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Sample records for atypical behavioural effects

  1. Atypical behavioural effects of lorazepam: clues to the design of novel therapies?

    PubMed

    Giersch, Anne; Boucart, Muriel; Elliott, Mark; Vidailhet, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Aside from their pharmacokinetic properties, e.g. their speed of action and the duration of residual effects, benzodiazepines are still considered as equivalent in terms of their effects on cognition. Here we review evidence suggesting that certain benzodiazepines, especially lorazepam, differ in a number of respects, in particular with respect to their effects on cognition. We focus this review on memory, attention and visual perception, where impairments may be brought about by only a subset of benzodiazepines in spite of their administration at doses inducing similar sedative effects. This precludes an explanation in terms of sedation. Differences in the effects of benzodiazepines have also been found in electrophysiological and animal behavioural studies. These studies are important for therapeutic approaches for two reasons: first, effects of benzodiazepine prescription on cognitive functions will differ according to the benzodiazepine, contrary to what is usually believed. Less straightforwardly are the possible therapeutic implications of specific effects on cognition following treatment with lorazepam. Indeed, the specific effects this drug has on cognition may reveal not only side-effects but also effects of potential therapeutic value. Current research concentrates on a fine scale analysis of the effects of GABA on different sub-types of GABA(A) receptors. We suggest that from looking at what makes lorazepam different in a behavioural sense from other benzodiazepines we may be in a position to design innovative treatments for major aspects of complex disorders, including schizophrenia. PMID:20138190

  2. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  3. Atypical Sensory behaviours in children with Tourette's Syndrome and in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Amanda K; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2016-09-01

    Certain visual disturbances make it difficult to read text and have been attributed to visual stress, also called "pattern-related visual stress". 12 Children with ASD, 12 children with Tourette's syndrome and without ASD and 12 controls, all matched on age and non verbal ability, participated in an experiment exploring sensory behaviours and visual stress. Reading rate and accuracy were assessed with the Wilkins Rate of Reading test with and without the Intuitive Overlays. Both the children with Tourette's and the children with ASD showed a higher prevalence of atypical sensory behaviours and symptoms of visual stress than the typically developing control children. Six out of twelve children with Tourette's syndrome (50%) read more accurately and over 15% more quickly with a coloured overlay. Four of the 12 children with ASD and none of the control children read over 15% more quickly with an overlay. The findings are discussed in relation to problems in sensory modulation. PMID:27286465

  4. Atypicality of Atypical Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review the current definition of atypicality, discuss the unique features of each atypical antipsychotic, and determine whether the available drugs in this class really meet the classical definition of atypicality. Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted to identify literature on the subject of this review, supported by additional articles based on the author's clinical knowledge and experience. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Relevant references were extracted and summarized in order to meet the objective of the article. Data Synthesis: Atypical antipsychotics are considered a major advance over conventional antipsychotics, primarily because they offer effective treatment alternatives that are relatively free of extrapyramidal symptoms. In fact, the term atypicality was originally used to describe antipsychotic agents with a minimal risk of causing extrapyramidal symptoms. However, over the years the definition has been modified such that there is currently no consensus on a true definition of atypicality for these agents. Each of the atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole) commercially available in the United States is unique in terms of its pharmacologic profile, differing with respect to receptor-binding affinity, mechanism of action, and adverse events. Of the available atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine have shown the lowest propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. Although the risk of extra-pyramidal symptoms is lower with risperidone and olanzapine than with conventional antipsychotics, risk increases with dose escalation. Data for ziprasidone indicate that the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms may be similar to that of risperidone and olanzapine. There is a concern of akathisia with aripiprazole; however, more experience with this agent is needed before definitive conclusions are made. Conclusion: If the definition of “atypical” antipsychotic is

  5. Contrasting Sr and Nd isotopic behaviour during magma mingling; new insights from the Mannum A-type granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, M. J.; Vernon, R. H.; Turner, S. P.; Schaefer, B. F.; Foden, J. D.

    2011-10-01

    The Mannum granite in South Australia is a classic A-type granite which displays good evidence for magma mingling, such as numerous syn-plutonic mafic enclaves, and rapakivi feldspars in both the granite and enclave. Study of the Sr and Nd isotopes show that the systems are dominantly controlled by plagioclase and titanite, respectively. The contrasting behaviour of these minerals during the development of a bimodal magmatic system has led to a well-defined 482 Ma isochron across a granite-enclave boundary in the Sr isotope system but not in the Nd isotope system. In-situ techniques, involving the development and production of a new titanite glass standard, were developed to resolve this dichotomy. Inferred repeated interaction with mafic magmas has resulted in the destabilization and restabilization of plagioclase. This has produced rapakivi textures, and provides an effective mechanism for efficient Sr isotope equilibration across the range of bulk rock compositions. Despite this interaction, titanite in the host granite retain a range of initial Nd isotope ratios, indicating multiple parental magmas were assembled to produce the final pluton. Decoupling of the Sr and Nd isotope systems in other magmatic systems could be indicative of magma mixing, as opposed to mingling, where physical evidence (e.g. enclaves, xenocrysts etc.) is absent.

  6. Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic…

  7. Negative and Atypical Story Content Themes Depicted by Children with Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific thematic content arising from children's doll play is often considered to give clinically meaningful information regarding their mental state, but has received little systematic enquiry. This exploratory study examined the negative and atypical content themes in the attachment story narratives of children with behaviour…

  8. Predictors of Effect of Atypical Antipsychotics on Speech

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Preeti; Vandana, Valiya Parambath; Lewis, Nikita V; Jayaram, Mannaralukrishnaiah; Enderby, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most of the studies have looked into the effect of typical antipsychotics on speech secondary to tardive dyskinesia. Aims: This study was aimed to explore the factors predicting the effect of atypical antipsychotic medications on the production of speech. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty patients on stable regimen of three or more months on risperidone (92), olanzapine (28), aripiprazole (14), and clozapine (6) were recruited for the study. Speech was assessed by maximum phonation duration task, s/z ratio, diadochokinetic task, acoustic analysis and Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment (FDA). Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) were assessed by Simpson Angus scale. Statistical Analysis: Spearman correlation analysis was carried out to find the association between speech parameters and continuous variables. Effect of EPS, duration and dose of antipsychotic treatment on speech parameters was compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The risperidone group differ from other antipsychotics groups significantly in s/z ratio (0.07), FDA-total (0.23) and FDA-reflex (0.25). People who took antipsychotic for more than 2 years had lower score of FDA-palate (P = 0.042), and FDA-respiratory (P = 0.04) and higher values in noise-harmonic ratio (P = 0.011) and maximum /fundamental frequency (MFF) for males (P = 0.02). Effect of EPS was seen on MFF for males (spearman correlation coefficient = 0.34) and on almost all sections of FDA (spearman correlation coefficients = -0.2 to -0.33). Conclusion: Both duration of use and propensity of atypical antipsychotics to cause EPS can influence the speech performance of the patients. This information can be useful, particularly in people with the requirement of high quality speech. PMID:26702176

  9. [Atypical antipsychotics in the elderly].

