seizure-induced necrosis and apoptosis. These data suggest that FGF-2 may be implicated in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring ictogenesis but reducing seizure-induced cell death. PMID:19052202

Zucchini, Silvia; Buzzi, Andrea; Barbieri, Mario; Rodi, Donata; Paradiso, Beatrice; Binaschi, Anna; Coffin, J Douglas; Marzola, Andrea; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Belluzzi, Ottorino; Simonato, Michele

2008-12-01

248

Monitor for status epilepticus seizures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

1994-01-01

249

The Effect of Ciprofloxacin Injection on Genetically Absence Prone (Wag/Rij) Rat's Electroencephalogram Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ciprofloxacin which was used in this study is a Fluoroquinolone (FQ). This kind of drug may cause epileptic seizures probably because of the inhibition of GABA binding to its receptors. Wag/Rij rats (an animal model for generalized absence epilepsy), were used as experimental subjects. Methods For EEG study, electrodes were inserted into the cortex of animals according to paxinos coordinates. After and before ciprofloxacin injection, EEG was recorded and their SWDs were compared with each others. Results Findings showed a significant increase in the mean number of seizures during recording period. But the mean number of SWDs during seizures did not show any significant differences between groups. Discussion These results may be due to involvement of GABA antagonistic effects of FQs and/or Mg2+ linked blockade of NMDA receptors. More researches are going to determine physiopathology of SWDs and find new effective substance against this kind of epilepsy.

Moghimi, Ali; Mollazadeh, Samaneh; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam; Shiee, Reza; Khalilzade, Mohammad Ali

2013-01-01

250

Recognizing, Differentiating, and Referring Students with Absence Seizures What Factors Affect Preservice Teachers' Decision Making?.  

E-print Network

??Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy are common pediatric disorders that often occur co-morbidly. Both disorders predispose children to a wide range of school-related problems, some (more)

Nasewicz, Nicole

2009-01-01

251

Recognizing, Differentiating, and Referring Students with Absence Seizures: What Factors Affect Preservice Teachers' Decision Making?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy are common pediatric disorders that often occur co-morbidly. Both disorders predispose children to a wide range of school-related problems, some of which are the same and others vastly different. Fortunately, with early diagnosis and comprehensive disease management, the long-term

Nasewicz, Nicole

2009-01-01

252

Atypical phenylketonuria with dihydrobiopterin synthetase deficiency: Absence of phosphate-eliminating enzyme activity demonstrated in liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assay for the phosphate-eliminating enzyme (PEE) activity in liver was developed which required only 510 mg tissue. PEE catalyses the elimination of inorganic triphosphate from dihydroneopterin triphosphate, which is the second and irreversible step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). In the presence of substrate, magnesium, NADPH, and a sepiapterin reductase fraction from human liver, PEE catalysed the formation

A. Niederwieser; W. Leimbacher; H. Ch. Curtius; A. Ponzone; F. Rey; D. Leupold

1985-01-01

253

Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical

Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

2006-01-01

254

Autistics' Atypical Joint Attention: Policy Implications and Empirical Nuance  

PubMed Central

Burack and Russo (2008) applaud our approach to understanding autistics atypical joint attention (Gernsbacher, Stevenson, Khandakar, & Goldsmith, 2008) but express some concerns about the evidence we drew upon to support our thesis. In response, we underscore the empirical nuance of our thesisthat autistics atypical manifestations of joint attention arise from their atypical resistance to distraction, atypical parallel perception, and atypical execution of volitional actions. We recap how our hypothesis derives from fresh interpretations, well-replicated findings, and underlying mechanisms.

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Khandakar, Suraiya; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2014-01-01

255

Atypical antipsychotics in mood disorders.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder is ranked as the sixth most important worldwide cause of disability. Current treatment is based chiefly on lithium and/or anticonvulsants, of which sodium valproate is the most widely used. A significant minority of patients fail to respond fully to current treatments, particularly those with mixed mania and/or rapid cycling. Many patients are unable to tolerate the side-effects of current therapy in the long term, and adverse effects may contribute to the high rate of noncompliance observed in bipolar disorder. The shortcomings of current treatments are reflected in poor outcomes: two-thirds of patients with bipolar disorder require hospitalization on more than one occasion; employment and social functioning are significantly lower than in control groups; 93% of carers suffer at least moderate distress; and 25-50% of patients are believed to attempt suicide at least once. Bipolar disorder shares some features with schizophrenia, and several atypical antipsychotics have demonstrated efficacy in bipolar disorder. Quetiapine has a particularly favourable tolerability profile, with placebo-level extrapyramidal symptoms and prolactin levels across the entire dose range combined with a neutral effect on weight during long-term use, and may be a valuable treatment option in acute mania and bipolar disorder. PMID:12570066

Kasper, Siegfried; Stamenkovic, Mara; Letmaier, Martin; Schreinzer, Daniel

2002-08-01

256

Schizophrenia - Typical and Atypical Drugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are treated principally by a class of medications called anti-psychotic drugs. These medications act principally by blocking the stimulation of dopamine receptors by the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are two main classes of anti-psychotic drugs. One is called the first generation, or typical, or conventional anti-psychotic drugs, and the second is called the second generation or atypical anti-psychotic drugs. The difference between these two, even though they both have similar properties and act as anti-psychotics, is that the newer medicines do not produce the disabling neurologic side-effects like stiffness, and slowness and tremor that the first generation drugs produced. In addition, they have a much lower affinity for dopamine receptors so they're kinder, gentler pharmacological agents as opposed to the very potent high-affinity dopamine receptor antagonist that the first generations are. And then thirdly, they may be a little better in some ways terms of their therapeutic efficacy. They alleviate symptoms better, they prevent relapse, and they may work on a broader range of the symptoms of schizophrenia.

2009-04-14

257

Anthrax: a systematic review of atypical presentations.  

PubMed

During the 2001 US anthrax attacks, mortality from inhalational anthrax was significantly lower than had been reported historically, which was attributed in part to early identification and timely treatment. During future attacks, clinicians will rely on published descriptions of the clinical features of inhalational anthrax to rapidly diagnose patients and institute appropriate treatment. Published descriptions of typical inhalation anthrax usually include patients presenting with cough, dyspnea, or chest pain and found to have abnormal lung examination results with pleural effusions or enlarged mediastinum. The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether atypical presentations of inhalational anthrax occur and to describe the features of these presentations. We define atypical presentations as those in patients with confirmed anthrax infection who do not have known cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational ports of entry. We reviewed the case reports of 42 patients with atypical anthrax (published between 1900 and 2004) that may have had an inhalational source of infection to evaluate whether their clinical presentations differed from the typical findings of inhalational anthrax. Patients with atypical anthrax were less likely to have cough, chest pain, or abnormal lung examination results than patients with typical inhalational anthrax (P<.05 for all comparisons). A previously published screening protocol for patients with suspected anthrax correctly identified 91% of patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that although uncommon, atypical presentations of inhalational anthrax likely occur. Timely diagnosis and treatment of patients with inhalational anthrax require clinical awareness of the full spectrum of signs and symptoms associated with inhalational anthrax. PMID:16857469

Holty, Jon-Erik C; Kim, Rebecca Y; Bravata, Dena M

2006-08-01

258

Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. PMID:25174001

Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Snchez Fernndez, Ivn; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

2014-08-01

259

Letting a typical mouse judge whether mouse social interactions are atypical.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a qualitative assessment of social aptitude: one person judging whether another person interacts in a "typical" way. We hypothesized that mice could be used to make a similar judgment if they prefer "typical" over "atypical" social interactions with mouse models relevant to ASD. We used wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice as "judges" and evaluated their preference for a chamber containing a "typical" (B6 or 129S6) or an "atypical" mouse. For our atypical mouse stimuli, we chose two inbred strains with well-documented social phenotypes (BTBR and BALB/c), as well a mutant line with abnormal social behavior and seizures (Gabrb3 +/-). Overall, we observed a stimulus by time interaction (P < 0.0001), with B6 mice preferring the typical mouse chamber during the last 10 min of the 30-min test. For two of the individual stimulus pairings, we observed a similar chamber by time interaction (BALB/c vs. 129S6, P = 0.0007; Gabrb3 +/- vs. 129S6, P = 0.033). For the third stimulus pairing, we found a trend for preference of the typical mouse across time (BTBR vs. B6, P = 0.051). We repeated the experiments using 129S6 mice as judges and found a significant overall interaction (P = 0.034), but only one stimulus pairing reached significance on its own (BALB/c vs. 129S6, P = 0.0021). These data suggest that a characteristic pattern of exploration in B6 mice can distinguish some socially atypical animals from controls. PMID:23436806

Shah, Charisma R; Forsberg, Carl Gunnar; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

2013-06-01

260

Tramadol induced seizure: A 3-year study  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic. Seizures have been reported in patients receiving this drug. In this study we evaluated the correlation between tramadol consumption and seizure occurrence. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with a history of tramadol consumption and seizure were studied. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were performed in the first 24 hours and again one week later. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 18 months after the initial attack. Results: In the 28 subjects, 26 (92.8%) were males and 2 (7.2%) were females. The mean age of the subjects was 28.4 years. Thirteen patients had abused more than 400 mg/day of tramadol. Sixteen subjects concomitantly used other drugs. The seizures occurred within the first 24 hours of tramadol intake in 25 of the subjects. The first EEG was abnormal in 12 cases, but the second EEG was abnormal in only one case. Neuroimaging of only one subject displayed patchy white matter lesions. Conclusion: In conclusion, the neurotoxicity of tramadol commonly manifests as generalized tonic clonic seizures most frequently within 24 hours after tramadol intake and was more common in subjects concomitantly consuming alcohol, illicit drugs, anti-psychotics, or anti-depressants. PMID:24009919

Boostani, Reza; Derakhshan, Siavash

2012-01-01

261

Dictator Perpetuus: Julius Caesar--did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?  

PubMed

The "Dictator Perpetuus" of the Roman Empire, the great Julius Caesar, was not the one for whom the well-known cesarean operation was named; instead, this term is derived from a Latin word meaning "to cut." Caesar likely had epilepsy on the basis of four attacks that were probably complex partial seizures: (1) while listening to an oration by Cicero, (2) in the Senate while being offered the Emperor's Crown, and in military campaigns, (3) near Thapsus (North Africa) and (4) Corduba (Spain). Also, it is possible that he had absence attacks as a child and as a teenager. His son, Caesarion, by Queen Cleopatra, likely had seizures as a child, but the evidence is only suggestive. His great-great-great grandnephews Caligula and Britannicus also had seizures. The etiology of these seizures in this Julio-Claudian family was most likely through inheritance, with the possibility of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in his great grandfather and also his father. Our best evidence comes from the ancient sources of Suetonius, Plutarch, Pliny, and Appianus. PMID:15380131

Hughes, John R

2004-10-01

262

Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures  

SciTech Connect

Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1990-01-01

263

Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures  

E-print Network

Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures, Marseille, France Keywords: CA3 pyramidal cells, early seizures, GABA, glutamate, hippocampus Abstract Neonatal seizures can result in long-term adverse consequences including alteration of seizure

Cossart, Rosa

264

Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

E-print Network

The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori laws. We also verify in an animal seizure model the earthquake-driven hypothesis that power law statistics co-exist with characteristic scales, as coupling between constitutive elements increases towards the synchronization regime. These observations point to the universality of the dynamics of coupled threshold oscillators for systems even as diverse as Earth and brain and suggest a general strategy for forecasting seizures, one of neurosciences' grails.

Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

2007-01-01

265

Automated Seizure Detection: Unrecognized Challenges, Unexpected Insights  

E-print Network

One of epileptology's fundamental aims is the formulation of a universal, internally consistent seizure definition. To assess this aim's feasibility, three signal analysis methods were applied to a seizure time series and performance comparisons were undertaken among them and with respect to a validated algorithm. One of the methods uses a Fisher's matrix weighted measure of the rate of parameters change of a 2n order auto-regressive model, another is based on the Wavelet Transform Maximum Modulus for quantification of changes in the logarithm of the standard deviation of ECoG power and yet another employs the ratio of short-to-long term averages computed from cortical signals. The central finding, fluctuating concordance among all methods' output as a function of seizure duration, uncovers unexpected hurdles in the path to a universal definition, while furnishing relevant knowledge in the dynamical (spectral non-stationarity and varying ictal signal complexity) and clinical (probable attainability of consens...

Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.09.011

2011-01-01

266

How to Treat Compensated Absences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses compensated absences such as future vacation, sick leave, and other absences that must be recognized for accounting and financial reporting purposes. Explains Governmental Accounting Standards Board distinctions between governmental and proprietary fund models. School districts and municipalities must now account for compensated

Lewandowski, Raymond J.

1986-01-01

267

ONLINE AUTOMATIC EPILEPTIC SEIZURE DETECTION FROM ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG)  

E-print Network

ONLINE AUTOMATIC EPILEPTIC SEIZURE DETECTION FROM ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) By HUI LIU of this research possible. I appreciate his constant enthusiasm for guiding, searching, facilitating and driving.......................................................................................................................4 Seizure Classification and Artifact Categories

Slatton, Clint

268

A seizure warning system for long-term epilepsy monitoring.  

PubMed

We developed a system to provide a warning early in the development of a seizure with a reasonably low false alarm rate. Such a warning will improve the close observation of seizures and interaction between observers and patients early in the seizure, even in seizures having no obvious clinical manifestation. The system relies on the availability of the EEG recording of one sample seizure, which is used as a template for subsequent detection. We evaluated the performance in 24 seizure types from scalp and intracerebral recordings. It yielded a 100% detection rate and a false alarm rate averaging one false alarm every 5 hours. The warning signal was given, on average, 9.6 seconds after EEG seizure onset. The system will be useful in improving the clinical observation of seizures and may allow ictal SPECT scans to be more widely performed. PMID:8848202

Qu, H; Gotman, J

1995-12-01

269

Treatment of Seizures in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... changing). Teens with epilepsy need counseling about the effects of seizures and seizure medications on sexual activity. All medications have the potential to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy, although some may ...

270

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

...Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2014-04-01

271

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2011-04-01

272

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2012-04-01

273

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2013-04-01

274

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2010-04-01

275

Continuous assessment of epileptic seizures with wrist-worn biosensors  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized predominantly by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows the ...

Poh, Ming-Zher

2011-01-01

276

Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

2004-03-01

277

Detection of seizure rhythmicity by recurrences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epileptic seizures show a certain degree of rhythmicity, a feature of heuristic and practical interest. In this paper, we introduce a simple model of this type of behavior, and suggest a measure for detecting and quantifying it. To evaluate our method, we develop a set of test segments that incorporate rhythmicity features, and present results from the application of this measure to test segments. We then analyze electrocorticogram segments containing seizures, and present two examples. Finally, we discuss the similarity of our method to techniques for detecting unstable periodic orbits in chaotic time series.

Harrison, Mary Ann F.; Frei, Mark G.; Osorio, Ivan

2008-09-01

278

The photoreceptors in atypical achromatopsia.  

PubMed Central

1. The receptoral mechanisms underlying the vision of two atypical achromats of the complete variety were studied with standard psychophysical procedures. 2. Under scotopic conditions the spectral sensitivity of each achromat was well described by the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) scotopic sensitivity function and the recovery of sensitivity after a retinal bleach showed characteristic duplex behaviour with the time constant of recovery of the slower phase matching that of normal rod vision for both foveal and peripheral stimulation. 3. Their spectral sensitivity was measured under conditions of chromatic adaptation in order to reveal any residual middle or long wavelength cone activity. Only one photopic spectral responses was found and this was adequately described by the spectral sensitivity function of Stiles pi 3 mechanism of normal vision. 4. Increment threshold measurements as a function of background intensity revealed a double-branched function in the fovea. The lower branch was found to have the spectral sensitivity of the rods; the upper branch that of Stiles' pi 3 mechanism. Stiles-Crawford measurements of directional sensitivity confirmed that the branch with the rhodopsin action spectrum had the directional sensitivity of rods and that the branch with the action spectrum of pi 3 had the directional sensitivity of cones. 5. These was no evidence for hue discrimination under photopic conditions. Regions of apparently normal performance on hue discrimination tests on more careful examination could be explained by luminosity judgements mediated by short wavelength-absorbing receptors. 6. We reject the notion of there being rhodopsin-filled cones in the fovea of these subjects. The foveal and peripheral vision of each of these achromats can be adequately described in terms of the participation of only two types of receptor, namely normally functional rods under scotopic conditions and normally functioning short wavelength-absorbing cones under photopic conditions. They are therefore functional blue mono-cone monochromats, an explanation which was originally proposed by Blackwell & Blackwell (1957) over thirty years ago. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2621588

Hess, R F; Mullen, K T; Sharpe, L T; Zrenner, E

1989-01-01

279

Atypical aging in Down syndrome.  

PubMed

At present, there may be over 210,000 people with Down syndrome (DS) over the age of 55 in the United States (US) who have significant needs for augmented services due to circumstances related to ordinary and/or pathological aging. From 1979 through 2003, the birth prevalence of DS rose from 9.0 to 11.8 (31.1%) per 10,000 live births in 10 representative US regions. This increase, largely due to women conceiving after age 35, portends an ever-growing population of people with DS who may be subject to pathogenic aging. Whereas Trisomy 21 is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability (ID), it still is one of the least understood of all genetic ID syndromes. While longevity in people with DS has improved appreciably in as modest a period as 30 years, age-specific risk for mortality still is considerably increased compared both with other people with ID or with the typically developing population. The penetrance of the phenotype is widely distributed, even though a consistent genotype is assumed in 95% of the cases. Some, but not all body systems, exhibit signs of premature or accelerated aging. This may be due to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. We now know that the long-term outcome for people with DS is not as ominous as once contemplated; a number of people with DS are living into their late 60s and 70s with few if any major signs of pathogenic aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD), a devastating disease that robs a person of their memory, abilities and personality, is particularly common in elder adults with DS, but is not a certainty as originally thought, some 20% to 30% of elder adults with DS might never show any, or at most mild signs of AD. DS has been called a mature well-understood syndrome, not in need of further research or science funding. We are only beginning to understand how epigenetics affects the phenotype and it may be feasible in the future to alter the phenotype through epigenetic interventions. This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section will review typical and atypical aging patterns in somatic issues in elder adults with DS; the second section will review the multifaceted relationship between AD and DS. PMID:23949829

Zigman, Warren B

2013-08-01

280

U.S. Government Computer Search and Seizure Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the way in which the spread of computing technology has impacted the search and seizure policies of relevant U.S. government agencies. Among the changes that have occurred is a total redesign by the Justice Department of its search and seizure guidelines and policies. the article discusses numerous questions that involve search and seizure procedures as they pertain

Randy Coneby; Frederick Gallegos

1999-01-01

281

Epileptic seizures triggered directly by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal, secondarily generalizing epileptic seizures were released by magnetic stimulation in a patient with focal epilepsy. The stimulation induced seizures had a similar clinical appearance to the patient's spontaneous seizures. They were released exclusively by an angulated figure-of-8 coil which stimulates the brain more focally as compared to the commonly used flat round coil. The epileptic focus could be located

J. Classen; O. W. Witte; G. Schlaug; R. J. Seitz; H. Holthausen; R. Benecke

1995-01-01

282

Seizure warning algorithm based on optimization and nonlinear dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that temporal lobe seizures are preceded by a preictal transition, characterized by a gradual dynamical change from asymptomatic interictal state to seizure. We herein report the first prospective analysis of the online automated algorithm for detecting the preictal transition in ongoing EEG signals. Such, the algorithm constitutes a seizure warning system. The algorithm estimates STL max,

Panos M. Pardalos; Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse; Leonidas D. Iasemidis; J. Chris Sackellares; Deng-shan Shiau; Paul R. Carney; Oleg A. Prokopyev; Vitaliy A. Yatsenko

2004-01-01

283

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2012-04-01

284

Multivariate linear discrimination of seizures Kristin K. Jergera  

E-print Network

Multivariate linear discrimination of seizures Kristin K. Jergera , Steven L. Weinsteind , Tim Accepted 15 August 2004 Available online 5 January 2005 Abstract Objective: To discriminate seizures from interictal dynamics based on multivariate synchrony measures, and to identify dynamics of a pre-seizure state

Sauer, Timothy

285

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2010-04-01

286

INVITED REVIEW Cortical Up State Activity Is Enhanced After Seizures  

E-print Network

INVITED REVIEW Cortical Up State Activity Is Enhanced After Seizures: A Quantitative Analysis/3 neocortical neurons 24 hours after chemo- convulsant-induced seizure. Down states in postseizure tissue show channels, and blocking BK channels in vitro and in vivo can decrease excitability and eliminate seizures

Barth, Alison L.

287

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2010-01-01

288

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2013-01-01

289

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2013-01-01

290

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2010-01-01

291

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2014-01-01

292

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2010-04-01

293

Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor , Canan Aykut Bingol  

E-print Network

Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor Evrim Acar , Canan Aykut Bingol , Haluk Bingol of various features in seizure recognition, we introduce a mathe- matical model capable of recognizing patient-speci c epileptic seizures with high accuracy. We represent multi-channel EEG signals (recorded

Bystroff, Chris

294

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2014-01-01

295

SEIZURE FREQUENCY MODULATION USING NON-INVASIVE TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION  

E-print Network

SEIZURE FREQUENCY MODULATION USING NON-INVASIVE TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION W. Besio1 , K: 318-257-4562 Fax: 318-257-4175 E-mail: walterb@latech.edu Epilepsy and seizures affect 2.5 million of detecting and terminating seizures before the onset. A concentric ring electrode system for detecting

Besio, Walter G.

296

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2013-04-01

297

Adaptive Control of Epileptic Seizures using Reinforcement Learning  

E-print Network

Adaptive Control of Epileptic Seizures using Reinforcement Learning Arthur Guez Master of Science potential recording, so as to minimize the frequency and duration of seizures. The methodology leverages reduces the incidence of seizures, while also minimizing the amount of stimulation applied. This work

Verbrugge, Clark

298

Symptoms of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seizures are more common in individuals with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. As a result, differences in functioning for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures have been evaluated. Research on differences in psychopathology for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures

Fitzgerald, Mary E.; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

2011-01-01

299

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2011-07-01

300

Seizure prediction and the preseizure period Brian Litta  

E-print Network

Seizure prediction and the preseizure period Brian Litta and Klaus Lehnertzb Beginning in the 1970s engineers designed systems to predict epileptic seizures based upon quantitative changes in the electroencephalogram, which they hypothesized began well in advance of clinical seizure onset. These efforts flourished

Litt, Brian

301

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2012-01-01

302

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2011-01-01

303

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2012-04-01

304

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

305

Modulation of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures by Deep Brain Stimulation  

E-print Network

Modulation of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures by Deep Brain Stimulation Ananda S. Fine Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology Abstract--Epileptic seizures were experimentally induced in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in vivo. Recordings of seizure activity were made in both hippocampi

Nicholls, David

306

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2014-04-01

307

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

308

Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure  

E-print Network

Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure Taylor C. Hood, James O Epilepsy Seizure on Granulare Cell Layer of Dentate Gyrus in Rat: a Stereological Study." Neuroscience on Convulsive and Nonconvulsive Epileptic Seizures in Rats." Toxicology Letters 78 (1995): 76. Acta

Collins, Gary S.

309

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2011-04-01

310

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2012-07-01

311

Analysis of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures Ananda S. Fine  

E-print Network

Analysis of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures Ananda S. Fine Department of Bioengineering of Technology Abstract--Epileptic seizures were experimentally induced in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in vivo. Recordings of seizure activity were made in both hippocampi as well as anteromedial region

Nicholls, David

312

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2010-04-01

313

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2011-04-01

314

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2012-04-01

315

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2011-01-01

316

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2014-04-01

317

8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280...AND COLLECTION OF FINES 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Link to an amendment...at 76 FR 74630, December 1, 2011. Seizure of an aircraft under the...

2012-01-01

318

Real-Time Seizure Monitoring and Spectral Analysis Microsystem  

E-print Network

Real-Time Seizure Monitoring and Spectral Analysis Microsystem J. N. Y. Aziz, R. Karakiewicz, R of an envisioned miniature implantable brain implant for automated epileptic seizure therapy. The microsystem com demonstrate the functionality of the integrated microsystem in real-time epileptic seizure monitoring

Genov, Roman

319

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2012-01-01

320

Brief Communication Glutamate Transporters Prevent the Generation of Seizures  

E-print Network

Brief Communication Glutamate Transporters Prevent the Generation of Seizures in the Developing Rat to prevent the activation by local glutamate concentrations of NMDA receptors and the generation of seizures excitotoxic (Olney et al., 1969) and may generate epilep- tic seizures (Tanaka et al., 1997; Meldrum et al

Boyer, Edmond

321

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2011-04-01

322

NEUROSYSTEMS Pharmaco-resistant seizures: self-triggering capacity,  

E-print Network

NEUROSYSTEMS Pharmaco-resistant seizures: self-triggering capacity, scale-free properties Colleges, Claremont, CA, USA Keywords: human, inter-seizure interval, predictability, probability, scale-free, seizure energy, self-triggering Abstract Relevant and timely questions such as regarding

Milton, John G.

