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1

A case of atypical absence seizures after electroconvulsive treatment in a patient with treatment-resistant depression.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used to treat severe treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Multiple psychotropic medications are usually prescribed in high doses prior to or concomitantly with ECT. Little is known about the interaction of ECT with psychotropic medications. ECT is known to induce seizures, but its tendency to induce absence seizures is not. We present a case of a 44-year-old female, on multiple psychotropic medications, who had frequent atypical absence seizures for many days after ECT. Electroencephalography (EEG) confirmed atypical absence seizures by the presence of typical 2.5 to 3 Hz generalized sharp and slow waves with disorganized background activity. PMID:23248334

Burakgazi, Evren; Dalkilic, Alican; Moghal, Usman; Shah, Umang; Carran, Melissa

2013-01-01

2

Current and emerging treatments for absence seizures in young patients.  

PubMed

In this report, we review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of the different absence seizure types as recently recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy: typical absences, atypical absences, myoclonic absences, and eyelid myoclonia with absences. Overall, valproate and ethosuximide remain the principal anti-absence drugs. Typical absence seizures exhibit a specific electroclinical semiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacological response profile. A large-scale comparative study has recently confirmed the key role of ethosuximide in the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy, more than 50 years after its introduction. No new antiepileptic drug has proven major efficacy against typical absences. Of the medications under development, brivaracetam might be an efficacious anti-absence drug. Some experimental drugs also show efficacy in animal models of typical absence seizures. The treatment of other absence seizure types is not supported with a high level of evidence. Rufinamide appears to be the most promising new antiepileptic drug for atypical absences and possibly for myoclonic absences. The efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation should be further evaluated for atypical absences. Levetiracetam appears to display a particular efficacy in eyelid myoclonia with absences. Finally, it is important to remember that the majority of antiepileptic drugs, whether they be old or new, may aggravate typical and atypical absence seizures. PMID:23885176

Vrielynck, Pascal

2013-01-01

3

Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.  

PubMed

Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, P?nar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

2014-01-01

4

Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures  

PubMed Central

Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association.

Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, P?nar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

2014-01-01

5

Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Usually these children are otherwise normal. An EEG ( “brain wave”) test shows a specific pattern that helps confirm ... absence seizure in children with this diagnosis. A brain wave test (EEG) showing the typical pattern for CAE ( ...

6

Focal corticothalamic sources during generalized absence seizures: a MEG study.  

PubMed

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine cortical and subcortical contributions to the formation of spike and wave discharges in twelve newly diagnosed, drug naïve children during forty-four generalized absence seizures. Previous studies have implicated various cortical areas and thalamic nuclei in the generation of absence seizures, but the relative timing of their activity remains unclear. Beamformer analysis using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to confirm the presence of independent thalamic activity, and standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Topography (sLORETA) was used to compute statistical maps indicating source locations during absence seizures. Sources detected in the 50ms prior to the start of the seizure were more likely to be localized to the frontal cortex or thalamus. At the time of the first spike on EEG, focal source localization was seen in the lateral frontal cortex with decreased thalamic localization. Following the spike, localization became more widespread throughout the cortex. Comparison of the earliest spike and wave discharge (SWD) (Ictal Onset) and a SWD occurring 3s into the seizure (mid-Ictal) revealed significant differences during the slow wave portion of the SWDs. This study of MEG recordings in childhood absence seizures provides additional evidence that there are focal brain areas responsible for these seizures which appear bilaterally symmetric and generalized with a conventional 10-20 placement scalp EEG. PMID:23764296

Tenney, Jeffrey R; Fujiwara, Hisako; Horn, Paul S; Jacobson, Sarah E; Glauser, Tracy A; Rose, Douglas F

2013-09-01

7

Treatment of typical absence seizures and related epileptic syndromes.  

PubMed

Typical absences are brief (seconds) generalised seizures of sudden onset and termination. They have 2 essential components: clinically, the impairment of consciousness (absence) and, generalised 3 to 4Hz spike/polyspike and slow wave discharges on electroencephalogram (EEG). They differ fundamentally from other seizures and are pharmacologically unique. Their clinical and EEG manifestations are syndrome-related. Impairment of consciousness may be severe, moderate, mild or inconspicuous. This is often associated with motor manifestations, automatisms and autonomic disturbances. Clonic, tonic and atonic components alone or in combination are motor symptoms; myoclonia, mainly of facial muscles, is the most common. The ictal EEG discharge may be consistently brief (2 to 5 seconds) or long (15 to 30 seconds), continuous or fragmented, with single or multiple spikes associated with the slow wave. The intradischarge frequency may be constant or may vary (2.5 to 5Hz). Typical absences are easily precipitated by hyperventilation in about 90% of untreated patients. They are usually spontaneous, but can be triggered by photic, pattern, video games stimuli, and mental or emotional factors. Typical absences usually start in childhood or adolescence. They occur in around 10 to 15% of adults with epilepsies, often combined with other generalised seizures. They may remit with age or be lifelong. Syndromic diagnosis is important for treatment strategies and prognosis. Absences may be severe and the only seizure type, as in childhood absence epilepsy. They may predominate in other syndromes or be mild and nonpredominant in syndromes such as juvenile myoclonic epilepsy where myoclonic jerks and generalised tonic clonic seizures are the main concern. Typical absence status epilepticus occurs in about 30% of patients and is more common in certain syndromes, e.g. idiopathic generalised epilepsy with perioral myoclonia or phantom absences. Typical absence seizures are often easy to diagnose and treat. Valproic acid, ethosuximide and lamotrigine, alone or in combination, are first-line therapy. Valproic acid controls absences in 75% of patients and also GTCS (70%) and myoclonic jerks (75%); however, it may be undesirable for some women. Similarly, lamotrigine may control absences and GTCS in possibly 50 to 60% of patients, but may worsen myoclonic jerks; skin rashes are common. Ethosuximide controls 70% of absences, but it is unsuitable as monotherapy if other generalised seizures coexist. A combination of any of these 3 drugs may be needed for resistant cases. Low dosages of lamotrigine added to valproic acid may have a dramatic beneficial effect. Clonazepam, particularly in absences with myoclonic components, and acetazolamide may be useful adjunctive drugs. PMID:11393330

Panayiotopoulos, C P

2001-01-01

8

Absence seizures during pregnancy in WAG\\/Rij rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneously occurring spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and serum concentrations of ovarian steroid hormones were investigated before, during and after pregnancy in WAG\\/Rij rats, a rat strain with genetically determined absence seizures. Eight groups of rats were included in the assays of progesterone and estradiol: rats at diestrus, at various days of pregnancy and at lactating days. The number of SWDs in

Elena A Tolmacheva; Serguei A Chepurnov; Nina E Chepurnova; Yakov A Kochetkov; Gilles van Luijtelaar

2004-01-01

9

Environmental enrichment improves behavioral outcome in the AY-9944 model of childhood atypical absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Atypical absence seizures are drug resistant in the majority of children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and herald a poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Here we studied the effects of environmental enrichment, enriched housing conditions designed to stimulate sensory and motor systems in the brain, on behavioral outcome in mice treated with the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor AY-9944 (AY), a clinically relevant model of atypical absence epilepsy. Beginning at postnatal day (P) 2, C3H mice were treated with AY (7.5 mg/kg) every 6 days until P20 and then weaned into enriched or standard cages. After 30 days (?P50), AY mice from the enriched housing condition exhibited less behavioral hyperactivity and anxiety, improved olfactory recognition, and spatial learning, but no significant reduction in the number of ictal discharges in comparison with their non-enriched cohorts. The beneficial effects of environmental enrichment in AY model were in some behavioral tests gender-specific in favor of males suggesting that other, possibly hormonally mediated mechanisms, may interact with the therapeutic effects of enrichment. Taken together, these data provide a starting point to derive clinical occupational therapies for improving behavioral outcome in cases of intractable childhood seizures. PMID:22471338

Stewart, Lee S; Cortez, Miguel A; Snead, O Carter

2012-08-01

10

Deterministic dynamics of neural activity during absence seizures in rats.  

PubMed

The study of brain electrical activities in terms of deterministic nonlinear dynamics has recently received much attention. Forbidden ordinal patterns (FOP) is a recently proposed method to investigate the determinism of a dynamical system through the analysis of intrinsic ordinal properties of a nonstationary time series. The advantages of this method in comparison to others include simplicity and low complexity in computation without further model assumptions. In this paper, the FOP of the EEG series of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg was examined to demonstrate evidence of deterministic dynamics during epileptic states. Experiments showed that the number of FOP of the EEG series grew significantly from an interictal to an ictal state via a preictal state. These findings indicated that the deterministic dynamics of neural networks increased significantly in the transition from the interictal to the ictal states and also suggested that the FOP measures of the EEG series could be considered as a predictor of absence seizures. PMID:19518212

Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Li, Xiaoli; Dang, Chuangyin; Richards, Douglas A

2009-04-01

11

Idiopathic generalised epilepsy in adults manifested by phantom absences, generalised tonic-clonic seizures, and frequent absence status  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To describe the clinical and EEG features of adult patients with very mild absences, late onset generalised tonic clonic seizures, and frequent absence status.?METHODS—Patients were referrals to a clinic for epilepsies. They all had clinical assessment and EEG, video EEG, or both for documentation of absences.?RESULTS—Of 86 adults with idiopathic generalised epilepsies and EEG/video-EEG documented absences, 13 patients showed similar clinico-EEG features with: (a) "phantom absences" consisting of mild ictal impairment of cognition associated with brief (3-4 s), generalised 3-4 Hz spike/multiple spike and slow wave discharges; (b) infrequent, mainly late onset, generalised tonic clonic seizures, and (c), absence status which occurred in six of them either in isolation or terminating with generalised tonic clonic seizures. None of the patients had myoclonic jerks or photosensitivity. Two patients were father and daughter and another patient had a family history of infrequent generalised tonic clonic seizures.?CONCLUSION—It seems that this is an idiopathic generalised epilepsy syndrome in adults which has not been previously recognised.?? PMID:9408104

Panayiotopoulos, C; Koutroumanidis, M; Giannakodimos, S; Agathonikou, A

1997-01-01

12

Nodular heterotopia and absence seizures: fMRI evidence that they may be connected.  

PubMed

In this study we used EEG-fMRI to investigate whether peri-ventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) are connected to the seizure generating network in individuals initially diagnosed with absence seizures (AS) who were later found to have co-existent PNH. We performed event related EEG-fMRI of the patients typical events as well as performing functional connectivity (FC) seeded from the PNH to answer this question. Both subjects demonstrated event related BOLD change in the "core" absence network. Subject 1 also displayed event related BOLD increase in the nodules while FC analysis demonstrated connectivity between the nodules and the thalami and striatum bilaterally. The second subject did not display event related BOLD in the PNH but FC analysis demonstrated strong connections between the PNH and the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that the peri-ventricular nodules can show connectivity to the absence network in individuals with AS and may be involved in seizure generation. PMID:23992952

Carney, Patrick W; Masterton, Richard A J; Gill, Deepak; Jackson, Graeme D

2013-10-01

13

Human L-ferritin deficiency is characterized by idiopathic generalized seizures and atypical restless leg syndrome  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitously expressed iron storage protein ferritin plays a central role in maintaining cellular iron homeostasis. Cytosolic ferritins are composed of heavy (H) and light (L) subunits that co-assemble into a hollow spherical shell with an internal cavity where iron is stored. The ferroxidase activity of the ferritin H chain is critical to store iron in its Fe3+ oxidation state, while the L chain shows iron nucleation properties. We describe a unique case of a 23-yr-old female patient affected by a homozygous loss of function mutation in the L-ferritin gene, idiopathic generalized seizures, and atypical restless leg syndrome (RLS). We show that L chain ferritin is undetectable in primary fibroblasts from the patient, and thus ferritin consists only of H chains. Increased iron incorporation into the FtH homopolymer leads to reduced cellular iron availability, diminished levels of cytosolic catalase, SOD1 protein levels, enhanced ROS production and higher levels of oxidized proteins. Importantly, key phenotypic features observed in fibroblasts are also mirrored in reprogrammed neurons from the patient’s fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate for the first time the pathophysiological consequences of L-ferritin deficiency in a human and help to define the concept for a new disease entity hallmarked by idiopathic generalized seizure and atypical RLS. PMID:23940258

Cozzi, Anna; Santambrogio, Paolo; Privitera, Daniela; Broccoli, Vania; Rotundo, Luisa Ida; Garavaglia, Barbara; Benz, Rudolf; Altamura, Sandro; Goede, Jeroen S.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.

2013-01-01

14

Investigation of the opioid system in absence seizures with positron emission tomography.  

PubMed Central

The neuroanatomical and pathophysiological basis of primary generalised absences is uncertain. Administration of endogenous opioids has been shown to result in absence-like seizures in animal models. Positron emission tomography scans were performed in eight patients with primary generalised epilepsy and eight control subjects. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured interictally with C15O2, after which a 90 minute dynamic study with the opioid-receptor ligand 11C-diprenorphine was performed. Serial absences were precipitated by hyperventilation for 10 minutes, starting 30-40 minutes after injection of diprenorphine. Absences, with generalised spike-wave discharges on the EEG, occurred for between 10% and 51% of the provocation period. No individual (normal or patient) had any interictal focal abnormalities of cerebral blood flow. After provocation of serial absence seizures, there was increased diprenorphine elimination from the association cortex, but not from the thalamus, basal ganglia, or cerebellum, compared with control subjects and patients scanned without provocation of absences. It was possible to simulate the observed increased diprenorphine elimination following seizures in cerebral cortex using a two tissue compartment model, with an estimated 15-41% decrease in the specific tracer uptake rate constant (k3). These results suggest that endogenous opioids are released in the association cortex at the time of serial absences, lead to increased receptor occupancy, and may have an important role in the pathophysiology of generalised absences. Images PMID:8270930

Bartenstein, P A; Duncan, J S; Prevett, M C; Cunningham, V J; Fish, D R; Jones, A K; Luthra, S K; Sawle, G V; Brooks, D J

1993-01-01

15

Simultaneous EEG, fMRI, and Behavior in Typical Childhood Absence Seizures  

PubMed Central

Purpose Absence seizures cause transient impairment of consciousness. Typical absence seizures occur in children, and are accompanied by 3–4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWD) on EEG. Prior EEG-fMRI studies of SWD have shown a network of cortical and subcortical changes during these electrical events. However, fMRI during typical childhood absence seizures with confirmed impaired consciousness has not been previously investigated. Methods We performed EEG-fMRI with simultaneous behavioral testing in 37 children with typical childhood absence epilepsy. Attentional vigilance was evaluated by a continuous performance task (CPT), and simpler motor performance was evaluated by a repetitive tapping task (RTT). Results SWD episodes were obtained during fMRI scanning from 9 patients among the 37 studied. fMRI signal increases during SWD were observed in the thalamus, frontal cortex, primary visual, auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortex, and fMRI decreases were seen in the lateral and medial parietal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia. Omission error rate (missed targets) with SWD during fMRI was 81% on CPT and 39% on RTT. For those seizure epochs during which CPT performance was impaired, fMRI changes were seen in cortical and subcortical structures typically involved in SWD, while minimal changes were observed for the few epochs during which performance was spared. Discussion These findings suggest that typical absence seizures involve a network of cortical-subcortical areas necessary for normal attention and primary information processing. Identification of this network may improve understanding of cognitive impairments in childhood absence epilepsy, and help guide development of new therapies for this disorder. PMID:20608963

Berman, Rachel; Negishi, Michiro; Vestal, Matthew; Spann, Marisa; Chung, Mi Hae; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Purcaro, Michael; Motelow, Joshua E.; Danielson, Nathan; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Enev, Miro; Novotny, Edward J.; Constable, R. Todd; Blumenfeld, Hal

2010-01-01

16

Bidirectional Control of Absence Seizures by the Basal Ganglia: A Computational Evidence  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy is believed to be associated with the abnormal interactions between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Besides the direct coupling, anatomical evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex and thalamus also communicate indirectly through an important intermediate bridge–basal ganglia. It has been thus postulated that the basal ganglia might play key roles in the modulation of absence seizures, but the relevant biophysical mechanisms are still not completely established. Using a biophysically based model, we demonstrate here that the typical absence seizure activities can be controlled and modulated by the direct GABAergic projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to either the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) or the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus, through different biophysical mechanisms. Under certain conditions, these two types of seizure control are observed to coexist in the same network. More importantly, due to the competition between the inhibitory SNr-TRN and SNr-SRN pathways, we find that both decreasing and increasing the activation of SNr neurons from the normal level may considerably suppress the generation of spike-and-slow wave discharges in the coexistence region. Overall, these results highlight the bidirectional functional roles of basal ganglia in controlling and modulating absence seizures, and might provide novel insights into the therapeutic treatments of this brain disorder. PMID:24626189

Wang, Tiebin; Jing, Wei; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Luo, Cheng; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Yao, Dezhong

2014-01-01

17

Using Relevance Feedback to Distinguish the Changes in EEG During Different Absence Seizure Phases.  

PubMed

We carried out a series of statistical experiments to explore the utility of using relevance feedback on electroencephalogram (EEG) data to distinguish between different activity states in human absence epilepsy. EEG recordings from 10 patients with absence epilepsy are sampled, filtered, selected, and dissected from seizure-free, preseizure, and seizure phases. A total of 112 two-second 19-channel EEG epochs from 10 patients were selected from each phase. For each epoch, multiscale permutation entropy of the EEG data was calculated. The feature dimensionality was reduced by linear discriminant analysis to obtain a more discriminative and compact representation. Finally, a relevance feedback technique, that is, direct biased discriminant analysis, was applied to 68 randomly selected queries over nine iterations. This study is a first attempt to apply the statistical analysis of relevance feedback to the distinction of different EEG activity states in absence epilepsy. The average precision in the top 10 returned results was 97.5%, and the standard deviation suggested that embedding relevance feedback can effectively distinguish different seizure phases in absence epilepsy. The experimental results indicate that relevance feedback may be an effective tool for the prediction of different activity states in human absence epilepsy. The simultaneous analysis of multichannel EEG signals provides a powerful tool for the exploration of abnormal electrical brain activity in patients with epilepsy. PMID:25245133

Li, Jing; Liu, Xianzeng; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

2014-09-21

18

Granger causality: Corticothalamic interdependencies during absence seizures in WAG\\/Rij rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear Granger causality was used to identify the coupling strength and directionality of information transport between frontal cortex and thalamus during spontaneous absence seizures in a genetic model, the WAG\\/Rij rats. Electroencephalograms were recorded at the cortical surface and from the specific thalamus. Granger coupling strength was measured before, during and after the occurrence of spike-wave discharges (SWD).Before the onset

Evgenia Sitnikova; Taras Dikanev; Dmitry Smirnov; Boris Bezruchko; Gilles van Luijtelaar

2008-01-01

19

Thalamic NMDA receptors in the ?-hydroxybutyrate model of absence seizures: A cerebral microinjection study in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of thalamic NMDA receptors in the generation of experimental absence-like seizures was studied in rats. Bilaterally synchronous spike wave discharges were induced by ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and were recorded simultaneously from different thalamic nuclei and the layers I–IV of frontoparietal cortex. Bilateral infusions of NMDA into thalamic mediodorsal nucleus, the intralaminar central lateral\\/paracentral nucleus, ventroposterolateral, or reticular

P. K. Banerjee; O. C. Snead

1995-01-01

20

Neurochemical and Behavioral Features in Genetic Absence Epilepsy and in Acutely Induced Absence Seizures  

PubMed Central

The absence epilepsy typical electroencephalographic pattern of sharp spikes and slow waves (SWDs) is considered to be due to an interaction of an initiation site in the cortex and a resonant circuit in the thalamus. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic Ih pacemaker channels (HCN) play an important role in the enhanced cortical excitability. The role of thalamic HCN in SWD occurrence is less clear. Absence epilepsy in the WAG/Rij strain is accompanied by deficiency of the activity of dopaminergic system, which weakens the formation of an emotional positive state, causes depression-like symptoms, and counteracts learning and memory processes. It also enhances GABAA receptor activity in the striatum, globus pallidus, and reticular thalamic nucleus, causing a rise of SWD activity in the cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. One of the reasons for the occurrence of absences is that several genes coding of GABAA receptors are mutated. The question arises: what the role of DA receptors is. Two mechanisms that cause an infringement of the function of DA receptors in this genetic absence epilepsy model are proposed. PMID:23738145

Bazyan, A. S.; van Luijtelaar, G.

2013-01-01

21

Neurochemical and behavioral features in genetic absence epilepsy and in acutely induced absence seizures.  

PubMed

The absence epilepsy typical electroencephalographic pattern of sharp spikes and slow waves (SWDs) is considered to be due to an interaction of an initiation site in the cortex and a resonant circuit in the thalamus. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic I h pacemaker channels (HCN) play an important role in the enhanced cortical excitability. The role of thalamic HCN in SWD occurrence is less clear. Absence epilepsy in the WAG/Rij strain is accompanied by deficiency of the activity of dopaminergic system, which weakens the formation of an emotional positive state, causes depression-like symptoms, and counteracts learning and memory processes. It also enhances GABAA receptor activity in the striatum, globus pallidus, and reticular thalamic nucleus, causing a rise of SWD activity in the cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. One of the reasons for the occurrence of absences is that several genes coding of GABAA receptors are mutated. The question arises: what the role of DA receptors is. Two mechanisms that cause an infringement of the function of DA receptors in this genetic absence epilepsy model are proposed. PMID:23738145

Bazyan, A S; van Luijtelaar, G

2013-01-01

22

Rebound burst firing in the reticular thalamus is not essential for pharmacological absence seizures in mice  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic burst and rhythmic burst discharges (RBDs) are elicited by activation of T-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). TRN bursts are believed to be critical for generation and maintenance of thalamocortical oscillations, leading to the spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs), which are the hallmarks of absence seizures. We observed that the RBDs were completely abolished, whereas tonic firing was significantly increased, in TRN neurons from mice in which the gene for the T-type Ca2+ channel, CaV3.3, was deleted (CaV3.3?/?). Contrary to expectations, there was an increased susceptibility to drug-induced SWDs both in CaV3.3?/? mice and in mice in which the CaV3.3 gene was silenced predominantly in the TRN. CaV3.3?/? mice also showed enhanced inhibitory synaptic drive onto TC neurons. Finally, a double knockout of both CaV3.3 and CaV3.2, which showed complete elimination of burst firing and RBDs in TRN neurons, also displayed enhanced drug-induced SWDs and absence seizures. On the other hand, tonic firing in the TRN was increased in these mice, suggesting that increased tonic firing in the TRN may be sufficient for drug-induced SWD generation in the absence of burst firing. These results call into question the role of burst firing in TRN neurons in the genesis of SWDs, calling for a rethinking of the mechanism for absence seizure induction. PMID:25071191

Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Jaekwang; Latchoumane, Charles; Lee, Boyoung; Oh, Soo-Jin; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Park, Cheongdahm; Sun, Ning; Cheong, Eunji; Chen, Chien-Chang; Choi, Eui-Ju; Lee, C. Justin; Shin, Hee-Sup

2014-01-01

23

Rebound burst firing in the reticular thalamus is not essential for pharmacological absence seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Intrinsic burst and rhythmic burst discharges (RBDs) are elicited by activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). TRN bursts are believed to be critical for generation and maintenance of thalamocortical oscillations, leading to the spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs), which are the hallmarks of absence seizures. We observed that the RBDs were completely abolished, whereas tonic firing was significantly increased, in TRN neurons from mice in which the gene for the T-type Ca(2+) channel, CaV3.3, was deleted (CaV3.3(-/-)). Contrary to expectations, there was an increased susceptibility to drug-induced SWDs both in CaV3.3(-/-) mice and in mice in which the CaV3.3 gene was silenced predominantly in the TRN. CaV3.3(-/-) mice also showed enhanced inhibitory synaptic drive onto TC neurons. Finally, a double knockout of both CaV3.3 and CaV3.2, which showed complete elimination of burst firing and RBDs in TRN neurons, also displayed enhanced drug-induced SWDs and absence seizures. On the other hand, tonic firing in the TRN was increased in these mice, suggesting that increased tonic firing in the TRN may be sufficient for drug-induced SWD generation in the absence of burst firing. These results call into question the role of burst firing in TRN neurons in the genesis of SWDs, calling for a rethinking of the mechanism for absence seizure induction. PMID:25071191

Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Jaekwang; Latchoumane, Charles; Lee, Boyoung; Oh, Soo-Jin; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Park, Cheongdahm; Sun, Ning; Cheong, Eunji; Chen, Chien-Chang; Choi, Eui-Ju; Lee, C Justin; Shin, Hee-Sup

2014-08-12

24

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... often with a loss of or change in consciousness. Seizures can be frightening, but most last only ... unusual sensations, uncontrollable muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. Some seizures may be due to another medical ...

25

Absence of retromandibular vein associated with atypical formation of external jugular vein in the parotid region  

PubMed Central

Veins of the head and neck exhibiting anatomical variations or malformations are clinically significant. Anatomical variation in the external jugular vein is very common. However, anatomical variation in the retromandibular vein is rare. In this paper, we report a rare case of complete absence of the retromandibular vein. In the absence of the retromandibular vein, the maxillary vein divided into anterior and posterior divisions. The posterior division joined the superficial temporal vein to form an atypical external jugular vein, and the anterior division joined the facial vein to form an anonymous vein. In clinical practice, radiologists and surgeons use the retromandibular vein as a guide to expose the branches of the facial nerve during superficial parotidectomy. Therefore, absence of the retromandibular vein is a hurdle during this procedure and may affect the venous drainage pattern from the head and neck. PMID:24987551

Patil, Jyothsna; Swamy, Ravindra S.; D'Souza, Melanie R.; Guru, Anitha; Nayak, Satheesha B.

2014-01-01

26

Recurrent partial seizures with ictal yawning as atypical presentation of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis).  

PubMed

Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is a rare condition whose pathogenesis is unknown, though autoimmune-mediated mechanisms are thought to be involved. The prevalent neurological manifestations of this disorder are epileptic seizures and psychocognitive disorders associated with EEG alterations. High anti-thyroid antibody titers (particularly in cerebrospinal fluid) and the effectiveness of steroid therapy are usually considered to be crucial elements in the diagnostic process. We describe a 19-year-old female patient who had been referred to the psychiatric unit because of behavioral disorders characterized predominantly by delirium with sexual content. She developed recurrent focal seizures characterized by atypical ictal semiology (repetitive forceful yawning) and a rare EEG pattern (recurrent seizures arising from the left temporal region without evident "encephalopathic" activity). The presence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in her cerebrospinal fluid and a good response to steroids confirmed the diagnosis of HE. The atypical presentation in the case we describe appears to widen the electroclinical spectrum of HE and highlights its importance for differential diagnosis purposes in the neuropsychiatric setting. PMID:22030535

Casciato, S; Di Bonaventura, C; Lapenta, L; Fattouch, J; Ferrazzano, G; Fanella, M; Di Fabio, F; Pasquini, M; Amendolea, M A; Manfredi, M; Prencipe, M; Giallonardo, A T

2011-12-01

27

?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

2014-01-01

28

?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

2014-07-15

29

A Critical Evaluation of the Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Model of Absence Seizures.  

PubMed

Typical absence seizures (ASs) are nonconvulsive epileptic events which are commonly observed in pediatric and juvenile epilepsies and may be present in adults suffering from other idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASs has been greatly advanced by the availability of genetic and pharmacological models, in particular the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) model which, in recent years, has been extensively used in studies in transgenic mice. GHB is an endogenous brain molecule that upon administration to various species, including humans, induces not only ASs but also a state of sedation/hypnosis. Analysis of the available data clearly indicates that only in the rat does there exist a set of GHB-elicited behavioral and EEG events that can be confidently classified as ASs. Other GHB activities, particularly in mice, appear to be mostly of a sedative/hypnotic nature: thus, their relevance to ASs requires further investigation. At the molecular level, GHB acts as a weak GABA-B agonist, while the existence of a GHB receptor remains elusive. The pre- and postsynaptic actions underlying GHB-elicited ASs have been thoroughly elucidated in thalamus, but little is known about the cellular/network effects of GHB in neocortex, the other brain region involved in the generation of ASs. PMID:25403866

Venzi, Marcello; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Crunelli, Vincenzo

2015-02-01

30

Persistence of Cortical Sensory Processing during Absence Seizures in Human and an Animal Model: Evidence from EEG and Intracellular Recordings  

PubMed Central

Absence seizures are caused by brief periods of abnormal synchronized oscillations in the thalamocortical loops, resulting in widespread spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). SWDs are concomitant with a complete or partial impairment of consciousness, notably expressed by an interruption of ongoing behaviour together with a lack of conscious perception of external stimuli. It is largely considered that the paroxysmal synchronizations during the epileptic episode transiently render the thalamocortical system incapable of transmitting primary sensory information to the cortex. Here, we examined in young patients and in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well-established genetic model of absence epilepsy, how sensory inputs are processed in the related cortical areas during SWDs. In epileptic patients, visual event-related potentials (ERPs) were still present in the occipital EEG when the stimuli were delivered during seizures, with a significant increase in amplitude compared to interictal periods and a decrease in latency compared to that measured from non-epileptic subjects. Using simultaneous in vivo EEG and intracellular recordings from the primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS and non-epileptic rats, we found that ERPs and firing responses of related pyramidal neurons to whisker deflection were not significantly modified during SWDs. However, the intracellular subthreshold synaptic responses in somatosensory cortical neurons during seizures had larger amplitude compared to quiescent situations. These convergent findings from human patients and a rodent genetic model show the persistence of cortical responses to sensory stimulations during SWDs, indicating that the brain can still process external stimuli during absence seizures. They also demonstrate that the disruption of conscious perception during absences is not due to an obliteration of information transfer in the thalamocortical system. The possible mechanisms rendering the cortical operation ineffective for conscious perception are discussed, but their definite elucidation will require further investigations. PMID:23483991

Chipaux, Mathilde; Vercueil, Laurent; Kaminska, Anna

2013-01-01

31

The influence of gender on the aggravation of absence seizures by carbamazepine in the low-dose pentylenetetrazol rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether carbamazepine (CBZ) aggravates absence seizures in the low-dose pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) rat model in both male and female animals, and investigate for gender differences.Methods: Inbred Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with EEG electrodes. Seven days later PTZ (20mg\\/kg, i.p.) was administered following pre-treatment with vehicle or CBZ (20mg\\/kg, i.p.) and the occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) on the

KAREN J MCLEAN; TERENCE J O’BRIEN; MARK J COOK; FRANK J. E VAJDA

2004-01-01

32

Social deficits in the AY-9944 mouse model of atypical absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Atypical absence epilepsy (AAE) showing slow spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) is characterized by severely abnormal cognition and neurodevelopmental or neurological outcomes in humans. However, despite the severe behavioral outcomes in AAE, the relationship between AAE and social-behavioral dysfunctions has not defined well, either experimentally or in patients with AAE. Experimentally, AAE can be produced by administering AY-9944 (AY), a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor. In this study, we characterized social behavior in the AY mouse model of AAE. AAE in the mouse was induced by repeated postnatal administration of AY every 6 days from postnatal day (P) 2 to P20. AY-treated mice exhibited spontaneous, recurrent, and synchronous SWD (4-5 Hz) in electroencephalographic recordings. AY-treated mice performed tasks involving sociability/social novelty preference, social interaction with a juvenile conspecific, observational fear, and resident-intruder aggression. They showed behavioral dysfunction in social interactions with a juvenile conspecific and sociability/social novelty preference tasks. They also exhibited reduced social fear learning in observational fear conditioning. Interestingly, they showed increased levels of offensive behaviors in a resident-intruder task. However, AY-treated mice displayed normal levels of anxiety in light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tasks, and showed slightly increased locomotor activity in an open-field task. These results demonstrate social dysfunction in the AY-induced AAE model. Our study of social behavior can also provide valuable information about Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, in which AAE is a component. Thus, our findings may help to understand behavioral pathogenesis or characteristics of patients with AAE. PMID:22944514

Jung, Seungmoon; Seo, Jin Soo; Kim, Byung Sun; Lee, Doheon; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun; Jeon, Daejong

2013-01-01

33

Epilepsy phenotype associated with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A: Migrating partial seizures of infancy or atypical Dravet syndrome?  

PubMed

The deletion of a sodium channel gene cluster located on chromosome 2q24.3 is associated with variable epilepsy phenotypes, including Dravet syndrome and migrating partial seizures of infancy. Although SCN1A is considered as the major contributor to the epilepsy phenotype, the role of other sodium channel genes that map within this cluster has not been delineated. We presented five new cases with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A and investigated their epilepsy phenotype in relation to the extent of the deletion. Three cases with deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster (SCN3A, SCN2A, SCN1A, SCN9A, and SCN7A) exhibited a complex epilepsy phenotype that was atypical for Dravet syndrome and suggestive of migrating partial seizures of infancy: early seizure onset (before 2 months of age), severe developmental delay from seizure onset, multifocal interictal spikes, polymorphous focal seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Two cases with partial deletion of SCN1A and SCN9A and whole SCN1A deletion had an epilepsy phenotype of Dravet syndrome. A literature review of cases with chromosome 2q24.3 deletion revealed that, in most Dravet syndrome cases, it does not involve SCN2A and SCN3A, whereas a complex epilepsy phenotype that is shared with migrating partial seizures of infancy was associated with cases of deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster. PMID:25524840

Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Hunmin; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

2015-01-01

34

The classification and differential diagnosis of absence seizures with short-term video-EEG monitoring during childhood.  

PubMed

Absence seizures are idiopathic epilepsies characterized by impairment of consciousness and generalized 2.5-4 Hz spike and slow wave discharges. This prospective study was performed to classify and define properties of subgroups of absence epilepsies. We included 31 patients, of whom seven were in the differential diagnosis group. On admission, absence epilepsy provisional diagnosis was considered in 16 patients clinically and in the other 15 patients based on routine EEG findings. Ictal EEGs were recorded by video-EEG monitoring in 23 of the patients (totally 202 ictal recordings). Patients were diagnosed as childhood absence epilepsy (n=8), juvenile absence epilepsy (n=10), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (n=3), eyelid myoclonia with absences (n=2), and perioral myoclonia with absences (n=1). Neuroimaging, video-EEG monitoring and especially ictal recordings are important for classification of epilepsies in addition to history, physical examination and routine EEG findings. Video-EEG monitoring is required to classify, to make differential diagnosis and to determine the treatment plan and prognosis. PMID:22397035

Uysal-Soyer, Ozge; Yalnizo?lu, Dilek; Turanli, Güzide

2012-01-01

35

Contribution of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to thalamic neuronal activity during spontaneous absence seizures in rats.  

PubMed

The contribution of GABAergic mechanisms in thalamic relay nuclei to spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during spontaneous seizures was assessed using the WAG/Rij strain of rats, an established genetic model of absence epilepsy, in combination with single-unit recordings and microiontophoretic techniques in the ventrobasal thalamic complex in vivo. Spontaneous SWDs occurring on the electroencephalogram at 5-9 Hz were associated with burst firing in thalamocortical neurons, which was phase-locked with the spike component. Microiontophoretic application of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline significantly increased the magnitude of SWD-related firing in all tested cells. Application of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845A exerted a statistically insignificant modulatory effect on neuronal activity during spontaneous SWDs but significantly attenuated the bicuculline-evoked aggravation of SWD-related firing. The data indicate that, in thalamocortical neurons, (1) GABA(A) receptor-mediated events are recruited with each SWD, (2) SWD-related activity can be evoked with no significant contribution of GABA(B) receptors, and (3) blockade of GABA(A) receptors potentiates SWD-related activity, presumably through an indirect effect mediated through GABA(B) receptors. These results vote against a predominant or even exclusive contribution of GABA(B) receptors to spontaneous SWDs in thalamic relay nuclei in the WAG/Rij strain, but rather point to a critical role of GABA(A) receptor activation. This conclusion is in support of the view that the two subtypes of GABA receptors play a differential role in fast (5-10 Hz) and slow (3 Hz) spike-wave paroxysms observed during absence seizures. PMID:11160409

Staak, R; Pape, H C

2001-02-15

36

Long-Term Valproate Treatment Increases Brain Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Seizure Expression in a Genetic Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which valproate, one of the most widely prescribed anti-epileptic drugs, suppresses seizures have not been fully elucidated but may involve up-regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We investigated the effects of valproate treatment in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) on brain NPY mRNA expression and seizure control. GAERS were administered either valproate (42 mg.kg?1 hr?1) or saline continuously for 5 days. Electroencephalograms were recorded for 24 hrs on treatment days 1, 3 and 5 and the percentage of time spent in seizure activity was analysed. NPY mRNA expression was measured in different brain regions using qPCR. Valproate treatment suppressed seizures by 80% in GAERS (p<0.05) and increased NPY mRNA expression in the thalamus (p<0.05) compared to saline treatment. These results demonstrate that long-term valproate treatment results in an upregulation of thalamic expression of NPY implicating this as a potential contributor to the mechanism by which valproate suppresses absence seizures. PMID:24039965

van Raay, Leena; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; O’Brien, Terence J.; Morris, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

37

Dynamics of networks during absence seizure's on- and offset in rodents and man  

PubMed Central

Network mechanisms relevant for the generation, maintenance and termination of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the neurophysiological hallmark of absence epilepsy, are still enigmatic and widely discussed. Within the last years, however, improvements in signal analytical techniques, applied to both animal and human fMRI, EEG, MEG, and ECoG data, greatly increased our understanding and challenged several, dogmatic concepts of SWD. This review will summarize these recent data, demonstrating that SWD are not primary generalized, are not sudden and unpredictable events. It will disentangle different functional contributions of structures within the cortico-thalamo-cortical system, relevant for the generation, generalization, maintenance, and termination of SWD and will present a new “network based” scenario for these oscillations. Similarities and differences between rodent and human data are presented demonstrating that in both species a local cortical onset zone of SWD exists, although with different locations; that in both some forms of cortical and thalamic precursor activity can be found, and that SWD occur through repetitive cyclic activity between cortex and thalamus. The focal onset zone in human data could differ between patients with varying spatial and temporal dynamics; in rats the latter is still poorly investigated.

Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

2015-01-01

38

Absence seizures in C3H/HeJ and knockout mice caused by mutation of the AMPA receptor subunit Gria4  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy, characterized by spike–wave discharges (SWD) in the electroencephalogram, arises from aberrations within the circuitry of the cerebral cortex and thalamus that regulates awareness. The inbred mouse strain C3H/HeJ is prone to absence seizures, with a major susceptibility locus, spkw1, accounting for most of the phenotype. Here we find that spkw1 is associated with a hypomorphic retroviral-like insertion mutation in the Gria4 gene, encoding one of the four amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits in the brain. Consistent with this, Gria4 knockout mice also have frequent SWD and do not complement spkw1. In contrast, null mutants for the related gene Gria3 do not have SWD, and Gria3 loss actually lowers SWD of spkw1 homozygotes. Gria3 and Gria4 encode the predominant AMPA receptor subunits in the reticular thalamus, which is thought to play a central role in seizure genesis by inhibiting thalamic relay cells and promoting rebound burst firing responses. In Gria4 mutants, synaptic excitation of inhibitory reticular thalamic neurons is enhanced, with increased duration of synaptic responses—consistent with what might be expected from reduction of the kinetically faster subunit of AMPA receptors encoded by Gria4. These results demonstrate for the first time an essential role for Gria4 in the brain, and suggest that abnormal AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic activity can be involved in the network hypersynchrony that underlies absence seizures. PMID:18316356

Beyer, Barbara; Deleuze, Charlotte; Letts, Verity A.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Boumil, Rebecca M.; Lew, Timothy A.; Huguenard, John R.; Frankel, Wayne N.

2008-01-01

39

Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, whereas activation of mGlu2/3 and mGlu4 receptors produces the opposite effect. Here, we have extended the study to mGlu5 receptors, which are known to be highly expressed within the cortico-thalamo-cortical network. We used presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and aged-matched ACI rats. WAG/Rij rats showed a reduction in the mGlu5 receptor protein levels and in the mGlu5-receptor mediated stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the ventrobasal thalamus, whereas the expression of mGlu5 receptors was increased in the somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, these changes preceded the onset of the epileptic phenotype, being already visible in pre-symptomatic WAG/Rij rats. SWDs in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats were not influenced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors with MTEP (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but were significantly decreased by mGlu5 receptor potentiation with the novel enhancer, VU0360172 (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), without affecting motor behaviour. The effect of VU0360172 was prevented by co-treatment with MTEP. These findings suggest that changes in mGlu5 receptors might lie at the core of the absence-seizure prone phenotype of WAG/Rij rats, and that mGlu5 receptor enhancers are potential candidates to the treatment of absence epilepsy. PMID:22705340

D’Amore, V.; Santolini, I.; van Rijn, C.M.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Prete, A.; Conn, P.J.; Lindsley, C.W.; Zhou, Y.; Vinson, P.N.; Rodriguez, A.L.; Jones, C.K.; Stauffer, S.R.; Nicoletti, F.; van Luijtelaar, G.; Ngomba, R.T.

2013-01-01

40

Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.  

PubMed

Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, whereas activation of mGlu2/3 and mGlu4 receptors produces the opposite effect. Here, we have extended the study to mGlu5 receptors, which are known to be highly expressed within the cortico-thalamo-cortical network. We used presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and aged-matched ACI rats. WAG/Rij rats showed a reduction in the mGlu5 receptor protein levels and in the mGlu5-receptor mediated stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the ventrobasal thalamus, whereas the expression of mGlu5 receptors was increased in the somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, these changes preceded the onset of the epileptic phenotype, being already visible in pre-symptomatic WAG/Rij rats. SWDs in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats were not influenced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors with MTEP (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but were significantly decreased by mGlu5 receptor potentiation with the novel enhancer, VU0360172 (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), without affecting motor behaviour. The effect of VU0360172 was prevented by co-treatment with MTEP. These findings suggest that changes in mGlu5 receptors might lie at the core of the absence-seizure prone phenotype of WAG/Rij rats, and that mGlu5 receptor enhancers are potential candidates to the treatment of absence epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. PMID:22705340

D'Amore, V; Santolini, I; van Rijn, C M; Biagioni, F; Molinaro, G; Prete, A; Conn, P J; Lindsley, C W; Zhou, Y; Vinson, P N; Rodriguez, A L; Jones, C K; Stauffer, S R; Nicoletti, F; van Luijtelaar, G; Ngomba, R T

2013-03-01

41

Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.  

PubMed

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), a common form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, accounts for 5%-15% of childhood epilepsies. To map the chromosomal locus of persisting CAE, we studied the clinical and electroencephalographic traits of 78 members of a five-generation family from Bombay, India. The model-free affected-pedigree member method was used during initial screening with chromosome 6p, 8q, and 1p microsatellites, and only individuals with absence seizures and/or electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike- and multispike-slow wave complexes were considered to be affected. Significant P values of .00000-.02 for several markers on 8q were obtained. Two-point linkage analysis, assuming autosomal dominant inheritance with 50% penetrance, yielded a maximum LOD score (Zmax) of 3.6 for D8S502. No other locus in the genome achieved a significant Zmax. For five smaller multiplex families, summed Zmax was 2.4 for D8S537 and 1.7 for D8S1761. Haplotypes composed of the same 8q24 microsatellites segregated with affected members of the large family from India and with all five smaller families. Recombinations positioned the CAE gene in a 3.2-cM interval. PMID:9758624

Fong, G C; Shah, P U; Gee, M N; Serratosa, J M; Castroviejo, I P; Khan, S; Ravat, S H; Mani, J; Huang, Y; Zhao, H Z; Medina, M T; Treiman, L J; Pineda, G; Delgado-Escueta, A V

1998-10-01

42

Diagnosis of Seizure Disorders  

PubMed Central

The author addresses the diagnosis of seizure disorders by discussing clinical features of the different types of seizures, including generalized tonic-clonic, absence, myoclonic, partial complex seizures, and non-epileptic or “pseudoseizures.” She also discusses the use of appropriate laboratory tests, electroencephalography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomographic scanning. The rationale of and approach to treatment of these conditions with some of the common anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and primidone) is provided. PMID:21234044

Purves, Sherrill J.

1990-01-01

43

[Pseudoepileptic seizures in children].  

PubMed

Pseudoepileptic seizures (pseudoseizures) are defined as episodic disturbances of behaviour with elements of epileptic seizures, but with atypical features and not accompanied by abnormal EEG discharges. They are frequently seen in patients with epilepsy, but also as the only disturbance of function. In children, the possible pathogenetic mechanisms are less understood than in adults. We present a series of cases, showing that an important factor in development of pseudoseizures lies in disturbances of communication between children and parents within the family. However, there are large interindividual variations in the most probable underlying mechanisms. Some recommendations as regards treatment are given. PMID:2024302

Uldall, P V; Berg, L S; Alving, J

1991-03-25

44

Atypical pneumonia  

MedlinePLUS

Walking pneumonia; Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of atypical pneumonia. It is caused by the bacteria M. pneumoniae . It typically affects ...

45

Febrile Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... impact that febrile seizures might have on intelligence, behavior, school achievement, and the development of epilepsy. For example, scientists conducting studies in animals are assessing the effects of febrile seizures, and ...

46

[Pseudoepileptic seizures].  

PubMed

The paper is devoted to the differential diagnosis of epilepsy. The author reviews one of the most common diagnostic errors--a situation when pseudoepileptic seizures are considered as epileptic ones. The causes of development of pseudoepileptic seizures, their classification and clinical presentations are presented. The clinical differences between epileptic and non-epileptic seizures are highlighted. The tactics of management of patients with pseudoepileptic seizures in neurologic in-patient clinics is suggested. PMID:19425295

Belousova, E D

2008-01-01

47

Atypical Fibroxanthoma  

PubMed Central

Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a nodular dermal ulcerative lesion with a favorable prognosis. AFX most commonly occurs on sun-exposed skin in elderly individuals. AFX is characterized by its association with ultraviolet radiation, not only from a clinical aspect, but also from a molecular aspect. Making a diagnosis of AFX is challenging, and it is important to differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Histological features and combined immunohistochemical markers are necessary for a definitive diagnosis (i.e., an absence of immunostaining for cytokeratins, S100 and HMB45 in AFX is helpful for excluding both squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma). AFX, as well as MFH (malignant fibrous histiocytoma), is a fibrohistiocytic lesion with myofibroblastic differentiation. AFX is considered to be a different lesion from MFH. AFX and MFH might share the same pathway which determines their morphology. However, they may have different pathways in development which determine their biological behavior. PMID:21892274

Sakamoto, Akio

2008-01-01

48

Lipopolysaccharide induced increase in seizure activity in two animal models of absence epilepsy WAG/Rij and GAERS rats and Long Evans rats.  

PubMed

We showed previously that the number and time of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) were increased after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an effect, which was completely abolished by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor indomethacin (IND) pretreatment in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. These and other results suggest that injection of LPS to genetically absence epileptic animals, such as WAG/Rij rats, may allow us to investigate relationships between absence epilepsy and LPS evoked neuroinflammation processes. However, LPS may evoke different effects on absence epileptic activity in various animal strains. Thus, to extend our previous results, we injected two doses of LPS (50 ?g/kg and 350 ?g/kg i.p.) alone and in combination with IND (10mg/kg IND i.p. +50 ?g/kg LPS) into rats of two model animal strains (WAG/Rij rats; GAERS rats: Genetic Absence Epileptic Rats from Strasbourg) and into Long Evans rats. The effects of treatments on SWD number and SWD duration were examined. Both doses of LPS increased the SWD number and the total time of SWDs dose-dependently during the whole 4-h recording period, which was abolished by IND pretreatment in all three investigated strains. These results extend our previous results suggesting that our methods using LPS injection into freely moving absence epileptic rats is applicable not only in well-established animal models of absence epilepsy such as WAG/Rij rats and GAERS rats but also in Long Evans rats to investigate links between inflammation and absence epilepsy. PMID:24704320

Kovács, Zsolt; Dobolyi, Arpád; Juhász, Gábor; Kékesi, Katalin A

2014-05-01

49

Generalised electrographic seizures presenting as perioral myoclonia.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man, during a neurological consultation, reported "chin twitching" over a period of a week, which was diagnosed as intermittent perioral myoclonia. With only one tonic-clonic seizure seven years before, he had mentioned several episodes of chin twitching over the years. In the clinic, there were intermittent chin movements without apparent confusion, as he was able to provide a complete history and was fully oriented with intact memory. His video-EEG showed paroxysms of polyspike and slow-wave activity, with the longest burst-free interval being 20 seconds. Discharges were maximal over the fronto-central regions, correlating with the chin myoclonus. He was able to tap his hand continuously, and remained alert. The case represents an atypical presentation of idiopathic generalised epilepsy without manifestation of absence or limb myoclonus. Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and other idiopathic epilepsies are rarely associated with perioral myoclonia, this sign was the principal clinical feature for this patient. Oral treatment with levetiracetam resolved his seizures. PMID:24566349

Dearborn, Jennifer L; Kaplan, Peter W

2014-03-01

50

Levetiracetam in Absence Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of levetiracetam therapy in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Twenty-one participants (11 male, 10 female) with typical absence seizures were enrolled in this prospective study from seven centres in Italy. The mean age and age range at time of enrolment into…

Verrotti, Alberto; Cerminara, Caterina; Domizio, Sergio; Mohn, Angelika; Franzoni, Emilio; Coppola, Giangennaro; Zamponi, Nelia; Parisi, Pasquale; Iannetti, Paola; Curatolo, Paolo

2008-01-01

51

Cerebellar seizures.  

PubMed

Epilepsy, especially with refractory seizures, is thought to arise only from cortical lesions or substrate. The authors report on 2 patients with refractory epilepsy and cerebellar lesions. Depth electrodes were placed within the cerebellar lesions in both patients, and intracranial electroencephalographic recordings showed seizure origin from the cerebellar lesions. One patient eventually attained seizure control with antiepileptic drugs. The other case involved a child with generalized myoclonic epilepsy associated with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellum. This patient obtained seizure control following gross-total resection of the tumor. PMID:23808728

Boop, Sarah; Wheless, James; Van Poppel, Katherine; McGregor, Amy; Boop, Frederick A

2013-09-01

52

Neuron, Vol. 31, 37, July 19, 2001, Copyright 2001 by Cell Press absence-like seizures in GAERS rats, while antagonistsIt Takes T to Tango  

E-print Network

-wave sleep. During both types of oscilla- tions, thalamic relay neurons are hyperpolarized by Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting rhythmic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, which de disorder, childhood absence epilepsy, is characterized bursts. Thus, phase-locked firing by thalamic relay

Huguenard, John R.

53

Ezogabine treatment of childhood absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Generalised-onset absence seizures can be resistant to treatment with currently available antiepileptic drugs. Ezogabine (retigabine), a potassium channel opener, is approved for the treatment of focal-onset seizures. This is a case report of an adult with childhood absence epilepsy whose daily absence seizures ceased with adjunctive ezogabine. A 59-year-old woman, with a history of typical absence seizures since the age of 6 years, had multiple seizures daily despite trials of over 11 antiepileptic drugs. While taking lamotrigine and zonisamide, ezogabine at 50 mg daily was added. The dose was slowly increased and once a total dose of only 200 mg/day was reached, she became seizure-free for three months. After subsequently discontinuing zonisamide, absence seizures returned. Further increasing the ezogabine to 400 mg/day, in addition to lamotrigine, did not restore seizure freedom, but adding back zonisamide at half dose again reduced their frequency. Ezogabine at low dose, added to lamotrigine and zonisamide, led to sustained absence seizure freedom. The return of seizures after zonisamide discontinuation suggests that the seizure freedom may have been the result of the different mechanisms of action of the antiepileptic drugs. PMID:24659629

Vossler, David G; Yilmaz, Ugur

2014-03-01

54

Management of seizures in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.  

PubMed

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an epilepsy syndrome that begins in childhood (between 1 and 8 years of age), worsens during latency and persists frequently into adulthood, is refractory to antiepileptic medications, and results in cognitive decline and behavioral problems in affected individuals. Seizure types consist primarily of axial tonic, atonic, and atypical absence; nocturnal tonic seizures are the most common seizure pattern in this population, but often are not one of the initial seizure patterns. Some patients also have myoclonic seizures; this seizure pattern is less frequent than the three preceding types. Although there are some cases that are cryptogenic, most are symptomatic, arising during prenatal and perinatal periods from intrauterine infections, and vascular insults to the brain. Examples of causes of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome include migrational abnormalities of the brain, late effects of CNS infections, certain genetic disorders such as tuberous sclerosis, and inherited metabolic disorders. The difficulty early in the course of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is distinguishing this diagnosis from severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (Dravet syndrome) or from myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), as the seizure patterns in these three syndromes may overlap at the onset. EEG is a helpful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, usually demonstrating high voltage, bifrontal 1.5-2.5?Hz spike and wave complexes interictally, and attenuation with paroxysmal fast activity (10-13?Hz) during the ictal phase. Treatment options for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have been less than optimal. In recent years, several drugs have been tested and approved for the treatment of this syndrome; these include felbamate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and rufinamide. The long-term outcome does not appear to be any better with the newer antiepileptic drugs than when using earlier prescribed antiepileptic drugs or polytherapy. Treatment options other than antiepileptic drugs include a ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation, and corpus callosotomy. Long-term outcome of these patients relative to seizure control and cognition is poor. Most develop moderate intellectual disability within a few years of onset of the syndrome. Many develop behavioral problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression. PMID:21351810

Crumrine, Patricia K

2011-04-01

55

Benign rolandic epilepsy: atypical features are very common.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of atypical clinical and electrographic features in children with benign rolandic epilepsy. A retrospective case series design was employed in the setting of a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Forty-two children with benign rolandic epilepsy were seen through our neurology department between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 1993. Their charts were reviewed for atypical clinical features, imaging studies and results, total number of seizures at initial presentation and last follow-up, and use of anticonvulsants. Atypical clinical features included status epilepticus, developmental delay, daytime-only seizures, screaming as a seizure component, and postictal Todd's paresis. All children had at least one electroencephalogram, and these records were reviewed for atypical electrographic features such as unusual location, atypical spike morphology, and abnormal background. Atypical clinical features were seen in 50% of patients and atypical electrographic features in 31%. Computed tomographic scans were performed in 15 patients and were consistently normal. Treatment with anticonvulsant medication was initiated in 40%. Although patients with atypical features did not have an increased seizure frequency, they were more likely to undergo imaging studies (P < .01) and to be commenced on anticonvulsant medication (P < .02). Our experience suggests that atypical clinical and electrographic features are the rule rather than the exception in benign rolandic epilepsy. Further work must be done to develop a reliable definition of this common entity. PMID:8576555

Wirrell, E C; Camfield, P R; Gordon, K E; Dooley, J M; Camfield, C S

1995-11-01

56

Effectiveness of Rufinamide in the Treatment of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy With Atypical Evolution: Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

Rufinamide (RFD) is a novel drug that was recently approved as an adjunctive treatment for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Despite its reported effectiveness in generalized seizures (tonic, atonic, or tonic-clonic) in this syndrome, few data on its use in idiopathic generalized epilepsy are available. Indeed, the scientific evidence to date is limited to anecdotal cases or isolated clinical experiences. We report an uncommon, though paradigmatic, case of a woman affected by juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) who, following a prolonged seizure-freedom period and the consequent withdrawal of valproate, presented a seizure relapse accompanied by a worsening in her electroclinical pattern. In view of this atypical evolution of JAE, characterized by drug-resistant seizures (absence and generalized tonic-clonic) and the progressive increase in electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities, several antiepileptic drugs were used, though to no benefit. The use of RFD instead led to a gradual control of the seizures and normalization of the EEG findings. In addition to this clinical experience, we briefly review the literature on the use of RFD in refractory generalized epilepsy. PMID:25420625

Albini, Mariarita; Morano, Alessandra; Fanella, Martina; Lapenta, Leonardo; Casciato, Sara; Fattouch, Jinane; Manfredi, Mario; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-11-23

57

Febrile seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... seizures. Pediatrics . 2008;121:1281-1286. Mick NW. Pediatric fever. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

58

Complex partial seizures in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Many disorders can mimic complex partial seizure (CPS), and clinicians must be careful to make an accurate diagnosis. Complex\\u000a partial seizures must be distinguished from generalized-onset seizures (such as absence seizures), which require a different\\u000a treatment regimen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Treatment of CPS should begin with monotherapy with a standard antiepileptic drug (AED), such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – 

Michael D. Privitera; Jerzy P. Szaflarski

1999-01-01

59

Neuronal carbonic anhydrase VII provides GABAergic excitatory drive to exacerbate febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Brain carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are known to modulate neuronal signalling. Using a novel CA VII (Car7) knockout (KO) mouse as well as a CA II (Car2) KO and a CA II/VII double KO, we show that mature hippocampal pyramidal neurons are endowed with two cytosolic isoforms. CA VII is predominantly expressed by neurons starting around postnatal day 10 (P10). The ubiquitous isoform II is expressed in neurons at P20. Both isoforms enhance bicarbonate-driven GABAergic excitation during intense GABAA-receptor activation. P13–14 CA VII KO mice show behavioural manifestations atypical of experimental febrile seizures (eFS) and a complete absence of electrographic seizures. A low dose of diazepam promotes eFS in P13–P14 rat pups, whereas seizures are blocked at higher concentrations that suppress breathing. Thus, the respiratory alkalosis-dependent eFS are exacerbated by GABAergic excitation. We found that CA VII mRNA is expressed in the human cerebral cortex before the age when febrile seizures (FS) occur in children. Our data indicate that CA VII is a key molecule in age-dependent neuronal pH regulation with consequent effects on generation of FS. PMID:23881097

Ruusuvuori, Eva; Huebner, Antje K; Kirilkin, Ilya; Yukin, Alexey Y; Blaesse, Peter; Helmy, Mohamed; Jung Kang, Hyo; El Muayed, Malek; Christopher Hennings, J; Voipio, Juha; Šestan, Nenad; Hübner, Christian A; Kaila, Kai

2013-01-01

60

Controlling Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

61

Febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

2014-01-01

62

[Atypical meningioma].  

PubMed

One case of intradiploic meningioma, causing partial occlusion of the superior longitudinal sinus, with subsequent visual trouble and another of lipomatous meningioma with great fat content and very calcified, that was found in a LCR fistula study of the cranial anterior stage, are described by the authors as atypical meningiomas. PMID:11321971

Magalhães, Z; Pereira, J R; Moniz, P; Reis, A M; Costa, M; Resende, M; Vaz, A R; Honavar, M

2001-01-01

63

Generalized-onset seizures with secondary focal evolution.  

PubMed

The international seizure classification recognizes that partial-onset seizures can become secondarily generalized, but generalized-onset seizures are expected to remain generalized. We report six patients who had recorded seizures with generalized onset, but subsequent evolution into a focal discharge. The clinical seizure onset was generalized absence or myoclonic, and the most common subsequent clinical pattern was prolonged behavioral arrest with mild automatisms, and then postictal confusion. The ictal discharge started with generalized spike-and-wave activity and then acquired a focal predominance. Interictal epileptiform activity was generalized. There were no focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. Four patients were misdiagnosed with complex partial seizures. All patients were initially refractory, but three became seizure-free and three improved after treatment with antiepileptic medications appropriate for absence or myoclonic seizures. Generalized-onset seizures that acquire focal features are easily misdiagnosed as complex partial. These seizures have a more favorable response to medications effective against generalized absence and myoclonic seizures. PMID:19260942

Williamson, Randy; Hanif, Samrina; Mathews, Gregory C; Lagrange, Andre H; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

2009-07-01

64

Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne

2007-01-01

65

Mechanisms of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs: a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various criteria used to define atypical antipsychotic drugs include: 1) decrease, or absence, of the capacity to cause acute extrapyramidal motor side effects (acute EPSE) and tardive dyskinesia (TD); 2) increased therapeutic efficacy reflected by improvement in positive, negative, or cognitive symptoms; 3) and a decrease, or absence, of the capacity to increase prolactin levels. The pharmacologic basis of atypical

B. J. Kinon; J. A. Lieberman

1996-01-01

66

Ontogenetic studies of seizure patterns and seizure activities induced by cortical focus.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic studies of epileptogenic process were carried out in albino rats ranging in age from birth to 45 days. Experimental epilepsy was produced by two different procedures and the results were compared with each other. Tungstic acid gel was applied to the motor area of the left side of the cortex, and the following results were obtained. The latency of the seizure appearance was long during 10 days after birth, became progressively short thereafter and reached the minimum in about 20 days of age, and gradually returned to the adult level again by 45 days of age. No abvvious seizure was exhibited until five days of age. Seizure patterns developed from tonic or twitch-like jerky convulsion (10 days old) to rhythmic or clonic type of seizure (13 days old), and the seizure patterns similar to those in the adult rat were observed in about 20 days of age. Cortical seizure activity was initially observed in about 10-day-old rats; single high amplitude slow wave appeared and small spikes became superimposed on it in the course of maturation. Atypical spike and wave complexes were observed after 20 days of age. Electrical stimulation was applied to the left cortical motor area by constant current stimulator, and the following seizure patterns were observed: No obvious seizure could be elicited in newborn rat, whereas from three days of age, tonic seizure of the whole body, and from seven days old twitch-like convulsion of extremities were observed. In ages from 10 to 20 days, seizure induced by electrical stimulation was mainly tonic in pattern; extension of forelimbs and flexion of hindlimbs in most cases were observed before 13 days old, but both fore-and hindlimbs were extended therafter. Tonic-clonic seizure patterns were exhibited after 20 days of age. From these results, it was considered that tonic convulsions and high voltage slow cortical seizure activites were produced from the activites of the local cortical neuronal connections, and rhythmic and/or clonic seizure patterns and spike and wave seizure activities were elicited from the more complex, i.e. cortico-subcortical neuronal circuits. Possible contributing factors for the determination of seizure susceptibility in immautre rats were also discussed. PMID:992511

Yamauchi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Mohri, Y; Kataoka, N

1976-01-01

67

Pathophysiological mechanisms of genetic absence epilepsy in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized non-convulsive absence seizures are characterized by the occurrence of synchronous and bilateral spike and wave discharges (SWDs) on the electroencephalogram, that are concomitant with a behavioral arrest. Many similarities between rodent and human absence seizures support the use of genetic rodent models, in which spontaneous SWDs occur. This review summarizes data obtained on the neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of

L Danober; C Deransart; A Depaulis; M Vergnes; C Marescaux

1998-01-01

68

The budding bacteria, Pirellula and Planctomyces , with atypical 16S rRNA and absence of peptidoglycan, show eubacterial phospholipids and uniquely high proportions of long chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids in the lipopolysaccharide lipid A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids of twelve strains of budding bacteria (Planctomyces and Pirellula spp.), which have atypical 16S rRNA and do not contain peptidoglycan cell walls, were shown to contain typical diacyl polar lipids with no indication of isoprenoid ether lipids suggestive of a relationship with the archaebacteria. The major ester-linked fatty acids of the phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids,

B. D. Kerger; C. A. Mancuso; P. D. Nichols; D. C. White; T. Langworthy; M. Sittig; H. Schlesner; P. Hirsch

1988-01-01

69

Atypicalseizure-like” activity in cortical reverberating networks in vitro can be caused by LPS-induced inflammation: a multi-electrode array study from a hundred neurons  

PubMed Central

We show here that a mild sterile inflammation induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a neuron/astrocyte/microglial cortical network, modulates neuronal excitability and can initiate long-duration burst events resembling epileptiform seizures, a recognized feature of various central nervous neurodegenerative, neurological and acute systemic diseases associated with neuroinflammation. To study this action, we simultaneously analyzed the reverberating bursting activity of a hundred neurons by using in vitro multi-electrode array methods. ?5 h after LPS application, we observed a net increase in the average number of spikes elicited in engaged cells and within each burst, but no changes neither in spike waveforms nor in burst rate. This effect was characterized by a slow, twofold exponential increase of the burst duration and the appearance of rarely occurring long burst events that were never seen during control recordings. These changes and the time-course of microglia-released proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), were blocked by pre-treatment with 50 nM minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory agent which was inactive when applied alone. Assay experiments also revealed that application of 60 pM exogenous TNF-? after 12–15 h, produced non-washable changes of neuronal excitability, completely different from those induced by LPS, suggesting that TNF-? release alone was not responsible for our observed findings. Our results indicate that the link between neuroinflammation and hyperexcitability can be unveiled by studying the long-term activity of in vitro neuronal/astrocyte/microglial networks. PMID:25404893

Gullo, Francesca; Amadeo, Alida; Donvito, Giulia; Lecchi, Marzia; Costa, Barbara; Constanti, Andrew; Wanke, Enzo

2014-01-01

70

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

71

How do seizures stop?  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Although often overshadowed by factors influencing seizure initiation, seizure termination is a critical step in the return to the interictal state. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination could potentially identify novel targets for anticonvulsant drug development and may also highlight the pathophysiological processes contributing to seizure initiation. In this article, we review known physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and discuss additional mechanisms that are likely to be relevant even though specific data are not yet available. This review is organized according to successively increasing “size scales”—from membranes to synapses to networks to circuits. We first discuss mechanisms of seizure termination acting at the shortest distances and affecting the excitable membranes of neurons in the seizure onset zone. Next we consider the contributions of ensembles of neurons and glia interacting at intermediate distances within the region of the seizure onset zone. Lastly, we consider the contribution of brain nuclei, such as the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), that are capable of modulating seizures and exert their influence over the seizure onset zone (and neighboring areas) from a relatively great—in neuroanatomical terms—distance. It is our hope that the attention to the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination will stimulate novel avenues of epilepsy research and will contribute to improved patient care. PMID:18503563

Lado, Fred A.; Moshé, Solomon L.

2009-01-01

72

Combined myoclonic-astatic and "benign" focal epilepsy of childhood ("atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood"). A separate syndrome?  

PubMed

The authors have followed six children with atypical epilepsies but a favorable evolution, consisting in minor motor seizures of the myoclonic-astatic type (with diffuse slow spike-waves on the electroencephalogram) together with clinical and EEG features seen in benign focal epilepsy of childhood (BFEC), an association recently reported by Aicardi and Chevrie (1982). The maintenance of a normal neurological function despite severe epilepsy, the absence of tonic seizures and the marked activation of the spike discharges during sleep were described by these authors as important characteristics suggesting a good prognosis. The purpose of this study was to see if these children indeed represent a particular subgroup of idiopathic epilepsy and to draw attention to a special clinical and EEG combination indicating a possibly favorable ultimate outcome, in children usually diagnosed as suffering from Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The six cases closely resembled the group described by Aicardi and Chevrie (1982), although the clinical and EEG features of BFEC were not as striking as in their cases. Also transient mental deterioration occurred during the active seizure periods. The therapeutic benefit of the various drugs tried was difficult to assess, but the behavior was often perturbed by medication. Although it is not possible to decide at the present time if these cases represent a particular epileptic syndrome, the special combination of clinical and EEG features seems characteristic enough to justify prospective studies of similar cases in the future. PMID:3762871

Deonna, T; Ziegler, A L; Despland, P A

1986-08-01

73

Absence epilepsy in rats : how nurture shapes nature : genotypic and environmental influences on spike-wave discharges across the lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absence seizures are characterized by the spontaneous occurrence of 3 Hz generalized spike-wave discharges (SWD) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Behaviorally seizures are accompanied by decreased consciousness and interruption of ongoing behavior. Although absence epilepsy has a genetic origin, evidence from an animal model (WAG\\/Rij rat) suggests that seizures are sensitive to environmental manipulations. In this thesis it is investigated in

Ulrich Schridde

2005-01-01

74

Nonlesional atypical mesial temporal epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: Misleading manifestations of common epilepsy syndromes might account for some epilepsy surgery failures, thus we sought to characterize patients with difficult to diagnose (atypical) mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our surgical database over 12 years to identify patients who underwent a standard anterior temporal lobectomy after undergoing intracranial EEG (ICEEG) evaluation with a combination of depth and subdural electrodes. We carefully studied electroclinical manifestations, neuroimaging data, neuropsychological findings, and indications for ICEEG. Results: Of 835 patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy, 55 were investigated with ICEEG. Ten of these had atypical mTLE features and were not considered to have mTLE preoperatively. All of them had Engel class I outcome for 3 to 7 years (median 3.85). Five reported uncommon auras, and 3 had no auras. Scalp-EEG and nuclear imaging studies failed to provide adequate localization. None had MRI evidence of hippocampal sclerosis. However, ICEEG demonstrated exclusive mesial temporal seizure onset in all patients. Clues suggesting the possibility of mTLE were typical auras when present, anterior temporal epileptiform discharges or ictal patterns, small hippocampi, asymmetrical or ipsilateral temporal hypometabolism on PET, anterior temporal hyperperfusion on ictal SPECT, and asymmetry of memory scores. Histopathology revealed hippocampal sclerosis in 6 patients and gliosis in 2. Conclusions: Atypical electroclinical presentation may be deceptive in some patients with mTLE. We emphasize the importance of searching for typical mTLE features to guide ICEEG study of mesial temporal structures in such patients, who may otherwise mistakenly undergo extramesial temporal resections or be denied surgery. PMID:24174582

Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Busch, Robyn M.; Wehner, Tim; Nair, Dileep; Bingaman, William E.; Najm, Imad M.

2013-01-01

75

Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

Goldman, Alica M.

2006-01-01

76

Seizures in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Transient symptoms in Alzheimer disease (AD) are frequent and include seizures, syncope, and episodes of inattention or confusion. The incidence of seizures in AD and predictors of which patients with AD might be more predisposed to them is based primarily on retrospective studies and is not well established. Objective To determine the incidence and predictors of new-onset unprovoked seizures. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three academic centers. Patients Four hundred fifty-three patients with probable AD observed prospectively from mild disease stages since 1992. Main Outcome Measure Informant interviews every 6 months included questions about whether the patient had a seizure (convulsion, fainting, or “funny” spell) and whether diagnosis or treatment for epilepsy or seizure was made. Two epileptologists independently retrospectively reviewed all available medical records for 52 patients with positive responses to either of these questions, and using a specific checklist form, events were diagnosed as to whether they were unprovoked seizures (intrarater concordance, ?=0.67). Diagnosis of unprovoked seizures constituted the event in survival analyses. Potential predictors included sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational achievement, duration of illness, baseline cognition and function, depression, medical comorbidities, and time-dependent use of cholinesterase inhibitors and neuroleptic agents, apolipoprotein E genotype, and previous electroencephalographic findings. Results Over the course of 3518 visit-assessments (per patient: mean, 7.8; maximum, 27), 7 patients (1.5%) developed seizures. Younger age was associated with higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.41; P=.003 for each additional year of age) of seizure incidence. No other predictor was significant. The overall incidence of seizures was low (418 per 100 000 person-years of observation) although significantly higher than expected for idiopathic unprovoked seizures in similar age ranges of the general population (hazard ratio, 8.06; 95% confidence interval, 3.23–16.61). Conclusions Unprovoked seizures are uncommon in AD, but they do occur more frequently than in the general population. Younger age is a risk factor for seizures in AD. PMID:19667221

Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Honig, Lawrence S.; Choi, Hyunmi; Cantero, Julio; Brandt, Jason; Blacker, Deborah; Albert, Marilyn; Amatniek, Joan C.; Marder, Karen; Bell, Karen; Hauser, W. Allen; Stern, Yaakov

2009-01-01

77

Seizure prediction and recall.  

PubMed

Using separate generalized mixed-effects models, we assessed seizure recall and prediction, as well as contributing diagnostic variables, in 83 adult patients with epilepsy undergoing video/EEG monitoring. The model revealed that when participants predicted a seizure, probability equaled 0.320 (95% CI: 0.149-0.558), a significant (P<0.05) increase over negative predictions (0.151, 95% CI: 0.71-0.228]). With no seizure, the rate of remembering was approximately 0.130 (95% CI: 0.73-0.219), increasing significantly to 0.628 (95% CI: 0.439 to 0.784) when a seizure occurred (P<0.001). Of the variables analyzed, only inpatient seizure rate influenced predictability (P<0.001) or recollection (P<0.001). These models reveal that patients were highly aware of their seizures, and in many cases, were able to make accurate predictions, for which seizure rate may be an important factor. PMID:20457544

DuBois, J M; Boylan, L S; Shiyko, M; Barr, W B; Devinsky, O

2010-05-01

78

Characterization of Atypical Language Activation Patterns in Focal Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective Functional magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to the variation in language network patterns. Large populations are needed to rigorously assess atypical patterns, which, even in neurological populations, are a minority. Methods We studied 220 patients with focal epilepsy and 118 healthy volunteers who performed an auditory description decision task. We compared a data-driven hierarchical clustering approach to the commonly used a priori laterality index (LI) threshold (LI < 0.20 as atypical) to classify language patterns within frontal and temporal regions of interest. We explored (n = 128) whether IQ varied with different language activation patterns. Results The rate of atypical language among healthy volunteers (2.5%) and patients (24.5%) agreed with previous studies; however, we found 6 patterns of atypical language: a symmetrically bilateral, 2 unilaterally crossed, and 3 right dominant patterns. There was high agreement between classification methods, yet the cluster analysis revealed novel correlations with clinical features. Beyond the established association of left-handedness, early seizure onset, and vascular pathology with atypical language, cluster analysis identified an association of handedness with frontal lateralization, early seizure onset with temporal lateralization, and left hemisphere focus with a unilateral right pattern. Intelligence quotient was not significantly different among patterns. Interpretation Language dominance is a continuum; however, our results demonstrate meaningful thresholds in classifying laterality. Atypical language patterns are less frequent but more variable than typical language patterns, posing challenges for accurate presurgical planning. Language dominance should be assessed on a regional rather than hemispheric basis, and clinical characteristics should inform evaluation of atypical language dominance. Reorganization of language is not uniformly detrimental to language functioning. PMID:24038442

Berl, Madison M.; Zimmaro, Lauren A.; Khan, Omar I.; Dustin, Irene; Ritzl, Eva; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Sepeta, Leigh N.; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

2014-01-01

79

Neonatal Seizures and Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Neonatal seizures are common, often require electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring for diagnosis and management, may be associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcome, and can often be treated with existing anticonvulsants. A neonatal electrographic seizure is defined as a sudden, repetitive, evolving and stereotyped event of abnormal electrographic pattern with amplitude of at least two microvolts and a minimum duration of ten seconds. The diagnosis of neonatal seizures relies heavily on the neurophysiologist’s interpretation of EEG. Consideration of specific criteria for the definition of a neonatal seizure, including seizure duration, location, morphology, evolution, semiology, and overall seizure burden, have utility for both the clinician and researcher. We review the importance of EEG in the diagnosis and management of neonatal seizures, the electrographic characteristics of neonatal seizures, the impact of neonatal seizures on outcome, and tools to aid in the identification of neonatal seizures. PMID:23027101

Abend, Nicholas S.; Wusthoff, Courtney J.