    PubMed

    van Melick, E J M

    2004-12-01

    Central criteria for the definition of atypical antipsychotics are antipsychotic efficacy and minimal or none extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). This last criterium is of importance in the differentiation with the traditional antipsychotics. Of the four atypical antipsychotics which are discussed here, clozapine is the most atypical. The best proof is its good efficacy in the treatment of Parkinson psychosis with minimal adverse effects on motor function. Clozapine is the best choice for this indication. At this moment there is not enough evidence available concerning quetiapine. Risperidon and olanzapine give more Dopamine2-occupancy with higher doses and can evoke EPS, but this is still less compared to the traditional antipsychotics. All four atypical drugs cause less tardive dyskinesia. Atypical antipsychotics are not well studied in the treatment of elderly patients with functional psychosis. However the available information and the literature on the treatment of young adults makes it probable that the atypical antipsychotics are at least as effective in the elderly as the traditional antipsychotics. The median daily doses are lower for elderly than for younger patients. Risperidon has been proven effective in the treatment of agressive behaviour in dementia. Atypical antipsychotics have their 'own' adverse effects. Those which have the most impact in the elderly are discussed. PMID:15704604

  10. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  11. Differences among conventional, atypical and novel putative D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics on catalepsy-associated behaviour in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Agnès L; Kleven, Mark S; Barret-Grévoz, Catherine; Barreto, Martine; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Depoortère, Ronan

    2009-11-01

    Typical antipsychotics such as haloperidol exert their therapeutic effects via blockade of dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, leading to extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in humans and catalepsy in rodents. In contrast, atypical antipsychotics and new generation D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics have low cataleptogenic potential. However, there has been no systematic comparative study on the effects of these different classes of antipsychotics in non-human primates, a species displaying a more sophisticated repertoire of behavioural/motor activity than rats. Once weekly, six young adult female non-haloperidol-sensitised cynomolgus monkeys were treated i.m. with a test compound and videotaped to score catalepsy-associated behaviour (CAB: static postures, unusual positions and crouching). Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, nemonapride and remoxipride induced, to different extents, an increase in unusual positions (a response akin to dystonia), some crouching and static postures. In contrast, clozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole produced much lower or no unusual positions; clozapine also produced marked increases in static postures and crouching. Among novel D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics, SLV313 and F15063 augmented the number of unusual positions, albeit at doses 16-63 times higher than those of haloperidol for approximately the same score. SSR181507 and bifeprunox produced moderate static postures, little crouching and negligible unusual positions. These data provide the first comparative analysis in cynomolgus monkeys of EPS liability of conventional, atypical and novel D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics. They indicate that the latter are less prone than haloperidol to produce CAB, and provide a basis for comparison with rodent catalepsy studies. PMID:19464324

  12. Effectiveness of an Inpatient Movement Disorders Program for Patients with Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Hohler, Anna D.; Tsao, Jyeming M.; Katz, Douglas I.; DiPiero, T. Joy; Hehl, Christina L.; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763

  13. Effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Hohler, Anna D; Tsao, Jyeming M; Katz, Douglas I; Dipiero, T Joy; Hehl, Christina L; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763

  14. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  15. Effect of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion on Patients with Atypical Symptoms Related to Cervical Spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Sun, Yuqing; Yan, Kai; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Shan; Tian, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Background A considerable number of patients with cervical spondylosis complain about one or multiple atypical symptoms such as vertigo, palpitations, headache, blurred vision, hypomnesia, and/or nausea. It remains unclear whether surgical intervention for cervical spondylosis can also effectively alleviate those symptoms. The current study was performed to see if anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) offers such an extra benefit for patients with cervical spondylosis. Objective To investigate if patients who received ACDF for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and/or radiculopathy can also achieve alleviation of certain atypical symptoms associated with cervical spondylosis after the surgery in the long run. Methods Sixty-seven patients who underwent ACDF for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and/or radiculopathy were involved in this study. All these patients also complained about various associated atypical symptoms. They were followed up for 26 to 145 months after the surgery. Severity and frequency scores of the atypical symptoms before the surgery and at last follow-up were compared by paired t tests. Results Most patients reported significantly alleviated symptoms at the last follow-up compared with before the surgery. The severity of vertigo, headache, nausea, and palpitations were significantly alleviated at the last follow-up (with p values of p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.022, p = 0.004, respectively). There were no significant changes in the severity of tinnitus (p = 0.182), blurred vision (p = 0.260), and hypomnesia (p = 0.821). Conclusion ACDF can significantly alleviate vertigo, headache, nausea, and palpitations in most patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and/or radiculopathy, but it is not effective in alleviating symptoms such as tinnitus, blurred vision, and hypomnesia. It can be considered for alleviating atypical symptoms when other treatment options prove

  16. Atypical pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... that cause typical pneumonia. These include Legionella pneumophila , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , and Chlamydophila pneumoniae . Atypical pneumonia also tends to have milder symptoms than typical pneumonia. Causes Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of atypical pneumonia. It ...

  17. Atypical Lexicosemantic Function of Extrastriate Cortex in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Functional and Effective Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mark D.; Shih, Patricia; Öttl, Birgit; Keehn, Brandon; Leyden, Kelly M.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested atypically enhanced activity of visual cortex during language processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it remains unclear whether visual cortical participation reflects isolated processing within posterior regions or functional cooperation with distal brain regions, such as left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). We addressed this question using functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) and structural equation modeling in 14 adolescents and adults with ASD and 14 matched typically developing (TD) participants. Data were analyzed to isolate low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations, by regressing out effects of a semantic decision task. For a right extrastriate seed derived from the strongest cluster of atypical activation in the ASD group, widespread effects of increased connectivity in prefrontal and medial frontal lobes bilaterally were observed for the ASD group, compared to the TD group. A second analysis for a seed in LIFG, derived from pooled activation effects in both groups, also yielded widespread effects of overconnectivity in the ASD group, especially in temporal lobes. Structural equation modeling showed that whereas right extrastriate cortex did not impact function of language regions (left and right IFG, left middle temporal gyrus) in the TD model, it was an integral part of a language circuit in the ASD group. These results suggest that atypical extrastriate activation during language processing in ASD reflects integrative (not isolated) processing. Furthermore, our findings are inconsistent with previous reports of functional underconnectivity in ASD, probably related to removal of task effects required to isolate intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations. PMID:22699044

  18. Modeling possible effects of atypical cerebellar processing on eyeblink conditioning in autism.

    PubMed

    Radell, Milen L; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    Autism is unique among other disorders in that acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses is enhanced in children, occurring in a fraction of the trials required for control participants. The timing of learned responses is, however, atypical. Two animal models of autism display a similar phenotype. Researchers have hypothesized that these differences in conditioning reflect cerebellar abnormalities. The present study used computer simulations of the cerebellar cortex, including inhibition by the molecular layer interneurons, to more closely examine whether atypical cerebellar processing can account for faster conditioning in individuals with autism. In particular, the effects of inhibitory levels on delay eyeblink conditioning were simulated, as were the effects of learning-related synaptic changes at either parallel fibers or ascending branch synapses from granule cells to Purkinje cells. Results from these simulations predict that whether molecular layer inhibition results in an enhancement or an impairment of acquisition, or changes in timing, may depend on (1) the sources of inhibition, (2) the levels of inhibition, and (3) the locations of learning-related changes (parallel vs. ascending branch synapses). Overall, the simulations predict that a disruption in the balance or an overall increase of inhibition within the cerebellar cortex may contribute to atypical eyeblink conditioning in children with autism and in animal models of autism. PMID:24590391

  19. Variation in cervical and breast cancer screening coverage in England: a cross-sectional analysis to characterise districts with atypical behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Massat, Nathalie J; Douglas, Elaine; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reducing cancer screening inequalities in England is a major focus of the 2011 Department of Health cancer outcome strategy. Screening coverage requires regular monitoring in order to implement targeted interventions where coverage is low. This study aimed to characterise districts with atypical coverage levels for cervical or breast screening. Design Observational study of district-level coverage in the English Cervical and Breast screening programmes in 2012. Setting England, UK. Participants All English women invited to participate in the cervical (age group 25–49 and 50–64) and breast (age group 50–64) screening programmes. Outcomes Risk adjustment models for coverage were developed based on district-level characteristics. Funnel plots of adjusted coverage were constructed, and atypical districts examined by correlation analysis. Results Variability in coverage was primarily explained by population factors, whereas general practice characteristics had little independent effect. Deprivation and ethnicity other than white, Asian, black or mixed were independently associated with poorer coverage in both screening programmes, with ethnicity having the strongest effect; by comparison, the influence of Asian, black or mixed ethnic minority was limited. Deprivation, ethnicity and urbanisation largely accounted for the lower cervical screening coverage in London. However, for breast screening, being located in London remained a strong negative predictor. A subset of districts was identified as having atypical coverage across programmes. Correlates of deprivation in districts with relatively low adjusted coverage were substantially different from overall correlates of deprivation. Discussion These results inform the continuing drive to reduce avoidable cancer deaths in England, and encourage implementation of targeted interventions in communities residing in districts identified as having atypically low coverage. Sequential implementation to monitor the