323

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2014-07-01

324

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2013-04-01

325

Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG  

PubMed Central

Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patients electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.

Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

2014-01-01

326

Febrile temperatures unmask biophysical defects in Nav1.1 epilepsy mutations supportive of seizure initiation  

PubMed Central

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is an early onset febrile epileptic syndrome with therapeutic responsive (a)febrile seizures continuing later in life. Dravet syndrome (DS) or severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy has a complex phenotype including febrile generalized or hemiclonic convulsions before the age of 1, followed by intractable myoclonic, complex partial, or absence seizures. Both diseases can result from mutations in the Nav1.1 sodium channel, and initially, seizures are typically triggered by fever. We previously characterized two Nav1.1 mutantsR859H (GEFS+) and R865G (DS)at room temperature and reported a mixture of biophysical gating defects that could not easily predict the phenotype presentation as either GEFS+ or DS. In this study, we extend the characterization of Nav1.1 wild-type, R859H, and R865G channels to physiological (37C) and febrile (40C) temperatures. At physiological temperature, a variety of biophysical defects were detected in both mutants, including a hyperpolarized shift in the voltage dependence of activation and a delayed recovery from fast and slow inactivation. Interestingly, at 40C we also detected additional gating defects for both R859H and R865G mutants. The GEFS+ mutant R859H showed a loss of function in the voltage dependence of inactivation and an increased channel use-dependency at 40C with no reduction in peak current density. The DS mutant R865G exhibited reduced peak sodium currents, enhanced entry into slow inactivation, and increased use-dependency at 40C. Our results suggest that fever-induced temperatures exacerbate the gating defects of R859H or R865G mutants and may predispose mutation carriers to febrile seizures. PMID:24277604

Kahlig, Kristopher M.; Das, Joost H.G.; van Kempen, Marjan J.A.; Lindhout, Dick; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Rook, Martin B.

2013-01-01

327

Magnesium sulfate treatment against sarin poisoning: dissociation between overt convulsions and recorded cortical seizure activity.  

PubMed

Sarin, a potent organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, induces an array of toxic effects including convulsions. Many antidotal treatments contain anticonvulsants to block seizure activity and the ensuing brain damage. Magnesium sulfate (MGS) is used to suppress eclamptic seizures in pregnant women with hypertension and was shown to block kainate-induced convulsions. Magnesium sulfate was evaluated herein as an anticonvulsant against sarin poisoning and its efficacy was compared with the potent anticonvulsants midazolam (MDZ) and caramiphen (CRM). Rats were exposed to a convulsant dose of sarin (96 ?g/kg, im) and 1 min later treated with the oxime TMB4 and atropine to increase survival. Five minutes after initiation of convulsions, MGS, CRM, or MDZ were administered. Attenuation of tonic-clonic convulsions was observed following all these treatments. However, radio-telemetric electro-corticography (ECoG) monitoring demonstrated sustained seizure activity in MGS-injected animals while this activity was completely blocked by MDZ and CRM. This disrupted brain activity was associated with marked increase in brain translocator protein levels, a marker for brain damage, measured 1 week following exposure. Additionally, histopathological analyses of MGS-treated group showed typical sarin-induced brain injury excluding the hippocampus that was partially protected. Our results clearly show that MGS demonstrated misleading features as an anticonvulsant against sarin-induced seizures. This stems from the dissociation observed between overt convulsions and seizure activity. Thus, the presence or absence of motor convulsions may be an unreliable indicator in the assessment of clinical status and in directing adequate antidotal treatments following exposure to nerve agents in battle field or terror attacks. PMID:23052190

Katalan, Shahaf; Lazar, Shlomi; Brandeis, Rachel; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Grauer, Ettie; Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Raveh, Lily

2013-02-01

328

Neonatal Seizures: Soothing a Burning Topic  

PubMed Central

Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia, and present the case of a 6 day old male who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

Thornton, Matthew D.; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L.

2013-01-01

329

Oxygen and seizure dynamics: I. Experiments.  

PubMed

We utilized a novel ratiometric nanoquantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NQD-FRET) optical sensor to quantitatively measure oxygen dynamics from single cell microdomains during hypoxic episodes as well as during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced spontaneous seizure-like events in rat hippocampal slices. Coupling oxygen sensing with electrical recordings, we found the greatest reduction in the O2 concentration ([O2]) in the densely packed cell body stratum (st.) pyramidale layer of the CA1 and differential layer-specific O2 dynamics between the st. pyramidale and st. oriens layers. These hypoxic decrements occurred up to several seconds before seizure onset could be electrically measured extracellularly. Without 4-AP, we quantified a narrow range of [O2], similar to the endogenous hypoxia found before epileptiform activity, which permits a quiescent network to enter into a seizure-like state. We demonstrated layer-specific patterns of O2 utilization accompanying layer-specific neuronal interplay in seizure. None of the oxygen overshoot artifacts seen with polarographic measurement techniques were observed. We therefore conclude that endogenously generated hypoxia may be more than just a consequence of increased cellular excitability but an influential and critical factor for orchestrating network dynamics associated with epileptiform activity. PMID:24598521

Ingram, Justin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Cressman, John R; Hazra, Anupam; Wei, Yina; Koo, Yong-Eun; iburkus, Jok?bas; Kopelman, Raoul; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

2014-07-15

330

Search and Seizure in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators concerned about school safety have resorted to searching students, their lockers, and their possessions. These searches have led to litigation over whether the Fourth Amendment's prohibition of unreasonable searches and seizures applies to public schools. Although courts have upheld reasonable searches, administrators should carefully

Russo, Charles J.; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

1998-01-01

331

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protection afforded a minor student by the fourth amendment is perhaps open to some speculation due to his age and the unique situation presented by the school environment. The search and seizure issue is discussed in terms of the findings in several court cases. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

Medlin, Kay Cowden

1976-01-01

332

Search and Seizure in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the application of the Fourth Amendment, which protects persons against unreasonable search and seizure, as it applies to the student-college relationship. The topics discussed in terms of federal and state court decisions include warrantless searches, delegation of authority to conduct searches, notice of identity and purpose

Mondschein, Eric S.; West, Michael A.

333

Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori

Ivan Osorio; Mark G. Frei; Didier Sornette; John Milton; Ying-Cheng Lai

2007-01-01

334

Seizure Management for School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented

Frueh, Eileen

2008-01-01

335

Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers

Sundstrom, Diane

2007-01-01

336

Atypical presentation of an advanced obstructive biliary cancer without jaundice  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Cholangiocarcinoma Symptoms: Abdominal pain abdominal discomfort Medication: Clinical Procedure: Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual natural history/clinical course Background: Cholangiocarcinoma remains to be a challenging case to diagnose and manage as it usually presents in advanced stage and survival rate remains dismal despite the medical breakthroughs. It is usually classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal tumor which can lead to bile duct obstruction causing sluggish flow of bile through the biliary tract and promoting increased absorption of bilirubin, bile acids and bile salts into systemic circulation accounting for the occurrence of jaundice, dark-colored urine and generalized pruritus. It usually becomes symptomatic when the tumor has significantly obstructed the biliary drainage causing painless jaundice and deranged liver function with cholestatic pattern. Jaundice occurs in 90% of the cases when the tumor has obstructed the biliary drainage system. A markedly dilated gallbladder as initial presenting feature in the absence of other typical obstructive clinical manifestations of an advanced stage of the cholangiocarcinoma is rare. Case Report: This case report presents an atypical case of an elderly woman who presented with advanced metastatic ductal cholangiocarcinoma with markedly dilated gallbladder and liver mass without other clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of cholestatic jaundice. Conclusions: The mere presence of Courvoisiers sign, even in the absence of other signs of biliary obstruction, could be suggestive of advanced neoplastic process along the biliary tract. Laboratory evidence of cholestasis might lag behind the clinical severity of the biliary obstruction in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24223234

Salvador, Vincent Bryan; Samrao, Pushkinder; Leytin, Anatoly; Basith, Mohammed

2013-01-01

337

Nerve agent-induced seizures and their pharmacological modulation  

SciTech Connect

Intoxication with nerve agents produces prolonged central nervous system seizures (status epilepticus) that can produce irreversible brain pathology (15). This report summarizes our recent findings regarding the neurotransmitter changes that occur in discrete brain regions as a function of seizure duration and the differential effectiveness of anticholinergic, benzodiazepine and excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonist drugs in terminating soman-induced seizures when given at different times after seizure onset. These results are discussed in relation to a model we have proposed to explain the sequence of electrophysiological, biochemical and neurochemical events and mechanisms controlling nerve agent-induced seizures.

McDonough, J.H.; Shih, T.M.; Adams, N.L.; Koviak, T.A.; Cook, L.A.

1993-05-13

338

Closed-loop seizure control on epileptic rat models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper numerous alternative treatments in addition to pharmacological therapy are proposed for their use in epileptic patients. Epileptic animal models can play a crucial role in the performance evaluation of new therapeutic techniques. The objective of this research is to first develop various epileptic rat models; second, develop a portable wireless closed-loop seizure controller including on-line seizure detection and real-time electrical stimulation for seizure elimination; and third, apply the developed seizure controller to the animal models to perform on-line seizure elimination. The closed-loop seizure controller was applied to three Long-Evans rats with spontaneous spike-wave discharges (non-convulsive) and three Long-Evans rats with epileptiform activities induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection (convulsive) for evaluation. The seizure detection accuracy is greater than 92% (up to 99%), and averaged seizure detection latency is less than 0.6 s for both spontaneous non-convulsive and PTZ-induced convulsive seizures. The average false stimulation rate is 3.1%. Near 30% of PTZ-induced convulsive seizures need more than two times of 0.5 s electrical stimulation for suppression and 90% of the non-convulsive seizures can be suppressed by only one 0.5 s electrical stimulation.

Liang, Sheng-Fu; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Chang, Da-Wei; Young, Chung-Ping; Chiueh, Herming

2011-08-01

339

On the activity of the corticostriatal networks during spike-and-wave discharges in a genetic model of absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Absence seizures are characterized by impairment of consciousness associated with widespread bilaterally synchronous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflect highly synchronized oscillations in thalamocortical networks. Although recent pharmacological studies suggest that the basal ganglia could provide a remote control system for absence seizures, the mechanisms of propagation of epileptic discharges in these subcortical nuclei remain unknown. In the present study, we provide the first description of the electrical events in the corticostriatal pathway during spontaneous SWDs in the genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a genetic model of absence epilepsy. In corticostriatal neurons, the SWDs were associated with suprathreshold rhythmic depolarizations in-phase with local EEG spikes. Consistent with this synchronized firing in their excitatory cortical afferents, striatal output neurons (SONs) exhibited, during SWDs, large-amplitude rhythmic synaptic depolarizations. However, SONs did not discharge during SWDs. Instead, the rhythmic synaptic excitation of SONs was shunted by a Cl(-)-dependent increase in membrane conductance that was temporally correlated with bursts of action potentials in striatal GABAergic interneurons. The reduced SON excitability accompanying absence seizures may participate in the control of SWDs by affecting the flow of cortical information within the basal ganglia circuits. PMID:15282287

Slaght, Sen J; Paz, Tamar; Chavez, Mario; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Mahon, Sverine; Charpier, Stphane

2004-07-28

340

Onset of polyspike complexes in a mean-field model of human electroencephalography and its application to absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce a modification of a mean-field model used to describe the brain's electrical activity as recorded via electroencephalography (EEG). The focus of the present study is to understand the mechanisms giving rise to the dynamics observed during absence epilepsy, one of the classical generalized syndromes. A systematic study of the data from a number of different subjects with absence epilepsy demonstrates a wide variety of dynamical phenomena in the recorded EEG. In addition to the classical spike and wave activity, there may be polyspike and wave, wave spike or even no discernible spike-wave onset during seizure events. The model we introduce is able to capture all of these different phenomena and we describe the bifurcations giving rise to these different types of seizure activity. We argue that such a model may provide a useful clinical tool for classifying different subclasses of absence epilepsy. PMID:19218156

Marten, Frank; Rodrigues, Serafim; Benjamin, Oscar; Richardson, Mark P; Terry, John R

2009-03-28

341

Cognition, schizophrenia, and the atypical antipsychotic drugs  

E-print Network

­7), although about 15% of patients with schizophrenia test within the normal range in all domains (8); (ivCommentary Cognition, schizophrenia, and the atypical antipsychotic drugs Herbert Y. Meltzer, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60208 The Cognitive Deficit in Schizophrenia Schizophrenia was originally

Park, Sohee

342

Atypical Visuomotor Performance in Children with PDD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome

Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter

2012-01-01

343

Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha

Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

2009-01-01

344

Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

2014-01-01

345

Inclusion Body Myositis: Atypical Clinical Presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion body myositis affects primarily the proximal muscles but distal limb muscles are involved too in this chronic myopathy. Characteristic histopathologic findings include rimmed vacuoles, inflammation and typical cytoplasmic and nuclear filamentous inclusions. The patients are usually unresponsive to steroids. We present four inclusion body myositis patients with atypical clinical presentations: one with scapuloperoneal syndrome, one with post-polio-like syndrome and

I. Schlesinger; D. Soffer; A. Lossos; Z. Meiner; Z. Argov

1996-01-01

346

Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.  