2012-01-01

80

Antiepileptic Drugs and Atypical Evolution of Idiopathic Partial Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six patients with classic benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes, treated with carbamazepine (four patients) or sodium valproate (two patients) evolved atypically because the epileptic disorder, diffusion of the electroencephalographic (EEG) discharges during wakefulness, and continuous spike-and-wave during slow sleep associated with severe neuropsychologic abnormalities worsened. These features appeared after a seizure-free interval varying for 2 weeks to 1

Jose M. Prats; Carmen Garaizar; Mar??a L. Garc??a-Nieto Psy; Pedro Madoz

1998-01-01

81

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

82

Improving Early Seizure Detection  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

2011-01-01

83

Spatiotemporal differences in the c-fos pathway between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following flurothyl-induced seizures: A dissociation of hippocampal Fos from seizure activity.  

PubMed

Significant differences in seizure characteristics between inbred mouse strains highlight the importance of genetic predisposition to epilepsy. Here, we examined the genetic differences between the seizure-resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mouse strain and the seizure-susceptible DBA/2J (D2) strain in the phospho-Erk and Fos pathways to examine seizure-induced neuronal activity to uncover potential mechanistic correlates to these disparate seizure responsivities. Expression of neural activity markers was examined following 1, 5, or 8 seizures, or after 8 seizures, a 28 day rest period, and a final flurothyl rechallenge. Two brain regions, the hippocampus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), had significantly different Fos expression profiles following seizures. Fos expression was highly robust in B6 hippocampus following one seizure and remained elevated following multiple seizures. Conversely, there was an absence of Fos (and phospho-Erk) expression in D2 hippocampus following one generalized seizure that increased with multiple seizures. This lack of Fos expression occurred despite intracranial electroencephalographic recordings indicating that the D2 hippocampus propagated ictal discharge during the first flurothyl seizure suggesting a dissociation of seizure discharge from Fos and phospho-Erk expression. Global transcriptional analysis confirmed a dysregulation of the c-fos pathway in D2 mice following 1 seizure. Moreover, global analysis of RNA expression differences between B6 and D2 hippocampus revealed a unique pattern of transcripts that were co-regulated with Fos in D2 hippocampus following 1 seizure. These expression differences could, in part, account for D2's seizure susceptibility phenotype. Following 8 seizures, a 28 day rest period, and a final flurothyl rechallenge, ?85% of B6 mice develop a more complex seizure phenotype consisting of a clonic-forebrain seizure that uninterruptedly progresses into a brainstem seizure. This seizure phenotype in B6 mice is highly correlated with bilateral Fos expression in the VMH and was not observed in D2 mice, which always express clonic-forebrain seizures upon flurothyl retest. Overall, these results illustrate specific differences in protein and RNA expression in different inbred strains following seizures that precede the reorganizational events that affect seizure susceptibility and changes in seizure semiology over time. PMID:25524858

Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Papandrea, Dominick; Tuz, Karina; Anderson, Tara M; Jayakumar, Sachidhanand; Herron, Bruce J; Ferland, Russell J

2015-01-01

84

Atypical autoerotic deaths  

SciTech Connect

So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of death are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.

Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. (Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-06-01

85

The therapeutic dilemma: treating subtle seizures or indulging in electroencephalogram cosmetics?  

PubMed

The treatment of epileptiform abnormalities in the absence of obvious seizures has, in the past, been dismissed as "EEG cosmetics." The work on transitory cognitive impairment has highlighted the importance of asking the question: "What is a seizure?" The extent to which epileptiform discharges cause temporary or permanent impairment, profoundly influences decisions on whether to treat with antiepileptic medication or surgery. PMID:9422254

Besag, F M

1995-12-01

86

Generalized tonic-clonic seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... with generalized tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the ... lasts for 1 hour or longer Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of ...

87

Recent advances in neonatal seizures.  

PubMed

Neonatal seizures are the most important indicators of underlying brain injury. Seizures in a neonate are different from seizures in older children in many aspects including clinical presentation and etiology. The neonatal brain is immature and tends to have a decreased seizure threshold. Neonatal seizures are classified, based on their presentation as, clinical seizures, electroclinical seizures and electroencephalographic seizures; based on the pathophysiology as epileptic and nonepileptic seizures; and also on the basis of the etiology. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the leading cause of neonatal seizures, followed by intracranial hemorrhage, metabolic causes such as hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia, intracranial infections and strokes. Neonatal epilepsy syndromes are rare. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the gold standard for diagnosis. Amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) is also used for continuous monitoring. The approach to management consists of initial stabilization of the neonate followed by treatment of potentially correctable injurious processes such as hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia and electrolyte disturbances, etiology specific therapies and antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. Phenobarbital remains the first line AED therapy. Pharmacokinetic data on newer drugs is limited. Prognosis depends on the etiology, seizure type, neurological examination at discharge and EEG. Long term neurodevelopmental follow up is essential for babies with neonatal seizures. PMID:25124329

Kanhere, Sujata

2014-09-01

88

Atypical cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To review the diagnosis of patients with atypical cystic fibrosis (CF). Sources of information A comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1950 to the third week of May 2009), MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations and Cases (1950 to the third week of May 2009), and EMBASE (1980 to the fourth week of March 2009). The Cystic Fibrosis Canada website was also reviewed and the most recent patient data registry report was consulted. Main message Atypical CF is a milder form of the CF disorder, which is associated with mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor gene. Instead of having classic symptoms, individuals with atypical CF might only have mild dysfunction in 1 organ system and might or might not have elevated sweat chloride levels. Atypical CF is a very diverse disorder affecting different organ systems to varying degrees. The symptoms patients experience can also fluctuate over time; however, certain clinical signs and symptoms affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and metabolic, and genitourinary systems should alert physicians to the possibility of CF. Patients with atypical CF often have fewer hospitalizations during childhood than those with classic CF do, and the disorder can remain undiagnosed for many years, at times into adulthood. Conclusion Although patients diagnosed with atypical CF have longer life expectancies than individuals with classic CF, the long-term expected outcome for many individuals with atypical CF is unknown. It is important to counsel patients about the possibility of future illness. Education about CF can help patients understand their symptoms, modify their lifestyles to optimize health, reduce the incidence of complications, and receive family planning counseling when appropriate. PMID:23242890

Schram, Carrie A.

2012-01-01

89

Outcome following neonatal seizures.  

PubMed

Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological disorders in the newborn period and an important determinant of outcome. Overall, for babies born at full term, mortality following seizures has improved in the last decade, typical current mortality rates being 10% (range: 7-16%), down from 33% in reports from the 1990s. By contrast, the prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae remains relatively stable, typically 46% (range: 27-55%). The strongest predictors of outcome are the underlying cause, together with the background electroencephalographic activity. In preterm babies, for whom the outlook tends to be worse as background mortality and disability are high, seizures are frequently associated with serious underlying brain injury and therefore subsequent impairments. When attempting to define the prognosis for a baby with neonatal seizures, we propose a pathway involving history, examination, and careful consideration of all available results (ideally including brain magnetic resonance imaging) and the response to treatment before synthesizing the best estimate of risk to be conveyed to the family. PMID:23466296

Uria-Avellanal, Cristina; Marlow, Neil; Rennie, Janet M

2013-08-01

90

Atypical parkinsonism: an update  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This update discusses novel aspects on genetics, diagnosis, and treatments of atypical parkinsonism published over the past 2 years. Recent findings A genome-wide association study identified new genetic risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy and new genetic conditions presenting with atypical parkinsonism have been described. The clinical criteria for diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration have been revised, and for progressive supranuclear palsy are under revision. Novel molecular techniques to identify possible biomarkers, as in other neurodegenerative disorders, have started being studied on atypical parkinsonian conditions, and although preliminary results seem promising, further studies are urgently warranted. Therapeutic trials based on disease-specific targets have shown no clinical improvement. Summary The knowledge obtained recently on atypical parkinsonian conditions points out the major deficits in this field. With the expanding phenotypical spectrum of atypical parkinsonian conditions, the early identification of patients has become difficult. The inability of conventional methods to identify these disorders earlier and better than clinicians, and the recent failure of promising therapeutic compounds, highlight the fact that the lack of biomarkers is probably the greatest limitation for developing treatments for these disorders. Thus, current and future research in this direction will be crucial. PMID:23812308

Stamelou, Maria; Hoeglinger, Guenter U.

2013-01-01

91

High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

2004-01-01

92

Clozapine-Related EEG Changes and Seizures: Dose and Plasma-Level Relationships  

PubMed Central

Clozapine is a widely used atypical antipsychotic with a unique effectiveness in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. An important adverse effect is seizures, which have been observed at all stages of clozapine treatment. Valproate has traditionally been considered the drug of choice for the prophylaxis of clozapine seizures, however it may not be the most suitable choice for all patients. There is disagreement as to the best point to prescribe valproate or a suitable antiepileptic: as seizure prophylaxis at a certain clozapine dose or level, or only as remedial treatment. In this review, we examine the relevant literature with an aim to evaluate the following relationships: clozapine dose and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities, plasma levels and EEG abnormalities, dose and occurrence of seizures and plasma levels and occurrence of seizures. Weighted linear regression models were fitted to investigate these relationships. There was a strong relationship between clozapine dose and plasma level and occurrence of clozapine-induced EEG abnormalities. However, a statistically significant relationship between dose and occurrence of seizures was not found. A relationship between clozapine plasma level and occurrence of seizures was not established because of the scarcity of useful data although our review found three case reports which suggested that there is a very substantial risk of seizures with clozapine plasma levels exceeding 1300 ?g/l. Seizures are more common during the initiation phase of clozapine treatment, suggesting a slow titration to target plasma levels is desirable. An antiepileptic drug should be considered when the clozapine plasma level exceeds 500 ?g/l, if the EEG shows clear epileptiform discharges, if seizures, myoclonic jerks or speech difficulties occur and when there is concurrent use of epileptogenic medication. The antiepileptics of choice for the treatment and prophylaxis of clozapine-induced seizures are valproate (particularly where there is mood disturbance) and lamotrigine (where there is resistance to clozapine). PMID:23983927

Varma, Seema; Bishara, Delia; Besag, Frank M. C.; Taylor, David

2011-01-01

93

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. The atypical form of HUS is a disease characterized by complement overactivation. Inherited defects in complement genes and acquired autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. Incomplete penetrance of mutations in all predisposing genes is reported, suggesting that a precipitating event or trigger is required to unmask the complement regulatory deficiency. The underlying genetic defect predicts the prognosis both in native kidneys and after renal transplantation. The successful trials of the complement inhibitor eculizumab in the treatment of atypical HUS will revolutionize disease management. PMID:24161037

Kavanagh, David; Goodship, Tim H.; Richards, Anna

2013-01-01

94

On the Activity of the Corticostriatal Networks during Spike-and-Wave Discharges in a Genetic Model of Absence Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absence seizures are characterized by impairment of consciousness associated with widespread bilaterally synchronous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflect highly synchronized oscillations in thalamocortical networks. Although recent pharmacological studies suggest that the basal ganglia could provide a remote control system for absence seizures, the mechanisms of propagation of epileptic discharges in these subcortical nuclei remain unknown. In

Sean J. Slaght; Tamar Paz; Mario Chavez; Jean-Michel Deniau; Severine Mahon; Stephane Charpier

2004-01-01

95

Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)  

MedlinePLUS

... Million NIDCR/NIH Grant 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions Upcoming Events 2015 Annual Conference Registration is Now Open 2016 Annual Meeting in Atlanta - Save the Date! Atypical Odontalgia Atypical ...

96

Chemical–genetic attenuation of focal neocortical seizures  

PubMed Central

Focal epilepsy is commonly pharmacoresistant, and resective surgery is often contraindicated by proximity to eloquent cortex. Many patients have no effective treatment options. Gene therapy allows cell-type specific inhibition of neuronal excitability, but on-demand seizure suppression has only been achieved with optogenetics, which requires invasive light delivery. Here we test a combined chemical–genetic approach to achieve localized suppression of neuronal excitability in a seizure focus, using viral expression of the modified muscarinic receptor hM4Di. hM4Di has no effect in the absence of its selective, normally inactive and orally bioavailable agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Systemic administration of CNO suppresses focal seizures evoked by two different chemoconvulsants, pilocarpine and picrotoxin. CNO also has a robust anti-seizure effect in a chronic model of focal neocortical epilepsy. Chemical–genetic seizure attenuation holds promise as a novel approach to treat intractable focal epilepsy while minimizing disruption of normal circuit function in untransduced brain regions or in the absence of the specific ligand. PMID:24866701

Kätzel, Dennis; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Schorge, Stephanie; Walker, Matthew C.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

2014-01-01

97

Melorheostosis: Two atypical cases  

PubMed Central

Melorheostosis is an uncommon mesenchymal dysplasia that rarely affects the axial skeleton. We describe two atypical cases of melorheostosis with classical imaging findings – the first one involving the cervico-dorsal spine with encroachment of left vertebral artery canal causing attenuation of the left vertebral artery and the second one of mixed sclerosing bony dysplasia (monomelic involvement coexisting with osteopoikilosis). PMID:25024532

Sureka, Binit; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Udhaya, KK; Sinha, Mukul; Mittal, Aliza; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

2014-01-01

98

Melorheostosis: Two atypical cases.  

PubMed

Melorheostosis is an uncommon mesenchymal dysplasia that rarely affects the axial skeleton. We describe two atypical cases of melorheostosis with classical imaging findings - the first one involving the cervico-dorsal spine with encroachment of left vertebral artery canal causing attenuation of the left vertebral artery and the second one of mixed sclerosing bony dysplasia (monomelic involvement coexisting with osteopoikilosis). PMID:25024532

Sureka, Binit; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Udhaya, Kk; Sinha, Mukul; Mittal, Aliza; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

2014-04-01

99

Pedigree analysis in families with febrile seizures  

SciTech Connect

Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures, occurring in an estimated 2-5% of North American children. We carried out a systematic pedigree study of febrile seizure probands. Forty of 52 probands (77%) in a referral population selected for increased severity had more than one case per family: one family had 10 cases, one family had 7, 3 families had 6, 2 had 5, 3 had 4, 13 had 3, and 17 had 2 cases. Mode of inheritance in the multicase families best fit the hypothesis of autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance. Polygenic inheritance could not be excluded for some of the smaller families. There was no support for X-linked or mitochondrial inheritance. Penetrance was calculated to be 0.64. Because the cases were selected for increased severity, this represents a useful estimate of the upper limit of penetrance and is in agreement with twin studies. Simulated lod scores showed adequate power for a linkage study in the absence of heterogeneity. Individual families had simulated average lod scores as high as 2.1. However, with potential heterogeneity, assuming only 70% of families share the same disease locus, average lod scores were marginal, and a high density map of marker loci and additional families would be required to document linkage. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, W.G.; Kugler, S.L.; Stenroos, E.S.; Meulener, M.C. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)] [and others] [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); and others

1996-02-02

100

Seizures Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on seizures in students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and offers guidelines for classroom management. First, a classification system for seizures is presented with specific types of seizures explained. Post-traumatic seizures are specifically addressed as is the importance of seizure prevention when possible.…

Williams, Dennis

101

Inflammatory pathways of seizure disorders  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy refers to a cluster of neurological disease characterized by seizures. While many forms of epilepsy have a well-defined immune etiology, in other forms of epilepsy an altered immune response is only suspected. In general, the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures is supported by experimental results. Additionally, antiepileptic maneuvers may act as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory therapies can treat seizures. Triggers of seizure include a bidirectional communication between the nervous system and organs of immunity. Thus, a crucial cellular interface protecting from immunological seizures is the blood-brain barrier. Here, we summarize recent advances in the understanding and treatment of epileptic seizures which derive from a non-neurocentric viewpoint and suggest key avenues for future research. PMID:24355813

Marchi, Nicola; Granata, Tiziana; Janigro, Damir

2014-01-01

102

A novel SCN1A mutation in a cytoplasmic loop in intractable juvenile myoclonic epilepsy without febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Generalised (genetic) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a familial epilepsy syndrome with various phenotypes. The majority of individuals with GEFS+ have generalised seizure types, in addition to febrile seizures (FS) or febrile seizures plus (FS+), defined as either continued FS after 6 years of age or afebrile seizures following FS. A 27-year-old man with no history of FS/FS+ experienced intractable generalised convulsive seizures. The patient's father had a history of similar seizures during puberty and the patient's siblings had only FS. No individual in the family had both generalised seizures and FS/FS+, although GEFS+ might be considered to be present in the family. Analysis of SCN1A, a sodium channel gene, revealed a novel mutation (c.3250A>T [S1084C]) in the cytoplasmic loop 2 of SCN1A in both the patient and his father. Most previously reported SCN1A mutations in GEFS+ patients are located in the conserved homologous domains of SCN1A, whereas mutations in the cytoplasmic loops are very rare. SCN1A gene analysis is not commonly performed in subjects with generalised seizures without FS. SCN1A mutation may be a clinically-useful genetic marker in order to distinguish GEFS+ patients from those with classic idiopathic generalised epilepsy, even if they present an atypical clinical picture. PMID:24842605

Jingami, Naoto; Matsumoto, Riki; Ito, Hirotaka; Ishii, Atsushi; Ihara, Yukiko; Hirose, Shinichi; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke

2014-06-01

103

Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

2007-01-01

104

Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

2007-01-01

105

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

106

Atypical mycobcterial injection abscess.  

PubMed

Other than suppurative organisms, atypical mycobacteria are also known to cause injection abscesses following vaccinations, injections, tattooing and even after implants. Though the usage of disposable needles is practised universally, sporadic cases do occur. The disease entity should be considered, while dealing with injection abscesses, to institute specific therapy. Acid-fast bacilli should be looked for in the pus and mycobacterial culture of the material from injection abscesses should be done for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:12841506

Satyanarayana, S; Mathur, A D

2003-01-01

107

[Atypical human trypanosomoses].  

PubMed

Trypanosomes are principally responsible for two human diseases: human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense), and Chagas disease, also called South American trypanosomiasis (T. cruzi). However, some trypanosomes that are natural parasites only of animals can sometimes infect humans and cause the so-called "atypical human trypanosomiases" (aHT). T. evansi, the agent causing surra in camels, horses, dogs, and bovines, and T. lewisi, a cosmopolite rat parasite, are the most frequently involved. These atypical infections involve no or only minor symptoms, but major symptoms are sometimes present. Parasite elimination is generally spontaneous, but can require treatment. Molecular tools, such as polymerase chain reaction, have improved the accuracy of parasite identification. Immunological techniques, mainly immunoenzymatic assays, can detect asymptomatic subjects. Several causes, most often concomitant, have been hypothesized, including immune immaturity, immunodeficiency, and close contact with infected animals. Innate immunity to animal trypanosomes depends on a trypanolytic factor called apolipoprotein L-I, present in human serum. A deficit in both apolipoprotein L-I alleles has been reported in an Indian patient infected by T. evansi. The prevalence of aHT is probably underestimated. Moreover, these trypanosomes might become potential emerging zoonotic pathogens, due to their ability to invade new hosts. An international network has been set up to survey these aHT (NAHIAT: Network on Atypical Human Infections by Animal Trypanosomes). PMID:24918468

Truc, P; Nzoumbou-Boko, R; Desquesnes, M; Semballa, S; Vincendeau, P

2014-01-01

108

Feverish prospects for seizure genetics.  

PubMed

Febrile seizures can arise in response to fevers induced by viral infection or as an adverse reaction to live-virus vaccines such as measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. A new study has now identified common genetic variants influencing susceptibility to febrile seizures, including two loci specifically associated with MMR-related events. PMID:25418745

Sisodiya, Sanjay

2014-12-01

109

The acute and chronic effect of vagus nerve stimulation in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acute and chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). This is a validated model for absence epilepsy, characterized by frequent spontaneous absences concomitant with spike and wave discharges (SWD) on the EEG. Although absences are a benign form of seizures, it is

Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere; Kristl Vonck; P Hese van; Wytse Wadman; Paul Boon

2005-01-01

110

Onset and propagation of spike and slow wave discharges in human absence epilepsy: A MEG study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:\\u000aA nonlinear association and a source localization technique were used to describe the onset and propagation of spike-and-slow-wave discharges (SWDs) in children with absence seizures. Previous studies have emphasized a leading cortical role in the generation of absence seizures in genetic epileptic rats.\\u000aMethods:\\u000aSynchronization between all magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor-couples before and during SWDs in five patients was investigated

I. A. M. Westmijse; P. P. W. Ossenblok; W. B. Gunning

2009-01-01

111

Seizure Treatment in Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement Solid organ transplantation is frequently complicated by a spectrum of seizure types, including single partial-onset or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, acute repetitive seizures or status epilepticus, and sometimes the evolution of symptomatic epilepsy. There is currently no specific evidence involving the transplant patient population to guide the selection, administration, or duration of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, so familiarity with clinical AED pharmacology and application of sound judgment are necessary for successful patient outcomes. An initial detailed search for symptomatic seizure etiologies, including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and calcineurin inhibitor treatment-related neuro-toxic complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), is imperative, as underlying central nervous system disorders may impose additional serious risks to cerebral or general health if not promptly detected and appropriately treated. The mainstay for post-transplant seizure management is AED therapy directed toward the suspected seizure type. Unfavorable drug interactions could place the transplanted organ at risk, so choosing an AED with limited interaction potential is also crucial. When the transplanted organ is dysfunctional or vulnerable to rejection, AEDs without substantial hepatic metabolism are favored in post-liver transplant patients, whereas after renal transplantation, AEDs with predominantly renal elimination may require dosage adjustment to prevent adverse effects. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and lacosamide are drugs of choice for treatment of partial-onset seizures in post-transplant patients given their efficacy spectrum, generally excellent tolerability, and lack of drug interaction potential. Levetiracetam is the drug of choice for primary generalized seizures in post-transplant patients. When intravenous drugs are necessary for acute seizure management, benzodiazepines and fosphenytoin are the traditional and best evidence-based options, although intravenous levetiracetam, valproate, and lacosamide are emerging options. Availability of several newer AEDs has greatly expanded the therapeutic armamentarium for safe and efficacious treatment of post-transplant seizures, but future prospective clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies within this specific patient population are needed. PMID:22660960

Shepard, Paul W.

2013-01-01

112

Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

2014-01-01

113

Recognition memory is impaired in children after prolonged febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal injury may be evident in human children after prolonged febrile seizures. The current study addressed this question by investigating memory abilities in 26 children soon after a prolonged febrile seizure (median: 37.5 days) and compared their results to those of 37 normally developing children. Fifteen patients were reassessed at a mean of 12.5 months after their first assessment to determine the transiency of any observed effects. We used the visual paired comparison task to test memory abilities in our group, as this task does not depend on verbal abilities and also because successful performance on the task has been proven to depend on the presence of functional hippocampi. Our findings show that patients perform as well as controls in the absence of a delay between the learning phase and the memory test, suggesting that both groups are able to form representations of the presented stimulus. However, after a 5-min delay, patients’ recognition memory is not different from chance, and comparison of patients and controls points to an accelerated forgetting rate in the prolonged febrile seizure group. The patients’ performance was not related to the time elapsed from the acute event or the duration of the prolonged febrile seizure, suggesting that the observed effect is not a by-product of the seizure itself or a delayed effect of medication administered to terminate the seizure. By contrast, performance was related to hippocampal size; participants with the smallest mean hippocampal volumes revealed the biggest drop in performance from the immediate to the delayed paradigm. At follow-up, children were still showing deficiencies in recognizing a face after a 5-min delay. Similarly, this suggests that the observed memory impairments are not a transient effect of the prolonged febrile seizures. This is the first report of such impairments in humans, and it is clinically significant given the links between mesial temporal sclerosis and prolonged febrile seizures. The persistence of these impairments a year onwards signals the potential benefits of intervention in these children who run the risk of developing episodic memory deficits in later childhood. PMID:22945967

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

114

Acute and chronic electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus: modulation of reticulo-cortical systems and predictor factors for generalized seizure control.  

PubMed

The present report recapitulates the clinical and electrophysiologic studies we have performed on patients with certain forms of medically intractable epilepsy to investigate the basic mechanisms and predictor factors for seizure control of the electrical stimulation of the thalamic centromedian nucleus (CM) procedure. Acute electrical stimulation of CM reveals that in humans, as in other animals, CM represents a thalamic relay of a reticulo-cortical system that participates crucially in wakefulness and attentive processes and in regulation of cortical excitability, as well as in the physiopathology of genuine generalized epileptic seizures. For example, unilateral, threshold, low-frequency (6/sec) stimulation of CM produced electrocortical incremental responses, while high-frequency (60/sec) stimulation of CM produced electroencephalogram (EEG) desynchronization and electronegative DC shifts with no behavioral counterparts. In contrast, combined suprathreshold low-frequency (3/sec) stimulation of CM on one side and of mesencephalic reticular stimulation on the other produced generalized spike-wave complex discharges accompanied by the symptoms of a typical absence attack, including motionless stare, eye blinking, and unresponsiveness of patients to a series of flashes under a simple response task. Chronic bilateral, threshold, high-frequency (60/sec) stimulation of CM significantly decreased the number of primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures and atypical absence attacks and the amount of interictal generalized EEG discharges in both. In addition, it improved the psychological performance of patients and normalized the EEG by increasing the frequency of background EEG activity. In contrast, chronic stimulation of CM reduced neither the number of complex partial seizures nor the epileptic EEG activities localized in the temporal region. Good outcomes of the chronic CM stimulation procedure were achieved depending on correct selection of patients and accuracy of ventriculographic stereotactic targets, as well as on periodic clinical and EEG evaluation and electrophysiologic monitoring of CM electrical stimulation reliability. However, the presence of 3- to 6-month long-lasting effects of CM stimulation made statistical evaluation of ON-OFF effects of CM stimulation under placebo, double-masked randomized experiments difficult. PMID:11036182

Velasco, M; Velasco, F; Velasco, A L; Jiménez, F; Brito, F; Márquez, I

2000-01-01

115

Epileptogenesis provoked by prolonged experimental febrile seizures: mechanisms and biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Whether long febrile seizures (FS) can cause epilepsy in the absence of genetic or acquired predisposing factors is unclear. Having established causality between long FS and limbic epilepsy in an animal model, we studied here if the duration of the inciting FS influenced the probability of developing subsequent epilepsy and the severity of the spontaneous seizures. We evaluated if interictal epileptifom activity and/or elevation of hippocampal T2 signal on MRI provided predictive biomarkers for epileptogenesis, and if the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1? (IL-1?), an intrinsic element of FS generation, contributed also to subsequent epileptogenesis. We found that febrile status epilepticus, lasting an average of 64 minutes, increased the severity and duration of subsequent spontaneous seizures compared with FS averaging 24 minutes. Interictal activity in rats sustaining febrile status epilepticus was also significantly longer and more robust, and correlated with the presence of hippocampal T2 changes in individual rats. Neither T2 changes nor interictal activity predicted epileptogenesis. Hippocampal levels of IL-1? were significantly higher for over 24 hours after prolonged FS. Chronically, IL-1? levels were elevated only in rats developing spontaneous limbic seizures after febrile status epilepticus, consistent with a role for this inflammatory mediator in epileptogenesis. Establishing seizure duration as an important determinant in epileptogenesis, and defining the predictive roles of interictal activity, MRI, and inflammatory processes are of paramount importance to the clinical understanding of the outcome of FS, the most common neurological insult in infants and children. PMID:20519523

Dubé, Celiné M.; Ravizza, Teresa; Hamamura, Mark; Zha, Qinqin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Fok, Kimberly; Andres, Adrienne M.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Obenaus, Andre; Vezzani, Annamaria; Baram, Tallie Z.

2010-01-01

116

JAMA Patient Page: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... blue, and have trouble breathing. The person loses consciousness and afterward may be confused or sleepy. • Absence ( ... convulsions of the entire body and loss of consciousness. Other symptoms include briefly losing consciousness, followed by ...

117

Bupropion seizure proportion among new-onset generalized seizures and drug related seizures presenting to an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication with seizures as its major side effect. This drug can produce seizures with an overdose. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative importance of this medication as the etiology of new-onset seizures relative to other drugs and new-onset seizures in general. The study design was a retrospective case series.

Gene R Pesola; Jagannadha Avasarala

2002-01-01

118

Atypical neuroleptics: compulsive disorders.  

PubMed

Compulsive disorders are known adverse effects of dopamine agonists. Atypical neuroleptics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone) have also been implicated in cases of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating and shopping, with sometimes serious social and familial consequences. The compulsive disorders improved or ceased when the neuroleptic was withdrawn or replaced. Patients must be informed of these possible adverse effects and monitored for behavioural changes. If such disorders occur, they can be managed by withdrawing the drug, reducing the dosage, or switching to another neuroleptic. PMID:24669386

2014-02-01

119

Akinetopsia as epileptic seizure?  

PubMed Central

Akinetopsia is a rare syndrome in which a patient specifically loses the ability to perceive visual motion following bilateral cortical lesions outside the striate cortex. We describe a patient who showed akinetopsia recurrently as epileptic seizures. The patient was a 61-year-old man. At age 46, a cerebral arteriovenous malformation in the right parietal lobe was discovered. At age 58, he began to have a recurrent visual symptom by which smooth movements of objects suddenly appeared, resembling freeze frames in a motion picture. This symptom was paroxysmal and recurrent. Both EEG and magnetoencephalography showed repetitive right temporal spikes. We diagnosed his visual symptom as akinetopsia, which was aroused by hyperexcitability of the right temporal and parietal cortices, including area MT/V5. We administered carbamazepine 200 mg/day, which suppressed his akinetopsic symptom completely.

Sakurai, Kotaro; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeda, Youji; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Kusumi, Ichiro

2013-01-01

120

Atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case reports. We describe three cases of atypical ATRT that were identified at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Discussion. Over the past decade, atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) of the central nervous system have emerged as a distinct entity. This tumor is typically misdiagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)\\/medulloblastoma. The unique immunohistochemistry profile of an ATRT helps distinguish it

Tommy Dang; Michael Vassilyadi; Jean Michaud; Carmencita Jimenez; Enrique C. G. Ventureyra

2003-01-01

121

Atypical right atrial flutter patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The purpose of our study was to define the incidence and mechanisms of atypical right atrial flutter. Methods and Results—A total of 28 (8%) of 372 consecutive patients with atrial flutter (AFL) had 36 episodes of sustained atypical right AFL. Among 24 (67%) of 36 episodes of lower loop reentry (LLR), 13 (54%) of 24 episodes had early breakthrough at

Yanfei Yang; Jie Cheng; Andy Bochoeyer

2001-01-01

122

Prolonged deficits after focal inhibitory seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Seizures are most commonly associated with positive phenomena such as tonic, clonic or myoclonic movements, automatisms,\\u000a paresthesias and hallucinations. Negative phenomena, however, are not an uncommon manifestation of seizure activity. Examples\\u000a of negative seizure phenomena include speech arrest, aphasia, amaurosis, amnesia, numbness, deafness, neglect and atonic seizures.\\u000a Less commonly described in the literature are focal inhibitory motor seizures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods

Miguel Bussière; David Pelz; Robert H Reid; G. Bryan Young

2005-01-01

123

Understanding the TXA seizure connection  

E-print Network

Transexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has been used successfully to prevent blood loss during major surgery. However, as its usage has increased, there have been growing reports of postsurgical seizure events ...

Schwinn, Debra A.

124

Differential diagnosis in pseudoepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

With increasing use of intensive video-EEG monitoring, publications concerning pseudoepileptic seizures have burgeoned, but without clarification concerning differing psychopathologic mechanisms and without distinction of different syndromic varieties. The frequent concurrence of pseudoepileptic and epileptic seizures has not been sufficiently recognized, and an undue reliance on clinical experience on the one hand and individual tests such as EEG on the other has proven equally misleading in this group of cases. PMID:8453940

Ozkara, C; Dreifuss, F E

1993-01-01

125

Epileptic Seizures in AD Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic seizures have long been recognised as a complication of the clinical syndrome of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly\\u000a in advanced disease, but have hitherto been viewed essentially as epiphenomena of the neurodegenerative process. Progress\\u000a with animal models of Alzheimer’s disease has suggested that this view may be incorrect, and that seizures may be a reflection\\u000a of pathophysiological processes similar to or

A. J. Larner

2010-01-01

126

[Atypical bipolar disorders].  

PubMed

Some epidemiologic data reveal how difficult detecting atypic bipolar disorders is: 9 years of progression before the diagnosis is properly established and a specific treatment is initiated, and intervention of 4 to 5 different specialists. Incomplete symptomatology, impulsive actions, periodic alcohol abuse, compulsive buying behaviors, acute delusional episodes, medicolegal actions and comorbidities can hide or modify bipolar symptomatology. Bipolarity should be systematically screened for in case of substance abuse (40 to 60 percent of bipolar disorders), anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders etc.) and feeding disorders. In these various situations, history taking and clinical examination will help to detect signs of bipolarity: reaction to antidepressants, inefficiency, paradoxical worsening, development of behavior disorders and mood changes. Besides screening for thymic disorders, the examination will be completed by history taking of thymic disorders, suicide, toxic abuse, anxiety disorders, personal history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood, depression or postpartum psychosis in women, as well as premenstrual depressive manifestations. PMID:19462868

Gay, Christian

2009-04-20

127

Atypical chemokine receptors  

PubMed Central

Atypical chemokine receptors (ACRs) are cell surface receptors with seven transmembrane domains structurally homologous to chemokine G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, upon ligation by cognate chemokines, ACRs fail to induce classical signaling and downstream cellular responses characteristic for GPCRs. Despite this, by affecting chemokine availability and function, ACRs impact on a multitude of pathophysiological events and have emerged as important molecular players in health and disease. This review discusses individual characteristics of the currently known ACRs, highlights their similarities and differences and attempts to establish their group identity. It summarizes the progress made in mapping ACR expression, understanding their diverse in vitro and in vivo functions of ACRs and uncovering their contributions to disease pathogeneses. PMID:21272574

Ulvmar, Maria Helena; Hub, Elin; Rot, Antal

2011-01-01

128

[Atypical antipsychotics in the elderly].  

PubMed

Central criteria for the definition of atypical antipsychotics are antipsychotic efficacy and minimal or none extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). This last criterium is of importance in the differentiation with the traditional antipsychotics. Of the four atypical antipsychotics which are discussed here, clozapine is the most atypical. The best proof is its good efficacy in the treatment of Parkinson psychosis with minimal adverse effects on motor function. Clozapine is the best choice for this indication. At this moment there is not enough evidence available concerning quetiapine. Risperidon and olanzapine give more Dopamine2-occupancy with higher doses and can evoke EPS, but this is still less compared to the traditional antipsychotics. All four atypical drugs cause less tardive dyskinesia. Atypical antipsychotics are not well studied in the treatment of elderly patients with functional psychosis. However the available information and the literature on the treatment of young adults makes it probable that the atypical antipsychotics are at least as effective in the elderly as the traditional antipsychotics. The median daily doses are lower for elderly than for younger patients. Risperidon has been proven effective in the treatment of agressive behaviour in dementia. Atypical antipsychotics have their 'own' adverse effects. Those which have the most impact in the elderly are discussed. PMID:15704604

van Melick, E J M

2004-12-01

129

Neurophysiological aspects of neonatal seizures.  

PubMed

Recently, amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has been increasingly used and proved useful in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for the management of neonatal seizures. It does not replace, but is supplementary to standard EEG. This article reviews some of findings obtained with standard EEGs, and tries to interpret them with recent findings in the field of basic science. Seizures mainly occur in active-REM sleep in neonates. This is in sharp contrast to those in older children and adults, in whom epileptic seizures occur mainly in NREM sleep. This may be explained by neurotransmitter effects on sleep mechanisms of the neonatal brain that are different from those of older individuals. When all clinical seizures have no electrical correlates, they are non-epileptic, but when the correlation between clinical seizures and frequent electrical discharges are inconsistent, they should rather be considered epileptic, reflecting progression of status epilepticus causing electro-clinical dissociation. Electro-clinical dissociation is not a characteristic of neonatal seizures per se, but a feature of prolonged status epilepticus in adults as well as children. It occurs when prolonged status epilepticus itself causes a progressively severe encephalopathy, or when status occurs in the presence of a severe underlying encephalopathy. In neonates without pre-existing brain damage, frequent seizures per se may cause mild depression characterized by the loss of high voltage slow patterns, an important constituent of slow wave sleep reflecting cortico-cortical connectivity. Mild depression only in the acute stage is not associated with neurological sequelae, but previously damaged brain may be more vulnerable than normal brain. PMID:24581554

Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

2014-05-01

130

Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review.  