  20. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials. PMID:22668246

  1. Behavioral and Metabolic Effects of the Atypical Antipsychotic Ziprasidone on the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gubert, Priscila; Aguiar, Gabriel Costa; Mourão, Tácito; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; Barros, Alexandre Guimarães; Soares, Félix Alexandre; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic syndrome, primarily associated with weight gain. The effects of Ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, on metabolic syndrome has yet to be evaluated. Here in, we evaluated lipid accumulation and behavioral changes in a new experimental model, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Behavioral parameters in the worms were evaluated 24 h after Ziprasidone treatment. Subsequently, lipid accumulation was examined using Nile red, LipidTox green and BODIPY labeling. Ziprasidone at 40 µM for 24 h effectively decreased the fluorescence labeling of all markers in intestinal cells of C. elegans compared to control (0.16% dimethyl sulfoxide). Ziprasidone did not alter behaviors related to energetic balance, such as pharynx pumping, defecation cycles and movement. There was, however, a reduction in egg-production, egg-laying and body-length in nematodes exposed to Ziprasidone without any changes in the progression of larval stages. The serotoninergic pathway did not appear to modulate Ziprasidone’s effects on Nile red fluorescence. Additionally, Ziprasidone did not alter lipid accumulation in daf-16 or crh-1 deletion mutants (orthologous of the transcription factors DAF-16 and CREB, respectively). These results suggest that Ziprasidone alters reproductive behavior, morphology and lipid reserves in the intestinal cells of C. elegans. Our results highlight that the DAF-16 and CREB transcription factors are essential for Ziprasidone-induced fat store reduction. PMID:24069346

  2. Effect of toloxatone on behaviour of primates.

    PubMed

    Giono-Barber, H; Giono-Barber, P; Milhaud, C L; Klein, M J; Gouret, C; Raynaud, G

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of (3-methyl)-3-phenyl-5-hydroxy-methyl-2-oxazolidinone (toloxatone) were studied on the behaviour of three species of primates: baboon, rhesus monkeys and chimpanzee. 2. The activity against reserpine-induced depression is observed in baboon as in rodents. 2. The administration of toloxatone induces three effects which probably have the same origin: suppression of feeding inhibition of the subordinate baboon, improvement of escape reaction in the conditioned chimpanzee, increase in general activity and the active component of social behaviour in grouped rhesus monkeys. These three effects can be interpreted as resulting from the stimulating effect of toloxatone, or more precisely from a disinhibiting effect. 4. Contrary to amphetamine, toloxatone does not induce, even at high or repeated doses, behavioural disturbances. PMID:409416

  3. Potential combinatorial effects of recombinant atypical chemokine receptors in breast cancer cell invasion: A research perspective.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ai Lan; Tan, Wee Yee; Khoo, Boon Yin

    2013-03-01

    Apart from their major function in the coordination of leukocyte recruitment, chemokines, in cooperation with their receptors, have been implicated in the progression of various diseases including different types of cancer, affecting survival, proliferation and metastasis. A complex network of chemokines and receptors exists in the tumor microenvironment and affects tumor development in various ways where chemokines activate typical signalling pathways by binding to the respective receptors. The identification and characterization of a group of atypical chemokine receptors [D6, Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), ChemoCentryx chemokine receptor (CCX-CKR) and CXCR7] which appear to use unique biochemical properties to regulate the biological activities of these chemokines, is useful in the effort to therapeutically manipulate chemokines in a broad spectrum of diseases in which these chemokines play a critical role. The aim of this review was to investigate the combinatorial effect of two reported atypical chemokine receptors, D6 and DARC, on breast cancer cell invasion to understand their role and therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. In this regard, findings of the present review should be confirmed via the construction of recombinant D6 and DARC clones as well as the expression of the respective recombinant proteins using the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system is to be performed in a future study in order to support findings of the current review. PMID:24648916

  4. Atypical antipsychotics are not all alike: side effects and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs are not all alike with respect to their pharmacologies, therapeutic uses, and side eff ects, although many clinicians lump them together and do not distinguish among them. Risk assessment for the potential use of a drug, such as aripiprazole (Abilify), should not focus on any particular adverse effect, but rather should consider risk assessment in a broader context. Specifically, what are the alternatives, and what are their inherent risk profiles? What is the risk of no treatment? Side eff ects commonly associated with a particular drug or class of drugs can also occur with other drugs. For any drug prescribed for any reason, prescribers should document discussion about common and potentially serious adverse effects, as well as document clinical monitoring. Alternative treatments and their inherent risks, along with the risks of not taking medication for a particular condition, should also be discussed with patients and documented. PMID:25346958

  5. Effects of female steroid hormones on A-type K+ currents in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Elizabeth A H; McCloskey, Conor; O'Kane, Neil; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic constipation is higher in women of reproductive age than postmenopausal women or men, suggesting that female steroid hormones influence gastrointestinal motility. How female hormones affect motility is unclear. Colonic motility is regulated by ion channels in colonic myocytes. Voltage-dependent K(+) channels serve to set the excitability of colonic muscles. We investigated regulation of Kv 4.3 channel expression in response to acute or chronic changes in female hormones. Patch clamp experiments and quantitative PCR were used to compare outward currents and transcript expression in colonic myocytes from male, non-pregnant, pregnant and ovariectomized mice. Groups of ovariectomized mice received injections of oestrogen or progesterone to investigate the effects of hormone replacement. The capacitance of colonic myocytes from non-pregnant females was larger than in males. Net outward current density in male and ovariectomized mice was higher than in non-pregnant females and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Current densities in late pregnancy were lower than in female controls. Progesterone had no effect on outward currents. A-type currents were decreased in non-pregnant females compared with ovariectomized mice, and were further decreased by pregnancy or oestrogen replacement. Kv 4.3 transcripts did not differ significantly between groups; however, expression of the potassium channel interacting protein KChIP1 was elevated in ovariectomized mice compared with female controls and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Delayed rectifier currents were not affected by oestrogen. In the mouse colon, oestrogen suppresses A-type currents, which are important for regulating excitability. These observations suggest a possible link between female hormones and altered colonic motility associated with menses, pregnancy and menopause. PMID:16581861

  6. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    PubMed

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. PMID:22607774

  7. Prospective Study of Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication in a Community Hospital and Its Effect on Typical, Atypical, and Nonspecific Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Amanda; Maxwell, J. Gary; Harris, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) provides long-term improvement in the typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Few studies have prospectively addressed LNF in the community hospital or the effect of LNF on specific atypical symptoms, other related gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight change. Methods: Data were collected prospectively on consecutive patients having LNF. Three typical, 6 atypical, and 3 other gastrointestinal symptoms were studied. Results: Short-term data on 91 patients and long-term data on 84 patients were studied. Overall long-term improvement was 98%. Regarding typical symptoms, the greatest improvement occurred in heartburn and regurgitation. Regarding atypical symptoms, the greatest improvement occurred in cough and sore throat, but chest pain, hoarseness, and throat clearing also showed significant durable improvement. Bloating, nausea, and diarrhea showed no significant change from preoperative to postoperative surveys. Mild weight loss was common. Conclusion: LNF can be safely performed in a community hospital with results equal to those of university hospitals. Improvement in typical symptoms was greater than improvement in atypical symptoms, but results for both were significant and durable. Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, bloating, and diarrhea, may be unrelated to Nissen fundoplication. PMID:17651559