PubMed

Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

Jaul, Efraim

2014-12-01

347

Atypical Antipsychotic Drug Use and Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been increased concern about the occurrence of diabetes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) drugs. The relationship between diabetes, schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drugs is complex and intriguing, as untreated patients with schizophrenia are known to suffer from diabetes more often than the general population. Thirty individual case reports of clozapine-, 26 cases of olanzapine- and

Jambur Ananth; Ravi Venkatesh; Karl Burgoyne; Sarath Gunatilake

2002-01-01

348

Reduction of adrenergic neurotransmission with clonidine aggravates spike-wave seizures and alters activity in the cortex and the thalamus in WAG\\/Rij rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine in low dose inhibits the release of noradrenaline and aggravates absence seizures. The present study examines properties of two types of spike-wave discharges (SWD) in a genetic model of absence epilepsy, the WAG\\/Rij rats. After reduction of noradrenergic neurotransmission with clonidine (0.00625mg\\/kg, i.p.), the electrical activity was recorded in the neocortex, the ventroposteromedial nucleus (VPM)

Evgenia Sitnikova; Gilles van Luijtelaar

2005-01-01

349

Regulation of Kv4.2 A-Type Potassium Channels in HEK-293 Cells by Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

We previously observed that A-type potassium currents were decreased and membrane excitability increased in hippocampal dentate granule cells after neonatal global hypoxia associated with seizures. Here, we studied the effects of hypoxia on the function and expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 ? subunit channels, which encode rapidly inactivating A-type K currents, in transfected HEK-293 cells to determine if hypoxia alone could regulate IA in vitro. Global hypoxia in neonatal rat pups resulted in early decreased hippocampal expression of Kv4.2 mRNA and protein with 6 or 12?h post-hypoxia. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that similar times after hypoxia (1%) in vitro decreased peak currents mediated by recombinant Kv4.2 but not Kv4.3 channels. Hypoxia had no significant effect on the voltage-dependencies of activation and inactivation of Kv4.2 channels, but increased the time constant of activation. The same result was observed when Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels were co-expressed in a 1:1 ratio. These data suggested that hypoxia directly modulates A-type potassium channels of the subfamily typically expressed in principal hippocampal neurons, and does so in a manner to decrease function. Given the role of IA to slow action potential firing, these data are consistent with a direct effect of hypoxia to decrease IA as a mechanism of increased neuronal excitability and promotion of seizures. PMID:25352783

Liu, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Wen-Xian; Sanchez, Russell M.; Min, Jia-Wei; Hu, Jiang-Jian; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

2014-01-01

350

Familial Atypical Cold Urticaria: Description of a New Hereditary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Acquired Cold Urticaria (ACU) is usually a self-limited, sporadic, cutaneous disease diagnosed by history and positive cold stimulation time tests (CSTT). We describe three unrelated families (A,B,C) with lifelong atypical cold urticaria, distinguished from ACU and Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndrome (FCAS). Objective To describe a new hereditary disease of cold urticaria and study its pathogenesis. Methods Questionnaires, interviews, physical exams, skin testing and biopsies were obtained. Absolute values, means and prevalence percentages of data are reported. Results 35 subjects are described with Familial Atypical Cold Urticaria (FACU) (A:17, B:8, C:10) displaying an autosomal dominant (AD) pattern of inheritance. All tested subjects had negative CSTT. Completed questionnaires from family A and B (35) revealed that all affected subjects had lifelong symptoms that began in early childhood with pruritis, erythema and urticaria after cold exposure. Angioedema (A:23%; B:42%), syncope and/or near-syncope (A:46%; B:86%) were also present. Triggers included cold atmosphere (100%), aquatic activities (A:92%, B:100%), handling cold objects (A:54%, B:71%) and ingestion of cold food or beverage (A:69%, B:100%). Skin biopsies demonstrated a mast cell infiltrate with the appearance of degranulation after cold challenge. Conclusions FACU is a new cold-induced inherited disease that is different than ACU in its natural history, atmospheric cold elicitation, severity of systemic reactions and CSTT results. FACU differs from FCAS in symptom-timing and the absence of fever, chills and joint pain. The etiology is suspected to be mast cell-related. Treatment of reactions is similar to ACU. Further evaluation of pathogenesis and genetics is warranted. PMID:19910034

Gandhi, Chhavi; Healy, Chris; Wanderer, Alan A.; Hoffman, Hal M.

2009-01-01

351

Unraveling Genetic Modifiers in the Gria4 Mouse Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy (AE) is a common type of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), particularly in children. AE and GGE are complex genetic diseases with few causal variants identified to date. Gria4 deficient mice provide a model of AE, one for which the common laboratory inbred strain C3H/HeJ (HeJ) harbors a natural IAP retrotransposon insertion in Gria4 that reduces its expression 8-fold. Between C3H and non-seizing strains such as C57BL/6, genetic modifiers alter disease severity. Even C3H substrains have surprising variation in the duration and incidence of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the characteristic electroencephalographic feature of absence seizures. Here we discovered extensive IAP retrotransposition in the C3H substrain, and identified a HeJ-private IAP in the Pcnxl2 gene, which encodes a putative multi-transmembrane protein of unknown function, resulting in decreased expression. By creating new Pcnxl2 frameshift alleles using TALEN mutagenesis, we show that Pcnxl2 deficiency is responsible for mitigating the seizure phenotype making Pcnxl2 the first known modifier gene for absence seizures in any species. This finding gave us a handle on genetic complexity between strains, directing us to use another C3H substrain to map additional modifiers including validation of a Chr 15 locus that profoundly affects the severity of SWD episodes. Together these new findings expand our knowledge of how natural variation modulates seizures, and highlights the feasibility of characterizing and validating modifiers in mouse strains and substrains in the post-genome sequence era. PMID:25010494

Frankel, Wayne N.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; McGarr, Tracy C.; Beyer, Barbara J.; Letts, Verity A.

2014-01-01

352

Atypical Sleep in Ventilated Patients: Empirical Electroencephalography Findings and the Path Toward Revised ICU Sleep Scoring Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives Standard sleep scoring criteria may be unreliable when applied to critically ill patients. We sought to quantify typical and atypical polysomnographic findings in critically ill patients and to begin development and reliability testing of methodology to characterize the atypical polysomnographic tracings that confound standard sleep scoring criteria. Design Prospective convenience sample. Setting Two academic, tertiary care medical centers. Patients Thirty-seven critically ill, mechanically ventilated, medical ICU patients. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Mechanically ventilated subjects were monitored by continuous polysomnography. After noting frequent atypical polysomnographic findings (i.e., lack of stage N2 markers, the presence of polymorphic delta, burst suppression, or isoelectric electroencephalography), attempts to use standard sleep scoring criteria alone were abandoned. Atypical polysomnographic findings were characterized and used to develop a modified scoring system. Polysomnographic data were scored manually via this revised scoring scheme. Of 37 medical ICU patients enrolled, 36 experienced atypical sleep, which accounted for 85% of all recorded data, with 5.1% normal sleep and 9.4% wake. Coupling observed patient arousal levels with polysomnographic characteristics revealed that standard polysomnographic staging criteria did not reliably determine the presence or absence of sleep. Rapid eye movement occurred in only five patients (14%). The revised scoring system incorporating frequently seen atypical characteristics yielded very high interrater reliability (weighted ? = 0.80; bootstrapped 95% CI, [0.48, 0.89]). Conclusions Analysis of polysomnographic data revealed profound deficiencies in standard scoring criteria due to a predominance of atypical polysomnographic findings in ventilated patients. The revised scoring scheme proved reliable in sleep staging and may serve as a building block in future work. PMID:23863228

Watson, Paula L.; Pandharipande, Pratik; Gehlbach, Brian K.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Shintani, Ayumi K.; Dittus, Bob S.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Malow, Beth A.; Ely, E. Wesley

2013-01-01

353

Atypical glycolysis in Clostridium thermocellum.  

PubMed

Cofactor specificities of glycolytic enzymes in Clostridium thermocellum were studied with cellobiose-grown cells from batch cultures. Intracellular glucose was phosphorylated by glucokinase using GTP rather than ATP. Although phosphofructokinase typically uses ATP as a phosphoryl donor, we found only pyrophosphate (PPi)-linked activity. Phosphoglycerate kinase used both GDP and ADP as phosphoryl acceptors. In agreement with the absence of a pyruvate kinase sequence in the C. thermocellum genome, no activity of this enzyme could be detected. Also, the annotated pyruvate phosphate dikinase (ppdk) is not crucial for the generation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), as deletion of the ppdk gene did not substantially change cellobiose fermentation. Instead pyruvate formation is likely to proceed via a malate shunt with GDP-linked PEP carboxykinase, NADH-linked malate dehydrogenase, and NADP-linked malic enzyme. High activities of these enzymes were detected in extracts of cellobiose-grown cells. Our results thus show that GTP is consumed while both GTP and ATP are produced in glycolysis of C. thermocellum. The requirement for PPi in this pathway can be satisfied only to a small extent by biosynthetic reactions, in contrast to what is generally assumed for a PPi-dependent glycolysis in anaerobic heterotrophs. Metabolic network analysis showed that most of the required PPi must be generated via ATP or GTP hydrolysis exclusive of that which happens during biosynthesis. Experimental proof for the necessity of an alternative mechanism of PPi generation was obtained by studying the glycolysis in washed-cell suspensions in which biosynthesis was absent. Under these conditions, cells still fermented cellobiose to ethanol. PMID:23435896

Zhou, Jilai; Olson, Daniel G; Argyros, D Aaron; Deng, Yu; van Gulik, Walter M; van Dijken, Johannes P; Lynd, Lee R

2013-05-01

354

Atypical Glycolysis in Clostridium thermocellum  

PubMed Central

Cofactor specificities of glycolytic enzymes in Clostridium thermocellum were studied with cellobiose-grown cells from batch cultures. Intracellular glucose was phosphorylated by glucokinase using GTP rather than ATP. Although phosphofructokinase typically uses ATP as a phosphoryl donor, we found only pyrophosphate (PPi)-linked activity. Phosphoglycerate kinase used both GDP and ADP as phosphoryl acceptors. In agreement with the absence of a pyruvate kinase sequence in the C. thermocellum genome, no activity of this enzyme could be detected. Also, the annotated pyruvate phosphate dikinase (ppdk) is not crucial for the generation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), as deletion of the ppdk gene did not substantially change cellobiose fermentation. Instead pyruvate formation is likely to proceed via a malate shunt with GDP-linked PEP carboxykinase, NADH-linked malate dehydrogenase, and NADP-linked malic enzyme. High activities of these enzymes were detected in extracts of cellobiose-grown cells. Our results thus show that GTP is consumed while both GTP and ATP are produced in glycolysis of C. thermocellum. The requirement for PPi in this pathway can be satisfied only to a small extent by biosynthetic reactions, in contrast to what is generally assumed for a PPi-dependent glycolysis in anaerobic heterotrophs. Metabolic network analysis showed that most of the required PPi must be generated via ATP or GTP hydrolysis exclusive of that which happens during biosynthesis. Experimental proof for the necessity of an alternative mechanism of PPi generation was obtained by studying the glycolysis in washed-cell suspensions in which biosynthesis was absent. Under these conditions, cells still fermented cellobiose to ethanol. PMID:23435896

Zhou, Jilai; Olson, Daniel G.; Argyros, D. Aaron; Deng, Yu; van Gulik, Walter M.; van Dijken, Johannes P.