PubMed

In this review we assess our currently available knowledge about reflex seizures with special emphasis on the difference between "generalized" reflex seizures induced by visual stimuli, thinking, praxis and language tasks, and "focal" seizures induced by startle, eating, music, hot water, somatosensory stimuli and orgasm. We discuss in particular evidence from animal, clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the concept that "generalized" reflex seizures, usually occurring in the setting of IGE, should be considered as focal seizures with quick secondary generalization. We also review recent advances in genetic and therapeutic approach of reflex seizures. PMID:24766826

Italiano, Domenico; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Spina, Edoardo; Mondello, Stefania; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

2014-08-01

131

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2010-04-01

132

Electroclinical features of idiopathic generalised epilepsy with persisting absences in adult life  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe the electroclinical features of typical absences persisting in adult life. METHODS: Twelve adult patients (aged 21 to 56 years) with idiopathic generalised epilepsy featuring typical absences as the prominent clinical feature were studied. All patients underwent a full clinical and neurophysiological investigation including ictal documentation of seizures. RESULTS: Neurological examination and neuroradiological investigations were normal in all

R Michelucci; G Rubboli; D Passarelli; P Riguzzi; L Volpi; L Parmeggiani; R Rizzi; E Gardella; C A Tassinari

1996-01-01

133

Chromosomal Mapping of Genetic Loci Controlling Absence Epilepsy Phenotypes in the WAG-Rij Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The WAG\\/Rij rat is among the most appropriate models for the study of spontaneous childhood absence epilepsy, without complex neurologic disorders that are associated with some mouse models for absence epilepsy. Previous studies have allowed the identification of distinct types of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) characterizing seizures in this strain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic

Dominique Gauguier; Marie Therese Bihoreau; Steven P. Wilder; Richard F. Godfrey; J. M. H. Vossen; Anton Coenen; Roger D. Cox

2004-01-01

134

Amygdala Kindling in the WAG-Rij Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Purpose: The kindling model in rats with genetic absence epilepsy is suitable for studying mechanisms involved in the propagation and generalization of seizure activity in the convulsive and nonconvulsive components of epilepsy. In the present study, we compared the amygdala kindling rate and afterdischarge characteristics of the nonepileptic Wistar control rat with a well-validated model of absence epilepsy, the

Rezzan Gulhan Aker; Hasan Raci Yananli; Ayten Azizova Gurbanova; A. E. Özkaynakçi; Nurbay Ates; Filiz Yilmaz Onat

2006-01-01

135

[Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24726042

Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

2014-01-01

136

A Smell That Causes Seizure  

PubMed Central

In mammals, odorants are detected by a large family of receptors that are each expressed in just a small subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Here we describe a strain of transgenic mice engineered to express an octanal receptor in almost all OSNs. Remarkably, octanal triggered a striking and involuntary phenotype in these animals, with passive exposure regularly inducing seizures. Octanal exposure invariably resulted in widespread activation of OSNs but interestingly seizures only occurred in 30–40% of trials. We hypothesized that this reflects the need for the olfactory system to filter strong but slowly-changing backgrounds from salient signals. Therefore we used an olfactometer to control octanal delivery and demonstrated suppression of responses whenever this odorant is delivered slowly. By contrast, rapid exposure of the mice to octanal induced seizure in every trial. Our results expose new details of olfactory processing and provide a robust and non-invasive platform for studying epilepsy. PMID:22848650

Nguyen, Minh Q.; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.

2012-01-01

137

Recurrent prolonged fugue states as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures  

PubMed Central

A fugue state is defined as an altered state of consciousness with varying degrees of motor activity and amnesia for the event. It may last for hours to days and may be psychogenic or organic in nature. Epileptic fugue states can be encountered in patients with absence or complex partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus or may occur as a postictal phenomenon in patients with generalized seizures. “absence status epilepticus” (AS) is rare and seen in only 2.6% of the cases with “childhood absence epilepsy” (CAE). The diagnosis of AS can be elusive, but sudden onset and termination of the fugue state, classical electroencephalogram (EEG) features, and response to a therapeutic trial of benzodiazepines helps in confirming the diagnosis and differentiating it from nonepileptic fugue states. We report a childhood onset case, with a 10 years history of recurrent episodes of prolonged fugue state lasting for up to 24 h, as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures. The EEG features were suggestive of an AS, but there was no history of typical absences, myoclonus, or generalized tonic clonic seizures. This unusual and rare case cannot be categorized into one of the defined epilepsy syndromes like CAE but belongs to a recently identified syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy known as “Absence status epilepsy” in which AS is the sole or the predominant seizure type. PMID:24339579

Khwaja, Geeta A.; Duggal, Ashish; Kulkarni, Amit; Chaudhry, Neera; Gupta, Meena; Chowdhury, Debashish; Bohra, Vikram

2013-01-01

138

Recurrent prolonged fugue states as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

A fugue state is defined as an altered state of consciousness with varying degrees of motor activity and amnesia for the event. It may last for hours to days and may be psychogenic or organic in nature. Epileptic fugue states can be encountered in patients with absence or complex partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus or may occur as a postictal phenomenon in patients with generalized seizures. "absence status epilepticus" (AS) is rare and seen in only 2.6% of the cases with "childhood absence epilepsy" (CAE). The diagnosis of AS can be elusive, but sudden onset and termination of the fugue state, classical electroencephalogram (EEG) features, and response to a therapeutic trial of benzodiazepines helps in confirming the diagnosis and differentiating it from nonepileptic fugue states. We report a childhood onset case, with a 10 years history of recurrent episodes of prolonged fugue state lasting for up to 24 h, as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures. The EEG features were suggestive of an AS, but there was no history of typical absences, myoclonus, or generalized tonic clonic seizures. This unusual and rare case cannot be categorized into one of the defined epilepsy syndromes like CAE but belongs to a recently identified syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy known as "Absence status epilepsy" in which AS is the sole or the predominant seizure type. PMID:24339579

Khwaja, Geeta A; Duggal, Ashish; Kulkarni, Amit; Chaudhry, Neera; Gupta, Meena; Chowdhury, Debashish; Bohra, Vikram

2013-10-01

139

Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC  

MedlinePLUS

... or just after seizures. Don’t use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside ... or just after seizures. Don’t use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside ...

140

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction methods  

E-print Network

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction, numerous methods have been suggested that claim to predict from the EEG the onset of epileptic seizures of a seizure prediction method and an intervention system, would improve patient quality of life. The question

Timmer, Jens

141

An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

142

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2010-04-01

143

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2011-04-01

144

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently, without unquestionable demonstration of efficiency. There is a high risk of post-transplant recurrence, except in MCP-HUS. Case reports and two phase II trials show an impressive efficacy of the complement C5 blocker eculizumab, suggesting it will be the next standard of care. Except for patients treated by intensive plasmatherapy or eculizumab, the worst prognosis is in factor H-HUS, as mortality can reach 20% and 50% of survivors do not recover renal function. Half of factor I-HUS progress to end-stage renal failure. Conversely, most patients with MCP-HUS have preserved renal function. Anti-factor H antibodies-HUS has favourable outcome if treated early. PMID:21902819

2011-01-01

145

Development of later life spontaneous seizures in a rodent model of hypoxia induced neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose To study the development of epilepsy following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures in Long Evans rats and to establish the presence of spontaneous seizures in this model of early life seizures. Methods Long-Evans rat pups were subjected to hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures at postnatal day 10 (P10). Epidural cortical electroencephalography (EEG) and hippocampal depth electrodes were used to detect the presence of seizures in later adulthood (>P60). In addition, subdermal wire electrode recordings were used to monitor age at onset and progression of seizures in the juvenile period, at intervals between P10–P60. Timm staining was performed to evaluate mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampi of P100 adult rats that had experienced neonatal seizures. Key Findings In recordings made from adult rats (P60–P180), the prevalence of epilepsy in cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings was 94.4% following early life hypoxic seizures. These spontaneous seizures were identified by characteristic spike and wave activity on EEG accompanied by behavioral arrest and facial automatisms (electroclinical seizures). Phenobarbital injection transiently abolished spontaneous seizures. EEG in the juvenile period (P10–60) showed that spontaneous seizures first occurred approximately 2 weeks after the initial episode of hypoxic seizures. Following this period, spontaneous seizure frequency and duration progressively increased with time. Furthermore, significantly increased sprouting of mossy fibers was observed in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus in adult animals following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures. Notably, Fluoro-Jade B staining confirmed that hypoxic seizures at P10 did not induce acute neuronal death. Significance The rodent model of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures leads to the development of epilepsy in later life, accompanied by increased mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, this model appears to exhibit a seizure-free latent period, following which there is a progressive increase in the frequency of electroclinical seizures. PMID:21366558

Rakhade, Sanjay N; Klein, Peter; Huynh, Thanthao; Hilario-Gomez, Cristina; Kosaras, Bela; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jensen, Frances E.

2011-01-01

146

Electrographic seizures in pediatric ICU patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We aimed to determine the incidence of electrographic seizures in children in the pediatric intensive care unit who underwent EEG monitoring, risk factors for electrographic seizures, and whether electrographic seizures were associated with increased odds of mortality. Methods: Eleven sites in North America retrospectively reviewed a total of 550 consecutive children in pediatric intensive care units who underwent EEG monitoring. We collected data on demographics, diagnoses, clinical seizures, mental status at EEG onset, EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, electrographic seizures, intensive care unit length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Electrographic seizures occurred in 162 of 550 subjects (30%), of which 61 subjects (38%) had electrographic status epilepticus. Electrographic seizures were exclusively subclinical in 59 of 162 subjects (36%). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that independent risk factors for electrographic seizures included younger age, clinical seizures prior to EEG monitoring, an abnormal initial EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, and a diagnosis of epilepsy. Subjects with electrographic status epilepticus had greater odds of in-hospital death, even after adjusting for EEG background and neurologic diagnosis category. Conclusions: Electrographic seizures are common among children in the pediatric intensive care unit, particularly those with specific risk factors. Electrographic status epilepticus occurs in more than one-third of children with electrographic seizures and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. PMID:23794680

Arndt, Daniel H.; Carpenter, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kevin E.; Cornett, Karen M.; Gallentine, William B.; Giza, Christopher C.; Goldstein, Joshua L.; Hahn, Cecil D.; Lerner, Jason T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Matsumoto, Joyce H.; McBain, Kristin; Nash, Kendall B.; Payne, Eric; Sánchez, Sarah M.; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Shults, Justine; Williams, Korwyn; Yang, Amy; Dlugos, Dennis J.

2013-01-01

147

Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures  

SciTech Connect

We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

148

Identification of atypical flight patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

2005-01-01

149

Vagal and sciatic nerve stimulation have complex, time-dependent effects on chemically-induced seizures: a controlled study.  

PubMed

Previous studies of the effects of electrical vagus stimulation on experimental seizures were without suitable controls or statistical validation, and ignored the potential role of vagally-induced hemodynamic depression on seizure expression. This study addresses these limitations. The effects of periodic left vagus nerve stimulation (LVNS) on chemically-induced seizures in rats were compared with control groups receiving no stimulation (NoS), left sciatic nerve stimulation (LSNS) and LVNS after pretreatment with methyl atropine (MA-LVNS). Stimulation followed a 30 s on-120 s off cycle over 130 min. Seizures were scored visually and the temporal variation of their probability P(s) across the stimulation cycle was measured statistically. P(s) was significantly different (P<0.01) for all groups: LSNS had the highest and MA-LVNS the lowest seizure probability; LVNS and NoS had intermediate values. While LVNS blocked seizures, it also precipitated them, explaining why its anti-seizure effect was only slightly greater than NoS. Neither LVNS nor MA-LVNS induced changes in cortical rhythms ('activation') associated with decreased P(s), unlike LSNS which increased cortical rhythm synchrony and with it, P(s). LVNS alone induced marked bradycardia and moderate hypoxemia. In conclusion, cranial and peripheral nerve stimulation have complex, time-varying effects on cerebral excitability: low frequency LSNS facilitated seizures, while LVNS both suppressed and facilitated them. The anti-seizure effect of LVNS was small and may have, in part, been due to a hemodynamically-induced deficit in energy substrates. The effects of MA-LVNS on seizure duration and P(s) raise the possibility that, in the absence of hemodynamic depression, stimulation of this nerve does not have a strong anti-seizure effect. PMID:11684042

Sunderam, S; Osorio, I; Watkins, J F; Wilkinson, S B; Frei, M G; Davis, R E

2001-11-01

150

A systematic review of published evidence on expanded endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery and the risk of postoperative seizure.  

PubMed

Although postoperative seizure is an acknowledged risk following transcranial surgery, the incidence of seizure after removal of intradural pathology via an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach is not well defined. The current study was performed to systematically review the risk of seizure in patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal skull base (EESB) surgery. Embase (1980 to 9 March 2012) and Medline (1950 to 9 March 2012) were searched using a search strategy designed to include any studies that report the perioperative outcomes following EESB surgery. Outcomes of patients undergoing a simple closure of cerebrospinal fluid fistulae or encephaloceles and transellar approaches for pituitary or intrasellar lesions were excluded because this review is focused on large skull base defects. A title search selected those articles relevant to clinical series on expanded endoscopic approaches. A subsequent search of abstracts selected for manuscripts of any report that documented the presence or absence of postoperative seizure. A total of 2234 manuscripts were selected initially and full text analysis produced 67 studies with extractable data regarding the perioperative outcomes for EESB surgery. Of these manuscripts, seven reported the incidence of seizure following EESB procedures. Two of these studies were excluded due to duplication of authorship and institutional data. The overall risk of postoperative seizure following EESB surgery was estimated at 1.1% (six of 530). Subgroup analyses of data revealed that the risk of seizure following an endoscopic endonasal to the anterior cranial base was 2.3% (one patient of 43). For a posterior cranial base approach, the risk of seizure was indeterminate due to deficiency of reporting in the current literature. We concluded that the risk of seizure following an EESB procedure appears to be low (1%). However, the lack of reporting on the incidence of seizures or the use of antiepileptic prophylaxis following EESB procedure is a key limitation. Future EESB studies will need to include seizure as an outcome to accurately define this risk. PMID:23274033

Lai, Leon; Morgan, Michael K; Trooboff, Spencer; Harvey, Richard J

2013-02-01

151

Genetic Absence Epilepsy in Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), 100% of the animals present recurrent generalized non-convulsive seizures characterized by bilateral and synchronous spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) accompanied with behavioural arrest, staring and sometimes twitching of the vibrissae. Spontaneous SWD (7–11 cps) start and end abruptly on a normal background EEG at a mean frequency of 1.5 per min. Drugs effective against

C. Marescaux; M. Vergnes

1995-01-01

152

Migrating partial seizures in infancy and 47XYY syndrome: Cause or coincidence?  

PubMed Central

Migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) is a rare epilepsy syndrome with poor prognosis. The exact etiology of MPSI is still not known. We report a 14-month-old baby with 47XYY karyotype who presented with developmental delay and drug-refractory seizures satisfying the diagnostic criteria for MPSI and discuss the possible association between the 47XYY karyotype and this syndrome. The excess of genes due to an additional Y chromosome could cause disturbance in various stages of formation, migration, or differentiation of neurons. Depending on the degree of disturbance and the resultant cortical excitability, this could result in various epilepsy syndromes. We feel that this association is more likely causal than coincidental. Chromosome studies need to be performed in more individuals with atypical and uncommon epilepsies. Multicenter studies are required to establish the association between epilepsy syndrome and these rare chromosome disorders.

Iyer, Rajesh Shankar; Thanikasalam; Krishnan, Mugundhan

2014-01-01

153

[Psychogenic pseudo-epileptic seizures: diagnostic difficulties].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of the diagnosis of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures from the clinician's point of view and to stress some difficulties which neurologist, psychiatrist and general practitioner can be faced. In epilepsy centers from 10 to 20% of patients with diagnosis of drug resistant epilepsy had psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Diagnosis of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures can be established on clinical symptomatology, several EEG recordings, long term EEG videotape recording and some neurological tests evaluating post-seizure reflexive responsiveness. In differential diagnosis examination of simple defensive reactions, provocation of seizure or its arrest using suggestion with placebo may be very helpful. Author stress the consequences from false diagnosis. Prolonged pseudoepileptic seizures very often are treated as status epilepticus including general anesthesia. PMID:15058268

Jedrzejczak, Joanna

2003-12-01

154

Absence status associated with focal activity and polydipsia-induced hyponatremia  

PubMed Central

We report a case of de novo absence status associated with focal discharge and polydipsia-induced hyponatremia. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is classified as absence status or complex partial status. Absence status is characterized by bilateral synchronized spike and wave complex bursts and a variety of conscious disturbances. Possible precipitating factors for NCSE include benzodiazepine withdrawal, excessive use of psychotropic drugs, and electrolyte imbalances. Hyponatremia is a rare precipitating factor. In this case, the patient was 59 years old and had suffered from primary insomnia but had no history of epilepsy. NCSE improved by means of saline infusion. However after recovery from NCSE EEG revealed some spikes in the left frontal area. Absence seizures can also show generalized spike and slow waves, and cases of focal lesion-associated absence seizures have been reported. Although absence seizures and absence status are two distinct conditions, they should not be considered together. We assumed that hyponatremia induced by polydipsia precipitated epileptogenicity in the left frontal area, and then focal activity secondarily generalized and resulted in absence status. PMID:18728738

Azuma, Hideki; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A

2008-01-01

155

Tardive or Atypical Tourette's Disorder in a Population with Down Syndrome?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a population of 425 individuals with Down's syndrome, 5 persons (1.2%) were identified as having Tourette's disorder. The lack of interrelationship between Down's syndrome and Tourette's disorder argues against an atypical Tourette's disorder. Diagnoses of tardive Tourette's disorder were based on absence of family history of Tourette's, late…

Myers, Beverly; Pueschel, Siegfried M.

1995-01-01

156

Cognitive Dysfunction after Experimental Febrile Seizures  

PubMed Central

While the majority of children with febrile seizures have an excellent prognosis, a small percentage are latter discovered to have cognitive impairment. Whether the febrile seizures produce the cognitive deficits or the febrile seizures are a marker or the result of underlying brain pathology is not clear from the clinical literature. We evaluated hippocampal and prefrontal cortex function in adult rats with a prior history of experimental febrile seizures as rat pups. All of the rat pups had MRI brain scans following the seizures. Rats subjected to experimental febrile seizures were found to have moderate deficits in working and reference memory and strategy shifting in the Morris water maze test. A possible basis for these hippocampal deficits involved abnormal firing rate and poor stability of hippocampal CA1 place cells, neurons involved in encoding and retrieval of spatial information. Additional derangements of interneuron firing in the CA1 hippocampal circuit suggested a complex network dysfunction in the rats. MRI T2 values in the hippocampus were significantly elevated in 50% of seizure-experiencing rats. Learning and memory functions of these T2-positive rats were significantly worse than those of T2-negative cohorts and of controls. We conclude that cognitive dysfunction involving the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex networks occur following experimental febrile seizures and that the MRI provides a potential biomarker for hippocampal deficits in a model of prolonged human febrile seizures. PMID:19000675

Dube, Celine M; Zhou, Jun-Li; Hamamura, Mark; Zhao, Qian; Ring, Alex; Abrahams, Jennifer; McIntyre, Katherine; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Shatskih, Tatiana; Baram, Tallie Z.; Holmes, Gregory L.

2009-01-01

157

Cellular and network mechanisms of electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures constitute a complex multiscale phenomenon that is characterized by synchronized hyperexcitation of neurons in neuronal networks. Recent progress in understanding pathological seizure dynamics provides crucial insights into underlying mechanisms and possible new avenues for the development of novel treatment modalities. Here we review some recent work that combines in vivo experiments and computational modeling to unravel the pathophysiology of seizures of cortical origin. We particularly focus on how activity-dependent changes in extracellular potassium concentration affects the intrinsic dynamics of neurons involved in cortical seizures characterized by spike/wave complexes and fast runs. PMID:19190736

Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Fröhlich, Flavio; Sejnowski, Terrence J

2008-01-01

158

Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and seizures have now been identified. PMID:22377486

Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

2012-01-01

159

Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease?  

PubMed Central

Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a rational approach toward treatment. Coincidentally, our case is the first report of CJD in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

Ng, Marcus C.; Westover, M. Brandon; Cole, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

160

Acute vagus nerve stimulation does not suppress spike and wave discharges in “Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg”  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a validated model for absence epilepsy. In the first experiment, we investigated whether VNS applied at seizure onset can interrupt spike and wave discharges (SWD). In the second experiment, we investigated whether SWD are suppressed or shortened in duration when VNS is applied

Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere; Kristl Vonck; Pieter Claeys; Peter Van Hese; Michel D’Havé; Thierry Grisar; Dean Naritoku; Paul Boon

2004-01-01

161

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2010-04-01

162

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2011-10-01

163

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2010-10-01

164

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2010-04-01

165

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2011-04-01

166

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2010-04-01

167

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2010-01-01

168

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2011-10-01

169

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2011-04-01

170

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2010-10-01

171

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2011-04-01

172

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2011-01-01

173

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

2012-04-01

174

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

2011-04-01

175

Atypical medulloblastoma: A case series  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma is common in children as a tumor of midline posterior fossa, which arises from vermis and appears as a homogenously enhancing hyperdense mass on computed tomography scan and is associated with the clinical picture of posterior fossa syndrome. This unique clinic-radiological pattern in considered “typical” medulloblastoma, but medulloblastomas does not follow the typical clinic-radiological pattern in a significant number of children and adult cases. We review here the previous reports of atypical or uncommon features of medulloblastoma and add our very rare atypical cases of medulloblastomas to this list. Medulloblastoma should be considered in all midline posterior fossa tumors, hemisphere and cerebellopontine angle despite having clinical and radiological features suggestive of other tumors. Definitive diagnosis requires histologic confirmation in all cases. PMID:24891891

Meshkini, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Meshkini, Mohammad; Alikhah, Hossein; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

2014-01-01

176

Sleep Disorders in Atypical Parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are commonly seen in atypical parkinsonism, with particular disorders occurring more frequently in specific parkinsonian disorders. Multiple systems atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy often associated with nocturnal stridor which is a serious, but treatable condition highly specific to MSA. In addition, this disorder is strongly associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is also seen in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RBD is far less prevalent in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), which is a tauopathy. Insomnia and impaired sleep architecture are the most common sleep abnormalities seen in PSP. Corticobasilar degeneration (CBD) is also a tauopathy, but has far fewer sleep complaints associated with it than PSP. In this manuscript we review the spectrum of sleep dysfunction across the atypical parkinsonian disorders, emphasize the importance of evaluating for sleep disorders in patients with parkinsonian symptoms, and point to sleep characteristics that can provide diagnostic clues to the underlying parkinsonian disorder. PMID:24955381

Abbott, Sabra M; Videnovic, Aleksandar

2014-06-01

177

Atypical stress-induced cardiomyopathy: a case series.  

PubMed

Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) is characterized by reversible left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, which appears to be triggered by an intense, stressful event in the absence of significant coronary artery disease. It manifests typically with transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA) involving the apical and/or mid-ventricular myocardial segments, associated with minimal troponin rise (<5 ng/ml), and typical EGG changes. Described are 3 cases of stress-induced cardiomyopathy with atypical distribution of wall motion abnormalities. Possible contributing mechanisms to the pathogenesis and the variability in WMA are discussed. PMID:23705571

Alhaj, Eyad; Ahmad, Umair S; Niazi, Oussama T; Zakhary, Daniel; Akhtar, Morium; Zabolotsky, Andrew; Oriscello, Ralph; Voudouris, Apostolos; Kaluski, Edo; Klapholz, Marc

2013-04-01

178

In vivo imaging of seizure activity in a novel developmental seizure model.  

PubMed

The immature brain is exceptionally susceptible to seizures. However, it remains unclear whether seizures occurring during development affect critical processes underlying neural circuit formation, leading to long-term functional consequences. Here we characterize a novel in vivo model system of developmental seizures based on the transparent albino Xenopus laevis tadpole, which allows direct examination of seizure activity, and seizure-induced effects on neuronal development within the intact unanesthetized brain. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), kainic acid, bicuculline, picrotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and pilocarpine were tested for their ability to induce behavioral seizures in freely swimming tadpoles when bath applied. All six chemoconvulsants consistently induced similar patterns of abnormal behavior in a dose-dependent manner, characterized by convulsive clonus-like motor patterns with periods of behavioral arrest. Extracellular field recordings demonstrated rhythmic synchronous epileptiform electrographic responses induced by convulsants irrespective of mechanism of action, that could be terminated by the anti-epileptic drug valproate. PTZ-induced seizures were further characterized using in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of neuronal calcium dynamics, in unanesthetized immobilized tadpoles. Imaging of calcium dynamics during PTZ-induced seizures revealed waves of neural activity propagating through large populations of neurons within the brain. Analysis of single-cell responses demonstrated distinct synchronized high-amplitude calcium spikes not observed under baseline conditions. Similar to other developmental seizure models, prolonged seizures failed to induce marked neuronal death within the brain, detected by cellular propidium iodide incorporation in vivo or TUNEL labeling. This novel developmental seizure model system has distinct advantages for controlled seizure induction, and direct visualization of both seizure activity and seizure-induced effects on individual developing neurons within the intact unanesthetized brain. Such a system is necessary to address important questions relating to the long-term impact of common perinatal seizures on developing neural circuits. PMID:18402939

Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Dunfield, Derek; Yen, Wesley; Chen, Simon; Haas, Kurt

2008-06-01

179

[Differential diagnosis of cerebral seizures].  

PubMed

Several non-epileptic disorders may cause episodic and paroxysmal symptoms that resemble epilepsy and they must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Some of these disorders are discussed in the present review: vasovagal, vasomotor and cardiac syncopes, breath holding spells. Among the sleep disorders, parasomnias, nightmares and the benign neonatal sleep myoclonus are mentioned. Migraine with aura, alternating hemiplegia and benign vertigo of childhood are probably related disorders. Benign myoclonus of early infancy, paroxysmal choreoathetoses and pseudoepileptic or hysterical seizures are further non-epileptic attack disorders to be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:1501611

Vassella, F

1992-07-01

180

Automated identification of multiple seizure-related and interictal epileptiform event types in the EEG of mice  

PubMed Central

Visual scoring of murine EEG signals is time-consuming and subject to low inter-observer reproducibility. The Racine scale for behavioral seizure severity does not provide information about interictal or sub-clinical epileptiform activity. An automated algorithm for murine EEG analysis was developed using total signal variation and wavelet decomposition to identify spike, seizure, and other abnormal signal types in single-channel EEG collected from kainic acid-treated mice. The algorithm was validated on multi-channel EEG collected from ?-butyrolacetone-treated mice experiencing absence seizures. The algorithm identified epileptiform activity with high fidelity compared to visual scoring, correctly classifying spikes and seizures with 99% accuracy and 91% precision. The algorithm correctly identifed a spike-wave discharge focus in an absence-type seizure recorded by 36 cortical electrodes. The algorithm provides a reliable and automated method for quantification of multiple classes of epileptiform activity within the murine EEG and is tunable to a variety of event types and seizure categories. PMID:23514826

Bergstrom, Rachel A.; Choi, Jee Hyun; Manduca, Armando; Shin, Hee-Sup; Worrell, Greg A.; Howe, Charles L.

2013-01-01

181

Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

2012-01-01

182

Search and Seizure in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

2007-01-01

183

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2011-10-01

184

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2010-10-01

185

Privacy and Property, Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan for grades 4-6 which illustrates the concepts of privacy, property, and search and seizure. Calls upon students to recognize that individual property and society's need for security may conflict. Uses seven cases to help students learn and identify legal search and seizure procedures. (GEA)

Greenawald, Dale; Clarke, Phyllis

1988-01-01

186

A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection  

PubMed Central

Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

2011-01-01

187

Searches and Seizures in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "New Jersey v. T.L.O." the U.S. Supreme Court held that the prohibitions of the Fourth Amendment regarding unreasonable searches and seizures apply to student searches and seizures conducted by public school officials. However, the Court said the legality of a search should depend upon "reasonableness, under the circumstances" rather than…

Lincoln, Eugene A.

188

Comparative proteomic approach in rat model of absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate cellular proteins in the pathogenesis of the genetic rat model of absence epilepsy. Protein spots were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Data were gathered from the frontoparietal cortex and thalamus of Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) and Wistar by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Six proteins (Clathrin light chain-A protein, Transmembrane EMP24 Domain-Containing Protein, Stathmin-4, Myosin Light Chain4, Rheb, phosphoserine phosphatase) were found to be differentially expressed in the frontoparietal cortex of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats in both age groups. Another set of six proteins (Protein FAM89A and Oasl1, Gemin2, NuDEL1, Pur-beta, 3-alpha HSD) were found to be differentially expressed in the thalamus of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. Findings from the frontoparietal cortex suggest the presence of altered serine metabolism and increased vesicular trafficking in the frontoparietal cortex of WAG/Rij rats compared with Wistar rats. These differences in the protein levels might reflect the crucial role of these proteins and related pathways in the generation of absence seizures. In the thalamic specimens, age-dependent changes in protein expression were remarkable, suggesting that this phenomenon may be a precursor or a consequence of absence seizures. Our findings further highlight the potential role of the mTOR signaling pathway in absence epilepsy. PMID:25323782

Gürol, Gönül; Demiralp, Duygu Özel; Y?lmaz, Ayça Kasapo?lu; Akman, Özlem; Ate?, Nurbay; Karson, Ay?e

2015-03-01

189

Toward new paradigms of seizure detection  

PubMed Central

Great effort has been made toward defining and characterizing the pre-ictal state. Many studies have pursued the idea that there are recognizable electrographic (EEG-based) features that occur before overt clinical seizure activity. However, development of reliable EEG-based seizure detection and prediction algorithms has been difficult. In this review, we discuss the concepts of seizure detection vs. prediction and the pre-ictal “clinical milieu” and “EEG milieu”. We proceed to discuss novel concepts of seizure detection based on the pre-ictal “physiological milieu”; in particular, we indicate some early evidence for the hypothesis that pre-ictal cell swelling/extracellular space constriction can be detected with novel optical methods. Development and validation of optical seizure detection technology could provide an entirely new translational approach for the many patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:23246145

Binder, Devin K.; Haut, Sheryl R.

2012-01-01

190

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... brain defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart disease Heat illness ( heat intolerance ) High fever Phenylketonuria (PKU), which ...

191

Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis  

PubMed Central

Context: Optic neuritis (ON) is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or “typical” ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to “atypical” causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision. PMID:25449930

Malik, Amina; Ahmed, Maryam; Golnik, Karl

2014-01-01

192

Neuronal Ensemble Synchrony during Human Focal Seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (?40–60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ?3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50–100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ?20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (?80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (?130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

Ahmed, Omar J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.

2014-01-01

193

Prevention of epileptic seizures by taurine.  

PubMed

Parenteral injection of kainic acid (KA), a glutamate receptor agonist, causes severe and stereotyped behavioral convulsions in mice and is used as a rodent model for human temporal lobe epilepsy. The goal of this study is to examine the potential anti-convulsive effects of the neuro-active amino acid taurine, in the mouse model of KA-induced limbic seizures. We found that taurine (43 mg/Kg, s.c.) had a significant antiepileptic effect when injected 10 min prior to KA. Acute injection of taurine increased the onset latency and reduced the occurrence of tonic seizures. Taurine also reduced the duration of tonic-clonic convulsions and mortality rate following KA-induced seizures. Furthermore, taurine significantly reduced neuronal cell death in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the most susceptible region to KA in the limbic system. On the other hand, supplementation of taurine in drinking water (0.05%) for 4 continuous weeks failed to decrease the number or latency of partial or tonic-clonic seizures. To the contrary, we found that taurine-fed mice showed increased susceptibility to KA-induced seizures, as demonstrated by a decreased latency for clonic seizures, an increased incidence and duration of tonic-clonic seizures, increased neuronal death in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and a higher post-seizure mortality of the animals. We suggest that the reduced susceptibility to KA-induced seizures in taurine-injected mice is due to an increase in GABA receptor function in the brain which increases the inhibitory drive within the limbic system. This is supported by our in vitro data obtained in primary neuronal cultures showing that taurine acts as a low affinity agonist for GABA(A) receptors, protects neurons against kainate excitotoxic insults and modulates calcium homeostasis. Therefore, taurine is potentially capable of treating seizure-associated brain damage. PMID:12908638

El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Messing, Jeffrey; Scalia, Jason; Trenkner, Ekkhart

2003-01-01

194

Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

195

Glial changes in atypical parkinsonian syndromes.  

E-print Network

??Idiopathic Parkinson?s disease (PD) and the atypical parkinsonian syndromes progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) have substantial overlap in clinical features, with… (more)

Song, Yun Ju Christine

2008-01-01

196

Atypical temporomandibular joint pain: a case report.  

PubMed

Atypical temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain can consist of an unusual intensity, location or set of pain descriptors that do not match what is traditionally observed for TMJ capsular pain, disc displacements or arthritic conditions. Presented in this case report is an atypical pain report regarding a unilateral TMJ pain as the chief complaint. An overview of typical vs atypical TMJ pain is also reviewed to highlight unusual signs and symptoms so that the clinician can identify these atypical presentations and pursue further diagnostic approaches. PMID:25457893

Widmer, Charles G; Wold, Courtney C; Stoll, Ethan M; Dolwick, M Franklin

2014-12-01

197

Tolerance to seizure induced by kainic acid is produced in a specific period of zebrafish development.  

PubMed

During brain development, the electrical disturbance promoted by a seizure can have several consequences, because it can disturb a set of steps extremely regulated needed to the correct brain maturation. Animal modeling of seizure is invaluable to contribute to the mechanistic understanding of punctual seizure event, and those that triggered in an immature neural network could alter the mature brain physiology. In the present study we observed that the exposure to kainic acid diluted directly in water of zebrafish decreased the locomotor activity at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) animals and increased at 15 dpf, despite the absence of more specific seizure features. Pre-exposure to kainic acid (500 ?M) diluted in water at 7 dpf animals reduced the susceptibility to a second exposure 2 months later by intraperitoneal injection. The current data suggest that these different responses are associated with neuronal maturation process and open a question about the window of development that are crucial to long lasting effects related to seizure in this animal model. PMID:24743104

Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

2014-12-01

198

Decreased GABA(A) receptor expression in the seizure-prone fragile X mouse.  

PubMed

The fragile X mental retardation syndrome is due to the transcriptional silence of the fragile X gene, FMR1, and to the resulting loss of the FMR1 product, FMRP. The pathogenesis of the syndrome, however, is not understood. Increased prevalence of childhood seizures is a feature of the fragile X syndrome and increased seizure susceptibility is seen in the fragile X knock out mouse model for this disorder. To investigate the increased seizure susceptibility, we examined GABA(A) receptor expression in the FVB/N fragile X mouse. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of the GABA(A) receptor beta subunit (GABA(A) beta), which is required for receptor function, was reduced in the cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon and brainstem in adult male fragile X mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain sections indicated a reduction in GABA(A) beta immunoreactivity. We also found increased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the enzyme responsible for GABA synthesis, in the same regions that showed GABA(A) beta reduction. These results indicate that the absence of Fmrp leads to GABAergic system alterations that could account for the increased seizure susceptibility of the fragile X mouse. These alterations may also be relevant to the seizures and the abnormal behaviors in the human syndrome. PMID:15755515

El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Ding, Xiao-Hua; Scalia, Jason; Trenkner, Ekkhart; Brown, W Ted; Dobkin, Carl

2005-04-01

199

Benzodiazepine sensitivity testing in the management of intractable seizure disorders in childhood.  

PubMed

The use of benzodiazepine sensitivity testing in the management of 40 children with intractable seizure disorders was studied. The aetiology and clinical syndromes varied widely with myoclonic, atonic and complex absence seizures predominating. Twenty-five cases had mixed seizure disorders. There was, likewise, a wide range of EEG abnormalities. Seven cases were in non-convulsive status at the time of testing. Diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) was given slowly intravenously and its effect on the EEG was observed. In 21 cases epileptiform activity was abolished. No change was seen in 13 cases and an unusual result was seen in 3. There was a paradoxical response in 3 cases, two of these associated with clinical seizures. Only 1 child in non-convulsive status had a positive result. Following testing, 32 patients went on to long-term oral benzodiazepine treatment. Twenty-one of these patients showed subsequent clinical improvement and 16/21 (76%) had had a positive sensitivity test previously. Eleven of these patients did not improve on long-term treatment. Seven out of the 11 (64%) had had a negative sensitivity test. These results suggest that the benzodiazepine sensitivity test is of value in the long-term management of intractable seizure disorders in childhood, but also emphasise the variability and unpredictability of response to benzodiazepine treatment. PMID:2441952

Livingston, J H; Anderson, A; Brown, J K; McInnes, A

1987-09-01

200

Natural course and predictors of spontaneous seizure remission in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: 7-27 years of follow-up.  

PubMed

The spontaneous course of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is still controversial. The aim of this study was both to investigate the long-term spontaneous course and to identify factors that are predictive for epilepsy remission in a small cohort of 15 IGE patients (9 women) who refused antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and therefore never have been treated with AED. All of them were reevaluated with a review of their medical records and direct face-to-face interview; the mean duration of follow-up was 15.3 years. Five (33.3%) of them had absence epilepsy (absence seizures, ABS), 5 had IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), and another 5 had both seizure types (IGE with ABS/GTCS). Rate of epilepsy remission was 53.3% with a mean time of seizure freedom of 13.1 years; rate of remission was highest among absence epilepsy patients (80%), followed by IGE with GTCS (60%) and IGE with ABS/GTCS (20%). The frequency of spontaneous generalized interictal epileptiform discharges in electroencephalography is not associated with the long-term seizure outcome (p=0.201) and per se does not require AED treatment. Furthermore, the occurrence of photoparoxysmal responses (p=0.020) as well as the occurrence of more than 3 GTCS during the course (p=0.029) were identified as significant predictors for a poor long-term seizure outcome which makes AED treatment indispensable in these patients. This study underlines the heterogenity of the group of IGE. AED treatment has no impact on the spontaneous course of IGE with ABS and/or GTCS. Several predictors for the long-term seizure outcome in patients with IGE were identified in this study. PMID:24907182

von Podewils, Felix; Lapp, Sabine; Wang, Z Irene; Hartmann, Ute; Herzer, Rosemarie; Kessler, Christof; Runge, Uwe

2014-09-01

201

Developmental Milestones in Toddlers with Atypical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attainment of developmental milestones was examined and compared in 162 infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities, including Down Syndrome (n = 26), Cerebral Palsy (n = 19), Global Developmental Delay (n = 22), Premature birth (n = 66), and Seizure Disorder (n = 29). Toddlers in the Seizures Disorder group began crawling at a…

Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.