  8. Selective action of an atypical neuroleptic on the mechanisms related to the development of cocaine addiction: a pre-clinical behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Eduardo A V; Oliveira-Lima, Alexandre J; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Santos, Renan; Baldaia, Marilia A; Hollais, André W; Longo, Beatriz M; Berro, Laís F; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    An increased function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system has been extensively associated with the rewarding effects of both natural stimuli and drugs of abuse. Thus, dopamine receptor blockers, such as neuroleptic drugs, can be proposed as candidates for potential therapeutic approaches to treat drug dependence. Notwithstanding, this therapeutic potential of neuroleptics critically depends on a selective action on the specific mechanisms related to the development of addiction. We compared the effects of different doses of haloperidol, ziprasidone and aripiprazole (first-, second- and third-generation neuroleptics, respectively) on spontaneous locomotor activity of mice in a novel environment, hyperlocomotion induced by acute cocaine administration and cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Whereas high doses of haloperidol abolished the three behavioural paradigms without selectivity, low doses of ziprasidone selectively abolished the development of the behavioural sensitization phenomenon. Finally, low doses of aripiprazole inhibited acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioural sensitization without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. Thus, aripiprazole at lower doses was the most selective antipsychotic drug concerning the inhibition of the development of behavioural sensitization to cocaine. Because locomotor sensitization in rodents has been proposed to share plastic mechanisms with drug addiction in humans, our data provide relevant suggestions to the clinical practice. PMID:24345415

  9. Adverse Effects and Toxicity of the Atypical Antipsychotics: What is Important for the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Rasimas, J.J.; Liebelt, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    Medications are being used with greater frequency to address pediatric mental health problems, and in recent years atypical antipsychotic (AAP) prescriptions have increased more than any other class. Acute care practitioners must be aware of the pharmacology of AAPs and the conditions, on- and off-label, for which they are prescribed. This involves identifying and managing side effects that manifest both mentally and physically. Although “atypicality” confers a lower risk of movement side effects compared to conventional agents, children are more sensitive than adults to extrapyramidal reactions. Like adults, they also may present with toxic sedation, confusion, cardiovascular dysfunction, and metabolic derangements. Evaluation and management of these toxicities requires an index of suspicion, a careful symptom and medication history, physical examination, and targeted interventions. This review is designed to orient the emergency practitioner to the challenging task of recognizing and treating adverse effects related to acute and chronic atypical antipsychotic exposure in children. PMID:23471213

  10. EFFECTS OF FOSSIL MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CONVECTIVE CORE DYNAMOS IN A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Toomre, Juri; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2009-11-01

    The vigorous magnetic dynamo action achieved within the convective cores of A-type stars may be influenced by fossil magnetic fields within their radiative envelopes. We study such effects through three-dimensional simulations that model the inner 30% by radius of a 2 M {sub sun} A-type star, capturing the convective core and a portion of the overlying radiative envelope within our computational domain. We employ the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic code to model turbulent dynamics within a deep rotating spherical shell. The interaction between a fossil field and the core dynamo is examined by introducing a large-scale magnetic field into the radiative envelope of a mature A star dynamo simulation. We find that the inclusion of a twisted toroidal fossil field can lead to a remarkable transition in the core dynamo behavior. Namely, a super-equipartition state can be realized in which the magnetic energy built by dynamo action is 10-fold greater than the kinetic energy of the convection itself. Such strong-field states may suggest that the resulting Lorentz forces should seek to quench the flows, yet we have achieved super-equipartition dynamo action that persists for multiple diffusion times. This is achieved by the relative co-alignment of the flows and magnetic fields in much of the domain, along with some lateral displacements of the fastest flows from the strongest fields. Convection in the presence of such strong magnetic fields typically manifests as 4-6 cylindrical rolls aligned with the rotation axis, each possessing central axial flows that imbue the rolls with a helical nature. The roll system also possesses core-crossing flows that couple distant regions of the core. We find that the magnetic fields exhibit a comparable global topology with broad, continuous swathes of magnetic field linking opposite sides of the convective core. We have explored several poloidal and toroidal fossil field geometries, finding that a poloidal component is

  11. Atypical BCS-BEC crossover induced by quantum-size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanenko, A. A.; Croitoru, M. D.; Vagov, A. V.; Axt, V. M.; Perali, A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    Quantum-size oscillations of the basic physical characteristics of a confined fermionic condensate are a well-known phenomenon. Its conventional understanding is based on the single-particle physics, whereby the oscillations follow variations in the single-particle density of states driven by the size quantization. Here we present a study of a cigar-shaped ultracold superfluid Fermi gas, which demonstrates an important many-body aspect of the quantum-size coherent effects, overlooked previously. The many-body physics is revealed here in the atypical crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) induced by the size quantization of the particle motion. The single-particle energy spectrum for the transverse dimensions is tightly bound, whereas for the longitudinal direction it resembles a quasi-free dispersion. This results in the formation of a series of single-particle subbands (shells) so that the aggregate fermionic condensate becomes a coherent mixture of subband condensates. Each time when the lower edge of a subband crosses the chemical potential, the BCS-BEC crossover is approached in this subband, and the aggregate condensate contains both BCS and BEC-like components.

  12. Effect of Teriparatide on Healing of Atypical Femoral Fractures: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used anti-osteoporotic drugs, which have been proven to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, use of BPs, particularly for long periods of time, is associated with an increased risk of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). Healing of BP-associated AFF is usually delayed because of suppressed bone turnover. Teriparatide (TPTD), a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), enhances bone healing in patients with delayed healing or non-union. Methods In this study, we summarized and performed a systemic review of the published literature on treatment of AFF using TPTD. Results Although there is a lack of level 1 studies on the evidence of TPTD in promoting bone union in AFFs, this systemic review of the available literature revealed that TPTD works positively in AFFs, and we put together the evidence that TPTD is a viable treatment option for enhancing fracture healing in AFFs. Conclusions While anecdotal evidence of beneficial effects of TPTD on fracture healing offer limited guidance for clinical decision making, a better understanding of the role of TPTD in fracture healing may be elucidated with future prospective trials. PMID:26713309

  13. The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M; Young, P I; Bateman, D N; Smith, J M; Thomas, S H L

    1999-01-01

    . Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about £56 M. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined. PMID:10073734

  14. Effect of local anesthesia on atypical odontalgia--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Helkimo, Martti; Oster, Anders; Svensson, Peter

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of lidocaine in a double-blind, controlled multi-center study on patients with atypical odontalgia (AO)--a possible orofacial neuropathic pain condition. Thirty-five consecutive AO patients (range 31-81 years) with a mean pain duration of 7.2 years (range 1-30 years) were recruited from four different orofacial pain clinics in Sweden. In a randomized cross-over design, 1.5 ml local anesthesia (20mg/ml lidocaine and 12.5 microg/ml adrenaline) or 1.5 ml saline (9 mg/ml NaCl solution) (placebo) was injected to block the painful area. The VAS pain scores showed an overall effect of time (ANOVA: P<0.001) and treatment (ANOVA: P=0.018) with a significant interaction between the factors (ANOVA: P<0.001). Overall, VAS pain relief was significantly greater at 15-120 min following the lidocaine injections compared to the placebo injections (Tukey: P<0.05). All patients demonstrated significant disturbances in somatosensory function on the painful side compared to the non-painful side as revealed by quantitative sensory tests, however, only one significant inverse correlation was found between percentage pain relief and the magnitude of brush-evoked allodynia (Spearman: P<0.01). In conclusion, AO patients experienced significant, but not complete, pain relief from administration of local anesthetics compared with placebo. The findings indicate that the spontaneous pain in AO patients only to some extent is dependent on peripheral afferent inputs and that sensitization of higher order neurons may be involved in the pathophysiology of AO. PMID:16564621

  15. [Atypical odontalgia].