2013-01-01

355

HLA alleles may serve as a tool to discriminate atypical type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) marker could add new information to discriminated atypical diabetic type 2 patients. METHODS: We analyzed 199 patients initially diagnosed as type 2 diabetes who are treated in special care diabetes clinics (3rd level). This population was classified in atypical (sample A) and classic (sample B) according to HLA typing. We consider classic patient when has absence of type 1 diabetes associated HLA alleles and no difficulties in their diagnosis and treatments. By the other hand, we considered atypical patient when show type 1 diabetes associated HLA alleles and difficulties in their diagnosis and treatments. The standard protocol Asociacion Latinoamericana de Diabetes 2006 was used for patients follow up. To analyze differences between both populations in paraclinical parameters we used unpaired t tests and contingence tables. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the SPSS software program. In all studies we assume differences statistically significant, with a P-value < 0.05 corrected and 95%CI. RESULTS: The typing HLA in the atypical populations show that 92.47% patients presented at list one type 1 diabetes associated HLA alleles (DQB1*0201-0302 and DR 3-4) and 7.53% had two of its. The results showed for categorical variables (family history, presence or absence of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia, reason for initial consultation) the only difference found was at dyslipidemia (OR = 0.45, 0.243 < OD < 0.822 (P < 0.001). In relation to continuous variables we found significant differences between atypical vs classic only in cholesterol (5.07 1.1 vs 5.56 1.5, P < 0.05), high density lipoproteins (1.23 0.3 vs 1.33 0.3, P < 0.05) and low density lipoproteins (2.86 0.9 vs 3.38 1.7, P < 0.01). None of the variables had discriminating power when logistic regression was done. CONCLUSION: We propose an algorithm including HLA genotyping as a tool to discriminate atypical patients, complementing international treatment guidelines for complex patients.

Fernandez, Mariana; Fabregat, Matias; Javiel, Gerardo; Mimbacas, Adriana

2014-01-01

356

The mTOR signaling pathway and neuronal stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus are altered during the development of absence epilepsy in a genetic animal model.  

PubMed

Hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway occurs after an epileptogenic insult and, its inhibition prevents the development of spontaneous seizures. We have recently demonstrated that mTOR's inhibition by rapamycin (started before seizure onset), permanently reduces the development of spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats, an animal model of absence epilepsy; furthermore, mTOR phosphorylation was increased in adult WAG/Rij rats' cortex, but not other brain areas. However, it was not clear whether this hyperphosphorylation was a cause or a consequence of absence seizure. Here, we have addressed this issue by analyzing immunohistochemically: (1) the brain levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR in young (before seizures) and adult WAG/Rij rats; (2) the proliferation of hippocampal neuronal stem/progenitor cells assessed by BrdU analysis at different ages. WAG/Rij rats have higher levels of total mTOR in several brain areas than Wistar rats; phospho-mTOR staining is higher in young WAG/Rij rats than control and adult WAG/Rij rats. Finally, the age-related decline in hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation rate was slower in WAG/Rij than Wistar rats. Our results support a role for persistent mTOR activation and consequent change in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation during the epileptogenic process leading to the development of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats. PMID:24889758

Russo, Emilio; Follesa, Paolo; Citraro, Rita; Camastra, Caterina; Donato, Annalidia; Isola, Daniela; Constanti, Andrew; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Donato, Giuseppe

2014-11-01

357

Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

PubMed

A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures ("focal" in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system's dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems. PMID:20866849

Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

2010-08-01

358

Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures (focal in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the systems dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems.

Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G.; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

2010-08-01

359

Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures  

SciTech Connect

Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

1983-04-01

360

Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis  

PubMed Central

Background The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We investigated whether a similar situation may occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Method Atypical forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were induced exposing cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi (strains B31 and ADB1) to such unfavorable conditions as osmotic and heat shock, and exposure to the binding agents Thioflavin S and Congo red. We also analyzed whether these forms may be induced in vitro, following infection of primary chicken and rat neurons, as well as rat and human astrocytes. We further analyzed whether atypical forms similar to those induced in vitro may also occur in vivo, in brains of three patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. We used immunohistochemical methods to detect evidence of neuroinflammation in the form of reactive microglia and astrocytes. Results Under these conditions we observed atypical cystic, rolled and granular forms of these spirochetes. We characterized these abnormal forms by histochemical, immunohistochemical, dark field and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The atypical and cystic forms found in the brains of three patients with neuropathologically confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis were identical to those induced in vitro. We also observed nuclear fragmentation of the infected astrocytes using the TUNEL method. Abundant HLA-DR positive microglia and GFAP positive reactive astrocytes were present in the cerebral cortex. Conclusion The results indicate that atypical extra- and intracellular pleomorphic and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local neuroinflammation occur in the brain in chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. The persistence of these more resistant spirochete forms, and their intracellular location in neurons and glial cells, may explain the long latent stage and persistence of Borrelia infection. The results also suggest that Borrelia burgdorferi may induce cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. The detection and recognition of atypical, cystic and granular forms in infected tissues is essential for the diagnosis and the treatment as they can occur in the absence of the typical spiral Borrelia form. PMID:18817547

Miklossy, Judith; Kasas, Sandor; Zurn, Anne D; McCall, Sherman; Yu, Sheng; McGeer, Patrick L

2008-01-01

361

Successful psychotherapy for psychogenic seizures in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined factors contributing to the development and successful treatment of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), in civilian men. In-depth interviews were conducted with therapist-client dyads comprising two male clients who had been successfully treated for PNES and their therapists. A theory-building case study approach provided evidence that those factors known to contribute to PNES and other somatoform symptoms

Maria Clare Quinn; Margot J. Schofield; Warwick Middleton

2012-01-01

362

Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nonepileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (NES) can be classified into five categories. This review focuses on NES associated with\\u000a emotional conflict, by far the most common and important group. Etiology is speculative, but the background histories of these\\u000a patients are often similar. The presence of a trauma history, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the use of dissociation\\u000a plus cognitive dysfunction possibly point

John J. Barry; Katherine Sanborn

2001-01-01

363

[Epileptic seizures complicated by Takotsubo syndrome].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Takotsubo syndrome is a disorder characterised by a reversible ventricular dysfunction, angina-like precordial pain and electromyographic changes with no evidence of coronary obstruction in examinations performed by coronary catheterisation. It is triggered by stress and is frequent following bouts of epileptic seizures. We report the case of a patient who began with this cardiomyopathy following epileptic seizures suffered after one of her haemodialysis sessions. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a 55-year-old female on haemodialysis due to chronic renal failure, with epilepsy secondary to a residual lesion in the right frontoparietal area due to a haematoma that required surgical evacuation. After her haemodialysis session she suffered an attack of focal epilepsy with secondary generalisation and, some hours later, pain in the middle of her chest. Serial enzymes revealed increased levels of troponin I and, electrocardiographically, negative T waves were observed in precordial derivations (V2-V6). Coronary catheterisation was performed, with normal results, and alterations were noted in contractility, which were confirmed as being transient in a serial echocardiography study. All the previous data lead us to a suspected diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome. CONCLUSIONS. Cardiac complications are one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in epilepsy, and Takotsubo syndrome is an example of them. The real incidence of this syndrome is unknown, but given its involvement in mortality caused by heart problems in epilepsy it is important to suspect it in the presence of cardiac dysfunction following epileptic seizures. PMID:25342054

Garea Garcia-Malvar, M J; Gonzalez-Silva, Y; Epureanu-Epureanu, V

2014-11-01

364

Leave of Absence STUDENT INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Phone#: PersonalE-MailAddress: Home College: Department: Class: Semester of Leave (circle one): Fall Spring SummerLeave of Absence STUDENT INFORMATION Student's Reasons for Leave: Expected Semester/Year of Return Comments/Requirements Governing Return: Date Student Began Leave Procedure: / / W Grade(s) Assigned? Yes

Nagle, John F.

365

Effects of childhood absence epilepsy on associations between regional cortical morphometry and aging and cognitive abilities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used surface-based morphometry to examine whether age-related changes in gray matter tissue thickness and depth of sulcal regions at high spatial resolution across the cortex differed in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) compared to healthy control subjects. In addition, the possibility of variable brain-cognition relationships in the CAE compared to the control group was investigated. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) From the developmental perspective, children with CAE did not demonstrate the normal regional age-related changes involving a decrease in cortical thickness and increase in sulcal depth. (2) None of the seizure variables, including age of onset, seizure frequency, and AEDs had a significant effect on the association between age and cortical morphometry measures in the CAE population. (3) Even though the CAE group had mean VIQ and PIQ scores in the average range, our findings suggest that they use different brain regions to perform these cognitive functions compared to healthy controls. This first study on brain morphometry and cognition in children with childhood absence seizures has important implications for advancing our understanding of brain development and cognitive comorbidity in CAE, as well as for revisiting the clinical notion that CAE is a benign disorder. PMID:21391248

Tosun, Duygu; Siddarth, Prabha; Toga, Arthur W.; Hermann, Bruce; Caplan, Rochelle

2010-01-01

366

Ischaemic and haemorrhagic brain lesions in newborns with seizures and normal Apgar scores.  

PubMed Central

Serial ultrasound scans and conventional and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on 16 neonates who presented with seizures. The Apgar scores were normal and subsequently no metabolic or infective cause could be found. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent to which early sequential imaging can elucidate the cause of seizures in apparently neurologically normal infants. Fourteen of the infants had haemorrhagic or ischaemic lesions on MRI and these were detected by ultrasound scanning in 11. Early ultrasound scanning detected the haemorrhagic lesions but the ischaemic lesions were often not seen until the end of the first week of life. Early MRI, however, was able to detect all the ischaemic lesions. The evolution of the insult could be timed by using serial ultrasound scans and a combination of diffusion weighted and conventional MRI during the first week of life, confirming a perinatal insult even in the absence of fetal distress. Although the aetiology of these lesions remains obscure, serial ultrasound scans will detect the presence of cerebral lesions in neonates presenting with isolated seizures but additional MRI sequences will give better definition on type, site, and extent of the pathology. Images Figures 5 and 6 Figure 2 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 1 PMID:7583609

Mercuri, E.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Acolet, D.; Pennock, J.; Dubowitz, L.

1995-01-01

367

enhancer of seizure: A New Genetic Locus in Drosophila melanogaster Defined by Interactions with Temperature-Sensitive Paralytic Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the enhancer of seizure (e( sei)) locus have been isolated on the basis of their ability to cause temperature-induced paralysis of alleles at the seizure (sei ) locus at temperatures at which these mutations ordinarily do not paralyze. This enhancer is specific to the seizure locus and is without effect on other temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants including para, nap, tip-E and shi. This suggests that the enhancer responds specifically to the mechanism of paralysis mediated by the seizure mutations. The e(sei) is a recessive mutation which maps to 39.0 on the left arm of chromosome 3. Deficiency mapping has placed it at 69A4-B5 on the salivary gland polytene chromosome map. When a new enhancer allele was isolated following P-M hybrid dysgenesis, there was a concomitant P-element insertion at 69B. In the absence of seizure mutations, the enhancer mutation causes non-temperature dependent hyperactivity when agitated and interferes with the climbing response. Electrophysiological studies examined the effects of increasing temperature on electrical activity in the adult giant fiber/flight muscle system. Neuronal hyperactivity was seen in both e(sei) and sei single mutant homozygotes, but not in wild type. The hyperactivity was more severe in the sei; e(sei) double mutants. The correlation between the physiological effects and the mutant behavior suggests that both sei and e (sei) cause membrane excitability defects. Since previous work has shown that seizure mutants affect [3H]saxitoxin binding to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel, e(sei) may code for a gene product which interacts with this channel. PMID:2440763

Kasbekar, Durgadas P.; Nelson, James C.; Hall, Linda M.