2011-01-01

202

Setting the scene: definition of prolonged seizures, acute repetitive seizures, and status epilepticus. Do we know why seizures stop?  

PubMed

Status epilepticus is recognised as an acute emergency requiring urgent intervention. The optimal timing of such an intervention during a prolonged seizure, and the reasons for such, have provided much discussion. For operational purposes, a definition of a prolonged seizure of ?5 minutes requiring intervention appears justified. However, a definition of status epilepticus of ?30 minutes should stand, with the proportion of seizures proceeding to this clinical state remaining small. The reasons for this may be inherent to an individual, but an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the predisposition may lead to improved management pathways in the future. PMID:25322959

Cross, J Helen

2014-10-01

203

Genetic features of oligodendrogliomas and presence of seizures. The relationship of seizures and genetics in LGOs.  

PubMed

Low grade oligodendrogliomas (LGO) are diffusely infiltrating World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas, 20 - 30% of which show contrast enhancement. Seizures are a common presenting feature. It has been suggested that 1p19q co-deletion is associated with occurrence of seizures in adults, however, to date, the relationship of tumor genetics and seizure activity has not been extensively investigated. We sought to assess the influence of 1p19q co-deletion, IDH1-R132H positivity, and radiological variables on seizure activity in LGO patients. Specifically, we examined whether these characteristics were associated with seizure at initial presentation, or if they could predict outcome in terms of seizure free survival. In 62 LGOs, neither tumor location nor tumor enhancement were associated with seizures. 1p19q co-deletion status did not predict seizures when controlled for mutant IDH1-R132H expression, tumor location, or enhancement status (odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 - 4.3). This study, although of limited statistical power, did not demonstrate an association between 1p19q status and seizure occurrence in LGO's. Replication in a larger cohort would further support our hypothesis that 1p19q status alone cannot be used as a reliable predictor of seizure occurrence in LGO's. PMID:24986208

Mulligan, Linda; Ryan, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Margaret; Looby, Seamus; Heffernan, Josephine; O'Sullivan, Joanne; Clarke, Mary; Buckley, Patrick; O'Brien, David; Farrell, Michael; Brett, Francesca Mary

2014-01-01

204

Neonatal seizures: Predictors of adverse outcome  

PubMed Central

Context: Early detection of predictors of adverse outcome will be helpful for neonatologists to plan management, follow up and rehabilitation in advance so that neurological disability can be minimised. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the adverse outcome of neonatal seizures. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study conducted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital. One hundred and eight newborns consecutively admitted with seizures were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Data was collected regarding perinatal history and seizure and evaluated for etiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis to identify the factors associated with adverse outcome after neonatal seizures. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test with degree of freedom = 1 was used to find the variables significantly associated with adverse outcome (P < 0.05). Results: Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 min, seizure onset <24 hrs, status epilepticus, radiological findings and EEG findings were significantly associated with outcome. Conclusion: Mortality and severe neurological impairment after neonatal seizure is associated with prematurity, LBW, low Apgar score at 5 min, etiologies like meningitis, sepsis, severe HIE, brain malformations, grade 3 or 4 IVH or intracranial haemorrhage, seizure onset <24 hours, presence of status epilepticus, severely abnormal radiological and EEG findings. PMID:25250059

Anand, Veena; Nair, P. M. C.

2014-01-01

205

The syndrome of partial seizures in infancy.  

PubMed

Partial seizures, the most frequent type of epilepsy at all ages, remain a distinct yet relatively understudied disorder in early life. Their true incidence has not been defined, despite an extremely unfavorable long-term prognosis. They differ from partial seizures presenting later in life in several important aspects and are prone to misdiagnosis because of the difficulties inherent in recognizing subtle seizure manifestations and in assessing level of consciousness in very young patients. Most seizures are symptomatic of assorted prenatally acquired hemispheric insults; perinatal damage and tumors are less common. Video-electroencephalographic studies indicate that the majority of ictal events consist of behavioral arrest, stereotyped automatisms, and motor phenomena. Oroalimentary and gross motor automatisms are frequent, whereas highly organized gestural and behavioral sequences are extremely rare. Lateralized or asymmetric tonic, clonic, and occasional myoclonic motor manifestations characterize the majority of episodes. Pure behavioral arrest is much less common. These seizure patterns imply immaturity of systems responsible for inhibiting access to motor pathways and for organizing motor expression. Ictal and interictal epileptiform discharges are often focal or lateralized but lack age-specific features. Although as a rule partial seizures persist, some individuals display generalized or mixed seizure disorders in later life. PMID:1552154

Duchowny, M

1992-01-01

206

Pediatric Stroke Presenting as a Seizure  

PubMed Central

Background. Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is rare and may be difficult to diagnose. Management of acute stroke in any age group is time sensitive, so awareness of the manifestations and appropriate diagnostic procedures for pediatric AIS is vital to establishing care. We present a pediatric case of arterial ischemic stroke that presented to the emergency department (ED) after two seizures. Case Report. A five-year-old female with an existing seizure disorder presented to a pediatric ED after having two seizures. Postictal upon arrival, she underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of her head. Family reported that she had complained of a severe headache and vomited; her seizures were described as different from those she had experienced in the past. Loss of grey white matter differentiation on the CT warranted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a right-sided stroke. After a complicated course in the hospital, the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? It is important that emergency physicians recognize that a seizure may be the initial symptom of a pediatric stroke regardless of an established seizure history. Pediatric seizures are relatively common; however consideration of the diagnosis of pediatric stroke may prevent unnecessary delays in treatment. PMID:25587467

Ahmadzadeh, Katie L.; Bhardwaj, Vartika; Johnson, Steven A.; Kane, Kathleen E.

2014-01-01

207

Dynamic Mechanisms of Neocortical Focal Seizure Onset  

PubMed Central

Recent experimental and clinical studies have provided diverse insight into the mechanisms of human focal seizure initiation and propagation. Often these findings exist at different scales of observation, and are not reconciled into a common understanding. Here we develop a new, multiscale mathematical model of cortical electric activity with realistic mesoscopic connectivity. Relating the model dynamics to experimental and clinical findings leads us to propose three classes of dynamical mechanisms for the onset of focal seizures in a unified framework. These three classes are: (i) globally induced focal seizures; (ii) globally supported focal seizures; (iii) locally induced focal seizures. Using model simulations we illustrate these onset mechanisms and show how the three classes can be distinguished. Specifically, we find that although all focal seizures typically appear to arise from localised tissue, the mechanisms of onset could be due to either localised processes or processes on a larger spatial scale. We conclude that although focal seizures might have different patient-specific aetiologies and electrographic signatures, our model suggests that dynamically they can still be classified in a clinically useful way. Additionally, this novel classification according to the dynamical mechanisms is able to resolve some of the previously conflicting experimental and clinical findings. PMID:25122455

Wang, Yujiang; Goodfellow, Marc; Taylor, Peter Neal; Baier, Gerold

2014-01-01

208

Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology/Principal Findin...

209

Acute Seizures Predict Epilepsy After Childhood Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine incidence rates and predictors of epilepsy after childhood stroke and compare these to published estimates of 3–5% cumulative epilepsy incidence by five years post-stroke in adults. Methods In a retrospective population-based study of children with stroke (29 days?19 years) in an integrated health care system (1993–2007), post-stroke seizures were identified through electronic searches and confirmed by chart review. Stroke and seizure characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Survival analysis was used to determine rates and predictors of remote seizures and active epilepsy (anti-convulsant treatment for remote seizure within prior 6 months) at last follow-up. Results From a population of 2.5 million children, we identified 305 stroke cases. Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range 1.8–6.8), 49 children had a first unprovoked remote seizure. The average annual incidence rate of first remote seizure was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3, 5.8) with a cumulative risk of 16% (CI 12%, 21%) at 5 years and 33% (CI 23%, 46%) at 10 years post-stroke. The cumulative risk of active epilepsy was 13% (CI 9%, 18%) at five years and 30% (CI 20%, 44%) at 10 years. Acute seizures at the time of stroke predicted development of active epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR] 4.2, CI 2.2, 8.1). At last follow-up, one-third of the children with active epilepsy had a recent breakthrough seizure despite anti-convulsant usage. Interpretation Unlike adults, children are uniquely vulnerable to epilepsy after stroke. Children with acute seizures at the time of stroke are at particularly high risk. PMID:23613472

Fox, Christine K.; Glass, Hannah C.; Sidney, Stephen; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Fullerton, Heather J.

2013-01-01

210

Morphological Characteristics of Brain Tumors Causing Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify size and localization differences between tumors presenting with seizures vs nonseizure neurological symptoms. Design Retrospective imaging survey. We performed magnetic resonance imaging–based morphometric analysis and nonparametric mapping in patients with brain tumors. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients or Other Participants One hundred twenty-four patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glial tumors. Main Outcome Measures Volumetric and mapping methods were used to evaluate differences in size and location of the tumors in patients who presented with seizures as compared with patients who presented with other symptoms. Results In high-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were smaller than tumors presenting with other neurological symptoms, whereas in low-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were larger. Tumor location maps revealed that in high-grade gliomas, deep-seated tumors in the pericallosal regions were more likely to present with nonseizure neurological symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, tumors of the temporal lobe as well as the insular region were more likely to present with seizures. Conclusions The influence of size and location of the tumors on their propensity to cause seizures varies with the grade of the tumor. In high-grade gliomas, rapidly growing tumors, particularly those situated in deeper structures, present with non–seizure-related symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, lesions in the temporal lobe or the insula grow large without other symptoms and eventually cause seizures. Quantitative image analysis allows for the mapping of regions in each group that are more or less susceptible to seizures. PMID:20212231

Lee, Jong Woo; Wen, Patrick Y.; Hurwitz, Shelley; Black, Peter; Kesari, Santosh; Drappatz, Jan; Golby, Alexandra J.; Wells, William M.; Warfield, Simon K.; Kikinis, Ron; Bromfield, Edward B.

2010-01-01

211

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

212

On the nature of seizure dynamics.  

PubMed

Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between 'normal' and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

Jirsa, Viktor K; Stacey, William C; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe

2014-08-01

213

Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control  

SciTech Connect

The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

2009-07-02

214

Atypical Sweat Duct Hyperplasia Accompanying Keratoacanthoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

25 cases of atypical sweat duct proliferation in association with cutaneous tumors are described. 20 of these were keratoacanthomas. The compression of the duct either in its dermal or intraepidermal portion is considered to be the etiology. Similar changes are seen with decubitus ulcer and stasis dermatitis. Atypical sweat duct hyperplasia may be useful as an extra aid in the

Daniel J. Santa Cruz; Kathryn Clausen

1977-01-01

215

Atypical and Typical Antipsychotics in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of antipsychotic medications within the school-age population is rapidly increasing. Although typical antipsychotics may be used in rare cases, this influx is largely secondary to the availability of the atypical antipsychotics. Reduction of possible adverse effects and increased efficacy represent the primary basis for the atypical

Noggle, Chad A.; Dean, Raymond S.

2009-01-01

216

Higher Education and the Black Atypical Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The black atypical student, defined as that black student who would be excluded from most colleges and universities in America by traditional admission policy, is beginning to find entrance into institutions of higher education. There is no indication reported of these institutions admitting large numbers of black atypical students. In the…

Hull, W. Frank, IV

217

Inter-modality comparisons of seizure focus lateralization in complex partial seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior temporal lobectomy offers a high chance of seizure-free outcome in patients suffering from drug-refractory complex partial seizure (CPS) originating from the temporal lobe. Other than EEG, several functional and morphologic imaging methods are used to define the spatial seizure origin. The present study was undertaken to compare the merits of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging

Philipp T. Meyer; Anabel Cortés-Blanco; Michael Pourdehnad; Igor Levy-Reis; Lisa Desiderio; Sunyoung Jang; Abass Alavi

2001-01-01

218

Leaving tissue associated with infrequent intracranial EEG seizure onsets is compatible with post-operative seizure freedom  

PubMed Central

Identify seizure onset electrodes that need to be resected for seizure freedom in children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography recording for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. All children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography subdural grid electrode placement at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2002-2008 were asked to enroll. We utilized intraoperative pictures to determine the location of the electrodes and define the resection cavity. A total of 15 patients had surgical fields that allowed for complete identification of the electrodes over the area of resection. Eight of 15 patients were seizure free after a follow up of 1.7 to 8 yr. Only one seizure-free patient had complete resection of all seizure onset associated tissue. Seizure free patients had resection of 64.1% of the seizure onset electrode associated tissue, compared to 35.2% in the not seizure free patients (p=0.05). Resection of tissue associated with infrequent seizure onsets did not appear to be important for seizure freedom. Resecting ? 90% of the electrodes from the predominant seizure contacts predicted post-operative seizure freedom (p=0.007). The best predictor of seizure freedom was resecting ? 90% of tissue involved in majority of a patient’s seizures. Resection of tissue under infrequent seizure onset electrodes was not necessary for seizure freedom. PMID:24563805

Huang, Cyrus; Marsh, Eric D.; Ziskind, Daniela M.; Celix, Juanita M.; Peltzer, Bradley; Brown, Merritt W.; Storm, Phillip B.; Litt, Brian; Porter, Brenda E.

2013-01-01

219

Strain and age affect electroconvulsive seizure testing in rats.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive seizure thresholds were compared between adolescent and mature Sprague--Dawley, Wistar, and Fischer rats. All strains had similar hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds as adolescents. As adults, hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds were highest for Sprague--Dawley and lowest for Fischer rats. Conversely, limbic seizure thresholds during adolescence were highest for Fischer rats. Additional study is needed to better delineate strain and maturational effects on electroconvulsive seizure testing. PMID:18083004

Statler, Kimberly D; Swank, Seth; White, H Steve

2008-02-01

220

Strain and Age Affect Electroconvulsive Seizure Testing in Rats  

PubMed Central

Summary Electroconvulsive seizure thresholds were compared between adolescent and mature Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Fischer rats. All strains had similar hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds as adolescents. As adults, hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds were highest for Sprague-Dawley and lowest for Fischer rats. Conversely, limbic seizure thresholds during adolescence were highest for Fischer rats. Additional study is needed to better delineate strain and maturational effects on electroconvulsive seizure testing. PMID:18083004

Statler, Kimberly D.; Swank, Seth; Steve White, H.

2008-01-01

221

A novel zebrafish model of hyperthermia-induced seizures reveals a role for TRPV4 channels and NMDA-type glutamate receptors  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizures are the most common seizure type in children under the age of five, but mechanisms underlying seizure generation in vivo remain unclear. Animal models to address this issue primarily focus on immature rodents heated indirectly using a controlled water bath or air blower. Here we describe an in vivo model of hyperthermia-induced seizures in larval zebrafish aged 3 to 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). Bath controlled changes in temperature are rapid and reversible in this model. Acute electrographic seizures following transient hyperthermia showed age-dependence, strain independence, and absence of mortality. Electrographic seizures recorded in the larval zebrafish forebrain were blocked by adding antagonists to the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV4) channel or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor to the bathing medium. Application of GABA, GABA re-uptake inhibitors, or TRPV1 antagonist had no effect on hyperthermic seizures. Expression of vanilloid channel and glutamate receptor mRNA was confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis at each developmental stage in larval zebrafish. Taken together, our findings suggest a role of heat-activation of TRPV4 channels and enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in hyperthermia-induced seizures. PMID:22735490

Hunt, Robert F.; Hortopan, Gabriela A.; Gillespie, Anna; Baraban, Scott C.

2012-01-01

222

Brain Energy Metabolism During Experimental Neonatal Seizures  

E-print Network

produces neuronal death in the immature brain. Neuroscienceinduced neuronal death in the immature brain. In: Sutula T,death [1, 9, 10, 35, 43], and seizures take far longer to generate adverse effects in the developing brain

Wasterlain, Claude G.; Thompson, Kerry W.; Suchomelova, Lucie; Niquet, Jerome

2010-01-01

223

Analysis of Epileptic Seizures with Complex Network  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

224

If I Had - My First Seizure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... relate to problems that can occur in the brain. Have you been having headaches recently? Fevers? Did ... A history of encephalitis? Anything that can affect brain function, might be related to having a seizure. ...

225

Patient-specific seizure onset detection  

E-print Network

Approximately one percent of the world's population exhibits symptoms of epilepsy, a serious disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes those affected to experiencing recurrent seizures. The risk of injury ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2003-01-01

226

Childhood insulinoma masquerading as seizure disorder.  

PubMed

A 9 year old girl presented with seizures, weight gain and early morning behavioural changes. She had been commenced on anticonvulsants and was subsequently diagnosed with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. This case demonstrates the importance of blood glucose monitoring in children presenting with new-onset seizures and/or with early morning or fasting behavioural changes, the challenges in localizing the lesion, as well as the difficulties in achieving normoglycaemia prior to, and immediately following, surgery. PMID:24698060

Kao, Kung-Ting; Simm, Peter J; Brown, Justin

2014-04-01

227

Alcohol-Related Seizures in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half of patients presenting with ARS

Zachary Webb

228

Electrolyte Disturbances and Critical Care Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrolyte disturbances in the ICU are extremely common. The electrolyte disorder most commonly associated with seizure is\\u000a hyponatremia, although extremely low Mg2+, phosphate, and both very low and high Ca2+ values can cause seizures. Critical care physicians must be vigilant to suspect and identify electrolyte disturbances in\\u000a their patients, because a growing amount of information suggests that they are a

Jenice Robinson; Jose I. Suarez

229

Letting a typical mouse judge whether mouse social interactions are atypical  

PubMed Central

LAY ABSTRACT Diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a qualitative assessment of social aptitude: one person judging whether another person interacts in a ‘typical’ way. Quantitative or computerized assessment of social aptitude cannot substitute for this subjective judgment. We hypothesized that mice could be used to make a similar judgment if they prefer ‘typical’ over ‘atypical’ social interactions with mouse models relevant to ASD. We used typical C57BL/6 (B6) mice as ‘judges’ and evaluated their preference for a chamber containing a ‘typical’ or an ‘atypical’ mouse. For our atypical mice, we chose two strains with well-documented social phenotypes, as well a mutant line with abnormal social behavior and seizures. Overall, we observed a characteristic pattern of behavior over the course of 30 minutes, with the judges preferring the typical mouse chamber to the atypical mouse chamber during the last 10 minutes of the test. When we evaluated the individual stimulus pairings, two of the three showed a similar pattern as the overall results, and the other stimulus comparison showed a trend for a preference for the typical mouse chamber across the entire test. We repeated the experiments using the 129S6 strain of typical mice as judges and found a much less strong preference pattern across time. These data suggest that a characteristic pattern of exploration in B6 mice can distinguish some socially atypical animals from controls. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a qualitative assessment of social aptitude: one person judging whether another person interacts in a ‘typical’ way. We hypothesized that mice could be used to make a similar judgment if they prefer ‘typical’ over ‘atypical’ social interactions with mouse models relevant to ASD. We used wildtype C57BL/6 (B6) mice as ‘judges’ and evaluated their preference for a chamber containing a ‘typical’ (B6 or 129S6) or an ‘atypical’ mouse. For our atypical mouse stimuli, we chose two inbred strains with well-documented social phenotypes (BTBR and BALB/c), as well a mutant line with abnormal social behavior and seizures (Gabrb3 +/?). Overall, we observed a stimulus by time interaction (P < 0.0001), with B6 mice preferring the typical mouse chamber during the last 10 minutes of the 30-minute test. For two of the individual stimulus pairings, we observed a similar chamber by time interaction (BALB/c vs. 129S6, P = 0.0007; Gabrb3 +/? vs. 129S6, P = 0.033). For the third stimulus pairing, we found a trend for preference of the typical mouse across time (BTBR vs. B6, P = 0.051). We repeated the experiments using 129S6 mice as judges and found a significant overall interaction (P = 0.034), but only one stimulus pairing reached significance on its own (BALB/c vs. 129S6, P = 0.0021). These data suggest that a characteristic pattern of exploration in B6 mice can distinguish some socially atypical animals from controls. PMID:23436806

Shah, Charisma R.; Forsberg, Carl Gunnar; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

2013-01-01

230

Chemical profiling of different hashish seizures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical methodology: a case report.  

PubMed

Limited information is available regarding the methodology required to characterize hashish seizures for assessing the presence or the absence of a chemical link between two seizures. This casework report presents the methodology applied for assessing that two different police seizures were coming from the same block before this latter one was split. The chemical signature was extracted using GC-MS analysis and the implemented methodology consists in a study of intra- and inter-variability distributions based on the measurement of the chemical profiles similarity using a number of hashish seizures and the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Different statistical scenarios (i.e., a combination of data pretreatment techniques and selection of target compounds) were tested to find the most discriminating one. Seven compounds showing high discrimination capabilities were selected on which a specific statistical data pretreatment was applied. Based on the results, the statistical model built for comparing the hashish seizures leads to low error rates. Therefore, the implemented methodology is suitable for the chemical profiling of hashish seizures. PMID:24008198

Cadola, Liv; Broséus, Julian; Esseiva, Pierre

2013-10-10

231

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Sleep, and Seizures.  

PubMed

Working hypothesis: benign febrile seizures seen in 7% of infants before 6 months play a role in the terminal pathway in a subset of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Supporting evidence: (1) lack of 5-hydroxitryptamine, one consistent finding in sudden infant death syndrome that Kinney et al coined a developmental serotonopathy, is consistent with risk for seizures. (2) Non-rapid eye movement sleep increasing during the age of highest risk for sudden infant death syndrome facilitates some seizures (seizure gate). (3) Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is associated with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia during postictal generalized electroencephalographic (EEG) suppression. In toddlers, sudden unexplained deaths are associated with hippocampal abnormalities and some seizures. (4) The sudden nature of both deaths warrants an exploration of similarities in the terminal pathway. Moreover, sudden infant death syndrome, febrile seizures, sudden unexplained death in childhood, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy share some of the following risk factors: prone sleeping, infections, hyperthermia, preterm birth, male gender, maternal smoking, and mutations in genes that regulate sodium channels. State-of-the-art molecular studies can be exploited to test this hypothesis. PMID:25300988

Hoppenbrouwers, Toke

2014-10-01

232

Clinically malignant atypical glomus tumour  

PubMed Central

Glomus tumours (GTs) resemble the normal glomus body and have a predilection for skin and subcutaneous tissue. Although the majority of glomus tumours are small, benign neoplasms that occur in the dermis or subcutis of the extremities and cases of atypical or malignant variants have been reported. We report a case of a man who presented with a 1-year history of subcutaneous nodule in the right scapular area which was mildly tender. The nodule measured 2?cm. Microscopic examination showed features of glomus tumour with increased mitotic activity. These features, by current definition, would suggest glomus tumour of uncertain malignant potential. Three months later, he presented with recurrence. During his metastasis work-up, we noticed bilateral pulmonary metastasis. Metastasising GTs are rare. The patient underwent wide local excision and received chemotherapy. PMID:23291816

Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Bovanlu, Taghi Roshan

2013-01-01

233

Atypical lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking lymphoma.  

PubMed

The distinction between reactive and neoplastic lymphoid infiltrates is a common problem in clinical practice and can be problematic. The clinical implications for both the patient and the treating clinician are profound. In this article, we discuss six of the common entities that can present as atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and thus can mimic malignant lymphomas, with emphasis on morphologic features, immunophenotypic findings, and molecular correlates that help distinguish these disorders from neoplastic conditions. The six conditions to be discussed in detail include reactive follicular hyperplasia versus follicular lymphoma; progressive transformation of germinal centers versus nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; immunoblastic proliferations versus diffuse large B-cell lymphomas; variant forms of Castleman disease that may mimic a number of lymphoid cancers; Kikuchi's disease versus large cell lymphomas; and finally, dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and its distinction from lymph nodes showing early involvement by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Mycosis fungoides). PMID:19577167

Good, David J; Gascoyne, Randy D

2009-08-01

234

High-Performance Seizure Detection System Using a Wavelet-Approximate Entropy-fSVM Cascade With Clinical Validation.  

PubMed

The classification of electroencephalography (EEG) signals is one of the most important methods for seizure detection. However, verification of an atypical epileptic seizure often can only be done through long-term EEG monitoring for 24 hours or longer. Hence, automatic EEG signal analysis for clinical screening is necessary for the diagnosis of epilepsy. We propose an EEG analysis system of seizure detection, based on a cascade of wavelet-approximate entropy for feature selection, Fisher scores for adaptive feature selection, and support vector machine for feature classification. Performance of the system was tested on open source data, and the overall accuracy reached 99.97%. We further tested the performance of the system on clinical EEG obtained from a clinical EEG laboratory and bedside EEG recordings. The results showed an overall accuracy of 98.73% for routine EEG, and 94.32% for bedside EEG, which verified the high performance and usefulness of such a cascade system for seizure detection. Also, the prediction model, trained by routine EEG, can be successfully generalized to bedside EEG of independent patients. PMID:23610456

Shen, Chia-Ping; Chen, Chih-Chuan; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Jia-Ming; Chen, Chih-Min; Lai, Feipei; Chiu, Ming-Jang

2013-10-01

235

Analyzing reliability of seizure diagnosis based on semiology.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the accuracy of seizure diagnosis by semiological analysis and to assess the factors that affect diagnostic reliability. A total of 150 video clips of seizures from 50 patients (each with three seizures of the same type) were observed by eight epileptologists, 12 neurologists, and 20 physicians (internists). The videos included 37 series of epileptic seizures, eight series of physiologic nonepileptic events (PNEEs), and five series of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). After observing each video, the doctors chose the diagnosis of epileptic seizures or nonepileptic events for the patient; if the latter was chosen, they further chose the diagnosis of PNESs or PNEEs. The overall diagnostic accuracy rate for epileptic seizures and nonepileptic events increased from 0.614 to 0.660 after observations of all three seizures (p<0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of epileptic seizures were 0.770 and 0.808, respectively, for the epileptologists. These values were significantly higher than those for the neurologists (0.660 and 0.699) and physicians (0.588 and 0.658). A wide range of diagnostic accuracy was found across the various seizures types. An accuracy rate of 0.895 for generalized tonic-clonic seizures was the highest, followed by 0.800 for dialeptic seizures and then 0.760 for automotor seizures. The accuracy rates for myoclonic seizures (0.530), hypermotor seizures (0.481), gelastic/dacrystic seizures (0.438), and PNESs (0.430) were poor. The reliability of semiological diagnosis of seizures is greatly affected by the seizure type as well as the doctor's experience. Although the overall reliability is limited, it can be improved by observing more seizures. PMID:25461215

Jin, Bo; Wu, Han; Xu, Jiahui; Yan, Jianwei; Ding, Yao; Wang, Z Irene; Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhongjin; Shen, Chunhong; Chen, Zhong; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Shuang

2014-12-01

236

Monitor for status epilepticus seizures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

1994-01-01

237

Atypical Neurocytoma: Dilemma in diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Background: Central neurocytoma is an uncommon benign tumor of the central nervous system. A section of these tumors have unusual aggressiveness and are termed as “atypical central neurocytomas,” the definition of which is debated. Many studies in the available literature define them as tumors with elevated MIB-1 labeling index (MIB-1 LI) >2%, while some associate them with higher values of MIB-1 LI or those with histological atypical features. Newer parameters also have been identified and correlated with MIB-1 LI to differentiate atypical from benign neurocytoma cases. A recent analysis of the atypical neurocytoma cases with malignant behavior revealed their increased tendency of spread through the cerebrospinal fluid causing craniospinal axis dissemination. However, limited studies document the appropriate indications and usefulness of additional therapeutic modalities, such as upfront craniospinal irradiation (CSI) or adjuvant chemotherapy, in countering the aggressive behavior of such tumors. Case Description: We present two such rare cases of atypical neurocytoma with elevated MIB-1 LI, of 3% and 4%, respectively, without histological atypia. Since there is insufficient evidence documenting advantages of any additional measures in the adjuvant management of atypical cases, both patients were treated with localized cranial radiotherapy alone, as per the evidence available in the literature currently. Conclusion: We propose that future studies must aptly redefine these atypical neurocytomas with malignant potential and provide guidance to identify aggressiveness of these tumors early in the course of management. Lastly, strong evidence to provide specific adjuvant therapy is also warranted. PMID:25593767

Vajrala, Gangadhar; Jain, Piyush K.; Surana, Shitalkumar; Madigubba, Sailaja; Immaneni, Satish R.; Panigrahi, Manas K.

2014-01-01

238

Seizure Outcomes Following Use of Generic vs. Brand-Name Antiepileptic Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The automatic substitution of bioequivalent generic for brand-name antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been linked by anecdotal report to loss of seizure control. Objective To evaluate studies comparing brand-name and generic AEDs and determine whether evidence exists of superiority of the brand-name version in maintaining seizure control. Data Sources English-language human studies identified in searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1984 to August 2009). Study Selection Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing seizure events or seizure-related outcomes between one brand-name AED and at least one alternate version produced by a distinct manufacturer. Data Extraction We identified 16 articles (9 RCTs, 1 prospective nonrandomized trial, 6 observational studies). We assessed characteristics of the studies and, for RCTs, extracted counts for patients whose seizures were characterized as “controlled” and “uncontrolled.” Data Synthesis Seven RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. The aggregate odds ratio (n=204) was 1.0 (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.4), indicating no difference in the odds of uncontrolled seizure for patients on generic medications compared to patients on brand-name medications. In contrast, the observational studies identified trends in drug or health services utilization that the authors attributed to changes in seizure control. Conclusions Though most RCTs were short-term evaluations, the available evidence does not suggest an association between loss of seizure control and generic substitution of at least three types of AEDs. The observational study data may be explained by factors such as undue concern from patients or physicians about the effectiveness of generic AEDs after a recent switch. In the absence of better data, physicians may want to consider more intensive monitoring of high-risk patients taking AEDs when any switch occurs. PMID:20329806

Kesselheim, Aaron S.; Stedman, Margaret R.; Bubrick, Ellen J.; Gagne, Joshua J.; Misono, Alexander S.; Lee, Joy L.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H.

2011-01-01

239

Scn8a voltage-gated sodium channel mutation alters seizure and anxiety responses to acute stress  

PubMed Central

Stress is known to trigger seizures in patients with epilepsy, highlighting the physiological stress response as a possible therapeutic target for epilepsy treatment. Nevertheless, little is currently known about how a genetic predisposition to epilepsy interacts with the stress response to influence seizure outcome. To address this question, we examined the effect of acute stress on seizure outcome in mice with mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene Scn8a. Scn8a mutants display spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs) characteristic of absence epilepsy. We saw that the baseline frequency of SWDs in Scn8a mutants correlates closely with the diurnal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with a peak in seizure activity occurring at around the same time as the peak in corticosterone (1700h–1900h). A 20-minute acute restraint stress administered in the morning increases the frequency of spontaneous SWDs immediately following the stressor. Seizure frequency then returns to baseline levels within three hours after stressor exposure, but the subsequent evening peak in seizure frequency is delayed and broadened, changes that persist into the next evening and are accompanied by long-lasting changes in HPA axis activity. Scn8a mutants also show increased anxiety-like behavior in mildly stressful situations. A 20-minute acute restraint stress can also increase the severity and duration of chemically induced seizures in Scn8a mutants, changes that differ from wild-type littermates. Overall, our data show that a voltage-gated sodium channel mutation can alter the behavioral response to stress and can interact with the stress response to alter seizure outcome. PMID:24138934

Sawyer, Nikki T; Papale, Ligia A; Eliason, Jessica; Neigh, Gretchen N; Escayg, Andrew

2013-01-01

240

Evidence of Absence software  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

2014-01-01

241

Pseudoepileptic seizures: methods and video analysis to aid diagnosis.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to obtain a detailed description of the clinical features of pseudoepileptic (PE) seizures, to try to reproduce these events in the laboratory during a single recording, and to establish a framework useful to the clinician for evaluating patients whose behavior suggests physiological seizures, but about which doubt remains. We analyzed 37 episodes of PE seizures recorded in 30 patients during a single three-hour video/EEG recording. The PE seizures occurred spontaneously or were induced by sequential activation procedures. The historical information together with behavioral observations show that the PE seizures mimicked primary generalized seizures in 15 episodes, elementary partial seizures with secondary generalization in 21 episodes, and complex partial seizures in a single episode. Our data underscore the usefulness of the video/EEG recording method and suggest activation techniques which, combined with detailed historical information, aid in establishing the diagnosis of PE seizures. PMID:6817695

Luther, J S; McNamara, J O; Carwile, S; Miller, P; Hope, V

1982-11-01

242

Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

2006-01-01

243

Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. PMID:25174001

Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

2014-08-01

244

L-Theanine intake increases threshold for limbic seizures but decreases threshold for generalized seizures.  

PubMed

L-Theanine, an ethylamide derivate of glutamate found in abundance in green tea, has been shown to exert beneficial actions in animal models for several neurological disorders. We here investigated for the first time the effect of L-theanine intake on seizure susceptibility using acute pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) mouse models for studying, respectively, limbic seizures or primarily generalized seizures. Moreover, we studied the effect of l-theanine intake on extracellular hippocampal and cortical glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, using in vivo microdialysis. Feeding mice with a 4% L-theanine solution significantly decreased their susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures whereas susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was increased. The latter effect was linked to decreased extracellular GABA concentrations in frontal cortex. PMID:23324588

Schallier, Anneleen; Vermoesen, Katia; Loyens, Ellen; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse; Massie, Ann

2013-03-01

245

Anatomic correlates of interhippocampal seizure propagation time.  

PubMed

The relation between interhippocampal seizure propagation time (IHSPT) and anatomic alterations in the human epileptic hippocampus may provide insight into the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Using depth electrode recordings, we measured the time required for spontaneous seizures with onset in one hippocampus to become manifest in the contralateral hippocampus in 50 patients who underwent resection of the temporal lobe of seizure origin. Cell densities in individual hippocampal subfields were determined and correlated with mean IHSPT for each patient. Mean IHSPT was significantly and inversely correlated with cell counts in CA4 only (r = -0.38, p less than 0.01, Pearson's product correlation; r = -0.52, p less than 0.001, Spearman's rank order correlation). In 5 patients with bilateral independent hippocampal seizure onset who had temporal lobectomy and a diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis, mean IHSPT was consistently longer from the sclerotic temporal lobe than to it. These observations suggest that anatomic changes associated with chronic epilepsy alter propagation patterns. Because CA4 is believed to modulate the output of dentate granule cells and also has commissural connections to the contralateral homotopic area, the association of decreased CA4 cells with prolongation of IHSPT suggests that the observed anatomic alterations may actively (through increased inhibition) or passively (through decreased recruitment) interfere with various routes of seizure propagation. PMID:1396429

Spencer, S S; Marks, D; Katz, A; Kim, J; Spencer, D D

1992-01-01

246

Seizure susceptibility of the pregnant mouse.  

PubMed

The effect of pregnancy on chemically-induced seizures in mice was studied. Latencies to myoclonic and clonic seizures induced by inhalation of flurothyl were significantly reduced at days 12 through 18 of gestation. Parturition resulted in a return of seizure susceptibility to control levels. The possibility that this effect might be mediated by decreased neurotransmitter levels subsequent to the decreased vitamin B6 levels which are known to occur during pregnancy was suggested. A pregnancy-associated liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (pi-AlDH) utilized pyridoxal as a substrate, and the peak of pi-AlDH activity was shown to coincide with the peak of seizure susceptibility. The activity of aldehyde oxidase, the major enzyme normally responsible for the metabolism of pyridoxal, was reduced in pregnant animals. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthesizing enzymes, pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase, were marginally increased in activity during pregnancy. It was suggested that the increased activity of pi-AlDH was indirectly responsible for the increased seizure susceptibility due to increased metabolism of pyridoxal. PMID:7122672

Smolen, A; Smolen, T N; Collins, A C

1982-07-01

247

Amyloid imaging in dementias with atypical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the potential value of amyloid imaging in patients with atypical presentations of dementia. Twenty-eight patients with atypical dementia underwent positron emission tomography imaging with the amyloid imaging tracer Pittsburgh compound B (PiB). Twenty-six had [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans. After extensive clinical evaluation, this group of patients generated considerable diagnostic uncertainty and received working diagnoses that included possible

David A. Wolk; Julie C. Price; Charles Madeira; Judy A. Saxton; Beth E. Snitz; Oscar L. Lopez; Chester A. Mathis; William E. Klunk; Steven T. DeKosky

248

78 FR 3079 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drivers who have a history of epilepsy/ seizures, off anti-seizure...Pennsylvania. He has a history of epilepsy. His last seizure was in 1982...Pennsylvania. He has a diagnosis of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy. His last seizure was in...