    PubMed

    Türp, Jens Christoph

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its first description by the English surgeon JOHN HUNTER more than 200 years ago, atypical odontalgia (AO), or phantom tooth pain, is not universally known among dentists. AO is a persistent neuropathic pain which may be initiated after deafferentiation of trigeminal nerve fibers following root canal treatment, apicectomy, or tooth extraction. In the absence of pathological clinical or radiological findings, the diagnosis is made by exclusion. After a thorough patient education about the condition, pharmacological and psychological pain management is required. Invasive and irreversible treatment attempts are contraindicated. PMID:16342640

  16. Atypical Inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Janowski, Ann M; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors, including members of the NLR and PYHIN families, are essential for recognition of both pathogen- and host-derived danger signals. A number of molecules in these families are capable of forming multiprotein complexes termed inflammasomes that result in the activation of caspase-1. In addition to NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2, which form well-described inflammasome complexes, IFI16, NLRP6, NLRP7, NLRP12, and NLRC5 have also been proposed to form inflammasomes under specific conditions. The structure and function of these atypical inflammasomes will be highlighted here. PMID:27221480

  17. Effects of Atypical Patterns of Fetal Growth on Newborn (NBAS) Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Newborn infants showing anthropometric signs of atypical patterns of fetal growth were compared with infants of appropriate growth on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and on recently developed supplementary items. The sample consisted of lower-socioeconomic-status families in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and included teenage and older mothers.…

  18. Strange Couples: Mood Effects on Judgments and Memory about Prototypical and Atypical Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgas, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed whether feelings have a disproportionate impact on the way people perceive and remember unusual, atypical people. The results of four experiments suggest that mood has a significantly greater influence on judgments when the targets do not fit a prototypical pattern, thus requiring more lengthy, extensive processing. (RJM)

  19. Using Functional Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Effects of an Atypical Antipsychotic on Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danov, Stacy E.; Tervo, Raymond; Meyers, Stephanie; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication aripiprazole was evaluated using a randomized AB multiple baseline, double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the treatment of severe problem behavior with 4 children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis (FA) was conducted concurrent with the medication evaluation to…

  20. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  1. Can Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation Reduce Subsequent Treatment Failure More Effectively Among Depressed Patients with a Higher Degree of Treatment Resistance? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation was demonstrated to be efficacious in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in previous meta-analyses. We investigate whether there are differences in the effect size of atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder according to the degree of treatment resistance. Methods: A comprehensive search of four databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials. The 11 trials, which included 3 341 participants, were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy showed superior efficacy compared to antidepressant monotherapy in TRD in terms of both response and remission rates (response, risk ratio [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.53; remission, RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.85). In addition, regarding response rates in the TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation exhibited significantly different effect sizes according to the degree of treatment resistance (TRD 1: RR = 1.24; TRD 2: RR = 1.37; TRD 2–4: RR = 1.58). In non-TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation failed to show superior efficacy over antidepressant monotherapy in terms of remission rates (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.14). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy exhibits greater effect size in patients with a higher degree of treatment resistance. Conclusions: This finding strengthens the rationale for considering atypical antipsychotic augmentation among depressed patients with multiple previous treatment failures in clinical practice. The efficacy of atypical antipsychotic augmentation for non-TRD seems to be different from that for TRD and, thus, further studies of non-TRD populations are needed. PMID:25770098

  2. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  3. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

  4. Atypical eating disorder in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Bailer, U; De Zwaan, M; Kasper, S

    1999-01-01

    In the literature there is evidence that a substantial proportion of patients with bulimia nervosa can be helped by cognitive behavioural self-help manuals. As there are no specific recommendations or strategies for the treatment of males with eating disorders we were therefore especially interested in the way a man might deal with such a self-help manual. In this case the book Getting better bit(e) by bit(e) by Treasure and Schmidt (also available in German translation) was given to a young man with an atypical eating disorder (atypical anorexia nervosa according to ICD-10). The patient was offered a maximum of 16 short visits and was seen by a first-year psychiatry resident. Treatment with this self-help manual was effective and the patient succeeded in changing his former eating behaviour. The case report provides preliminary evidence that a self-help manual may be a useful addition to the range of possible interventions in the treatment of eating disorders in men. Self-help manuals are less intensive and less costly than other forms of treatment and might be the lowest-step intervention in a stepped-care approach to treatment. PMID:24941097

  5. Effects of divalproex and atypical antipsychotic drugs on dopamine and acetylcholine efflux in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Li, Zhu; Ichikawa, Junji; Dai, Jin; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2006-07-12

    Mood stabilizers (e.g., valproic acid) and antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are commonly co-administered in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The basis for any synergism between these classes of drugs in either group of disorders has been little studied. Previous studies have shown that atypical APDs (e.g., clozapine) preferentially increases dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HIP), both of which have been suggested to contribute to their ability to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. We have recently reported that the anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (AMS), valproic acid, carbamazepine, and zonisamide, but not lithium, also preferentially increase DA efflux in the rat mPFC, and that, at subthreshold doses, the AMS also augment the ability of the atypical APDs clozapine and risperidone to increase DA but not ACh efflux in the mPFC. The present study examined the ability of divalproex (DVX), which is chemically related to valproic acid, to enhance DA and ACh efflux in the HIP and to augment the effect of atypical APDs on ACh efflux in the HIP and mPFC. DVX, 500 mg/kg, significantly increased DA and ACh efflux in the HIP, and DA, but not ACh, efflux in the mPFC, whereas a lower dose of DVX, 50 mg/kg, had no effect on DA or ACh in either region. However, DVX, 50 mg/kg, combined with the atypical APDs olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg) or aripiprazole (0.3 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the effect of both APDs on DA, but not ACh efflux in the HIP and mPFC. Pretreatment of olanzapine or aripiprazole with the selective serotonin 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY100635 (1.0 mg/kg) partially but significantly blocked the effect of the combination of DVX, 50 mg/kg, and olanzapine or aripiprazole, on DA efflux in both the HIP and mPFC. WAY100635 did not affect the ability of the combination of olanzapine or aripiprazole and DVX to enhance ACh efflux in the HIP or mPFC. Subchronic administration of the

  6. How to Support Colleagues With...Effective Behaviour Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate behaviour from students and/or a teacher's inability to manage such behaviour effectively is one of the major contributors to stress amongst teachers and to poor learning by students. It is important for science leaders to support members of their department, and, critically, have systems that work. Their aim should be to create an…

  7. A meta-analysis of the effects of measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs on behaviour within prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Mankarious, Evon; Kothe, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Measurement reactivity effects, such as the mere measurement effect, have been proposed as a reason for behavioural changes in a number of theory of planned behaviour intervention studies. However, it is unclear whether such changes are the result of the mere measurement effect or of other artefacts of intervention study design. The aim of this study is to determine the size and direction of changes in health behaviours from baseline to follow-up in prospective studies using the theory of planned behaviour. Electronic databases were searched for the theory of planned behaviour studies which measured health behaviours at two or more time points. Change in behaviour was calculated for all studies. Sixty-six studies were included. Mean effect sizes across all studies were small and negative (d = -.03). Effect size was moderated by behaviour, behaviour type and follow-up length. Subgroup analyses showed significant decreases in socially undesirable behaviour (d = -.28), binge drinking (d = -.17), risk driving (d = -.20), sugar snack consumption (d = -.43) and sun-protective behaviour (d = -.18). Measurement of intention at baseline resulted in significant decreases in undesirable behaviour. Changes in undesirable behaviours reported in other studies may be the result of the mere measurement effect. PMID:26209208

  8. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded worldwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community- and ecosystem level, oxygen depletions threaten marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychaetes on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, for example the circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia

  9. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2013-08-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded wordwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community and ecosystem-level, oxygen depletions threat marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early-warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean. We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (< 2 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of polychates on the sediment surface with moderate hypoxia (< 1 mL O2 L-1), the emergence of the infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus on the sediment with severe hypoxia (< 0.5 mL O2 L-1) and heavy body rotations in sea anemones with anoxia. Other species changed their activity patterns, i.e. circadian rhythm in the hermit crab Paguristes eremita or the bioherm-associated crab Pisidia longimana. Intra- and