1987-01-01

368

Measuring clusters of spontaneous spike-wave discharges in absence epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Spike-wave discharges (SWDs) characterizing absence epilepsy appear in closely packed aggregated sequences, which gave rise to the name "pyknolepsy" for this disease. In WAG/Rij rats, genetically prone to absence epilepsy, spontaneous SWDs seem to occur in clusters as well. Here, we aimed to quantify the seizures' clusters. SWDs sequences were extracted from long-term (complete estrous cycle) EEG recordings of adult female WAG/Rij rats. Spectral characteristics and half-decay time of autocorrelation functions (AC-tau) were calculated for time series of i(SWD) (proportion of time occupied by spike-wave activity), measured for subsequent periods. The clusters were characterized by means of AC-tau calculated for time series of i(SWD). The absence seizures were indeed clustered in a minute range. The clustering had a non-periodical character, since no significant and consistent periodicity was found in the minute range. AC-tau correlated positively with propensity of SWDs: i.e. the aggravation of absence epilepsy led to longer sequences of paroxysms and thus to a less random distribution. AC-tau was not sensitive to various phases of the estrous cycle, but was larger in the dark than in the light periods. We suggest that AC-tau can be used to quantify aggregation of epileptic events in the search for physiological basis of its temporal clustering. PMID:16480774

Midzyanovskaya, Inna; Strelkov, Vasily; Rijn, Clementina van; Budziszewska, Boguslava; van Luijtelaar, Egidius; Kuznetsova, Galina

2006-06-30

369

A juvenile case of conjunctival atypical nevus  

PubMed Central

Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2973228795724608 Melanocytic nevi are the most common tumors of the conjunctiva, accounting for 28% of all neoplastic lesions. These tumors, despite their benign behavior, share some atypical histological features with nevi found in other anatomic sites like the genital and acral regions, globally designated as nevi with site-related atypia. Moreover, in children and adolescents, rapidly growing conjunctival nevi show sometimes worrisome histological patterns in association with a prominent inflammatory infiltrate that may lead to diagnostic problems. In this paper we describe a juvenile compound nevus characterized by marked melanocytic atypia and severe inflammation, which can be considered a rare case of juvenile conjunctival atypical nevus. The final diagnosis relied on morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the large epithelioid melanocytic cells, and on the results of FISH analysis. PMID:23607499

2013-01-01

370

Atypical mycobacterial infection mimicking metastatic cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterial infections are rare in developed countries. Isolated involvement of the liver and biliary tree by mycobacterial infection is extremely rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old Caucasian female presenting with obstructive jaundice with a common bile duct stricture and multiple hypodense liver lesions raising suspicion of a metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. Percutaneous core biopsies of the liver lesions however suggested granulomatous process and histology at surgical excision confirmed this finding. Atypical mycobacteria (M. abcessus) sensitive to Amikacin were cultured from the surgical specimen proving the diagnosis. With the resurgence of tubercular and atypical mycobacterial infections in the developed world, it is important not to overlook these in differential diagnosis of various malignancies. PMID:24964448

Kanhere, Harsh A.; Trochsler, Markus I.; Pierides, John; Maddern, Guy J.

2013-01-01

371

Myotendinous rupture of temporalis muscle: A rare injury following seizure  

PubMed Central

Seizures are one of the most common pediatric neurologic disorders. Many complications secondary to seizures have been described in the literature including head trauma, fractures, drowning and burns. However, to the best of our knowledge, rupture of the myotendinous insertion of the temporalis muscle on the mandible secondary to a seizure has never been described in the literature. We report the case of a unilateral temporalis muscle rupture in a 16-year-old boy who developed unilateral facial swelling following new onset tonic-clonic seizures. We emphasize on the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in this case report. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain such an injury. The favored mechanism in our patient is a pull on the temporalis myotendinous insertion on the mandible following vigorous and brisk deviation of the head and neck during seizure. Radiologists should be familiar with this type of injury following seizures in order to prevent misdiagnosis and subsequently mistreatment. PMID:24976940

Naffaa, Lena N; Tandon, Yasmeen K; Rubin, Michael

2014-01-01

372

Toward Multiscale Modeling and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures  

E-print Network

Epileptic seizures are one of the most well-known dysfunctions of the nervous system. During a seizure, a highly synchronized behavior of neural activity is observed that can cause symptoms ranging from mild sensual malfunctions to the complete loss of body control. Epileptic seizures and their prediction have been studied theoretically and experimentally, mostly based on using electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, the dynamical mechanisms that cause seizures are far from being understood. In this paper, we try to contribute towards the understanding by viewing the prediction and dynamical analysis as a multiscale problem involving multiple time as well as multiple spatial scales. On the smallest spatial scale we consider single neurons and investigate predictability of spiking. For clusters of neurons (or neuronal regions) we use patient data near the onset of epileptic seizures and find oscillatory behavior and scaling laws near the seizure onset. On the largest spatial scale we introduce a measure ba...

Kuehn, Christian

2011-01-01

373

Sensitivity testing of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).  

PubMed

The sensitivity of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was evaluated using pooled data from open-label extensions of two clinical trials in patients with partial-onset seizures. The SSQ includes questions relating to frequency and helpfulness of warning signs as well as frequency, severity, and bothersomeness of ictal and postictal effects. Differences between mean change from baseline for each SSQ item for responders and nonresponders were described and compared between patients solely with complex partial seizures (CPSs: responders, n=166; nonresponders, n=127) and those solely with secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPSs: responders, n=26; nonresponders, n=24) at baseline. Seizure Severity Questionnaire total score and individual SSQ items related to ictal movement, consciousness, bothersomeness of postictal effects, and frequency of postictal emotional effects showed differentiation between seizure type responders. These data provide further validation of the SSQ by demonstrating its sensitivity in describing treatment effects. PMID:24275520

Borghs, Simon; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Cramer, Joyce

2014-02-01

374

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 ?mol/2 ?L)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 ?mol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the mean amplitude of EEG recordings during seizures. LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) reverted the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast (0.3 ?mol). Montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) prevented PTZ-induced BBB disruption, an effect that was reversed by LTD4 at the dose of 6 pmol, but not at the doses 0.2 and 2 pmol. Moreover, the doses of LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) that reverted the effect of montelukast on seizures did not alter montelukast-induced protection of BBB, dissociating BBB protection and anticonvulsant activity. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that 1. PTZ increased the number of CD45+ and double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cerebral cortex, indicating BBB leakage with leukocyte infiltration; 2. while LTD4 (6 pmol) potentiated, montelukast decreased the effect of PTZ on leukocyte migration and BBB, assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cannulated hemisphere. Our data do not allow us ruling out that mechanisms unrelated and related to BBB protection may co-exist, resulting in decreased seizure susceptibility by montelukast. Notwithstanding, they suggest that CysLT1 receptors may be a suitable target for anticonvulsant development. PMID:25090924

Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

2014-09-26

375

The Subtlety of Sex-Atypicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memories of sex-atypical behavior and interests in childhood usually differ between homosexual and heterosexual people. However, variation within these broad groups has not previously been explored in detail, especially among women. We utilized data from a postal survey of a nationwide sample of Australian adult twins (n = 4,901, age range: 1952 years). Among men, 15.2% reported homosexual behavior (ever),

Michael P. Dunne; J. Michael Bailey; Katherine M. Kirk; Nicholas G. Martin

2000-01-01

376

An atypical case of Foreign Accent Syndrome.  

PubMed

A new case of Foreign Accent Syndrome is described. This American woman presented with a British- or Australian- sounding accent after stroke, which resulted in a lacunar infarct in the left internal capsule. The atypical etiology and apparent changes in lexical use are described. It is hypothesized that an abnormally tense vocal tract posture may account for phonetic changes in vowel quality and a higher average fundamental frequency. PMID:16428232

Ryalls, Jack; Whiteside, Janet

2006-01-01

377

An atypical form of mucolipidosis III.  

PubMed Central

We report two sibs showing a very mild form of mucolipidosis III with no clinical signs but isolated involvement of the hip and very mild abnormalities of the spine. This indicates that a storage disease, in particular mucolipidosis III, should be considered in any case of isolated bilateral hip dysplasia. The differences from other reported atypical variants of mucolipidosis III are discussed. Images PMID:1453439

Freisinger, P; Padovani, J C; Maroteaux, P

1992-01-01

378

Histology of 8 atypical femoral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The pathophysiology behind bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fractures remains unclear. Histological findings at the fracture site itself may provide clues. Patients and methods Between 2008 and 2013, we collected bone biopsies including the fracture line from 4 complete and 4 incomplete atypical femoral fractures. 7 female patients reported continuous bisphosphonate use for 10 years on average. 1 patient was a man who was not using bisphosphonates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the hip and spine showed no osteoporosis in 6 cases. The bone biopsies were evaluated by micro-computed tomography, infrared spectroscopy, and qualitative histology. Results Incomplete fractures involved the whole cortical thickness and showed a continuous gap with a mean width of 180 m. The gap contained amorphous material and was devoid of living cells. In contrast, the adjacent bone contained living cells, including active osteoclasts. The fracture surfaces sometimes consisted of woven bone, which may have formed in localized defects caused by surface fragmentation or resorption. Interpretation Atypical femoral fractures show signs of attempted healing at the fracture site. The narrow width of the fracture gap and its necrotic contents are compatible with the idea that micromotion prevents healing because it leads to strains within the fracture gap that preclude cell survival. PMID:24786905

Sandberg, Olof; Isaksson, Hanna; Aspenberg, Per

2014-01-01

379

[Pediatric seizures and end-stage renal disease].  

PubMed

Neonates and infants with hypocalcemia usually present with seizures, whereas this is less common in older children and teenagers. We report on a case of hypocalcemic seizures in a 16-year-old girl with undiagnosed end-stage renal disease with progressive growth retardation and bone deformations. We highlight the value of checking serum calcium, phosphate, and creatinine in children with growth retardation, seizures, and/or unexplained bone deformations. We also discuss the clinical consequences of pediatric renal osteodystrophy. PMID:23453718

Roland-Gosselin, B; Ranchin, B; Leclerc, A-L; Dijoud, F; Belot, A; Demde, D; Raux, S; Cochat, P; Bacchetta, J

2013-04-01

380

Epileptic Seizure Detection in EEGs Using Time-Frequency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of recorded epileptic seizure activity in EEG segments is crucial for the localization and classification of epileptic seizures. However, since seizure evolution is typically a dynamic and nonstationary process and the signals are composed of multiple frequencies, visual and conventional frequency-based methods have limited application. In this paper, we demonstrate the suitability of the time-frequency ( t-f) analysis

Alexandros T. Tzallas; Markos G. Tsipouras; Dimitrios I. Fotiadis

2009-01-01

381

Global HypoxiaIschemia and Critical Care Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures after cardiopulmonary arrest are a common problem in the intensive care unit, occurring in as many as one-third of\\u000a these patients during hospitalization. The etiology, treatment, and prognostic importance of seizures in this setting have\\u000a not been well delineated in the literature. Whether seizures exacerbate global hypoxicischemic brain injury in humans remains\\u000a unclear, which raises uncertainty about how aggressively

Matthew A. Koenig; Romergryko Geocadin

382

Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure. PMID:23825891

Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

2013-01-01

383

A microdeletion of the GABRB3 locus on 15q in a child with generalized seizures  

SciTech Connect

A 13-month-old female presented with a history of infrequent febrile tonic-clonic seizures and recent onset of daily absence and clusters of myoclonic seizures. She had minimal developmental delays, slight frontal bossing, a wide nasal bridge and macrostomia. Initial EEG was normal as were multiple metabolic and biochemical determinations. Subsequent EEGs demonstrated normal back ground activity with frequent bursts of generalized, irregular spikes and polyspikes. The child responded favorably to a course of parenteral ACTH and at 17 months, she was maintained on valproic acid, was seizure-free and had a normal EEG. Examination was notable for prominent, socially appropriate smiling, age-appropriate speech, and significant ataxia and tremor. High resolution G-banded chromosome analysis revealed a suspected deletion of 15q11.2 and part of 15q12. FISH was performed with ONCOR probes to the D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3 loci. A total of 30 metaphase cells (from two separate blood samples) were examined and revealed positive hybridization on both chromosome 15 homologues for D15S11, SNRPN, and D15S10. However, the GABRB3 probe revealed positive hybridization to only one chromosome 15 homologue, thus supporting the interpretation of a deletion of this region. FISH analyses of the patient`s parents are in progress as are methylation studies. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first report of a deletion of GAMRB3 which does not extend proximally to include all of D15S10 in a patient presenting with generalizied seizures. Careful comparison of this patient`s phenotype to that of Angelman syndrome will therefore be most informative for furthering genotype-phenotype correlations within this critical region of 15q.