2013-01-15

249

Proteomic analysis of c-butyrolactone-treated mouse thalamus reveals dysregulated proteins upon absence seizure  

E-print Network

and Myeong-Hee Yu* *Functional Proteomics Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, South Korea Life Sciences Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, South Korea àSchool of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea §Department of Biological

Kim, Daesoo

250

Recognizing, Differentiating, and Referring Students with Absence Seizures: What Factors Affect Preservice Teachers' Decision Making?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy are common pediatric disorders that often occur co-morbidly. Both disorders predispose children to a wide range of school-related problems, some of which are the same and others vastly different. Fortunately, with early diagnosis and comprehensive disease management, the long-term…

Nasewicz, Nicole

2009-01-01

251

Biopsychosocial Aspects of Atypical Odontalgia  

PubMed Central

Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower A?, A?, and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to A? (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), A? (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction. PMID:24959561

Ciaramella, A.; Paroli, M.; Lonia, L.; Bosco, M.; Poli, P.

2013-01-01

252

Schizophrenia - Typical and Atypical Drugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are treated principally by a class of medications called anti-psychotic drugs. These medications act principally by blocking the stimulation of dopamine receptors by the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are two main classes of anti-psychotic drugs. One is called the first generation, or typical, or conventional anti-psychotic drugs, and the second is called the second generation or atypical anti-psychotic drugs. The difference between these two, even though they both have similar properties and act as anti-psychotics, is that the newer medicines do not produce the disabling neurologic side-effects like stiffness, and slowness and tremor that the first generation drugs produced. In addition, they have a much lower affinity for dopamine receptors so they're kinder, gentler pharmacological agents as opposed to the very potent high-affinity dopamine receptor antagonist that the first generations are. And then thirdly, they may be a little better in some ways terms of their therapeutic efficacy. They alleviate symptoms better, they prevent relapse, and they may work on a broader range of the symptoms of schizophrenia.

2009-04-14

253

Biopsychosocial aspects of atypical odontalgia.  

PubMed

Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower A ? , A ? , and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to A ? (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), A ? (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction. PMID:24959561

Ciaramella, A; Paroli, M; Lonia, L; Bosco, M; Poli, P

2013-01-01

254

T-type Ca²? channels in absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Low-voltage-activated T-type Ca²? channels are highly expressed in the thalamocortical circuit, suggesting that they play a role in this brain circuit. Indeed, low-threshold burst firing mediated by T-type Ca²? channels has long been implicated in the synchronization of the thalamocortical circuit. Over the past few decades, the conventional view has been that rhythmic burst firing mediated by T-type channels in both thalamic reticular nuclie (TRN) and thalamocortical (TC) neurons are equally critical in the generation of thalamocortical oscillations during sleep rhythms and spike-wave-discharges (SWDs). This review broadly investigates recent studies indicating that even though both TRN and TC nuclei are required for thalamocortical oscillations, the contributions of T-type channels to TRN and TC neurons are not equal in the genesis of sleep spindles and SWDs. T-type channels in TC neurons are an essential component of SWD generation, whereas the requirement for TRN T-type channels in SWD generation remains controversial at least in the GBL model of absence seizures. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the functional consequences of modulating each T-type channel subtype could guide the development of therapeutic tools for absence seizures while minimizing side effects on physiological thalamocortical oscillations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. PMID:23416255

Cheong, Eunji; Shin, Hee-Sup

2013-07-01

255

[Panic attacks simulated by occipital lobe seizures].  

PubMed

Eleven-year-old Stephanie was admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatry day hospital with symptoms of an anxiety and panic disorder, and compulsive and self-harmful behavior. The patient described detailed threatening scenic sequences that caused her to feel panicky. They symptoms could be classified as epilepsy with visually dominated seizures of the occipital lobe. In addition to pharmacological treatment with oxcabazepine, extensive multimodal interventions as part of the child and adolescent psychiatric day hospital treatment program helped all family members to understand and handle the seizures. Eight weeks after initiation of treatment, Stephanie was seizure-free. Complex partial epilepsy can be mistaken for primary child-psychiatric disorder. PMID:19415605

Stolle, Martin; Sieben, Claudia; Püst, Burkhard

2009-05-01

256

Seizure Reduction with Fluoxetine in Dravet Syndrome  

PubMed Central

An adult woman with Dravet syndrome (documented SCN1A mutation) experienced a marked reduction in seizures when treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. The seizure reduction may be partly to reductions associated with aging in Dravet patients, but it appears to be due at least in part to the fluoxetine. A prior preliminary study reported that fenfluramine reduces seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome. Fenfluramine may produce this effect by increasing serotonin brain levels, and SSRIs have been found to possess antiepileptic properties in animal models of epilepsy. Given the known cardiac risks of fenfluramine, consideration of randomized clinical trials with SSRIs should be considered in Dravet syndrome and other epilepsies. PMID:24955329

Meador, Kimford J.

2014-01-01

257

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2011-04-01

258

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2012-04-01

259

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2014-04-01

260

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2013-04-01

261

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2010-04-01

262

Continuous assessment of epileptic seizures with wrist-worn biosensors  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized predominantly by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows the ...

Poh, Ming-Zher

2011-01-01

263

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2011-04-01

264

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2010-04-01

265

Research Report Modeling seizure-related behavioral and endocrine  

E-print Network

Research Report Modeling seizure-related behavioral and endocrine phenotypes in adult zebrafish lower cortisol levels. Paralleling behavioral and endocrine phenotypes observed in clinical and rodent neurological disorder char- acterized by recurrent seizures, pathological brain hyperactivity and imbalances

Kalueff, Allan V.

266

Thalamic activation and cortical deactivation during typical absence status monitored using [18F]FDG-PET: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the ictal [(18)F]FDG-PET study of a case of absence status showing bilateral thalamic hypermetabolism and frontal cortex hypometabolism. This is the first ictal assessment of absence status by [(18)F]FDG-PET reporting this particular cortical and subcortical involvement. Our findings support the theory of corticothalamic circuitry involvement in the pathophysiology of absence seizures and stress the similarities of the clinical and metabolic pattern observed during absences with the pattern of task-induced interruption of the default state of brain function. PMID:20167511

Bilo, Leonilda; Meo, Roberta; de Leva, Maria Fulvia; Vicidomini, Caterina; Salvatore, Marco; Pappatà, Sabina

2010-04-01

267

Congenital partial absence of the pericardium in a young man with atypical chest pain.  

PubMed

Pericardial defects are infrequent congenital anomalies due to agenesis caused by premature atrophy of the common cardinal vein or Cuvier duct during the 5(th) or 6(th) week of embryonic life. These congenital defects are rare, typically observed as an incidental finding and usually remain asymptomatic. Nevertheless, the more widespread use of modern imaging techniques has contributed to an increase of its incidence in recent years. There is currently no consensus regarding therapeutic options, all of which are based on small retrospective studies that evaluate the risk of developing a life-threatening complication such as herniation and incarceration of the myocardium. We report on a 22-year-old male who presented with sudden onset of sharp chest pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance scan revealed a pericardial defect adjacent to the lateral free wall of the left atrium with associated herniation of the left atrial appendage. The patient was managed conservatively and had an uneventful clinical progress. PMID:23538774

Juárez, Alan Luis; Akerström, Finn; Alguacil, Ana-María; González, Belén Santos

2013-02-26

268

Atypical phenylketonuria with “ dihydrobiopterin synthetase ” deficiency: Absence of phosphate-eliminating enzyme activity demonstrated in liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assay for the phosphate-eliminating enzyme (PEE) activity in liver was developed which required only 5–10 mg tissue. PEE catalyses the elimination of inorganic triphosphate from dihydroneopterin triphosphate, which is the second and irreversible step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). In the presence of substrate, magnesium, NADPH, and a sepiapterin reductase fraction from human liver, PEE catalysed the formation

A. Niederwieser; W. Leimbacher; H. Ch. Curtius; A. Ponzone; F. Rey; D. Leupold

1985-01-01

269

Pseudoepileptic seizures in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Eighteen patients ranging in age from 4 to 20 years who were seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1970 through 1976 for suspected epilepsy were studied. Seventeen of these patients had previously been treated with anticonvulsant medication, and the majority had been subjected to multiple diagnostic procedures. After careful analysis of their histories, clinical examinations, and appropriate laboratory studies, their seizures appeared to be nonepileptic in nature. Various psychogenic and other nonorganic causes were identified. These cases are presented to alert the physician to the not infrequent occurrence of pseudoepileptic seizures in children and adolescents who do not have epilepsy. PMID:762998

Finlayson, R E; Lucas, A R

1979-02-01

270

Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

2004-03-01

271

Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in clinical expression, as evidenced, for example, by studies of ictal fear-related behavior (decorrelation of activity between structures inducing "release" phenomena) and of déjà vu (increased synchronization). Studies of functional coupling within networks underlying complex ictal behavior indicate that the clinical semiology of a given seizure depends upon neither the anatomical origin of ictal discharge nor the target areas of its propagation alone but on the dynamic interaction between these. Careful mapping of the ictal network in its full spread offers essential information as to the localization of seizure onset, by deducing that a given network configuration could only be generated by a given area or group of areas. PMID:24424286

Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

2014-09-01

272

Remote effects of focal hippocampal seizures on the rat neocortex  

PubMed Central

Seizures have both local and remote effects on nervous system function. While propagated seizures are known to disrupt cerebral activity, little work has been done on remote network effects of seizures that do not propagate. Human focal temporal lobe seizures demonstrate remote changes including slow waves on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the neocortex. Ictal neocortical slow waves have been interpreted as seizure propagation, however we hypothesize that they reflect a depressed cortical state resembling sleep or coma. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed multi-modal studies of partial and secondarily-generalized limbic seizures in rats. Video/EEG monitoring of spontaneous seizures revealed slow waves in the frontal cortex during behaviorally mild partial seizures, contrasted with fast poly-spike activity during convulsive generalized seizures. Seizures induced by hippocampal stimulation produced a similar pattern, and were used to perform functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) weighted for blood oxygenation (BOLD) and blood volume (CBV), demonstrating increased signals in hippocampus, thalamus and septum, but decreases in orbitofrontal, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortex during partial seizures; and increases in all these regions during propagated seizures. Combining these results with neuronal recordings and CBF measurements, we related neocortical slow waves to reduced neuronal activity and cerebral metabolism during partial seizures, but found increased neuronal activity and metabolism during propagated seizures. These findings suggest that ictal neocortical slow waves represent an altered cortical state of depressed function, not propagated seizure activity. This remote effect of partial seizures may cause impaired cerebral functions, including loss of consciousness. PMID:18768701

Englot, Dario J.; Mishra, Asht M.; Mansuripur, Peter K.; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

2008-01-01

273

Seizures in Fulminant Hepatic Failure, Multiorgan Failure, and Endocrine Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fulminant hepatic failure and other causes of multiorgan dysfunction can be associated with seizures. These seizures can be\\u000a convulsive or nonconvulsive, and may significantly affect the pathobiology of the patient’s critical condition. The use of\\u000a continuous electroencephalography has become very ­important in the identification and treatment of seizures in critically\\u000a ill patients with hepatic or other metabolic disorders. Seizures arise

Andrew Beaumont; Paul M. Vespa

274

Psychogenic seizures mimicking juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two patients with psychogenic seizures of rare semiology. Both patients (a 23-year-old man and a 26-year-old woman) attended the emergency department because status epilepticus with myoclonic seizures had been diagnosed. Seizures were documented with video-electroencephalography. Semiology of seizures were brief myoclonia of both arms resulting in a short elevation of both arms without impairment of consciousness. Ictal EEG

J. Bauer; C. E. Elger

2001-01-01

275

Nonconvulsive seizures are common in critically ill children  

PubMed Central

Background: Retrospective studies have reported the occurrence of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill children. We aimed to prospectively determine the incidence and risk factors of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill children using predetermined EEG monitoring indications and EEG interpretation terminology. Methods: Critically ill children (non-neonates) with acute encephalopathy underwent continuous EEG monitoring if they met institutional clinical practice criteria. Study enrollment and data collection were prospective. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify risk factors for seizure occurrence. Results: One hundred children were evaluated. Electrographic seizures occurred in 46 and electrographic status epilepticus occurred in 19. Seizures were exclusively nonconvulsive in 32. The only clinical risk factor for seizure occurrence was younger age (p = 0.03). Of patients with seizures, only 52% had seizures detected in the first hour of monitoring, while 87% were detected within 24 hours. Conclusions: Seizures were common in critically ill children with acute encephalopathy. Most were nonconvulsive. Clinical features had little predictive value for seizure occurrence. Further study is needed to confirm these data in independent high-risk populations, to clarify which children are at highest risk for seizures so limited monitoring resources can be allocated optimally, and to determine whether seizure detection and management improves outcome. PMID:21307352

Gutierrez-Colina, A.M.; Topjian, A.A.; Zhao, H.; Guo, R.; Donnelly, M.; Clancy, R.R.; Dlugos, D.J.

2011-01-01

276

Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures  

PubMed Central

Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.

2014-01-01

277

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2011-04-01

278

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2010-04-01

279

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

280

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2010-04-01

281

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2010-01-01

282

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2011-01-01

283

Symptoms of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seizures are more common in individuals with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. As a result, differences in functioning for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures have been evaluated. Research on differences in psychopathology for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures

Fitzgerald, Mary E.; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

2011-01-01

284

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2011-07-01

285

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2010-01-01

286

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2011-01-01

287

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2011-04-01

288

Dental injury during seizures associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Patients can sustain injuries during seizures and the pattern and type of injury (eg, tongue biting) can be a useful silent witness in the diagnosis of seizures. In addition, the seizure type potentially influences the type of injury.Methods:Patients with dental injury were identified from the Gloucestershire Epilepsy Database (n = 1673). These patients’ notes were reviewed and the following data

R H Thomas; S Higgins; G N Fuller

2009-01-01

289

Magnesium sulfate treatment against sarin poisoning: dissociation between overt convulsions and recorded cortical seizure activity.  

PubMed

Sarin, a potent organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, induces an array of toxic effects including convulsions. Many antidotal treatments contain anticonvulsants to block seizure activity and the ensuing brain damage. Magnesium sulfate (MGS) is used to suppress eclamptic seizures in pregnant women with hypertension and was shown to block kainate-induced convulsions. Magnesium sulfate was evaluated herein as an anticonvulsant against sarin poisoning and its efficacy was compared with the potent anticonvulsants midazolam (MDZ) and caramiphen (CRM). Rats were exposed to a convulsant dose of sarin (96 ?g/kg, im) and 1 min later treated with the oxime TMB4 and atropine to increase survival. Five minutes after initiation of convulsions, MGS, CRM, or MDZ were administered. Attenuation of tonic-clonic convulsions was observed following all these treatments. However, radio-telemetric electro-corticography (ECoG) monitoring demonstrated sustained seizure activity in MGS-injected animals while this activity was completely blocked by MDZ and CRM. This disrupted brain activity was associated with marked increase in brain translocator protein levels, a marker for brain damage, measured 1 week following exposure. Additionally, histopathological analyses of MGS-treated group showed typical sarin-induced brain injury excluding the hippocampus that was partially protected. Our results clearly show that MGS demonstrated misleading features as an anticonvulsant against sarin-induced seizures. This stems from the dissociation observed between overt convulsions and seizure activity. Thus, the presence or absence of motor convulsions may be an unreliable indicator in the assessment of clinical status and in directing adequate antidotal treatments following exposure to nerve agents in battle field or terror attacks. PMID:23052190

Katalan, Shahaf; Lazar, Shlomi; Brandeis, Rachel; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Grauer, Ettie; Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Raveh, Lily

2013-02-01

290

Seizure Susceptibility and Epileptogenesis in a Rat Model of Epilepsy and Depression Co-Morbidity  

PubMed Central

Although a strong co-morbidity exists clinically between epilepsy and depression, the cause of this co-morbidity remains unknown, and a valid animal model is crucial for the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of a screening tool for novel therapies. Although some rodent models of epilepsy have been reported to display behaviors relevant to affective disorders, the seizure susceptibility of animals prone to depression-like behavior has not been characterized. Toward this end, we assessed several forms of seizure sensitivity and epileptogenesis in rats selectively bred for vulnerability (Swim Lo-Active; SwLo) or resilience (Swim High-Active; SwHi) to depression-like phenotypes. The SwLo rats exhibit decreased motor activity in a swim test and other depression-like phenotypes, whereas the SwHi rats display increased motor activity in a swim test. SwLo rats exhibited a decreased latency to limbic motor seizures following acute pilocarpine administration in the absence of differences in pilocarpine pharmacokinetics, and also had a decreased threshold to tonic seizures induced by electroshock. Approximately half of the SwLo rats, but none of the SwHi rats, had spontaneous limbic motor seizures 5 weeks following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. While the number of stimulations required to achieve full amygdala and hippocampal electrical kindling were similar in the two rat lines, SwLo rats had a lower final hippocampal kindling threshold and more wet dog shakes during both amygdala and hippocampal kindling. Combined, these results indicate that SwLo rats are a model of epilepsy and depression co-morbidity that can be used for investigating underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms and screening novel therapeutics. PMID:22871911

Epps, S Alisha; Tabb, Kroshona D; Lin, Sharon J; Kahn, Alexa B; Javors, Martin A; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Weiss, Jay M; Weinshenker, David

2012-01-01

291

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging Imaging the seizure onset zone with stereo-electroencephalography  

E-print Network

with stereo-electroencephalography Olivier David a,b,c,* , Thomas Blauwblomme d , Anne-Sophie Job e , Stéphan zone imaging 2 ABSTRACT Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localise the seizure onset

Boyer, Edmond

292

Neonatal seizures: soothing a burning topic.  

PubMed

Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia and present the case of a 6-day-old male infant who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

Thornton, Matthew D; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L

2013-10-01

293

Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope through Research  

MedlinePLUS

... may even improve seizure control in some people. Sports are often such a positive factor in life that it is best for the person to participate, although the person with epilepsy ... to avoid potential sports-related problems such as dehydration, overexertion, and hypoglycemia, ...

294

Neonatal Seizures: Soothing a Burning Topic  

PubMed Central

Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia, and present the case of a 6 day old male who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

Thornton, Matthew D.; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L.

2013-01-01

295

Seizure Management for School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

Frueh, Eileen

2008-01-01

296

Oxygen and seizure dynamics: I. Experiments.  

PubMed

We utilized a novel ratiometric nanoquantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NQD-FRET) optical sensor to quantitatively measure oxygen dynamics from single cell microdomains during hypoxic episodes as well as during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced spontaneous seizure-like events in rat hippocampal slices. Coupling oxygen sensing with electrical recordings, we found the greatest reduction in the O2 concentration ([O2]) in the densely packed cell body stratum (st.) pyramidale layer of the CA1 and differential layer-specific O2 dynamics between the st. pyramidale and st. oriens layers. These hypoxic decrements occurred up to several seconds before seizure onset could be electrically measured extracellularly. Without 4-AP, we quantified a narrow range of [O2], similar to the endogenous hypoxia found before epileptiform activity, which permits a quiescent network to enter into a seizure-like state. We demonstrated layer-specific patterns of O2 utilization accompanying layer-specific neuronal interplay in seizure. None of the oxygen overshoot artifacts seen with polarographic measurement techniques were observed. We therefore conclude that endogenously generated hypoxia may be more than just a consequence of increased cellular excitability but an influential and critical factor for orchestrating network dynamics associated with epileptiform activity. PMID:24598521

Ingram, Justin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Cressman, John R; Hazra, Anupam; Wei, Yina; Koo, Yong-Eun; Žiburkus, Jok?bas; Kopelman, Raoul; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

2014-07-15

297

Distribution of partial seizures during the sleep-wake cycle Differences by seizure onset site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article abstract—Objective: To evaluate the effects of sleep on partial seizures arising from various brain regions. Methods: The authors prospectively studied 133 patients with localization-related epilepsy undergoing video-EEG moni- toring over a 2-year period. Seizure type, site of onset, sleep\\/wake state at onset, duration, and epilepsy syndrome diagnosis were recorded. Periorbital, chin EMG, and scalp\\/sphenoidal electrodes were used. A subset

S. T. Herman; T. S. Walczak; C. W. Bazil

298

Atypical infectious mononucleosis in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitory treatment.  

PubMed

The objective is to report a case of atypical acute infectious mononucleosis in a juvenile ankylosing spondylitis patient who was treated with infliximab. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized for the evaluation of lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. His symptoms developed at the eighth week of the infliximab treatment and he required hospitalization. Lymph node biopsy was performed and he was diagnosed as atypical infectious mononucleosis (absence of fever, pharyngitis, lymphocytosis and negative atypical lymphocytosis on blood smear). Infections have become major concerns in patients treated with TNF-blocking agents. In theoretical base, it is not surprising as TNF-alpha has a crucial role in the body's defense against both bacterial and viral invasion. Blocking the action of TNF may also change the course of the disease and could lead to a delay in the diagnosis. TNF-alpha-blocking treatment may mask the typical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and atypical cases should be included in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in patients receiving anti-TNF-alpha agents. PMID:19034455

Sari, Ismail; Birlik, Merih; Akar, Servet; Onen, Fatos; Kargi, Aydanur; Akkoc, Nurullah

2009-05-01

299

Behavior of atypical amphiphilic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical behavior of several atypical amphiphilic molecules was studied in various environments including micelles, model bilayer membranes, and emulsions. The molecules under investigation were nor-chenodeoxycholic acid (nor-CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), sphingosine (Sp), sphingosine hydrochloride (Sp?HCl), and tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). The bile acids, nor-CDCA and UDCA, were studied using 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ([13C) -NMR) in micelles of taurocholate and in bilayers of phosphatidylcholine. The pK a values of the bile acids in each environment were determined by [13C) -NMR and are as follows: 6.08 ±.03 for nor-CDCA and 6.27 ±.01 for UDCA in micelles, and 7.04 ± 12 for nor-CDCA and 6.89 ±.05 for UDCA in vesicles. Using line shape analysis, the transbilayer movement rate at 36oC for nor-CDCA and UDCA was calculated to be 580 sec--1 and 409 sec-1, respectively. [13C) -NMR titration of Sp gave pK a values of 9.09 ±.02 in micelles and 9.69 ±.21 in bilayers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used to establish the Sp?water and Sp?HCl?water phase diagrams. Anhydrous and hydrated samples ranging from 5- 90% water were analyzed. The DSC thermograms traced out the transition temperatures of each molecule while the X- ray diffraction patterns revealed their chain and crystalline lattice packing structures. In general, sphingosine exists as a hydrated crystal with ? packing phase below 43oC and melts into an L? phase. Sphingosine hydrochloride, however, exists as a gel phase (L_beta or /beta/sp') below 42oC that swells to 61% hydration. At low water concentrations (0-64%), a lamellar liquid crystal phase (L_alpha) is formed above the chain melting transition of 42oC. At medium concentration (65%), a Hexagonal I phase is present, and at high water concentrations (66-90%), a micellar phase is present. THL, a specific inhibitor of lipases, was analyzed with [ 13C) -NMR to study its behavior in various environments, ranging from carbon tetrachloride to water to pure triolein. THL was also incorporated into phosphatidylcholine bilayers and into microemulsions of triolein and phosphatidylcholine. [ 13C) -NMR analysis revealed that THL gets incorporated into the surface of vesicles, and into both the surface and core of microemulsion particles.

Ko, John

1997-08-01

300

Atypical aging in Down syndrome.  

PubMed

At present, there may be over 210,000 people with Down syndrome (DS) over the age of 55 in the United States (US) who have significant needs for augmented services due to circumstances related to ordinary and/or pathological aging. From 1979 through 2003, the birth prevalence of DS rose from 9.0 to 11.8 (31.1%) per 10,000 live births in 10 representative US regions. This increase, largely due to women conceiving after age 35, portends an ever-growing population of people with DS who may be subject to pathogenic aging. Whereas Trisomy 21 is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability (ID), it still is one of the least understood of all genetic ID syndromes. While longevity in people with DS has improved appreciably in as modest a period as 30 years, age-specific risk for mortality still is considerably increased compared both with other people with ID or with the typically developing population. The penetrance of the phenotype is widely distributed, even though a consistent genotype is assumed in 95% of the cases. Some, but not all body systems, exhibit signs of premature or accelerated aging. This may be due to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. We now know that the long-term outcome for people with DS is not as ominous as once contemplated; a number of people with DS are living into their late 60s and 70s with few if any major signs of pathogenic aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD), a devastating disease that robs a person of their memory, abilities and personality, is particularly common in elder adults with DS, but is not a certainty as originally thought, some 20% to 30% of elder adults with DS might never show any, or at most mild signs of AD. DS has been called a mature well-understood syndrome, not in need of further research or science funding. We are only beginning to understand how epigenetics affects the phenotype and it may be feasible in the future to alter the phenotype through epigenetic interventions. This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section will review typical and atypical aging patterns in somatic issues in elder adults with DS; the second section will review the multifaceted relationship between AD and DS. PMID:23949829

Zigman, Warren B

2013-08-01

301

Reduction of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the vagus nerve has become an effective method for desynchronizing the highly coherent neural activity typically associated with epileptic seizures. This technique has been used in several animal models of seizures as well as in humans suffering from epilepsy. However, application of this technique has been limited to unilateral stimulation of the vagus nerve, typically delivered according to a fixed duty cycle, independently of whether ongoing seizure activity is present. Here, we report that stimulation of another cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, can also cause cortical and thalamic desynchronization, resulting in a reduction of seizure activity in awake rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that providing this stimulation only when seizure activity begins results in more effective and safer seizure reduction per second of stimulation than with previous methods. Seizure activity induced by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole was recorded from microwire electrodes in the thalamus and cortex of awake rats while the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve was stimulated via a chronically implanted nerve cuff electrode. Continuous unilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve reduced electrographic seizure activity by up to 78%, and bilateral trigeminal stimulation was even more effective. Using a device that automatically detects seizure activity in real time on the basis of multichannel field potential signals, we demonstrated that seizure-triggered stimulation was more effective than the stimulation protocol involving a fixed duty cycle, in terms of the percent seizure reduction per second of stimulation. In contrast to vagus nerve stimulation studies, no substantial cardiovascular side effects were observed by unilateral or bilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. These findings suggest that trigeminal nerve stimulation is safe in awake rats and should be evaluated as a therapy for human seizures. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation is technically feasible and could be further developed, in conjunction with real-time seizure-predicting paradigms, to prevent seizures and reduce exposure to nerve stimulation. PMID:11050139

Fanselow, E E; Reid, A P; Nicolelis, M A

2000-11-01

302

A STUDY OF ATYPICAL TYPE II PNEUMOCOCCI  

PubMed Central

1. At least twelve subgroups of atypical Type II pneumococcus may be recognized by specific agglutination reactions. They have been designated Subgroups IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, IIe, IIf, IIg, IIh, IIj, IIk, IIl, and IIm. 2. These subgroups have an incidence of 11 per cent in lobar pneumonia, and of 18 per cent in normal mouths. 3. Certain groups, IIb, IIc, IIf, and IIm, occur in normal mouths. 4. Subgroups IIa and IIh are met with largely in connection with disease. 5. The mortality of acute lobar pneumonia due to these atypical Type II pneumococci is fairly high—32 per cent. PMID:14404294

Stillman, Ernest G.

1919-01-01

303

Atypical presentation of an advanced obstructive biliary cancer without jaundice  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Cholangiocarcinoma Symptoms: Abdominal pain • abdominal discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual natural history/clinical course Background: Cholangiocarcinoma remains to be a challenging case to diagnose and manage as it usually presents in advanced stage and survival rate remains dismal despite the medical breakthroughs. It is usually classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal tumor which can lead to bile duct obstruction causing sluggish flow of bile through the biliary tract and promoting increased absorption of bilirubin, bile acids and bile salts into systemic circulation accounting for the occurrence of jaundice, dark-colored urine and generalized pruritus. It usually becomes symptomatic when the tumor has significantly obstructed the biliary drainage causing painless jaundice and deranged liver function with cholestatic pattern. Jaundice occurs in 90% of the cases when the tumor has obstructed the biliary drainage system. A markedly dilated gallbladder as initial presenting feature in the absence of other typical obstructive clinical manifestations of an advanced stage of the cholangiocarcinoma is rare. Case Report: This case report presents an atypical case of an elderly woman who presented with advanced metastatic ductal cholangiocarcinoma with markedly dilated gallbladder and liver mass without other clinical manifestations and laboratory evidence of cholestatic jaundice. Conclusions: The mere presence of Courvoisier’s sign, even in the absence of other signs of biliary obstruction, could be suggestive of advanced neoplastic process along the biliary tract. Laboratory evidence of cholestasis might lag behind the clinical severity of the biliary obstruction in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24223234

Salvador, Vincent Bryan; Samrao, Pushkinder; Leytin, Anatoly; Basith, Mohammed

2013-01-01

304

Pharmacological evaluation of selected arylpiperazines with atypical antipsychotic potential  

E-print Network

Pharmacological evaluation of selected arylpiperazines with atypical antipsychotic potential Mirko, it exhibited the noncataleptic behavioural pattern of atypical antipsychotics and antagonized d of modern psychophar- macology is a search for new antipsychotic drugs (APDs, i.e., neuroleptics) that would

Champagne, Frances A.

305

MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access Effects of atypical antipsychotics on  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access Effects of atypical antipsychotics on neurocognition in euthymic bipolar patients, 63 were treated with one atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine (n = 12), olanza- pine (n. Results Bipolar patients taking one of the three antipsychotics presented with dose

Boyer, Edmond

306

Alterations of A-Type Potassium Channels in Hippocampal Neurons after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive deficits, memory impairment, and epilepsy. Previous studies have reported neuronal loss and neuronal hyperexcitability in the post-traumatic hippocampus. A-type K+ currents (IA) play a critical role in modulating the intrinsic membrane excitability of hippocampal neurons. The disruption of IA is reportedly linked to hippocampal dysfunction. The present study investigates the changes of IA in the hippocampus after TBI. TBI in rats was induced by controlled cortical impact. The impact induced a reproducible lesion in the cortex and an obvious neuronal death in the ipsilateral hippocampus CA3 region. At one week after TBI, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting showed that the expression of IA channel subunit Kv4.2 was markedly decreased in the ipsilateral hippocampus, but remained unchanged in the contralateral hippocampus. Meanwhile, electrophysiological recording showed that IA currents in ipsilateral CA1 pyramidal neurons were significantly reduced, which was associated with an increased neuronal excitability. Furthermore, there was an increased sensitivity to bicuculline-induced seizures in TBI rats. At 8 weeks after TBI, immunohistochemical staining and electrophysiological recording indicated that IA returned to control levels. These findings suggest that TBI causes a transient downregulation of IA in hippocampal CA1 neurons, which might be associated with the hyperexcitability in the post-traumatic hippocampus, and in turn leads to seizures and epilepsy. PMID:21895522

Lei, Zhigang; Deng, Ping; Li, Jinqing

2012-01-01

307

Association of a Bovine Prion Gene Haplotype with Atypical BSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology\\/Principle Findings: Haplotype tagging polymorphisms that characterize PRNP haplotypes from the promoter region through the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (25.2 kb)

Michael L. Clawson; Juergen A. Richt; Thierry Baron; Anne-Gaëlle Biacabe; Stefanie Czub; Michael P. Heaton; Timothy P. L. Smith; William W. Laegreid

2008-01-01

308

Atypical leiomyoma: An unusual variant of cutaneous pilar leiomyoma.  

PubMed

Cutaneous atypical leiomyoma is an unusual benign tumor arising from arrector pili muscle that shares histological features with uterine atypical or symplastic leiomyoma: atypical cellularity with pleomorphic nuclei but minimal or no mitosis. Six other cases have been reported so far and, in spite of its name and of being a smooth muscle proliferation, no recurrences nor metastasis have been reported. PMID:19379650

Nocito, Mabel Jimena; Lustia, María Marcela; Luna, Paula Carolina; Cañadas, Nadia Guadalupe; Castellanos Posse, María Laura; Marchesi, Carolina; Carabajal, Graciela; Mazzini, Miguel Angel

2009-01-01

309

Electroclinical features of idiopathic generalised epilepsy with persisting absences in adult life.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the electroclinical features of typical absences persisting in adult life. METHODS: Twelve adult patients (aged 21 to 56 years) with idiopathic generalised epilepsy featuring typical absences as the prominent clinical feature were studied. All patients underwent a full clinical and neurophysiological investigation including ictal documentation of seizures. RESULTS: Neurological examination and neuroradiological investigations were normal in all cases. Clinical findings included a median age at onset of absences of 14 (range 4-32) years, almost constant tonic-clonic seizures (in 83% of patients), frequent episodes of absence status (in 33% of patients), and associated cognitive or psychiatric disturbances. Interictal EEG findings showed normal background activity, generalised paroxysms of spike waves or polyspike waves, and inconstant focal spikes (in five patients); runs of polyspikes were seen during non-REM sleep. Ictal EEG findings showed generalised spike waves at 3 Hz, sometimes preceded by multiple spikes, or more complex EEG patterns with sequences of polyspikes intermingled with spike waves or polyspike waves, showing discharge fragmentation or variation of intradischarge frequency. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that absences persisting in adult life may show particular clinical and EEG patterns, distinct from those in childhood or adolescence. PMID:8937341

Michelucci, R; Rubboli, G; Passarelli, D; Riguzzi, P; Volpi, L; Parmeggiani, L; Rizzi, R; Gardella, E; Tassinari, C A

1996-01-01

310

Clear Cell Atypical Fibroxantoma: A Rare Variant of Atypical Fibroxanthoma and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a superficial variant of pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFXA) is a rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. A 74-year-old male patient presented with a rapidly growing nodule on the shoulder, which had appeared over a 5-months period. Lesion was excised by the plastic surgeon. Microscopic examination showed an ulcerated nodule composed of pleomorphic spindled and polygonal cells with clear or vacuolated cytoplasm. The neoplastic cells were stained positively with CD68 and CD10 and were stained negative with S-100, Melan A, muscle-specific actin, or pan-cytokeratin. Final diagnosis was clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma. CCAFXA should be differentiated from other clear-cell neoplasms of the skin. Best of our knowledge only 11 cases CCAFXA of have been reported in published studies till date. Herein, we reported 12th case in literature of CCAFXA and review of the literature. PMID:25120992

Agirbas, Sule; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Elmas, Ömer

2014-01-01

311

Organic Diseases Mimicking Atypical Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present three case studies of patients referred to Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, for evaluation of possible eating disorders. The atypical manifestations of the cases warranted further investigation, which revealed an organic basis for their weight loss. The authors summarize the typical findings of bulimia and anorexia nervosa and discuss the clues from the case studies

Kathryn Wright; Mark Scott Smith; Jeff Mitchell

1990-01-01

312

Atypical hypoadrenocorticism in a Birman cat.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old female spayed Birman cat was presented with a history of inappropriate urination and defecation, lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. After intermittent responses to non-specific therapy she was diagnosed with atypical hypoadrenocorticism from the results of an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. PMID:22294798

Hock, Colleen E

2011-08-01

313

Atypical hypoadrenocorticism in a Birman cat  

PubMed Central

A 1-year-old female spayed Birman cat was presented with a history of inappropriate urination and defecation, lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. After intermittent responses to non-specific therapy she was diagnosed with atypical hypoadrenocorticism from the results of an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. PMID:22294798

Hock, Colleen E.

2011-01-01

314

Atypical Visuomotor Performance in Children with PDD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome…

Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter

2012-01-01

315

Cognition, schizophrenia, and the atypical antipsychotic drugs  

E-print Network

Commentary Cognition, schizophrenia, and the atypical antipsychotic drugs Herbert Y. Meltzer to the haloperidol-like drugs (now called typical antipsychotics, for rea- sons explained below). However of the syndrome originate (1, 15, 16). Antipsychotic Drugs and the Cognitive Deficit of Schizophrenia Haloperidol

Park, Sohee

316

Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2010-01-01

317

Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.  

PubMed

Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

Jaul, Efraim

2014-12-01

318

Atypical Traumatic Pneumorrhachis Accompanied by Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Pneumorrhachis, caused by intraspinal air, is an exceptional but important radiographic finding that is accompanied by different etiologies. Pneumorrhachis, by itself, is usually asymptomatic and gets reabsorbed spontaneously. Therefore, the patients with pneumorrhachis are mostly managed conservatively. We encountered a unique case of atypical traumatic pneumorrhachis accompanied by paraparesis. PMID:25024968

Kim, Kweon Young; Kang, Jung Hun; Lee, Min Hong; Han, Yong

2014-01-01

319

Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

2009-01-01

320

Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

2014-01-01

321

Complementary and integrative treatments: atypical facial pain.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of atypical facial pain for the practicing otolaryngologist. Discussion includes the definition of persistent idiopathic facial pain and its pathophysiology, clinical features, demographics, lack of findings on physical examination, use of imaging modalities and consultations, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within the framework of an holistic approach. PMID:23764815

Nguyen, Chau T; Wang, Marilene B

2013-06-01

322

Atypical Ligon Lintless-2 Phenotype in Cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mutant Li2 is reported to be a dominant single gene mutation in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. It has normal vegetative phenotypic morphology and the phenotype of the seed cotton is reported to be fuzzy seed with short fibers. The objective of this research was to report on atypical phenotypes ob...

323

[Psychological profile of patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures].  