  10. Costs and effects of long-acting risperidone compared with oral atypical and conventional depot formulations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Laux, Gerd; Heeg, Bart; van Hout, Ben A; Mehnert, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric conditions because of high direct and indirect costs associated with the nature of the illness, its resistance to treatment and the consequences of relapse. Long-acting risperidone is a new formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug that also offers the improvements in compliance associated with haloperidol depot. The aim of this simulation study was to compare the benefits and costs of three pharmacological treatment strategies comprising first-line treatment with long-acting risperidone injection, a haloperidol depot or an oral atypical antipsychotic agent, over a 5-year period in Germany. A discrete event simulation model was developed to compare three treatment scenarios from the perspective of major third-party payers (sickness funds and social security 'Sozialversicherung'). The scenarios comprised first-line treatment with haloperidol depot (scenario 1), long-acting risperidone (scenario 2) and oral olanzapine (scenario 3). Switches to second or third-line options were allowed when side-effects occurred or a patient suffered more than a fixed number of relapses. The model accounted for fixed patient characteristics, and on the basis of these, simulated patient histories according to several time-dependent variables. The time horizon for this model was limited to 5 years, and in accordance with German guidelines, costs and effects were discounted by between 3 and 10%. Direct costs included medication, type of physician visits and treatment location. Indirect costs were not included. Information on treatment alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and healthcare utilization were derived from the literature and an expert panel. Outcomes were expressed in terms of the number and duration of psychotic episodes, cumulative symptom scores, costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out, as were subgroup analyses based on disease severity and

  11. Behavioural biology: an effective and relevant conservation tool.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Richard

    2007-08-01

    'Conservation behaviour' is a young discipline that investigates how proximate and ultimate aspects of the behaviour of an animal can be of value in preventing the loss of biodiversity. Rumours of its demise are unfounded. Conservation behaviour is quickly building a capacity to positively influence environmental decision making. The theoretical framework used by animal behaviourists is uniquely valuable to elucidating integrative solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, efforts to reintroduce endangered species and reducing the deleterious effects of ecotourism. Conservation behaviourists must join with other scientists under the multidisciplinary umbrella of conservation biology without giving up on their focus: the mechanisms, development, function and evolutionary history of individual differences in behaviour. Conservation behaviour is an increasingly relevant tool in the preservation of nature. PMID:17590477

  12. [Effect of snoezelen on the behaviour of demented elderly].

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, C C; Kragt, K; van Dongen, M C; van Rossum, E; Salentijn, C

    1997-06-01

    A randomised cross-over trial was carried out at nursing home Bernardus in Amsterdam to investigate the effect of 'snoezelen' in a specially furnished room on the well-being of demented elderly people. The behaviour during the experimental intervention 'snoezelen' was compared with the behaviour during the control intervention, consisting of standard activities in the livingroom. Sixteen elderly persons participated in the study. They were all in a very advanced stage of dementia, requiring a high level of care and nursing. The occurrence of behavioural problems was registered, using video cameras and assessed with four subscales of the Gedragsobservatieschaal voor de Intramurale Psychogeriatrie (GIP) (behavioural observation scale for intramural psychogeriatrics). During the experimental intervention a relatively low level of behavioural problems was observed. This could indicate that snoezelen increases the wellbeing of demented elderly. The outcome of this study indicates the need of a larger-scale study in which additional outcome parameters should be included. PMID:9381521

  13. Eculizumab is a safe and effective treatment in pediatric patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Larry A; Fila, Marc; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Al-Akash, Samhar I; Evans, Jonathan; Henning, Paul; Lieberman, Kenneth V; Maringhini, Silvio; Pape, Lars; Rees, Lesley; van de Kar, Nicole C A J; Vande Walle, Johan; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L; Licht, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by alternative complement pathway dysregulation, leading to systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and severe end-organ damage. Based on 2 prospective studies in mostly adults and retrospective data in children, eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, is approved for aHUS treatment. Here we prospectively evaluated efficacy and safety of weight-based dosing of eculizumab in eligible pediatric patients with aHUS in an open-label phase II study. The primary end point was complete TMA response by 26 weeks. Twenty-two patients (aged 5 months-17 years) were treated; 16 were newly diagnosed, 12 had no prior plasma exchange/infusion during current TMA symptomatology, 11 received baseline dialysis, and 2 had prior renal transplants. By week 26, 14 achieved a complete TMA response, 18 achieved hematologic normalization, and 16 had 25% or better improvement in serum creatinine. Plasma exchange/infusion was discontinued in all, and 9 of the 11 patients who required dialysis at baseline discontinued, whereas none initiated new dialysis. Eculizumab was well tolerated; no deaths or meningococcal infections occurred. Bone marrow failure, wrist fracture, and acute respiratory failure were reported as unrelated severe adverse events. Thus, our findings establish the efficacy and safety of eculizumab for pediatric patients with aHUS and are consistent with proposed immediate eculizumab initiation following diagnosis in children. PMID:26880462

  14. Indications of atypical antipsychotics in the elderly.

    PubMed

    McKean, Andrew; Monasterio, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAP) have become some of the most commonly prescribed medications in primary and specialist care settings. Off-label prescribing accounts for much of the expanded use of AAPs. This has become common in the elderly. Marketing by pharmaceutical companies appears to have contributed to the off-label use of AAPs, in situations where their safety and efficacy is far from established. Although evidence provides varying degrees of support for their use for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, augmentation of antidepressants in depression, anxiety, insomnia and in the management of psychosis in Parkinson's Disease, there are a number of potential problems with their expanded use in the elderly. These include weight gain, type two diabetes mellitus, sudden cardiac death and increased mortality rates in the elderly with dementia. It is recommended that whenever AAPs are used off-label, a review date is identified, informed consent is obtained and treatment and side-effects are closely monitored. PMID:25354148

  15. [Atypical antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Andreas; Yazdani, Renè; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of atypical antipsychotics in psychopharmacology represented a major advance in the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, there have been numerous studies that certain atypical antipsychotics may be associated with a greater risk of metabolic abnormalities than others, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia and new-onset typ 2 diabetes mellitus. A G-Protein beta3 subunit Gen (C825T) polymorphism, an increased carbohydrate metabolism and dyshormonism are discussed as pathogenetic mechanisms. High risk patients (adiposity, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, preexisting diabetes) should maintain an antipsychotic agent with a favourable side effect profile. In these cases a periodical diabetes screening and blood lipid controls are required. Clinicans must balance the significant benefits of atypical antipsychotics against the risk of metabolic disturbances. In this article recent findings are reviewed. PMID:17915438

  16. Differential effects of trait anger on optimism and risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pietruska, Karin; Armony, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that angry people exhibit optimistic risk estimates about future events and, consequently, are biased towards making risk-seeking choices. The goal of this study was to directly test the hypothesised effect of trait anger on optimism and risk-taking behaviour. One hundred healthy volunteers completed questionnaires about personality traits, optimism and risk behaviour. In addition their risk tendency was assessed with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), which provides an online measure of risk behaviour. Our results partly confirmed the relation between trait anger and outcome expectations of future life events, but suggest that this optimism does not necessarily translate into actual risk-seeking behaviour. PMID:22780446

  17. Differential effects of safety behaviour subtypes in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, M Leili; Alden, Lynn E; Taylor, Charles T