Hirsch, B.; Krueger, L.; Nook, J. [Univ. of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

384

Progressive NKCC1-dependent neuronal chloride accumulation during neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures induce excitatory shifts in the reversal potential for GABAA receptor-mediated responses, which may contribute to the intractability of electroencephalographic seizures and preclude the efficacy of widely-used GABAergic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. We now report that in intact hippocampi prepared from neonatal rats and transgenic mice expressing Clomeleon, recurrent seizures progressively increase the intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) assayed by Clomeleon imaging and invert the net effect of GABAA receptor activation from inhibition to excitation assayed by the frequency of action potentials and intracellular Ca2+ transients. These changes correlate with increasing frequency of seizure-like events and reduction in phenobarbital efficacy. The Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) co-transporter blocker bumetanide inhibited seizure-induced neuronal Cl? accumulation and the consequent facilitation of recurrent seizures. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which seizure activity leads to [Cl?]i accumulation, thereby increasing the probability of subsequent seizures. This provides a potential mechanism for the early crescendo phase of neonatal seizures. PMID:20810895

Dzhala, Volodymyr I.; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Glykys, Joseph C.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Swiercz, Waldemar B.; Feng, Guoping; Kuner, Thomas; Augustine, George J.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Staley, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

385

Chvostek's sign and hypocalcaemia in children with seizures.  

PubMed

Chvostek's sign (CS) was investigated in 154 patients with seizures (epilepsy, n = 91; non-epileptic event, n = 41; febrile convulsion, n = 19; hypocalcaemic seizure, n = 3). Patients with febrile convulsions or non-epileptic seizures had either negative or mild CS. Marked CS was only found among those with the diagnosis of epilepsy or hypocalcaemia. Normocalcaemic patients had no other signs of neuromuscular hyperexcitability (NMH) while those with hypocalcaemia manifested positive Trousseau's sign (TS) and other signs of NMH. There was no significant correlation between CS and seizure control, epilepsy classification and EEG findings. PMID:15121128

Ahmed, M A S; Martinez, A; Mariam, S; Whitehouse, W

2004-06-01

386

Evolving functional network properties and synchronizability during human epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

We assess electrical brain dynamics before, during, and after one-hundred human epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations by statistical and spectral properties of functionally defined networks. We observe a concave-like temporal evolution of characteristic path length and cluster coefficient indicative of a movement from a more random toward a more regular and then back toward a more random functional topology. Surprisingly, synchronizability was significantly decreased during the seizure state but increased already prior to seizure end. Our findings underline the high relevance of studying complex systems from the view point of complex networks, which may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying epileptic seizures.

Schindler, Kaspar A; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Elger, Christian E; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-01-01

387

Evolving functional network properties and synchronizability during human epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess electrical brain dynamics before, during, and after 100 human epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations by statistical and spectral properties of functionally defined networks. We observe a concave-like temporal evolution of characteristic path length and cluster coefficient indicative of a movement from a more random toward a more regular and then back toward a more random functional topology. Surprisingly, synchronizability was significantly decreased during the seizure state but increased already prior to seizure end. Our findings underline the high relevance of studying complex systems from the viewpoint of complex networks, which may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying epileptic seizures.

Schindler, Kaspar A.; Bialonski, Stephan; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

2008-09-01

388

Improving models for control of seizures and spreading depression.  

E-print Network

??Epileptic seizures and spreading depression are both pathological conditions characterized by abnormal, excessive discharge of population neuronal activities, accompanied by massive perturbation of ion homeostasis. (more)

Wei, Yina

2013-01-01

389

Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

1989-01-01

390

CASE REPORT Open Access Atypical case of Wolfram syndrome revealed  

E-print Network

. The patient presented with diabetes mellitus, diffuse brain atrophy, autonomic neuropathy, optic nerve atrophy peripheral polyneuropa- thy, sensorineural deafness, optic atrophy, diabetes mel- litus, seizures, and ataxia

Mootha, Vamsi K.

391

Atypical odontalgia: an up-to-date view.  

PubMed

Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a little known chronic pain condition. It usually presents as pain in a site where a tooth was endodontically treated or extracted, in the absence of clinical or radiographic evidence of tooth pathology. It is a rare clinical challenge for most clinicians, which leads to the patients being referred to several specialists and sometimes undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. The pain mechanisms involved in AO are far from clear, and numerous potential mechanisms have been suggested. Currently, the most accredited hypothesis is that AO is a neuropathic pain condition caused by deafferentation. The differential diagnosis of AO remains difficult, because it shares symptoms with many others pathologies affecting this area. Patients have difficulties accepting the AO diagnosis and treatment. As a result, they frequently change physicians, and may potentially also receive several invasive treatments, usually resulting in an aggravation of the pain. Although some patients do get complete pain relief following treatment, for most patients the goal should be to achieve adequate pain management. Currently, most management is based on expert opinion and case reports. More research and high quality randomized controlled trials are needed in order to develop evidence-based treatments, currently based on expert opinion or carried over from other neuropathic pain conditions in the orofacial region. PMID:23715202

Tarce, M; Barbieri, C; Sardella, A

2013-05-01

392

78 FR 56984 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-09-16

393

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2012-04-01

394

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2013-04-01

395

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2012-01-01

396

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2014-01-01

397

78 FR 68144 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-11-13

398

Characterization of Seizures Induced by Acute and Repeated Exposure to Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine  

E-print Network

Characterization of Seizures Induced by Acute and Repeated Exposure. To provide a basis for the investigation of antidotes for TETS-induced seizures, we characterized caused immobility, myoclonic body jerks, clonic seizures of the forelimbs and/or hindlimbs, tonic

Hammock, Bruce D.

399

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2012-01-01

400

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2013-01-01

401

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2012-01-01

402

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

403

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2010-04-01

404

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2011-04-01

405

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2013-04-01

406

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2012-01-01

407

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2014-01-01

408

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2013-04-01

409

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

410

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

411

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2013-01-01

412

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

413

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

...2014-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2014-01-01

414

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2013-01-01

415

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

416

78 FR 3079 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-01-15

417

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2013-01-01

418

78 FR 49319 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-08-13

419

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2014-01-01

420

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

...2014-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2014-01-01

421

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2013-01-01

422

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2014-04-01

423

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2012-04-01

424

75 FR 37707 - Administrative Process for Seizures and Forfeitures Under the Immigration and Nationality Act and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1651-AA58 Administrative Process for Seizures and Forfeitures Under the Immigration...final rule that consolidated the asset seizure and forfeiture procedures for customs...ICE retained authority to perform asset seizures and forfeitures under the...

2010-06-30

425

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2013-01-01

426

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

427

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2011-04-01

428

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2012-01-01

429

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2012-04-01

430

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2014-04-01

431

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

432

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2010-04-01

433

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

434

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2012-01-01

435

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

436

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2014-01-01

437

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2011-04-01

438

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

439

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2014-04-01

440

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

441

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

442

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2010-04-01

443

Seizures and Teens: The Impact of Seizures and Epilepsy on Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a teenager or child of any age develops seizures, the impact on the family can be enormous. Worries and fears may affect everyone, and left untreated, crises can occur too easily. This article explores the way that epilepsy can affect family dynamics. Common factors that may contribute to family stress and patterns of coping will be

Weinstein, Sandra Cushner

2007-01-01

444

Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)

Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

2008-01-01

445

Block term decomposition for modelling epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recordings of neural activity, such as EEG, are an inherent mixture of different ongoing brain processes as well as artefacts and are typically characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, EEG datasets are often inherently multidimensional, comprising information in time, along different channels, subjects, trials, etc. Additional information may be conveyed by expanding the signal into even more dimensions, e.g. incorporating spectral features applying wavelet transform. The underlying sources might show differences in each of these modes. Therefore, tensor-based blind source separation techniques which can extract the sources of interest from such multiway arrays, simultaneously exploiting the signal characteristics in all dimensions, have gained increasing interest. Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) has been successfully used to extract epileptic seizure activity from wavelet-transformed EEG data (Bioinformatics 23(13):i10-i18, 2007; NeuroImage 37:844-854, 2007), where each source is described by a rank-1 tensor, i.e. by the combination of one particular temporal, spectral and spatial signature. However, in certain scenarios, where the seizure pattern is nonstationary, such a trilinear signal model is insufficient. Here, we present the application of a recently introduced technique, called block term decomposition (BTD) to separate EEG tensors into rank- ( L r , L r ,1) terms, allowing to model more variability in the data than what would be possible with CPD. In a simulation study, we investigate the robustness of BTD against noise and different choices of model parameters. Furthermore, we show various real EEG recordings where BTD outperforms CPD in capturing complex seizure characteristics.

Hunyadi, Borbla; Camps, Daan; Sorber, Laurent; Paesschen, Wim Van; Vos, Maarten De; Huffel, Sabine Van; Lathauwer, Lieven De

2014-12-01

446

Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection and Prolonged Diarrhea in Children  

PubMed Central

Some clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) lack bundle-forming pili and are termed atypical EPEC. The aim of this study was to determine if atypical EPEC are pathogens by comparing the clinical features of patients infected with atypical EPEC with those of children infected with other causative agents of diarrhea. Fecal samples obtained from children attending the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne for investigation of diarrhea were examined for adenovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., protozoa, and pathogenic E. coli. Clinical data were obtained by using a standardized pro forma and analyzed separately. Patients infected with atypical EPEC experienced mild, nondehydrating, and noninflammatory diarrhea that was not particularly associated with fever, vomiting, or abdominal pain. However, the duration of diarrhea in patients infected with atypical EPEC was significantly longer than that caused by the other species or where no pathogens were identified. Infection with atypical EPEC is associated with prolonged diarrhea. PMID:16704807

Nguyen, Rang N.; Taylor, Louise S.; Tauschek, Marija

2006-01-01

447

Recurrent ocular involvement in pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a subtype of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with complement alternative pathway dysregulation. It is clinically characterized by a relapsing course and a poor prognosis. Multiple organ systems are commonly affected by thrombotic microangiopathy in pediatric atypical HUS; however, ocular involvement is rarely reported. The case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed as having atypical HUS who presented with bilateral central retinal vein occlusions with macular subhyaloid hemorrhage during her initial onset and ophthalmoplegia, diplopia, and optic disc edema during her relapsing episode 1 year later is described. All ocular manifestations occurred in the convalescence phase of atypical HUS. No other extrarenal complications were found and full recovery was achieved following typical treatment for atypical HUS (ie, plasma infusion, steroid, and supportive therapy). This is thought to be the first reported case of recurrent ocular involvement in pediatric atypical HUS. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2014;51:e62-e65.]. PMID:25347082

Zheng, Xiaoyu; Gorovoy, Ian R; Mao, Jianhua; Jin, Ji; Chen, Xi; Cui, Qi N

2014-01-01

448

Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient. PMID:24580991

Lavely, James A

2014-03-01

449

Pathology Case Study: Seizures and Progressive Dementia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old female has seizures and progressive dementia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Friese, Michael; Kern, Michael A.; Rudolf, Jobst; Schroder, Roland; Wengler-Becker, Ursula

2008-02-29

450

Pathology Case Study: New Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old nurse is experiencing headaches and seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Hamilton, Ronald; Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

2009-09-24

451

Absence of satellites of asteroids  

SciTech Connect

The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references.

Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

1987-05-01

452

Molecular Insights Into the Evolutionary Pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 Atypical El Tor Variants  

PubMed Central

Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor. PMID:25233006

Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D.; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G. Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

2014-01-01

453

A micropower support vector machine based seizure detection architecture embedded medical devices  

E-print Network

Implantable neurostimulators for the treatment of epilepsy that are capable of sensing seizures can enable novel therapeutic applications. However, detecting seizures is challenging due to significant intracranial EEG ...

Denison, Timothy

454

A micropower support vector machine based seizure detection architecture for embedded medical devices  

E-print Network

Implantable neurostimulators for the treatment of epilepsy that are capable of sensing seizures can enable novel therapeutic applications. However, detecting seizures is challenging due to significant intracranial EEG ...

Shoeb, Ali H.

455

Owners or hospital staff can be unaware of seizure occurrence.  

E-print Network

1 #12;Owners or hospital staff can be unaware of seizure occurrence. 2 #12;Canine seizures ­ There has been a rise in malpractice lawsuits directed at veterinary doctors. Appease worried owners malpractice. Owners of practice always benefit from keeping their establishment technologically competent. 20

Levi, Anthony F. J.

456

Amnesic syndrome after theophylline associated seizures: iatrogenic brain injury.  