PubMed

Depending on the accepted definition of the nature of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures various values of their prevalence are reported in the literature from 5% to over 33% of cases referred to epilepsy treatment centres. According to our knowledge, in Poland these seizures occur in several thousand young individuals (mean age 25 years). The psychological determinants of these psychogenic seizures remain not clear. The purpose of the reported study was a psychological analysis of personality profiles of patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures and epileptic seizures using the results of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test for the assessment of conversion as a possible mechanism of the occurrence of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Using long-term video-EEG monitoring the studied subjects were divided into two groups: group I of 30 subjects (25 women and 5 men) with exclusively psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures, and group II of 27 subjects (23 women and 4 men) with exclusively epileptic seizures. Both groups were subjected to MMPI test. The averaged profiles of these groups differed in the level of hypochondria (Hs--p < or = 0.001) and hysteria (Hy--p < or = 0.005) statistically significantly, and were much higher in patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures than the depression parameter (D) statistically significantly (p < or = 0.001). Patients with epilepsy had the highest values of depression parameter (D), while Hs and Hy were statistically significantly lower (p 0.01). The analysis in subscales additionally confirmed the role of conversion in pseudoepileptic seizures. PMID:11317492

Owczarek, K

2000-01-01

324

EEG-based neonatal seizure detection with Support Vector Machines  

PubMed Central

Objective The study presents a multi-channel patient-independent neonatal seizure detection system based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Methods A machine learning algorithm (SVM) is used as a classifier to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure EEG epochs. Two post-processing steps are proposed to increase both the temporal precision and the robustness of the system. The resulting system is validated on a large clinical dataset of 267 h of EEG data from 17 full-term newborns with seizures. Results The performance of the system using event-based metrics is reported. The system showed the best up-to-date performance of a neonatal seizure detection system. The system was able to achieve an average good detection rate of ?89% with one false seizure detection per hour, ?96% with two false detections per hour, or ?100% with four false detections per hour. An analysis of errors revealed sources of misclassification in terms of both missed seizures and false detections. Conclusions The results obtained with the proposed SVM-based seizure detection system allow for its practical application in neonatal intensive care units. Significance The proposed SVM-based seizure detection system can greatly assist clinical staff, in a neonatal intensive care unit, to interpret the EEG. The system allows control of the final decision by choosing different confidence levels which makes it flexible for clinical needs. The obtained results may provide a reference for future seizure detection systems. PMID:20713314

Temko, A.; Thomas, E.; Marnane, W.; Lightbody, G.; Boylan, G.

2011-01-01

325

Treatment of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and the treatment principles and methods of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical data, treatment methods and results in 13 patients with recurrent epileptic seizures attending the neurosurgery department. Of the 13 patients, 10 had a history of epilepsy, 9 had organic frontal lobe brain lesions and 11 exhibited frontal lobe epilepsy. The causes of the epileptic seizure aggravation included drug withdrawal, dose reduction and dressing change (5 cases). The epileptic seizure types included partial and secondary full seizures and the seizure frequency ranged from 1 seizure/3 min to 1 seizure/several h. Following combined therapy with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), including oral administration and injection, the epilepsy was controlled. The addition of orally administered levetiracetam improved the treatment efficiency. In cases of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders, the combined administration of AEDs should be conducted with doses higher than the conventional initial dose to control the epileptic seizures as rapidly as possible. PMID:23251281

YUAN, GUAN-QIAN; GAO, DAN-DAN; LIN, JUN; HAN, SONG; LV, BO-CHUANG

2013-01-01

326

Non-epileptic paroxysmal events mimicking seizures.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of epilepsy rests on a detailed history and examination. The main focus of such a history is to exclude the possibility of non-epileptic paroxysmal events. An incorrect diagnosis of epilepsy can potentially lead to physical, psychological and financial harm to the child and the family. A wide range of non-epileptic paroxysmal events can occur in children. The differentiation of a seizure mimic from a seizure relies solely on a proper history and review of video recordings. Investigations rarely help in the diagnosis of these events. An early and timely diagnosis and proper parental counseling helps avoiding unnecessary investigations, treatment and allays parental anxiety. The article reviews the common non-epileptic paroxysmal events in children, emphasizing clinically relevant points. PMID:25062544

Sankhyan, Naveen

2014-09-01

327

Atypical hydroa vacciniforme-like epstein-barr virus associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPDs) accompany severe chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or comprise the CAEBV disease entity. The CAEBV disease entity has the common feature of lymphoproliferation of T or NK cells (primarily), and B cells (rarely), with chronic activation of EBV infection. The disease is rare and seems to be more prevalent in East Asian countries. The CAEBV disease entity encompasses heterogenous disorders, including hydroa vacciniforme (HV), hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and NK-cell leukemia. Atypical HV-like eruptions are present on sun-exposed and nonexposed areas with facial edema, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, unlike classic HV. Recently, it has been suggested that classic HV and atypical HV-like eruptions are variants within the same disease spectrum of EBV-T/NK-LPD. We report a Korean boy with an atypical HV-like eruption and various systemic manifestations, including fever, sore throat, abdominal pain, headaches, seizures, and hematologic abnormalities for 2 years. After the initial mild eruption, which resembled a viral exanthem, ulceronecrotic skin lesions gradually developed and were associated with a high-grade fever and constitutional symptoms. He had a CAEBV infection, which showed a predominant proliferation of NK cells with high EBV DNA levels in the peripheral blood. However, in the skin lesions, there were nonneoplastic CD4 T-cell infiltrations predominantly showing a monoclonal T-cell receptor-? gene rearrangement and positive EBV in situ hybridization. PMID:23169419

Lee, Hye Young; Baek, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Rok; Park, Sang Hui; Jeon, In Sang; Roh, Joo Young

2012-12-01

328

HLA alleles may serve as a tool to discriminate atypical type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) marker could add new information to discriminated atypical diabetic type 2 patients. METHODS: We analyzed 199 patients initially diagnosed as type 2 diabetes who are treated in special care diabetes clinics (3rd level). This population was classified in “atypical” (sample A) and “classic” (sample B) according to HLA typing. We consider “classic patient” when has absence of type 1 diabetes associated HLA alleles and no difficulties in their diagnosis and treatments. By the other hand, we considered “atypical patient” when show type 1 diabetes associated HLA alleles and difficulties in their diagnosis and treatments. The standard protocol Asociacion Latinoamericana de Diabetes 2006 was used for patients follow up. To analyze differences between both populations in paraclinical parameters we used unpaired t tests and contingence tables. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the SPSS software program. In all studies we assume differences statistically significant, with a P-value < 0.05 corrected and 95%CI. RESULTS: The typing HLA in the “atypical” populations show that 92.47% patients presented at list one type 1 diabetes associated HLA alleles (DQB1*0201-0302 and DR 3-4) and 7.53% had two of its. The results showed for categorical variables (family history, presence or absence of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia, reason for initial consultation) the only difference found was at dyslipidemia (OR = 0.45, 0.243 < OD < 0.822 (P < 0.001). In relation to continuous variables we found significant differences between atypical vs classic only in cholesterol (5.07 ± 1.1 vs 5.56 ± 1.5, P < 0.05), high density lipoproteins (1.23 ± 0.3 vs 1.33 ± 0.3, P < 0.05) and low density lipoproteins (2.86 ± 0.9 vs 3.38 ± 1.7, P < 0.01). None of the variables had discriminating power when logistic regression was done. CONCLUSION: We propose an algorithm including HLA genotyping as a tool to discriminate atypical patients, complementing international treatment guidelines for complex patients. PMID:25317248

Fernández, Mariana; Fabregat, Matías; Javiel, Gerardo; Mimbacas, Adriana

2014-01-01

329

Seizure control after subtotal lesional resection.  

PubMed

Reports on seizure outcomes following surgery for lesional epilepsy consistently cite extent of resection as a significant predictor of outcome. Unfortunately, gross-total resection is not technically feasible in all cases of medically refractory tumor-associated epilepsy. Here, the authors present the case of a 4-year-old girl whose epilepsy was medically controlled after 1-stage electrocorticography-guided subtotal resection (STR) of a large diffuse protoplasmic astrocytoma. They also review the modern literature on epilepsy associated with brain tumors. Outcomes are compared with those following surgical treatment of focal cortical dysplasia and vascular lesions. Gross-total lesional resection shows significant superiority across pathologies and anatomical regions. Despite a considerable number of STRs yielding seizure freedom, other favorable treatment factors have not been defined. Although gross-total lesional resection, if possible, is clearly superior, tailored surgery may still offer patients a significant opportunity for a good outcome. Treatment factors yielding successful seizure control following STR remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:23724833

Gump, William C; Skjei, Karen L; Karkare, Shefali N

2013-06-01

330

Resetting of Brain Dynamics: Epileptic versus Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the possibility of differential diagnosis of patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) by an advanced analysis of dynamics of the patients' scalp electroencephalograms (EEG). The underlying principle was the presence of resetting of brain's pre-ictal spatiotemporal entrainment following onset of ES and the absence of resetting following PNES. Long-term (days) scalp EEGs recorded from five ES and six PNES patients were analyzed. It was found that: (a) Pre-ictal entrainment of brain sites was reset by epileptic seizures (p<0.05) in 4 out of the 5 patients with ES, and not reset (p=0.28) in the fifth patient. (b) Resetting did not occur (p>0.1) in any of the 6 patients with PNES. These preliminary results in patients with ES are in agreement with our previous findings from intracranial EEG recordings on resetting of brain dynamics at ES and it is expected to constitute the basis for the development of a reliable and supporting tool in the differential diagnosis between ES and PNES. Finally, we believe that these results shed a novel light on the electrophysiology of psychogenic epilepsy by showing that occurrence of PNES does not assist patients to overcome a pathological entrainment of brain dynamics. PMID:22078523

Krishnan, Balu; Faith, Aaron; Vlachos, Ioannis; Roth, Austin; Williams, Korwyn; Noe, Katie; Drazkowski, Joe; Tapsell, Lisa; Sirven, Joseph; Iasemidis, Leon

2011-01-01

331

Unraveling Genetic Modifiers in the Gria4 Mouse Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy (AE) is a common type of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), particularly in children. AE and GGE are complex genetic diseases with few causal variants identified to date. Gria4 deficient mice provide a model of AE, one for which the common laboratory inbred strain C3H/HeJ (HeJ) harbors a natural IAP retrotransposon insertion in Gria4 that reduces its expression 8-fold. Between C3H and non-seizing strains such as C57BL/6, genetic modifiers alter disease severity. Even C3H substrains have surprising variation in the duration and incidence of spike-wave discharges (SWD), the characteristic electroencephalographic feature of absence seizures. Here we discovered extensive IAP retrotransposition in the C3H substrain, and identified a HeJ-private IAP in the Pcnxl2 gene, which encodes a putative multi-transmembrane protein of unknown function, resulting in decreased expression. By creating new Pcnxl2 frameshift alleles using TALEN mutagenesis, we show that Pcnxl2 deficiency is responsible for mitigating the seizure phenotype – making Pcnxl2 the first known modifier gene for absence seizures in any species. This finding gave us a handle on genetic complexity between strains, directing us to use another C3H substrain to map additional modifiers including validation of a Chr 15 locus that profoundly affects the severity of SWD episodes. Together these new findings expand our knowledge of how natural variation modulates seizures, and highlights the feasibility of characterizing and validating modifiers in mouse strains and substrains in the post-genome sequence era. PMID:25010494

Frankel, Wayne N.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; McGarr, Tracy C.; Beyer, Barbara J.; Letts, Verity A.

2014-01-01

332

enhancer of seizure: A New Genetic Locus in Drosophila melanogaster Defined by Interactions with Temperature-Sensitive Paralytic Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the enhancer of seizure (e( sei)) locus have been isolated on the basis of their ability to cause temperature-induced paralysis of alleles at the seizure (sei ) locus at temperatures at which these mutations ordinarily do not paralyze. This enhancer is specific to the seizure locus and is without effect on other temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants including para, nap, tip-E and shi. This suggests that the enhancer responds specifically to the mechanism of paralysis mediated by the seizure mutations. The e(sei) is a recessive mutation which maps to 39.0 on the left arm of chromosome 3. Deficiency mapping has placed it at 69A4-B5 on the salivary gland polytene chromosome map. When a new enhancer allele was isolated following P-M hybrid dysgenesis, there was a concomitant P-element insertion at 69B. In the absence of seizure mutations, the enhancer mutation causes non-temperature dependent hyperactivity when agitated and interferes with the climbing response. Electrophysiological studies examined the effects of increasing temperature on electrical activity in the adult giant fiber/flight muscle system. Neuronal hyperactivity was seen in both e(sei) and sei single mutant homozygotes, but not in wild type. The hyperactivity was more severe in the sei; e(sei) double mutants. The correlation between the physiological effects and the mutant behavior suggests that both sei and e (sei) cause membrane excitability defects. Since previous work has shown that seizure mutants affect [3H]saxitoxin binding to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel, e(sei) may code for a gene product which interacts with this channel. PMID:2440763

Kasbekar, Durgadas P.; Nelson, James C.; Hall, Linda M.

1987-01-01

333

T-type Ca2+ channels in absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Absence epilepsy accompanies the paroxysmal oscillations in the thalamocortical circuit referred as spike and wave discharges (SWDs). Low-threshold burst firing mediated by T-type Ca(2+) channels highly expressed in both inhibitory thalamic reticular nuclei (TRN) and excitatory thalamocortical (TC) neurons has been correlated with the generation of SWDs. A generally accepted view has been that rhythmic burst firing mediated by T-type channels in both TRN and TC neurons are equally critical in the generation of thalamocortical oscillations during sleep rhythms and SWDs. This review examined recent studies on the T-type channels in absence epilepsy which leads to an idea that even though both TRN and TC nuclei are required for thalamocortical oscillations, the contributions of T-type channels to TRN and TC neurons are not equal in the genesis of sleep spindles and SWDs. Accumulating evidence revealed a crucial role of TC T-type channels in SWD generation. However, the role of TRN T-type channels in SWD generation remains controversial. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the functional consequences of modulating each T-type channel subtype could guide the development of therapeutic tools for absence seizures while minimizing side effects on physiological thalamocortical oscillations. PMID:24519464

Cheong, Eunji; Shin, Hee-Sup

2014-04-01

334

Atypical Glycolysis in Clostridium thermocellum  

PubMed Central

Cofactor specificities of glycolytic enzymes in Clostridium thermocellum were studied with cellobiose-grown cells from batch cultures. Intracellular glucose was phosphorylated by glucokinase using GTP rather than ATP. Although phosphofructokinase typically uses ATP as a phosphoryl donor, we found only pyrophosphate (PPi)-linked activity. Phosphoglycerate kinase used both GDP and ADP as phosphoryl acceptors. In agreement with the absence of a pyruvate kinase sequence in the C. thermocellum genome, no activity of this enzyme could be detected. Also, the annotated pyruvate phosphate dikinase (ppdk) is not crucial for the generation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), as deletion of the ppdk gene did not substantially change cellobiose fermentation. Instead pyruvate formation is likely to proceed via a malate shunt with GDP-linked PEP carboxykinase, NADH-linked malate dehydrogenase, and NADP-linked malic enzyme. High activities of these enzymes were detected in extracts of cellobiose-grown cells. Our results thus show that GTP is consumed while both GTP and ATP are produced in glycolysis of C. thermocellum. The requirement for PPi in this pathway can be satisfied only to a small extent by biosynthetic reactions, in contrast to what is generally assumed for a PPi-dependent glycolysis in anaerobic heterotrophs. Metabolic network analysis showed that most of the required PPi must be generated via ATP or GTP hydrolysis exclusive of that which happens during biosynthesis. Experimental proof for the necessity of an alternative mechanism of PPi generation was obtained by studying the glycolysis in washed-cell suspensions in which biosynthesis was absent. Under these conditions, cells still fermented cellobiose to ethanol. PMID:23435896

Zhou, Jilai; Olson, Daniel G.; Argyros, D. Aaron; Deng, Yu; van Gulik, Walter M.; van Dijken, Johannes P.

2013-01-01

335

Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis  

PubMed Central

Background The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We investigated whether a similar situation may occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Method Atypical forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were induced exposing cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi (strains B31 and ADB1) to such unfavorable conditions as osmotic and heat shock, and exposure to the binding agents Thioflavin S and Congo red. We also analyzed whether these forms may be induced in vitro, following infection of primary chicken and rat neurons, as well as rat and human astrocytes. We further analyzed whether atypical forms similar to those induced in vitro may also occur in vivo, in brains of three patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. We used immunohistochemical methods to detect evidence of neuroinflammation in the form of reactive microglia and astrocytes. Results Under these conditions we observed atypical cystic, rolled and granular forms of these spirochetes. We characterized these abnormal forms by histochemical, immunohistochemical, dark field and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The atypical and cystic forms found in the brains of three patients with neuropathologically confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis were identical to those induced in vitro. We also observed nuclear fragmentation of the infected astrocytes using the TUNEL method. Abundant HLA-DR positive microglia and GFAP positive reactive astrocytes were present in the cerebral cortex. Conclusion The results indicate that atypical extra- and intracellular pleomorphic and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local neuroinflammation occur in the brain in chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. The persistence of these more resistant spirochete forms, and their intracellular location in neurons and glial cells, may explain the long latent stage and persistence of Borrelia infection. The results also suggest that Borrelia burgdorferi may induce cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. The detection and recognition of atypical, cystic and granular forms in infected tissues is essential for the diagnosis and the treatment as they can occur in the absence of the typical spiral Borrelia form. PMID:18817547

Miklossy, Judith; Kasas, Sandor; Zurn, Anne D; McCall, Sherman; Yu, Sheng; McGeer, Patrick L

2008-01-01

336

Absence of the Septum Pellucidum  

MedlinePLUS

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337

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 ?mol/2 ?L)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 ?mol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the mean amplitude of EEG recordings during seizures. LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) reverted the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast (0.3 ?mol). Montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) prevented PTZ-induced BBB disruption, an effect that was reversed by LTD4 at the dose of 6 pmol, but not at the doses 0.2 and 2 pmol. Moreover, the doses of LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) that reverted the effect of montelukast on seizures did not alter montelukast-induced protection of BBB, dissociating BBB protection and anticonvulsant activity. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that 1. PTZ increased the number of CD45+ and double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cerebral cortex, indicating BBB leakage with leukocyte infiltration; 2. while LTD4 (6 pmol) potentiated, montelukast decreased the effect of PTZ on leukocyte migration and BBB, assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cannulated hemisphere. Our data do not allow us ruling out that mechanisms unrelated and related to BBB protection may co-exist, resulting in decreased seizure susceptibility by montelukast. Notwithstanding, they suggest that CysLT1 receptors may be a suitable target for anticonvulsant development. PMID:25090924

Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

2014-09-26

338

Sensitivity testing of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).  

PubMed

The sensitivity of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was evaluated using pooled data from open-label extensions of two clinical trials in patients with partial-onset seizures. The SSQ includes questions relating to frequency and helpfulness of warning signs as well as frequency, severity, and bothersomeness of ictal and postictal effects. Differences between mean change from baseline for each SSQ item for responders and nonresponders were described and compared between patients solely with complex partial seizures (CPSs: responders, n=166; nonresponders, n=127) and those solely with secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPSs: responders, n=26; nonresponders, n=24) at baseline. Seizure Severity Questionnaire total score and individual SSQ items related to ictal movement, consciousness, bothersomeness of postictal effects, and frequency of postictal emotional effects showed differentiation between seizure type responders. These data provide further validation of the SSQ by demonstrating its sensitivity in describing treatment effects. PMID:24275520

Borghs, Simon; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Cramer, Joyce

2014-02-01

339

Relationship between atypical depression and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of atypical and non-atypical depression comorbidity on the clinical characteristics and course of social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 247 patients with SAD were enrolled: 145 patients with a current depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar) with atypical features, 43 patients with a current depressive episode with non-atypical features and 25 patients without a lifetime history of depressive episodes were compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical features, comorbidity rates, and severity of SAD, depression and functional impairment. Thirty four patients with a past but not current history of major depressive episodes were excluded from the comparisons. 77.1% of current depressive episodes were associated with atypical features. Age at onset of SAD and age at initial major depressive episode were lower in the group with atypical depression than in the group with non-atypical depression. History of suicide attempts and bipolar disorder comorbidity was more common in the atypical depression group as well. Atypical depression group has higher SAD and depression severity and lower functionality than group with non-atypical depression. Our results indicate that the presence of atypical depression is associated with more severe symptoms and more impairment in functioning in patients with SAD. PMID:25454116

Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslanta?; Binbay, Zerrin; Yüksel, Ca?r?; Deveci, Erdem; Tükel, Ra?it

2015-01-30

340

Syndromes with very low risk of acute prolonged seizures.  

PubMed

The provision of rescue medication is an important component in the treatment of epilepsy. An intervention within five to ten minutes in the case of an acute prolonged seizure may preserve the patient from status epilepticus (SE). However, the risk of convulsive SE (CSE) differs markedly between patients depending on individual factors. This report summarizes the literature on risk factors for CSE in children with epilepsy and adolescents, and discusses the hypothesis that some electroclinical syndromes engender a very low risk of CSE. The most important risk factor for SE is the history of a previous event. The longer a patient lives without SE, the lower the risk will be. CSE occurs significantly less frequently in idiopathic epilepsies compared to epilepsies with symptomatic or unknown aetiology. It is very rarely observed in patients with (non-encephalopathic) idiopathic generalised epilepsies, i.e. childhood absence epilepsy or juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. However, non-compliance or inappropriate treatment may trigger CSE in these syndromes. A very low risk can be assumed for children with Rolandic epilepsy, while CSE occurs in a considerable percentage of patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Although the risk of CSE in otherwise normal children with cryptogenic focal epilepsy is uncertain, it is presumably low under successful continuous medication. In conclusion, the choice for or against the prescription of rescue medication remains an individual decision. Consequently, for several electroclinical syndromes, a per se provision of rescue medication does not appear justified. PMID:25322851

Bast, Thomas

2014-10-01

341

Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN); Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Lawkins, William F. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

342

Serum prolactin and cortisol levels in evaluation of pseudoepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

In 6 patients with epilepsy, a twofold increase in serum prolactin levels followed true epileptic seizures, but no significant change followed pseudoepileptic attacks in 6 other patients. Serum prolactin concentration is a useful biochemical marker to distinguish between epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures. Serum cortisol levels also increased after epileptic seizures, but diurnal and individual variations render the cortisol level a less reliable indicator of such attacks. PMID:4037754

Pritchard, P B; Wannamaker, B B; Sagel, J; Daniel, C M

1985-07-01

343

Early seizure detection in rats based on vagus nerve activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous, scheduled vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. On-demand VNS, started\\u000a prior to or at the onset of a seizure may improve the effect of the treatment, however, this requires seizures to be predicted\\u000a or detected early. This study investigates the possibility of early seizure detection based on the cervical vagus electroneurogram\\u000a (VENG). Fourteen

Kristian R. Harreby; Cristian Sevcencu; Johannes J. Struijk

2011-01-01

344

Overview of seizure-inducing potential of doripenem.  

PubMed

The seizure-inducing potential of carbapenems has been debated since the introduction of imipenem/cilastatin over 20 years ago. Doripenem is a new carbapenem, recently approved in the US for the treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and additionally in the EU for nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Here, the seizure-inducing potential of doripenem is evaluated, using data from in vitro and in vivo animal studies, doripenem clinical trials and doripenem postmarketing reports of seizures. Animal studies indicate that doripenem has low binding affinity for GABA receptors and does not induce seizures at doses greater than seizure-inducing doses of imipenem or meropenem. In clinical studies of cUTI or cIAI, no seizures were reported in the 1332 patients treated with doripenem (500-mg infusion every 8 hours). In two studies, patients with nosocomial pneumonia were treated with doripenem 500 mg (1- or 4-hour infusion every 8 hours), and the incidence of seizures was lower for doripenem (1.2% [6/485]) than imipenem (3.8% [10/263]) or piperacillin/tazobactam (2.7% [6/221]). For patients with seizure-predisposing conditions, seizures occurred during treatment for 3/193 (1.5%) in doripenem, 1/66 (1.5%) in piperacillin/tazobactam and 6/116 (5.2%) in the imipenem group. The review of data from both clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance supports the low seizure-inducing potential of doripenem. The seizure potential of doripenem should be evaluated further in patients at increased risk for seizure. PMID:19670912

Zhanel, George G; Ketter, Nzeera; Rubinstein, Ethan; Friedland, Ian; Redman, Rebecca

2009-01-01

345

Forecasting Seizures in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), low-gamma (30–70 Hz), and high-gamma (70–180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring. PMID:24416133

Stead, S. Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H.; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W. Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

346

Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods  

DOEpatents

This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

1999-01-12

347

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring admission to\\u000a an intensive care unit. This chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particulars of seizures induced by illicit drugs\\u000a of abuse, environmental toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

348

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins do require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring ICU care. This\\u000a chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particularities of seizures induced by illicit drugs of abuse, environmental\\u000a toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

349

Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures  

DOEpatents

A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Kulikov, Stanislav (Sarov, RU); Osorio, Ivan (Leawood, KS); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-04-24

350

Ethosuximide and Phenytoin Dose-Dependently Attenuate Acute Nonconvulsive Seizures after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Acute seizures frequently occur following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have been associated with poor patient prognosis. Silent or nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) manifest in the absence of motor convulsion, can only be detected via continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and are often unidentified and untreated. Identification of effective anti-epileptic drugs (AED) against post-traumatic NCS remains crucial to improve neurological outcome. Here, we assessed the anti-seizure profile of ethosuximide (ETX, 12.5–187.5?mg/kg) and phenytoin (PHT, 5–30?mg/kg) in a spontaneously occurring NCS model associated with penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Rats were divided between two drug cohorts, PHT or ETX, and randomly assigned to one of four doses or vehicle within each cohort. Following PBBI, NCS were detected by continuous EEG monitoring for 72?h post-injury. Drug efficacy was evaluated on NCS parameters of incidence, frequency, episode duration, total duration, and onset latency. Both PHT and ETX attenuated NCS in a dose-dependent manner. In vehicle-treated animals, 69–73% experienced NCS (averaging 9–10 episodes/rat) with average onset of NCS occurring at 30?h post-injury. Compared with control treatment, the two highest PHT and ETX doses significantly reduced NCS incidence to 13–40%, reduced NCS frequency (1.8–6.2 episodes/rat), and delayed seizure onset: <20% of treated animals exhibited NCS within the first 48?h. NCS durations were also dose-dependently mitigated. For the first time, we demonstrate that ETX and PHT are effective against spontaneously occurring NCS following PBBI, and suggest that these AEDs may be effective at treating post-traumatic NCS. PMID:23822888

Shear, Deborah A.; Potter, Brittney; Marcsisin, Sean R.; Sousa, Jason; Melendez, Victor; Tortella, Frank C.; Lu, Xi-Chun M.

2013-01-01

351

[Insular psammomatous meningioma presenting intractable complex partial seizures].  

PubMed

We describe a 30-year-old female with intractable symptomatic epilepsy caused by an insular calcified mass, which was histologically proved as psammomatous meningioma. Seizures were described as consciousness impairment, motionless stare and automatism. After total removal of the tumor with a neuronavigation system and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring, seizures completely disappeared without neurological deficit. We emphasize that insular meningioma presents complex partial seizures which mimic medial temporal lobe epilepsy and seizures are controlled by total resection of the tumor. PMID:22915702

Imoto, Hirochika; Fujii, Masami; Maruta, Yuichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ideguchi, Makoto; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu

2012-09-01

352

Progressive NKCC1-dependent neuronal chloride accumulation during neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures induce excitatory shifts in the reversal potential for GABAA receptor-mediated responses, which may contribute to the intractability of electroencephalographic seizures and preclude the efficacy of widely-used GABAergic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. We now report that in intact hippocampi prepared from neonatal rats and transgenic mice expressing Clomeleon, recurrent seizures progressively increase the intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) assayed by Clomeleon imaging and invert the net effect of GABAA receptor activation from inhibition to excitation assayed by the frequency of action potentials and intracellular Ca2+ transients. These changes correlate with increasing frequency of seizure-like events and reduction in phenobarbital efficacy. The Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) co-transporter blocker bumetanide inhibited seizure-induced neuronal Cl? accumulation and the consequent facilitation of recurrent seizures. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which seizure activity leads to [Cl?]i accumulation, thereby increasing the probability of subsequent seizures. This provides a potential mechanism for the early crescendo phase of neonatal seizures. PMID:20810895

Dzhala, Volodymyr I.; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Glykys, Joseph C.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Swiercz, Waldemar B.; Feng, Guoping; Kuner, Thomas; Augustine, George J.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Staley, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

353

Modulation of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures by Cannabinoid Receptor 1  

PubMed Central

Administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is commonly used to induce seizures in rodents for the study of epilepsy. Activation of muscarinic receptors has been previously shown to increase the production of endocannabinoids in the brain. Endocannabinoids act at the cannabinoid CB1 receptors to reduce neurotransmitter release and the severity of seizures in several models of epilepsy. In this study, we determined the effect of CB1 receptor activity on the induction in mice of seizures by pilocarpine. We found that decreased activation of the CB1 receptor, either through genetic deletion of the receptor or treatment with a CB1 antagonist, increased pilocarpine seizure severity without modifying seizure-induced cell proliferation and cell death. These results indicate that endocannabinoids act at the CB1 receptor to modulate the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures. Administration of a CB1 agonist produced characteristic CB1-dependent behavioral responses, but did not affect pilocarpine seizure severity. A possible explanation for the lack of effect of CB1 agonist administration on pilocarpine seizures, despite the effects of CB1 antagonist administration and CB1 gene deletion, is that muscarinic receptor-stimulated endocannabinoid production is acting maximally at CB1 receptors to modulate sensitivity to pilocarpine seizures. PMID:24752144

Kow, Rebecca L.; Jiang, Kelly; Naydenov, Alipi V.; Le, Joshua H.; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

354

Does Naloxone Prevent Seizure in Tramadol Intoxicated Patients?  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol poisoning has increased in recent years. Seizure is one of the side-effects of tramadol toxicity. There is a controversy about possible preventive effect of naloxone in tramadol poisoning induced seizure. Therefore, this study was performed to compare seizure incidence in tramadol poisoning patients who received and did not receive naloxone, as an opioid antagonist. Methods: This study involved prospective data collection followed by retrospective analysis on 104 tramadol poisoning patients who were admitted in a referral poisoning center. The incidences of seizure were compared between patients received naloxone and those did not. Outcome was considered as survived without or with complications and death. Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine the effects of different variables on seizure incidence. Results: 70 (67.3%) of the patients were men. The mean age of the patients was 26.3 ± 9 years old. 18.3% of the patients received naloxone in their treatment period. Seizure incidence was significantly higher among tramadol poisoning patients who did not receive naloxone compare with those received naloxone (14.1% vs. 5.1%). Among different variable studied, age had a significant effect on predicting of seizure (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% of confidence interval: 1.82-2.26; P value, 0.004). Conclusions: Although the seizure incidence was lower in patients with tramadol poisoning who received naloxone, the logistic regression did not support the preventive effect of naloxone on seizure in tramadol poisoning cases. PMID:24829714

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Ozcan, Dilek; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Hedaiaty, Mahrang

2014-01-01

355

From bench to drug: Human seizure modeling using Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Studies of human seizure disorders have revealed that susceptibility to seizures is greatly influenced by genetic factors. In addition to causing epilepsy, genetic factors can suppress seizures and epileptogenesis. Examination of seizure-suppressor genes is challenging in humans. However, such genes are readily identified and analyzed in a Drosophila animal model of epilepsy. In this article, the epilepsy phenotype of Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutants is reviewed. A novel class of genes called seizure-suppressors is described. Mutations defining suppressors revert the “epilepsy” phenotype of neurological mutants. We conclude this review with particular discussion of a seizure-suppressor gene encoding DNA topoisomerase I (top1). Mutations of top1 are especially effective at reverting the seizure-sensitive phenotype of Drosophila epilepsy mutants. In addition, an unexpected class of anti-epileptic drugs has been identified. These are DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors such as camptothecin and its derivatives; several candidates are comparable or perhaps better than traditional anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate at reducing seizures in Drosophila drug-feeding experiments. PMID:18063465

Song, Juan; Tanouye, Mark A.

2008-01-01

356

Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

1989-01-01

357

Age-dependent long-term structural and functional effects of early-life seizures: Evidence for a hippocampal critical period influencing plasticity in adulthood.  

PubMed

Neural activity promotes circuit formation in developing systems and during critical periods permanently modifies circuit organization and functional properties. These observations suggest that excessive neural activity, as occurs during seizures, might influence developing neural circuitry with long-term outcomes that depend on age at the time of seizures. We systematically examined long-term structural and functional consequences of seizures induced in rats by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and hyperthermia across postnatal ages from birth through postnatal day 90 in adulthood (P90). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and electrophysiological methods at ?P95 following seizures induced from P1 to P90 demonstrated consistent patterns of gross atrophy, microstructural abnormalities in the corpus callosum (CC) and hippocampus, and functional alterations in hippocampal circuitry at ?P95 that were independent of the method of seizure induction and varied systematically as a function of age at the time of seizures. Three distinct epochs were observed in which seizures resulted in distinct long-term structural and functional outcomes at ?P95. Seizures prior to P20 resulted in DTI abnormalities in CC and hippocampus in the absence of gross cerebral atrophy, and increased paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) in the dentate gyrus (DG) at ?P95. Seizures after P30 induced a different pattern of DTI abnormalities in the fimbria and hippocampus accompanied by gross cerebral atrophy with increases in lateral ventricular volume, as well as increased PPI in the DG at ?P95. In contrast, seizures between P20 and P30 did not result in cerebral atrophy or significant imaging abnormalities in the hippocampus or white matter, but irreversibly decreased PPI in the DG compared to normal adult controls. These age-specific long-term structural and functional outcomes identify P20-30 as a potential critical period in hippocampal development defined by distinctive long-term structural and functional properties in adult hippocampal circuitry, including loss of capacity for seizure-induced plasticity in adulthood that could influence epileptogenesis and other hippocampal-dependent behaviors and functional properties. PMID:25555928

Sayin, U; Hutchinson, E; Meyerand, M E; Sutula, T

2015-03-12

358

Tirofiban in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Atypical broken heart syndrome with extremely fast recovery: a case report.  

PubMed

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as broken heart syndrome, is similar to acute coronary syndrome. The absence of significant stenosis on coronary angiography and spontaneous improvement of ventricular akinesia are very important features that distinguish this syndrome from acute coronary syndromes. Despite the fact that ST segment elevations are typically encountered, atypical presentation without ECG changes should be kept in mind. We herein report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with mid-apical left ventricular akinesia resolving within 24 h. PMID:22930391

Akpinar, I; Salihoglu, Y S; Sayin, M R; Elri, T; Karabag, T; Dogan, S M; Aydin, M

2013-02-01

359

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

360

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

361

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

362

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

363

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2011-04-01

364

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2011-04-01

365

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2011-04-01

366

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

367

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

368

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

369

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

370

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

371

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2010-04-01

372

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

373

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

374

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

375

Pulmonary tuberculosis with atypical histopathological manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a case of pulmonary tuberculosis with atypical histopathological manifestations in an immunocompetent\\u000a patient. A 37-year-old Japanese man was admitted due to multiple small nodules on chest computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed\\u000a with pulmonary tuberculosis following a culture of acid-fast bacterium from suction sputum specimens obtained by bronchoscopy.\\u000a The histopathological findings from video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed small, sporadically

Hirokazu Taniguchi; Akio Uchiyama; Hideki Shinno; Hitoshi Abo; Saburo Izumi

2010-01-01

376

ATYPICAL ANTIBODY RESPONSES IN DENGUE VACCINE RECIPIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight of 69 (12%) healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with monovalent live-attenuated dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidates had atypical antibody responses, with depressed IgM:IgG antibody ratios and induction of high-titer hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing (NT) antibodies to all four DENV serotypes. These features suggested flavivirus exposure prior to DENV vaccination, yet no volunteer had a history of previous flavivirus infection, flavivirus vaccination,

N. KANESA-THASAN; W. SUN; G. V. LUDWIG; C. ROSSI; J. R. PUTNAK; J. A. MANGIAFICO; B. L. INNIS; R. EDELMAN

377

Thromboexclusion of an atypical left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.  

PubMed

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is rare in children. The gold standard for treatment has been surgical repair. Here, we describe a boy in whom an atypical left ventricular pseudoaneurysm was treated through staged transcatheter procedures. In addition, we highlight the importance of the preprocedure cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in providing invaluable information that allowed detailed planning of a management strategy for this unusual pseudoaneurysm. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24824727

Srivastava, Nayan T; Hoyer, Mark H

2015-02-01

378

Rehabilitation of Patients With Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atypical parkinsonism encompasses several disorders that may have disease-specific or individual-specific characteristics,\\u000a however common features include akinesia, rigidity, gait difficulties, and cognitive decline with gradual worsening of the\\u000a symptoms. These features result in a variety of deficits that affect the patient’s ability to function in their usual capacity\\u000a at home, on the job, and within their community. As in other

Daniel K. White; Douglas I. Katz; Terry Ellis; Laura Buyan-Dent; Marie H. Saint-Hilaire

379

[Persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia].  