    2011-10-01

    Clinical observations indicate that individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) use a variety of safety behaviours; however, virtually no research has examined the functional effect of different safety-seeking strategies. Accordingly, we conducted two studies to address this issue. Study 1 measured global patterns of safety behaviour use in a large analogue sample. Factor analysis revealed two primary safety behaviour categories, avoidance and impression management. Study 2 assessed situational use of safety behaviours during a controlled social interaction in a clinical sample of 93 patients with Generalised SAD. Factor analysis again revealed support for avoidance and impression-management subtypes. Notably, the two types of safety behaviours were associated with different social outcomes. Avoidance safety behaviours were associated with higher state anxiety during the interaction and negative reactions from participants' interaction partners. Impression-management strategies appeared to impede corrections in negative predictions about subsequent interactions. These findings suggest that it may be beneficial to consider the unique effects of different safety-seeking strategies when assessing and treating SAD. PMID:21831356

  18. Differential effect of intravenous S-ketamine and fentanyl on atypical odontalgia and capsaicin-evoked pain.

    PubMed

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Juhl, Gitte Irene; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Svensson, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Atypical odontalgia (AO) is an intraoral pain condition of currently unknown mechanisms. In 10 AO patients and 10 matched healthy controls, we examined the effect of intravenous infusion of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist S-ketamine and a mu-opioid agonist fentanyl on spontaneous AO pain and on an acute intraoral nociceptive input evoked by topical application of capsaicin. The drugs were administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over manner. Furthermore, measures of intraoral sensitivity to mechanical and thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) including temporal summation were compared between groups and sides. Both drugs failed to produce an analgesic effect on spontaneous AO pain, but fentanyl effectively reduced capsaicin-evoked pain. AO patients showed increased sensitivity to capsaicin and heat pain, but no significant differences in cold and mechanical sensitivity compared with healthy controls. No side-to-side differences in QST measures were found in AO patients. The present study demonstrates that AO is unlikely to be primarily due to a persistent afferent barrage from the peripheral region. Furthermore, in contrast to studies on various neuropathic pain conditions, fentanyl and S-ketamine in the present doses failed to attenuate AO pain. PMID:17088020

  19. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  20. Structural analysis of A-type or B-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins by thiolytic degradation and the implication in their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Akihiro, Takashi; Yokota, Kazushige

    2011-10-21

    Compared with oligomeric proanthocyanidins, highly polymeric proanthocyanidins have more difficulty to analyze the molecular sizes and the mode of interflavan linkages of flavan-3-ol units through doubly linked A-type bonds and single B-type bonds. Recently, we have shown that seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut contain highly polymeric proanthocyanidins as dominant polyphenolics that can be separated into two fractions according to the difference in the molecular sizes. Here, we tried to perform the structural characterization of them in terms of the molecular sizes and the proportions of A-type linkages relative to B-type linkages. The results were compared with those of the corresponding preparations with variations in the sizes from fruits of blueberry and cranberry. Gel permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut when they are compared between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units of those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS). These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in the both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that higher molecular sizes and more abundance of A-type bonds in polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising key factors for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary

  1. Stress and the social brain: behavioural effects and neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sandi, Carmen; Haller, József

    2015-05-01

    Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high-level or persistent stress, individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours - including social detachment and violence - is also modulated by early life adversity; however, the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural, functional and molecular changes in the brain that underlie the effects of stress on social behaviour. Findings in this emerging field will have implications both for the clinic and for society. PMID:25891510

  2. 2-Substituted 3β-Aryltropane Cocaine Analogs Produce Atypical Effects without Inducing Inward-Facing Dopamine Transporter Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Weimin C.; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Xu, Lifen; Lomenzo, Stacey A.; Jean, Bernandie; Madura, Jeffry D.; Surratt, Christopher K.; Trudell, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies indicate that a series of cocaine analogs, 3β-aryltropanes with 2β-diarylmethoxy substituents, selectively bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with nanomolar affinities that are 10-fold greater than the affinities of their corresponding 2α-enantiomers. The present study compared these compounds to cocaine with respect to locomotor effects in mice, and assessed their ability to substitute for cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Despite nanomolar DAT affinity, only the 2β-Ph2COCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog fully substituted for cocaine-like discriminative effects. Whereas all of the 2β compounds increased locomotion, only the 2β-(4-ClPh)PhCOCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog had cocaine-like efficacy. None of the 2α-substituted compounds produced either of these cocaine-like effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms of these drugs, their effects on DAT conformation were probed using a cysteine-accessibility assay. Previous reports indicate that cocaine binds with substantially higher affinity to the DAT in its outward (extracellular)- compared with inward-facing conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors, such as benztropine, have greater similarity in affinity to these conformations, and this is postulated to explain their divergent behavioral effects. All of the 2β- and 2α-substituted compounds tested altered cysteine accessibility of DAT in a manner similar to cocaine. Furthermore, molecular dynamics of in silico inhibitor-DAT complexes suggested that the 2-substituted compounds reach equilibrium in the binding pocket in a cocaine-like fashion. These behavioral, biochemical, and computational results show that aryltropane analogs can bind to the DAT and stabilize outward-facing DAT conformations like cocaine, yet produce effects that differ from those of cocaine. PMID:26769919

  3. Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects in rats: involvement of the INSIG/SREBP pathway.

    PubMed

    Dang, Ruili; Jiang, Pei; Cai, Hualin; Li, Huande; Guo, Ren; Wu, Yanqin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhu, Wenye; He, Xin; Liu, Yiping; Xu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major concern in psychotic patients receiving atypical antipsychotics. Recent evidence suggests that sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and insulin-induced genes (INSIGs) are implicated in the antipsychotic-induced metabolic side-effects. Vitamin D (VD) deficiency, a highly prevalent phenomenon among patients with psychosis, might also predispose individuals to metabolic syndrome Considering that VD has modulating effects on the INSIG/SREBP pathway, it is possible that VD may have a role in the antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbances involving its effects on the INSIG/SREBP system. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of VD deficiency and VD supplementation on antipsychotic-induced metabolic changes in rats. After 4-week administration, clozapine (10mg/kg/d) and risperidone (1mg/kg/d) both caused glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in VD deficient rats, but not in rats with sufficient VD status. Antipsychotic treatments, especially clozapine, elevated serum lipid levels, which were most apparent in VD deficient rats, but alleviated in VD-supplemented rats. Additionally, antipsychotic treatments down-regulated INSIGs and up-regulated SREBPs expression in VD deficient rats, and these effects were attenuated when VD status was more sufficient. Collectively, this study disclose the novel findings that antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbances is exacerbated by VD deficiency and can be alleviated by VD supplementation, providing new evidence for the promising role of VD in prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders caused by antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, our data also suggest the involvement of INSIG/SREBP pathway in the antipsychotic-induced hyperlipidemia and beneficial effects of VD on lipid profile. PMID:26003080

  4. Effects of switching to aripiprazole from current atypical antipsychotics on subsyndromal symptoms and tolerability in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Park, Young-Min; Chung, Sangkeun; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Won, Seunghee; Lee, Jeong Goo; Lee, Hwang-Bin; Kim, Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kwanghun; Kim, Moon-Doo

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of aripiprazole among bipolar patients who had switched to this medication as a result of difficulty maintaining on their prestudy atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) because of subsyndromal mood symptoms or intolerance. This study included 77 bipolar patients who were in syndromal remission with an AAP as monotherapy or with an AAP combined with a mood stabilizer(s) who needed to switch from their present AAP because of subsyndromal symptoms or intolerance. At 24 weeks after switching to aripiprazole, the remission rates on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and on both the MADRS and the Young Mania Rating Scale were increased significantly in the full sample and in the inefficacy subgroup. In the inefficacy subgroup, the MADRS score change was significant during the 24 weeks of study. Total cholesterol and prolactin decreased significantly after switching to aripiprazole. The proportion of patients who had abnormal values for central obesity and hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from baseline to week 24. These findings suggest that a change from the current AAP to aripiprazole was associated with improvement in subsyndromal mood symptoms and several lipid/metabolic or safety profile parameters in patients with bipolar disorder with tolerability concerns or subsyndromal mood symptoms. PMID:27487259