PubMed Central

Two patients developed a disabling amnesic syndrome after seizures associated with oral theophylline treatment. Such seizures are more likely in the elderly, in the presence of pre-existing neurological disease, and when theophylline is given with certain antibiotics and cimetidine. The mechanism of neuronal injury may be by the excessive release of endogenous excitotoxic glutamate. Images PMID:8201347

O'Riordan, J I; Hutchinson, J; FitzGerald, M X; Hutchinson, M

1994-01-01

457

Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

458

Search & Seizure in the Schools. A Model Policy and Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of search and seizure in the public schools is clouded by conflicting legal decisions. School policies and rules on the issue should be made only after considerable deliberation and community input. Because of the lack of clarity, this model of search and seizure policy and rules is intended only as a basis for consideration of the

Bartlett, Larry; And Others

459

Survey of Washington Search and Seizure Law: 1998 Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Survey, as did the previous Surveys, summarizes the predominant treatment of search and seizure issues under the Fourth Amendment and under article I, section 7 of the Washington State Constitution to the extent that this state's provision is interpreted differently from the federal provision. The Survey focuses primarily on substantive search and seizure law in the criminal context; it

Justice Charles W. Johnson

1998-01-01

460

If I Had - A Child Who Had a Seizure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Sperling, MD, Emory University If I Had - A Child Who Had a Seizure - Dr. Raymond Sze, MD, Children's National Medical Center If I Had - Esophageal Cancer - ... Back to Home Page If I Had - A Child Who Had a Seizure - Dr. Raymond Sze, MD, ...

461

CONSTRAINED ICA FOR SEIZURE ONSET ANALYSIS IN THE EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of epileptic seizure waveform from the electroencephalogram (EEG) using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was demonstrated by James and Lowe. A recent variation, Constrained ICA, allows a supplied reference signal to select a single component to be extracted. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the problem of seizure waveform extraction from EEG signals prior to the

Oliver Gibson; Christopher James

462

Fear as the main feature of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThere are circumstances in which partial seizures may be misdiagnosed as acute psychiatric disturbances. In particular, when fear is the prominent feature the patient may be considered for years as having panic attacks. Eight patients in whom fear was the main symptom of the seizures are reported on. Patients who had a proved lack of consciousness during the fits and

A Biraben; D Taussig; P Thomas; C Even; J P Vignal; J M Scarabin; P Chauvel

2001-01-01

463

Ontogenetic study of metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic differences in susceptibility to metaphit (1-(1-(3-isothiocyanatophenyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine)-induced audiogenic seizures were examined in young, developing (ages: 12, 18, and 25 days) and adult (90 days old) Wistar albino rats. Metaphit was injected in a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. and animals were subjected to intense audio stimulation (100 +/- 3 dB, 60 s) at hourly intervals after administration. Audiogenic seizures (AGS) were scored according to a four point descriptive rating scale (0-3). AGS were elicited in all age groups; they were induced for 12, 15, 15, and 30 h in 12-, 18-, 25-day-old, and adult rats, respectively. Younger animals reached a peak incidence and severity of seizures before adult rats. Twenty-five-day-old rats showed greatest incidence and severity of seizures, and shortest latency. Twelve-day-old animals had longest latencies. Besides audiogenic seizures, we observed convulsions induced by metaphit only in the form of running episodes, forelimb clonus, clonic convulsions, and rearing. Results suggest that young rats develop metaphit-induced sound seizures more rapidly, but that adults have longer period of seizure susceptibility. Different susceptibility to seizures is probably due to changes in excitatory and inhibitory pathways, while maturation of blood-brain barrier is less probable, since metaphit has a lipophilic nature. PMID:15763274

Zivanovic, Dragana; Stanojlovic, Olivera; Mirkovic, Slobodan; Susic, Veselinka

2005-03-22

464

Seizures and hyponatremia after excessive intake of diet coke.  

PubMed

We describe a case of epileptic seizures after a massive intake of diet coke. Apart from the hyponatremia due to water intoxication the convulsions can be potentiated by the high dose of caffeine and aspartame from the diet coke. To our knowledge this is the first report of seizures due to excessive diet coke intake. PMID:18180668

Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Loo, Michel; De Cauwer, Harald G; Merlevede, Karen

2008-02-01

465

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

...Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2014-04-01

466

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2012-07-01

467

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2012-04-01

468

Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were

Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

2010-01-01

469

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2010-07-01

470

Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population

Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

2009-01-01

471

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2013-04-01

472

Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of

Holmes, Gregory L.

2004-01-01

473

Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

474

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

...National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2014-07-01

475

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2011-04-01

476

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2011-07-01

477

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2013-07-01

478

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2010-04-01

479

Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy-electroencephalography study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously on the mouse brain and investigated the hemodynamic response to epileptic episodes under pharmacologically driven seizure. ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were applied to induce absence and tonic-clonic seizures, respectively. The epileptic episodes were identified from the single-channel EEG, and the corresponding hemodynamic changes in different regions of the brain were characterized by multichannel frequency-domain NIRS. Our results are the following: (i) the oxyhemoglobin level increases in the case of GBL-treated mice but not 4-AP-treated mice compared to the predrug state; (ii) the dominant response to each absence seizure is a decrease in deoxyhemolobin; (iii) the phase shift between oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin reduces in GBL-treated mice but no 4-AP-treated mice; and (iv) the spatial correlation of hemodynamics increased significantly in 4-AP-treated mice but not in GBL-treated mice. Our results shows that spatiotemporal tracking of cerebral hemodynamics using NIRS can be successfully applied to the mouse brain in conjunction with electrophysiological recording, which will support the study of molecular, cellular, and network origin of neurovascular coupling in vivo.

Lee, Seungduk; Lee, Mina; Koh, Dalkwon; Kim, Beop-Min; Choi, Jee Hyun

2010-05-01

480

Atypical resting synchrony in autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly understood to be associated with aberrant functional brain connectivity. Few studies, however, have described such atypical neural synchrony among specific brain regions. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize alterations in functional connectivity in adolescents with ASD through source space analysis of phase synchrony. Resting-state MEG data were collected from 16 adolescents with ASD and 15 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents. Atlas-guided reconstruction of neural activity at various cortical and subcortical regions was performed and inter-regional phase synchrony was calculated in physiologically relevant frequency bands. Using a multilevel approach, we characterized atypical resting-state synchrony within specific anatomically defined networks as well as altered network topologies at both regional and whole-network scales. Adolescents with ASD demonstrated frequency-dependent alterations in inter-regional functional connectivity. Hyperconnectivity was observed among the frontal, temporal, and subcortical regions in beta and gamma frequency ranges. In contrast, parietal and occipital regions were hypoconnected to widespread brain regions in theta and alpha bands in ASD. Furthermore, we isolated a hyperconnected network in the gamma band in adolescents with ASD which encompassed orbitofrontal, subcortical, and temporal regions implicated in social cognition. Results from graph analyses confirmed that frequency-dependent alterations of network topologies exist at both global and local levels. We present the first source-space investigation of oscillatory phase synchrony in resting-state MEG in ASD. This work provides evidence of atypical connectivity at physiologically relevant time scales and indicates that alterations of functional connectivity in adolescents with ASD are frequency dependent and region dependent. Hum Brain Mapp 35:6049-6066, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25116896

Ye, Annette X; Leung, Rachel C; Schfer, Carmen B; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M

2014-12-01

481

Mapping seizure pathways in the temporal lobe.  

PubMed

Interest in temporal lobe seizure pathways has a long history based initially on the human condition of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This interest in TLE has extended more recently into explorations of experimental models. In this review, the network structures in the temporal lobe that are recruited in animal models during various forms of limbic seizures and status epilepticus are described. Common to all of the various models is recruitment of the parahippocampal cortices, including the piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal areas. This cortical involvement is seen in in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological recordings throughout the network, in trans-synaptic neuroplastic changes in associated network structures manifest at the molecular level, in network energy utilization visualized by 14C2-deoxyglucose uptake, and finally, in the behavioral consequences of network lesions. The conclusions of the animal models reviewed here are very similar to those described for the human condition presented recently in the 2006 Lennox lecture by Warren Blume, and addressed 53 years ago in the quadrennial meeting of the ILAE in 1953 by Henri Gastaut. PMID:18304253

McIntyre, Dan C; Gilby, Krista L

2008-01-01

482

Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation  

PubMed Central

Objective Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common neurological disorder observed in the pediatric age group. The present study provides information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as risk factors associated with FS among Iranian children. Materials & Methods On the computerized literature valid databases, the FS prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects model. A metaregression analysis was introduced to explore heterogeneity between studies. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using Stata10. Results The important viral or bacterial infection causes of FSs were; recent upper respiratory infection 42.3% (95% CI: 37.2%47.4%), gastroenteritis21.5% (95% CI: 13.6%29.4%), and otitis media nfections15.2% (95% CI: 9.8%- 20.7%) respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of FS among other childhood convulsions was 47.9% (95% CI: 38.859.9%). The metaregression analysis showed that the sample size does not significantly affect heterogeneity for the factor prevalence FS. Conclusion Almost half of all childhood convulsions among Iranian children are associated with Febrile seizure. PMID:25143771

DELPISHEH, Ali; VEISANI, Yousef; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; FAYYAZI, Afshin

2014-01-01

483

Reversible neurological syndromes with atypical pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous or sequential involvement of lungs is frequently encountered with neurological syndromes like meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, aseptic meningitis, transverse myelitis, or multiple cranial nerve palsies. However, pulmonary involvement is frequently overlooked when all the attention of physician is diverted to neurological disorder. Prompt and early recognition of such potentially treatable association is required to improve diagnostic and therapeutic outcome. We report six patients presenting with various neurological manifestations like meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelits associated with atypical pneumonia. With proper clinical correlation and relevant investigations, all of them were diagnosed in time and had remarkable recovery with appropriate treatment. PMID:21808478

Panagariya, Ashok; Sharma, A. K.; Dev, Amit; Kankane, Arvind; Sharma, Bhawna; Dubey, Parul

2011-01-01

484

Atypical acute leukemia early after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been rarely reported after transplantation, namely seven cases described so far. The putative mechanism of action is long-standing immunosuppression, even though no clear correlation with the type of drug has ever been demonstrated. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient who presented with a early onset of AML after liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus-related acute liver failure. The AML was characterized by aggressive clinical features with extrahematologic sites of involvement and an atypical immunophenotype; the laboratory findings were consistent with the diagnosis of monocytic acute leukemia. PMID:19917419

Mannelli, F; De Simone, P; Gianfaldoni, G; Nozzoli, C; Filipponi, F; Bosi, A

2009-11-01

485

Genitourinary Tuberculosis: An Atypical Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Genitourinary tuberculosis is one of the common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report a case of atypical genitourinary tuberculosis: massive uterovaginal prolapse with cervical lesion mimicking cervical carcinoma. This particular case highlights the problem of healthcare in most of the developing countries. Lack of patient education, awareness, and access to a healthcare system resulted in a complicated situation. In an endemic area or in an immunocompromised individual, a higher index of suspicion would allow early recognition and treatment institution to minimise its late consequences as well as spreading of the disease. Though anti-TB is the mainstay of treatment, surgical intervention might be needed in selected cases. PMID:23320216

Lim, Pei Shan; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Naidu, Aruku

2012-01-01

486

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a pre-seizure state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

487

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-09-01

488

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients, and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan

2013-01-01

489

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

490

Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. PMID:23119054

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

491

Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels

Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

2010-01-01

492

Atypical Bourneville sclerosis without epilepsy and mental retardation: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Twenty-four-year-old woman without familiar detected signs of Bourneville's disease or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) was diagnosed with this disease by casual discovery on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an intraventricular tumor, after symptoms consist in headache, equilibrium disturbances, and progressive loss of vision. MRI shows an intracranial mass, 332430 mm in size, localized at the level of third ventricle and lateral ventricles, with irregular shape, interesting the foramen of Monroe. There are also nodular areas of calcification and a supratentorial hydrocephalus involving the lateral ventricles and the posterior part of the third ventricle. The patients present facial angiofibromas, but from the classical triad of the disease, the epilepsy and mental retardation were absent, the patient never presented seizures. The total removal of the tumor (peace to peace) was performed surgically, the macroscopic features of resected tumor (20/10/10 mm) was of white-gray color, elastic consistency, localized in the both lateral ventricles (left>right) and into the third ventricle, traversing the foramen Monroe. The histopatological examination associated with specific localization of tumor and the facial angiofibromas are very suggestive for subependimar giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). We have a rare case of atypical or incomplete TSC in which the epileptic seizures and the mental retardation are absent, the intelligence is normal, but occur some psychical symptoms: anxiety, sleeplessness, and autism or behavior disturbances. The evolution of this case was marked by complications because of postoperative hydrocephalus and multiple shunt insertions and revisions were performed after the tumor resection. PMID:24969994

Ciobanu, Adela Magdalena; Lisievici, Mihai Gheorghe; Coman, Teodora Camelia; Ciurea, Jean; Popa, Mihaela Camelia

2014-01-01