PubMed

The terms 'persistent idiopathic facial pain' (PIFP) and 'atypical odontalgia' (AO) are currently used as exclusion diagnoses for chronic toothache and chronic facial pain. Knowledge about these pain conditions in medical and dental practices is of crucial importance for the prevention of iatrogenic tissue damage by not-indicated invasive interventions, such as endodontic treatment and tooth extraction. In the present paper, etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic approaches will be explained and relevant therapeutic principles will be outlined. PMID:23916270

Gaul, Charly; Ettlin, Dominik; Pfau, Doreen B

2013-01-01

380

Historical Issues and Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown in the above quotation from Jean-Martin Charcot’s teaching of the late 19th century, the concept of atypical Parkinsonian disorders and formes frustes of the classic disease emerged in parallel with the definition of Parkinson’s disease itself. In 1817, James Parkinson, a\\u000a London general practitioner, described resting tremor and gait impairment in the small sample of subjects whose symptoms

Christopher G. Goetz

381

Atypical pilar leiomyomatosis: an unusual presentation of multiple atypical cutaneous leiomyomas.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leiomyomas are relatively common benign smooth muscle tumors that may arise as solitary or multiple lesions. Rare forms with cytologic atypia, and features similar to symplastic leiomyomas of the uterus, have been described. We report a case of multiple cutaneous atypical leiomyomas occurring in a 43-year-old man with long history of lesions of the right lower leg and a family history of leiomyomatosis. Twenty of the lesions were excised due to pain and were examined histopathologically. All the lesions exhibited features described in atypical leiomyomas of the skin including increased cellularity, nuclear atypia and pleomorphism, and low mitotic activity. The biologic potential of cutaneous atypical leiomyomas is uncertain. Only a few case reports exist in the literature with the majority occurring as solitary lesions. Most of the reported atypical leiomyomas have behaved in a benign fashion. However, a rare account of transformation to leiomyosarcoma emphasizes the need for long-term follow up of these patients. Herein, we describe a case of multiple atypical cutaneous leiomyomas arising in the setting of familial leiomyomatosis. PMID:23550704

Cook, Deborah L; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa A; Schultz, Zea L

2013-06-01

382

Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

2008-01-01

383

Histology of 8 atypical femoral fractures  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The pathophysiology behind bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fractures remains unclear. Histological findings at the fracture site itself may provide clues. Patients and methods Between 2008 and 2013, we collected bone biopsies including the fracture line from 4 complete and 4 incomplete atypical femoral fractures. 7 female patients reported continuous bisphosphonate use for 10 years on average. 1 patient was a man who was not using bisphosphonates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the hip and spine showed no osteoporosis in 6 cases. The bone biopsies were evaluated by micro-computed tomography, infrared spectroscopy, and qualitative histology. Results Incomplete fractures involved the whole cortical thickness and showed a continuous gap with a mean width of 180 µm. The gap contained amorphous material and was devoid of living cells. In contrast, the adjacent bone contained living cells, including active osteoclasts. The fracture surfaces sometimes consisted of woven bone, which may have formed in localized defects caused by surface fragmentation or resorption. Interpretation Atypical femoral fractures show signs of attempted healing at the fracture site. The narrow width of the fracture gap and its necrotic contents are compatible with the idea that micromotion prevents healing because it leads to strains within the fracture gap that preclude cell survival. PMID:24786905

Sandberg, Olof; Isaksson, Hanna; Aspenberg, Per

2014-01-01

384

Atypical presentation of leprosy in HIV.  

PubMed

Atypical presentations can be expected when leprosy, a mycobacterial disease is associated with HIV. We report a case of a 28 year old male driver with a high risk behavior, who came for evaluation of hypoaesthetic, scaly erythematous plaques over face, trunk, upper extremity; verrucous lesions over elbows and necrotic lesions over the neck and lower extremities since 6 months. No other systemic complaints were present. Nerve examination showed grossly thickened left greater auricular nerve and cord like thickening of bilateral ulnar and lateral popliteal nerves. His investigations revealed anemia, a reactive ELISA for HIV-1 and CD4 of 400 cell/cmm. Ultrasonography of the thickened nerves revealed an abscess in the left ulnar nerve whereas the left greater auricular nerve showed neuritis. Histopathology from an erythematous plaque was suggestive of borderline tuberculoid leprosy in reaction. Final diagnosis was borderline tuberculoid leprosy in type 1 reaction with atypical and varied morphology in an immunocompromised male with neuritis of the left greater auricular nerve, a silent left ulnar nerve abscess with early left ulnar nerve palsy. Our case highlights the atypical morphology of leprosy lesions and the unexpected protective cellular response as suggested by formation of nerve abscess in a HIV positive patient. PMID:21434511

Manjare, A K; Tambe, S A; Phiske, M M; Jerajani, H R

2010-01-01

385

Temporal lobe epilepsy after experimental prolonged febrile seizures: prospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Experimental prolonged febrile seizures (FS) lead to structural and molecular changes that promote hippocampal hyperexcitability and reduce seizure threshold to further convulsants. However, whether these seizures provoke later-onset epilepsy, as has been suspected in humans, has remained unclear. Previously, intermittent EEGs with behavioural observations for motor seizures failed to demonstrate spontaneous seizures in adult rats subjected to experimental prolonged FS during infancy. Because limbic seizures may be behaviourally subtle, here we determined the presence of spontaneous limbic seizures using chronic video monitoring with concurrent hippocampal and cortical EEGs, in adult rats (starting around 3 months of age) that had sustained experimental FS on postnatal day 10. These subjects were compared with groups that had undergone hyperthermia but in whom seizures had been prevented (hyperthermic controls), as well as with normothermic controls. Only events that fulfilled both EEG and behavioural criteria, i.e. electro-clinical events, were considered spontaneous seizures. EEGs (over 400 recorded hours) were normal in all normothermic and hyperthermic control rats, and none of these animals developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, prolonged early-life FS evoked spontaneous electro-clinical seizures in 6 out of 17 experimental rats (35.2%). These seizures consisted of sudden freezing (altered consciousness) and typical limbic automatisms that were coupled with polyspike/sharp-wave trains with increasing amplitude and slowing frequency on EEG. In addition, interictal epileptiform discharges were recorded in 15 (88.2%) of the experimental FS group and in none of the controls. The large majority of hippocampally-recorded seizures were heralded by diminished amplitude of cortical EEG, that commenced half a minute prior to the hippocampal ictus and persisted after seizure termination. This suggests a substantial perturbation of normal cortical neuronal activity by these limbic spontaneous seizures. In summary, prolonged experimental FS lead to later-onset limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy in a significant proportion of rats, and to interictal epileptifom EEG abnormalities in most others, and thus represent a model that may be useful to study the relationship between FS and human temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:16446281

Dubé, Céline; Richichi, Cristina; Bender, Roland A.; Chung, Grace; Litt, Brian; Baram, Tallie Z.

2011-01-01

386

Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient. PMID:24580991

Lavely, James A

2014-03-01

387

Pathology Case Study: New Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old nurse is experiencing headaches and seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Hamilton, Ronald; Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

2009-09-24

388

Pathology Case Study: Seizures and Progressive Dementia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old female has seizures and progressive dementia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Friese, Michael

389

Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy-electroencephalography study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously on the mouse brain and investigated the hemodynamic response to epileptic episodes under pharmacologically driven seizure. ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were applied to induce absence and tonic-clonic seizures, respectively. The epileptic episodes were identified from the single-channel EEG, and the corresponding hemodynamic changes in different regions of the brain were characterized by multichannel frequency-domain NIRS. Our results are the following: (i) the oxyhemoglobin level increases in the case of GBL-treated mice but not 4-AP-treated mice compared to the predrug state; (ii) the dominant response to each absence seizure is a decrease in deoxyhemolobin; (iii) the phase shift between oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin reduces in GBL-treated mice but no 4-AP-treated mice; and (iv) the spatial correlation of hemodynamics increased significantly in 4-AP-treated mice but not in GBL-treated mice. Our results shows that spatiotemporal tracking of cerebral hemodynamics using NIRS can be successfully applied to the mouse brain in conjunction with electrophysiological recording, which will support the study of molecular, cellular, and network origin of neurovascular coupling in vivo.

Lee, Seungduk; Lee, Mina; Koh, Dalkwon; Kim, Beop-Min; Choi, Jee Hyun

2010-05-01

390

[Differential diagnosis and atypical subsets of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. In the absence of any validated biological marker, the diagnosis of ALS depends upon recognition of characteristic symptoms and signs together with supportive electrophysiological findings. The diagnosis of ALS is easy to recognize in its fully developed form but during the early stages both false positive and false negative diagnoses are common. In clinical practice, diagnostic difficulties mostly arise with patients who present either with only upper motor neuron, or with only lower motor neuron signs. It may be difficult to distinguish ALS with clinically predominant lower motor neuron involvement from alternative diagnoses including spinal atrophies of adult onset, Kennedy's disease, inclusion body myositis and motor neuropathies with conduction blocks. The diagnosis of ALS related syndromes (progressive muscular atrophy, primary lateral sclerosis and progressive bulbar palsy) requires the elimination of alternate diagnoses. This paper reviews the main characteristics of diseases mimicking ALS and the atypical subsets of ALS. PMID:17128093

Pradat, P-F; Bruneteau, G

2006-06-01

391

[Etiologic and diagnostic factors of psychogenic pseudo-epileptic seizures].  

PubMed

The term psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures (or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures-NES) generally refers to episodes of psychological origin that resemble epilepsy but without underlying epilepsy. The diagnosis of pseudo-epileptic seizures is confirmed in 5-33% of patients that are considered to suffer from refractory epilepsies. Making a correct diagnosis in patients presenting with attack disorders is sometimes very difficult. However, the best way to establish differential diagnosis of epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures is to apply long-term video EEG monitoring. Triggering a seizure by means of placebo administration or suggestion to start or stop seizure can be also a helpful method in differential diagnosis. Over the last decade epileptologist have been paying increasing attention to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales in describing or distinguishing real epileptic seizures vs. non-epileptic attacks. The results of the study may have practical implications for neurological and epilepsy centres, and for improving clinical knowledge and allow to establish aetiological classification of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. PMID:11317496

Owczarek, K

2000-01-01

392

Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

2010-01-01

393

Consciousness and epilepsy: why are complex-partial seizures complex?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do complex-partial seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cause a loss of consciousness? Abnormal function of the medial temporal lobe is expected to cause memory loss, but it is unclear why profoundly impaired consciousness is so common in temporal lobe seizures. Recent exciting advances in behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging techniques spanning both human patients and animal models may allow

Dario J. Englot; Hal Blumenfeld

2009-01-01

394

[Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency: an unusual cause of neonatal seizure].  

PubMed

Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis, which provokes epilepsy, psychomotor delay and/or autistic features. We report on two siblings with ADSL deficiency, who developed seizures on the first day of life. ADSL deficiency should be part of the screening to be performed in case of neonatal seizures. PMID:18201882

Clamadieu, C; Cottin, X; Rousselle, C; Claris, O

2008-02-01

395

Congenital hypoparathyroidism presenting as recurrent seizures in an adult  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism may manifest as serious neurologic symptoms such as seizures, movement disorders, or raised intracranial pressure. Several patients were observed to have these dangerous neurologic complications even without subtle signs of hypocalcemia like tetany, chvostek's sign or carpopedal spasms. We present a case of recurrent hypocalcemic seizures due to congenital hypoparathyroidism. PMID:22690060

Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth; Singh, Dinesh; Deshpande, Rohit; Mahajan, S. N.

2012-01-01

396

Pseudo-epileptic seizures: hypnosis as a diagnostic tool.  

PubMed

In this pilot study hypnosis was used in an attempt to provide evidence of a psychogenic component of pseudo-epileptic seizures. The criterion for psychogenesis was the reversal of the amnesia, which is often present in epileptic- and pseudo-epileptic seizures. The technique has been validated by a semi-blind referral of cases for analysis after the clinician had been able to make a firm diagnosis based on electro-encephalic corroboration of the nature of the seizure. In eight out of nine patients (of the original 13 patients, three patients dropped out and one patient was not evaluable), the experimental diagnosis corresponded with the clinical diagnosis. As pseudo-epileptic seizures can be characterized by their dissociative nature, a reasonable hypothesis is that patients with pseudo-epileptic seizures are more responsive to hypnosis than patients with epileptic seizures. Measurements of hypnotizability among seven patients with epileptic seizures and six patients with pseudo-epileptic seizures supported this supposition. PMID:7670763

Kuyk, J; Jacobs, L D; Aldenkamp, A P; Meinardi, H; Spinhoven, P; van Dyck, R

1995-06-01

397

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2010-04-01

398

Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

399

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2011-04-01

400

Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

Holmes, Gregory L.

2004-01-01

401

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2011-07-01

402

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2010-07-01

403

Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior.  

PubMed

In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hydrocortisone (2×10mg/kg), betamethasone (2×0.4mg/kg) or vehicle. On postnatal day (P)15, seizures were induced by flurothyl or kainic acid (3.5 or 5.0mg/kg). Horizontal bar holding was determined prior to seizures and again on P17. Performance in the elevated plus maze was assessed on P20-22. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreased postnatal susceptibility to flurothyl-induced clonic seizures but not to kainic acid-induced seizures. Prenatal hydrocortisone decreased postnatal weight but did not affect seizure susceptibility. Hydrocortisone alone did not affect performance in behavioral tests except for improving horizontal bar holding on P17. A combination of prenatal hydrocortisone and postnatal seizures resulted in increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to mineralocorticoid receptor blocker canrenoic acid did not attenuate, but surprisingly amplified the effects of hydrocortisone on body weight and significantly worsened horizontal bar performance. Thus, prenatal exposure to excess corticosteroids alters postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. Specific effects may depend on corticosteroid species. PMID:21429712

Velíšek, Libor

2011-06-01

404

Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

405

Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

2009-01-01

406

Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

2010-01-01

407

GRADUATE COLLEGE LEAVE OF ABSENCE  

E-print Network

on maintaining visa eligibility for reentering the United States. RETURNING FROM A LEAVE OF ABSENCE Upon their admitted student status; however, they are not registered and therefore do not have the rights any GI Bill education benefits, you must contact the Office of Veteran Services Other (please

Cho, Hokwon

408

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-09-01

409

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

410

38 CFR 21.350 - Unauthorized absences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.350 Unauthorized absences. A veteran who is unable to obtain an authorized leave of absence in...

2010-07-01

411

38 CFR 21.350 - Unauthorized absences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.350 Unauthorized absences. A veteran who is unable to obtain an authorized leave of absence in...

2011-07-01

412

38 CFR 21.350 - Unauthorized absences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.350 Unauthorized absences. A veteran who is unable to obtain an authorized leave of absence in...

2012-07-01

413

38 CFR 21.350 - Unauthorized absences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.350 Unauthorized absences. A veteran who is unable to obtain an authorized leave of absence in...

2013-07-01

414

38 CFR 21.350 - Unauthorized absences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.350 Unauthorized absences. A veteran who is unable to obtain an authorized leave of absence in...

2014-07-01

415

Association of a Bovine Prion Gene Haplotype with Atypical BSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAtypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE.Methodology\\/Principle FindingsHaplotype tagging polymorphisms that characterize PRNP haplotypes from the promoter region through the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (25.2 kb) were used to

Michael L. Clawson; Juergen A. Richt; Thierry Baron; Anne-Gaëlle Biacabe; Stefanie Czub; Michael P. Heaton; Timothy P. L. Smith; William W. Laegreid; Matthew Baylis

2008-01-01

416

Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination  

PubMed Central

Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

2014-01-01

417

Molecular insights into the evolutionary pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 atypical El Tor variants.  

PubMed

Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor. PMID:25233006

Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

2014-09-01

418

Neuroimaging Abnormalities and Seizure Recurrence in a Prospective Cohort Study of Zambians with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and First Seizure  

PubMed Central

In HIV-positive individuals with first seizure, we describe neuroimaging findings, detail clinical and demographic risk factors for imaging abnormalities, and evaluate the relationship between imaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence to determine if imaging abnormalities predict recurrent seizures. Among 43 participants (mean 37.4 years, 56% were male), 16 (37%) were on antiretroviral drugs, 32 (79%) had advanced HIV disease, and (28) 66% had multiple seizures and/or status epilepticus at enrollment. Among those with cerebrospinal fluid studies, 14/31 (44%) had opportunistic infections (OIs). During follow-up, 9 (21%) died and 15 (35%) experienced recurrent seizures. Edema was associated with OIs (odds ratio: 8.79; confidence interval: 1.03-236) and subcortical atrophy with poorer scores on the International HIV Dementia Scale) (5.2 vs. 9.3; P=0.002). Imaging abnormalities were not associated with seizure recurrence or death (P>0.05). Seizure recurrence occurred in at least a third and over 20% died during follow-up. Imaging was not predictive of recurrent seizure or death, but imaging abnormalities may offer additional diagnostic insights in terms of OI risk and cognitive impairment. PMID:25568738

Potchen, Michael J.; Siddiqi, Omar K.; Elafros, Melissa A.; Koralnik, Igor J.; Theodore, William H.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Kalungwana, Lisa; Bositis, Christopher M.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

2014-01-01

419

Neuroimaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence in a prospective cohort study of zambians with human immunodeficiency virus and first seizure.  

PubMed

In HIV-positive individuals with first seizure, we describe neuroimaging findings, detail clinical and demographic risk factors for imaging abnormalities, and evaluate the relationship between imaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence to determine if imaging abnormalities predict recurrent seizures. Among 43 participants (mean 37.4 years, 56% were male), 16 (37%) were on antiretroviral drugs, 32 (79%) had advanced HIV disease, and (28) 66% had multiple seizures and/or status epilepticus at enrollment. Among those with cerebrospinal fluid studies, 14/31 (44%) had opportunistic infections (OIs). During follow-up, 9 (21%) died and 15 (35%) experienced recurrent seizures. Edema was associated with OIs (odds ratio: 8.79; confidence interval: 1.03-236) and subcortical atrophy with poorer scores on the International HIV Dementia Scale) (5.2 vs. 9.3; P=0.002). Imaging abnormalities were not associated with seizure recurrence or death (P>0.05). Seizure recurrence occurred in at least a third and over 20% died during follow-up. Imaging was not predictive of recurrent seizure or death, but imaging abnormalities may offer additional diagnostic insights in terms of OI risk and cognitive impairment. PMID:25568738

Potchen, Michael J; Siddiqi, Omar K; Elafros, Melissa A; Koralnik, Igor J; Theodore, William H; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Kalungwana, Lisa; Bositis, Christopher M; Birbeck, Gretchen L

2014-10-23

420

Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages  

PubMed Central

Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage. PMID:23853720

2013-01-01

421

Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

2010-01-01

422

Atypical resting synchrony in autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly understood to be associated with aberrant functional brain connectivity. Few studies, however, have described such atypical neural synchrony among specific brain regions. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize alterations in functional connectivity in adolescents with ASD through source space analysis of phase synchrony. Resting-state MEG data were collected from 16 adolescents with ASD and 15 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents. Atlas-guided reconstruction of neural activity at various cortical and subcortical regions was performed and inter-regional phase synchrony was calculated in physiologically relevant frequency bands. Using a multilevel approach, we characterized atypical resting-state synchrony within specific anatomically defined networks as well as altered network topologies at both regional and whole-network scales. Adolescents with ASD demonstrated frequency-dependent alterations in inter-regional functional connectivity. Hyperconnectivity was observed among the frontal, temporal, and subcortical regions in beta and gamma frequency ranges. In contrast, parietal and occipital regions were hypoconnected to widespread brain regions in theta and alpha bands in ASD. Furthermore, we isolated a hyperconnected network in the gamma band in adolescents with ASD which encompassed orbitofrontal, subcortical, and temporal regions implicated in social cognition. Results from graph analyses confirmed that frequency-dependent alterations of network topologies exist at both global and local levels. We present the first source-space investigation of oscillatory phase synchrony in resting-state MEG in ASD. This work provides evidence of atypical connectivity at physiologically relevant time scales and indicates that alterations of functional connectivity in adolescents with ASD are frequency dependent and region dependent. PMID:25116896

Ye, Annette X; Leung, Rachel C; Schäfer, Carmen B; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M

2014-12-01

423

Trisomy 18 with unilateral atypical ectrodactyly  

SciTech Connect

Becerra et al. recently reported on an infant with multiple congenital anomalies who had trisomy 18. This preterm infant presented with bilateral ectrodactyly of feet, small cleft palate, esophageal atresia with associated tracheoesophageal fistula, congenital heart disease and other anomalies. The authors referenced article by Castle and Bernstein, in which they reported a male with trisomy 18 and cleft foot as well as a review of the literature which showed 2 other infants with trisomy 18 and ectrodactyly of the feet. An additional case of trisomy 18 associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including unilaterial, atypical ectrodactyly of the left foot.

Rogers, R.C. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)

1994-01-01

424

Atypical Fibroxanthoma in Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

Atypical fibroxanthoma is a pleomorphic spindle cell tumor of the dermis and it's been known to be a benign lesion clinically in spite of malignant histologic features. But recurrence is estimated at between 2%-20% and metastasis has been reported. We are about to describe a 70-year-old man with the lesion developed on the left infra-auricular area. The lesion was located superficially and is composed of compact pleomorphic spindle cells and several bizarre multinucleated giant cells. The patient was treated with wide excision. We would like to discuss about this case with a review of literatures. PMID:24587887

Kim, Jin Pyeong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Jin Young

2014-01-01

425

Atypical fibroxanthoma in head and neck.  

PubMed

Atypical fibroxanthoma is a pleomorphic spindle cell tumor of the dermis and it's been known to be a benign lesion clinically in spite of malignant histologic features. But recurrence is estimated at between 2%-20% and metastasis has been reported. We are about to describe a 70-year-old man with the lesion developed on the left infra-auricular area. The lesion was located superficially and is composed of compact pleomorphic spindle cells and several bizarre multinucleated giant cells. The patient was treated with wide excision. We would like to discuss about this case with a review of literatures. PMID:24587887

Kim, Jin Pyeong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Jin Young; Woo, Seung Hoon

2014-03-01

426

Optimizing dynamical similarity index extraction window for seizure detection.  

PubMed

This paper addresses an optimization problem in choosing optimum window length for feature extraction in automatic seizure detection. The processing window length plays an important role in reducing the false positive and false negative rates and decreasing required processing time for seizure detection. This study presents an approach for selecting the optimum window length toward the extraction of dynamical similarity index (DSI) feature. Then, the optimal window value in DSI extraction was used to detect seizure onset automatically. The algorithm was applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from European Epilepsy Database. Although the main purpose of this study was not the seizure detection and mainly focuses on proposing an approach for finding an optimum window length for feature extraction towards the early seizure detection, the results showed that the proposed method achieves 83.99% of sensitivity in seizure detection. The low false positive rate per hour (FPR/h) was also significant due to continuous EEG analysis. The method showed fast computation speed which promises a potential for the real time applications. The proposed method for the window optimization in feature extraction of DSI can be implemented for other features to further improve the performance of seizure detection. PMID:25570429

Azinfar, Leila; Rabbi, Ahmed; Ravanfar, Mohammdreza; Noghanian, Sima; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

2014-08-01

427

A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

2014-01-01

428

A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction  

PubMed Central

Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

2014-01-01

429

Enhanced QT shortening and persistent tachycardia after generalized seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) are a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We investigated whether ictal/postictal cardiac features were dependent on seizure type within individual patients. Methods: ECG data from patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) undergoing presurgical investigation who had both complex partial seizures and secondarily GTCS during video-EEG telemetry were retrospectively reviewed. Peri-ictal heart rate (HR), corrected QT interval (QTc), HR variability, and cardiac rhythm were assessed. Results: Twenty-five patients were included in this study. Secondarily GTCS led to higher ictal HR, persistent postictal tachycardia, and decreased postictal HR variability. Moreover, abnormal shortening of QTc occurred in 17 patients mainly during the early postictal phase and significantly more often in secondarily GTCS. Abnormal QTc prolongation occurred in 3 patients with no significant association with GTCS. Benign cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 14 patients and were independent of seizure type. Conclusions: Our data suggest a substantial disturbance of autonomic function following secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The observed alterations could potentially facilitate sudden cardiac death and might contribute to the association of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy with GTCS. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; CPS = complex partial seizure; GTCS = generalized tonic-clonic seizures; HR = heart rate; HRV = HR variability; QTc = corrected QT interval; SUDEP = sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20124208

Surges, Rainer; Scott, Catherine A.; Walker, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

430

Upregulation of opioid receptor binding following spontaneous epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Animal and limited human data suggest an important anticonvulsant role for opioid peptides and their receptors. We aimed to provide direct human in vivo evidence for changes in opioid receptor availability following spontaneous seizures. We scanned nine patients within hours of spontaneous temporal lobe seizures and compared their postictal binding of the non-subtype selective opioid receptor PET radioligand [11C]diprenorphine (DPN), quantified as a volume-of-distribution (VD), with interictal binding and with binding changes in 14 healthy controls, controlling for a range of behavioural variables associated with opioid action. A regionally specific increase of opioid receptor availability was evident in the temporal pole and fusiform gyrus ipsilateral to the seizure focus following seizures (Z 5.01, P < 0.001, 16 432 mm3). Within this region, there was a negative correlation between VD and log10 time since last seizure (r = -0.53, P < 0.03), compatible with an early increase and gradual return to baseline. [11C]DPN VD did not undergo systematic changes between time points in controls. This study provides direct human in vivo evidence for changes in opioid receptor availability over a time course of hours following spontaneous seizures, emphasizing an important role of the opioid system in seizure control. PMID:17301080

Hammers, Alexander; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Hinz, Rainer; Kitchen, Ian; Brooks, David J; Duncan, John S; Koepp, Matthias J

2007-04-01

431

Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG  

PubMed Central

Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

2010-01-01

432

Newborn seizure detection based on heart rate variability.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the use of heart rate variability (HRV) for automatic newborn seizure detection. The proposed method consists of a sequence of processing steps, namely, obtaining HRV from the ECG, extracting a discriminating HRV feature set, selecting an optimal subset from the full feature set, and, finally, classifying the HRV into seizure/nonseizure using a supervised statistical classifier. Due to the fact that HRV signals are nonstationary, a set of time-frequency features from the newborn HRV is proposed and extracted. In order to achieve efficient HRV-based automatic newborn seizure detection, a two-phase wrapper-based feature selection technique is used to select the feature subset with minimum redundancy and maximum class discriminability. Tested on ECG recordings obtained from eight newborns with identified EEG seizure, the proposed HRV-based neonatal seizure detection algorithm achieved 85.7% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity. These results suggest that the HRV is sensitive to changes in the cardioregulatory system induced by the seizure, and therefore, can be used as a basis for an automatic seizure detection. PMID:19628449

Malarvili, M B; Mesbah, Mostefa

2009-11-01

433

Efficacy of ear-point stimulation on experimentally induced seizure.  

PubMed

This study was to observe the effects of ear-point stimulation on electrocorticogram of sensorimotor cortex and behaviors of rats with penicillin-induced seizure. The model of epilepsy was by injecting penicillin into the hippocampus. One hour later, the lower 1/2 auricular lobules containing ear-points Pizhixia, Shenmen_Zeng and Nao, etc. as humans, or great auricular nerve of seizure rats, were treated twice with electrical stimulation (parameters of stimulation were as follows: electrical current intensity 0.14 approximately 0.2 mA, frequency about 80Hz, 30 min on and 30 min off). The outcome showed that rats appeared epileptic-like electrocorticogram and convulsion behaviors 5 min after injected penicillin. When they were subsequently given the ear-point or great auricular nerve electrical stimulation separately, these epileptic-like electrocorticogram and seizure behaviors were definitely improved. These anti-seizure effects could be enhanced with hour extension of electrical stimulation. If the great auricular nerve of seizure rat was severed before electrical stimulating ear-points, the effects of anti-seizure disappeared. Otherwise, the seizure rats given sham ear-point electrical stimulation (the experimental conditions were same as that of ear-point stimulation other than electric current being no applied) did not show any improvement for epileptic-like electrocorticogram and seizure behaviors. Based on the results above, it was suggested that ear-point electrical stimulation could cause certainly efficacy of anti-seizure, which may be relative with the great auricular nerve. PMID:16231631

Shu, Jia; Liu, Rong-Yu; Huang, Xian-Fen

2005-01-01

434

A Computational Study of Stimulus Driven Epileptic Seizure Abatement  

PubMed Central

Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW) seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free) case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection. PMID:25531883

Goodfellow, Marc; Dauwels, Justin; Moeller, Friederike; Stephani, Ulrich; Baier, Gerold

2014-01-01

435

Proteasome-mediated degradation of integral inner nuclear membrane protein emerin in fibroblasts lacking A-type lamins  

SciTech Connect

We previously identified and characterized a homozygous LMNA nonsense mutation leading to the absence of A-type lamins in a premature neonate who died at birth. We show here that the absence of A-type lamins is due to degradation of the aberrant mRNA transcript with a premature termination codon. In cultured fibroblasts from the subject with the homozygous LMNA nonsense mutation, there was a decreased steady-state expression of the integral inner nuclear membrane proteins emerin and nesprin-1{alpha} associated with their mislocalization to the bulk endoplasmic reticulum and a hyperphosphorylation of emerin. To determine if decreased emerin expression occurred post-translationally, we treated cells with a selective proteasome inhibitor and observed an increase in expression. Our results show that mislocalization of integral inner nuclear membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in human cells lacking A-type lamins leads to their degradation and provides the first evidence that their degradation is mediated by the proteasome.

Muchir, Antoine [Departments of Medicine and Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Massart, Catherine [Inserm, U582, Institut de Myologie, Paris F-75013 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S582, IFR14, Paris F-75013 (France); Engelen, Baziel G. van [Neuromuscular Centre Nijmegen, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lammens, Martin [Neuromuscular Centre Nijmegen, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bonne, Gisele [Inserm, U582, Institut de Myologie, Paris F-75013 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S582, IFR14, Paris F-75013 (France); AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, U.F. Myogenetique et Cardiogenetique, Service de Biochimie B, Paris F-75013 (France); Worman, Howard J. [Departments of Medicine and Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)]. E-mail: hjw14@columbia.edu

2006-12-29

436

Atypical Celiac Disease: From Recognizing to Managing  

PubMed Central

The nonclassic clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD) becomes increasingly common in physician's daily practice, which requires an awareness of its many clinical faces with atypical, silent, and latent forms. Besides the common genetic background (HLA DQ2/DQ8) of the disease, other non-HLA genes are now notably reported with a probable association to atypical forms. The availability of high-sensitive and specific serologic tests such as antitissue transglutuminase, antiendomysium, and more recent antideamidated, gliadin peptide antibodies permits to efficiently uncover a large portion of the submerged CD iceberg, including individuals having conditions associated with a high risk of developing CD (type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, family history of CD, etc.), biologic abnormalities (iron deficiency anemia, abnormal transaminase levels, etc.), and extraintestinal symptoms (short stature, neuropsychiatric disorders, alopecia, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent aphtous stomatitis, etc.). Despite the therapeutic alternatives currently in developing, the strict adherence to a GFD remains the only effective and safe therapy for CD. PMID:22811701

Admou, B.; Essaadouni, L.; Krati, K.; Zaher, K.; Sbihi, M.; Chabaa, L.; Belaabidia, B.; Alaoui-Yazidi, A.

2012-01-01

437

Atypical central neurocytoma with sarcomatous differentiation.  

PubMed

We report a case of an intraventricular tumor with features of atypical central neurocytoma with a sarcomatous component in a 44-year-old woman who presented with headaches and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3.4-cm lobulated enhancing mass in the occipital horn of the left lateral ventricle, and the patient subsequently underwent a left occipital-parietal craniotomy for debulking. The tumor contained 2 cell populations: round cells with perinuclear halos in a fibrillary background, and spindle cells with oval nuclei arranged in interlacing fascicles with focal necrosis. The round cells had diffuse synaptophysin immunopositivity, while the spindle cells were diffusely immunopositive for vimentin and had intercellular reticulin. The mitotic activity (8 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields) and the high Ki-67 proliferation index (15.0%) were consistent with atypical central neurocytoma with a sarcomatous component. Although different histologic variants have been described, this is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of central neurocytoma with spindle cell sarcomatous features. PMID:25171707

Vemavarapu, Lakshmi; Czyszczon, Irene; Parker, Joseph C; Wagner, Stephanie; Vitaz, Todd; Parker, John R

2014-09-01

438

Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database…

Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

2007-01-01

439

Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.  

PubMed

Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

2013-11-01

440

Traumatic rupture of sternocleidomastoid muscle following an epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old man, a known epileptic, presented to an accident and emergency department following a tonic-clonic seizure, suffering a second seizure in the department. Subsequently, he reported neck pain, swelling and stiffness. An otorhinolaryngology neck examination revealed a tender left side with two palpable masses and a reduced range of movement. Ultrasound confirmed a ruptured middle third of the left sternocleidomastoid muscle, which was successfully treated non-surgically with analgaesia and intensive physiotherapy. Uncommonly, sternocleidomastoid muscle rupture has been reported following high-velocity trauma, but to the best of our knowledge this is the first case described in the literature following an epileptic seizure. PMID:25410030

Wooles, Nicola Rachel; Bell, Philip Robert; Korda, Marian

2014-01-01

441

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review  

PubMed Central

Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein estrogens are proconvulsant, increasing the neuronal excitability; and progesterone is anticonvulsant, enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Thus, changes in serum estradiol/progesterone ratio throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal therapies have been proposed. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy. PMID:23071424

Verrotti, Alberto; D’Egidio, Claudia; Agostinelli, Sergio; Verrotti, Carla; Pavone, Piero

2012-01-01

442

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review.  

PubMed

Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein estrogens are proconvulsant, increasing the neuronal excitability; and progesterone is anticonvulsant, enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Thus, changes in serum estradiol/progesterone ratio throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal therapies have been proposed. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy. PMID:23071424

Verrotti, Alberto; D'Egidio, Claudia; Agostinelli, Sergio; Verrotti, Carla; Pavone, Piero

2012-01-01

443

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Disrupted ontogeny of forebrain inhibitory interneurons leads to neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Adult mice lacking the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (Plaur) have decreased numbers of neocortical GABAergic interneurons and spontaneous seizures, attributed to a reduction of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We report that by increasing endogenous HGF/SF concentration in the postnatal Plaur null mouse brain maintains the interneuron populations in the adult, reverses the seizure behavior and stabilizes the spontaneous electroencephalogram activity. The perinatal intervention provides a pathway to reverse potential birth defects and ameliorate seizures in the adult. PMID:19853606

Bae, Mihyun H.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Mars, Wendy M.; Michalopoulos, George K.; Achim, Cristian L.; Depireux, Didier A.; Powell, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

444

Atypical antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: systematic review of randomised trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used for treatment of mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and considered to have fewer extrapyramidal effects than older antipsychotics. METHODS: We examined efficacy in randomised trials of bipolar disorder where the presenting episode was either depression, or manic\\/mixed, comparing atypical antipsychotic with placebo or active comparator, examined withdrawals for any cause, or due

Sheena Derry; R Andrew Moore

2007-01-01

445

[Pharmacoepidemiological and toxicological aspects of atypical neuroleptics usage].  

PubMed

The possible side effects of antipsychotics are extensive, varied, frequently, intolerable, too often serious and sometimes fatal. The knowledge about pharmacoepidemiological and toxicological aspects of atypical neuroleptics usage is very important in clinical practice. In this paper we described practical information about side effects, toxicological profile and unwanted drug interactions of atypical neuroleptics. PMID:22010442

Woro?, Jaros?aw; Grabski, Bartosz; Siwek, Marcin

2011-01-01

446

A review of the effect of atypical antipsychotics on weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled research trials have shown that atypical antipsychotics have important advantages over standard antipsychotics, including a broader spectrum of efficacy and improved tolerability profile, particularly with regard to neurological adverse events such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Some atypical antipsychotics, however, tend to cause significant weight gain, which may lead to poor compliance and other adverse health effects. The mechanisms involved

H. Nasrallah

2003-01-01

447

Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the animal behavior models that provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the critical differences between the actions of typical vs. atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although many of these models are capable of differentiating between antipsychotic and other psychotropic drugs, only a few seem to be able to differentiate between typical and atypical antipsychotics, such as the paw test

Mark A. Geyer; Bart Ellenbroek

2003-01-01

448

Atypical depression among psychiatric inpatients: clinical features and personality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of Atypical Depression (AD) among depressed inpatients. Method: Twenty-one depressed inpatients received DSM-IV diagnoses, were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and assessed for AD using the Atypical Depressive Disorder Scale. AD was defined as the presence of mood reactivity and two of four associated features: hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis,

Celeste N. Derecho; Scott Wetzler; Lata K. McGinn; William C. Sanderson; Gregory M. Asnis

1996-01-01

449

Atypical Cogan's syndrome presenting as bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis.  

PubMed

We report a case of atypical Cogan's syndrome presenting as bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis in a woman with ovarian cancer. A 62-year-old woman with ovarian cancer developed bilateral interstitial keratitis and panuveitis accompanied by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and chondritis. Auricular cartilage biopsy ruled out relapsing polychondritis and the diagnosis of atypical Cogan's syndrome was set clinically. PMID:22908938

Georgakopoulos, Constantine D; Makri, Olga E; Exarchou, Artemis M; Pharmakakis, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

450

Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

451

Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a class of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that occur in humans, ruminants, cats, and mink. Three distinct TSEs afflict cattle: classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical H-type BSE, and atypical ...

452

Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.  

PubMed

The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, an