  5. Effectiveness of Rufinamide in the Treatment of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy With Atypical Evolution: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Albini, Mariarita; Morano, Alessandra; Fanella, Martina; Lapenta, Leonardo; Casciato, Sara; Fattouch, Jinane; Manfredi, Mario; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Rufinamide (RFD) is a novel drug that was recently approved as an adjunctive treatment for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Despite its reported effectiveness in generalized seizures (tonic, atonic, or tonic-clonic) in this syndrome, few data on its use in idiopathic generalized epilepsy are available. Indeed, the scientific evidence to date is limited to anecdotal cases or isolated clinical experiences. We report an uncommon, though paradigmatic, case of a woman affected by juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) who, following a prolonged seizure-freedom period and the consequent withdrawal of valproate, presented a seizure relapse accompanied by a worsening in her electroclinical pattern. In view of this atypical evolution of JAE, characterized by drug-resistant seizures (absence and generalized tonic-clonic) and the progressive increase in electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities, several antiepileptic drugs were used, though to no benefit. The use of RFD instead led to a gradual control of the seizures and normalization of the EEG findings. In addition to this clinical experience, we briefly review the literature on the use of RFD in refractory generalized epilepsy. PMID:25420625

  6. Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ann; Davies, Drew; Menon, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted to a psychiatric ward in a confused state. He had a 30-year history of lately stable schizophrenia and antipsychotic medication had recently been reduced. The clinical picture was characterised by confusion, agitation, autonomic instability, muscle rigidity and elevated creatine kinase. Despite no other identifiable cause, physicians were reluctant to accept a diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) due to the absence of fever. Despite acute renal failure, the patient was repeatedly transferred between medical and psychiatric wards; diagnosis and management were delayed, with potentially catastrophic consequences. NMS is a rare, life-threatening neurological disorder that can present atypically and requires emergency medical rather than psychiatric care. Clinicians must proactively distinguish between medical emergencies (including acute confusional states/delirium) and mental illness. Prompt, accurate diagnosis, management on the appropriate ward and effective teamwork between specialties are essential to improve patient outcomes in this potentially fatal condition. PMID:27298291

  7. Effect of Long-Term Use of Bisphosphonates on Forearm Bone: Atypical Ulna Fractures in Elderly Woman with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Yusuf; Atbasi, Zafer; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus; Kavadar, Gülis; Demiralp, Bahtiyar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common musculoskeletal disease of the elderly population characterized by decreased bone mineral density and subsequent fractures. Bisphosphonates are a widely accepted drug therapy which act through inhibition of bone resorption and prevent fractures. However, in long-term use, atypical bisphosphonate induced fractures may occur, particularly involving the lower weight bearing extremity. Atypical ulna fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate use is rarely reported in current literature. We present a 62-year-old woman with atypical ulna due to long-term alendronate therapy without a history of trauma or fall. Clinicians should be aware of stress fracture in a patient who has complaints of upper extremity pain and history of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. PMID:27595031

  8. Effect of Long-Term Use of Bisphosphonates on Forearm Bone: Atypical Ulna Fractures in Elderly Woman with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Atbasi, Zafer; Kavadar, Gülis; Demiralp, Bahtiyar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common musculoskeletal disease of the elderly population characterized by decreased bone mineral density and subsequent fractures. Bisphosphonates are a widely accepted drug therapy which act through inhibition of bone resorption and prevent fractures. However, in long-term use, atypical bisphosphonate induced fractures may occur, particularly involving the lower weight bearing extremity. Atypical ulna fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate use is rarely reported in current literature. We present a 62-year-old woman with atypical ulna due to long-term alendronate therapy without a history of trauma or fall. Clinicians should be aware of stress fracture in a patient who has complaints of upper extremity pain and history of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. PMID:27595031

  9. Classroom Behaviour Management: Educational Psychologists' Views on Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of children and young people in schools is a perennial concern to educators and the wider public alike. It also represents a significant focus for the work of educational psychologists (EPs). Research evidence has identified a number of strategies that teachers, students and school inspectors believe contribute to effective classroom…

  10. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  11. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger’s disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  12. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  13. Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  14. Effect of in utero exposure to the atypical anti-psychotic risperidone on histopathological features of the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Singh, Manoj K; Gautam, Shrikant

    2016-04-01

    For clinical management of different forms of psychosis, both classical and atypical anti-psychotic drugs (APDs) are available. These drugs are widely prescribed, even during pregnancy considering their minimal extra-pyramidal side effects and teratogenic potential compared to classical APDs. Among AAPDs, risperidone (RIS) is a first-line drug of choice by physicians. The molecular weight of RIS is 410.49 g/mol; hence, it can easily cross the placental barrier and enter the foetal bloodstream. It is not known whether or not AAPDs like RIS may affect the developing placenta and foetus adversely. Reports on this issue are limited and sketchy. Therefore, this study has evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS on placental growth, histopathological and cytoarchitectural changes, and to establish a relationship between placental dysfunction and foetal outcomes. Pregnant rats (n = 24) were exposed to selected doses (0.8, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) of RIS from gestation days 6-21. These dams were sacrificed; their placentas and foetuses were collected, morphometrically examined and further processed for histopathological examination. This study revealed that in utero exposure to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS during organogenesis-induced placental dystrophy (size and weight), disturbed cytoarchitectural organization (thickness of different placental layers), histopathological lesions (necrosis in trophoblast with disruption of trophoblastic septa and rupturing of maternal-foetal interface) and intrauterine growth restriction of the foetuses. It may be concluded that multifactorial mechanisms might be involved in the dysregulation of structure and function of the placenta and of poor foetal growth and development. PMID:27256515

  15. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-12

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  16. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  17. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Anna M; Kakulas, Foteini; Hepworth, Anna R; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-10-01

    Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks) collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454) were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184). However, larger feed volumes (>105 g) were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009). There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313) or lactose levels (p = 0.587) between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056). Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001) indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng) was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232). Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings. PMID:26437426

  18. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Pulong; Yang, Yifu; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Li, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s) in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s) that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F) and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1), parameritannin A1, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin C1, from Cinnamomum tamala or Cinnamomum cassia bark were examined on splenocytes proliferation model induced by ConA or LPS. Then, the effects of activated compound CTD-1 on cytokine production and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were detected to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of CTD-1. It was found that CT-F and CTD-1 significantly inhibited the splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA or LPS. CTD-1 dose-dependently reduced the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 and intensively suppressed DNFB-induced DTH responses. These findings suggest that the immunosuppressive activities of cinnamon bark are in part due to procyanidin oligomers. CTD-1 may be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases. PMID:25530780

  19. A Concept for Optimizing Behavioural Effectiveness & Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barca, Jan Carlo; Rumantir, Grace; Li, Raymond

    Both humans and machines exhibit strengths and weaknesses that can be enhanced by merging the two entities. This research aims to provide a broader understanding of how closer interactions between these two entities can facilitate more optimal goal-directed performance through the use of artificial extensions of the human body. Such extensions may assist us in adapting to and manipulating our environments in a more effective way than any system known today. To demonstrate this concept, we have developed a simulation where a semi interactive virtual spider can be navigated through an environment consisting of several obstacles and a virtual predator capable of killing the spider. The virtual spider can be navigated through the use of three different control systems that can be used to assist in optimising overall goal directed performance. The first two control systems use, an onscreen button interface and a touch sensor, respectively to facilitate human navigation of the spider. The third control system is an autonomous navigation system through the use of machine intelligence embedded in the spider. This system enables the spider to navigate and react to changes in its local environment. The results of this study indicate that machines should be allowed to override human control in order to maximise the benefits of collaboration between man and machine. This research further indicates that the development of strong machine intelligence, sensor systems that engage all human senses, extra sensory input systems, physical remote manipulators, multiple intelligent extensions of the human body, as well as a tighter symbiosis between man and machine, can support an upgrade of the human form.

  20. Treatment of Morbidity with Atypical Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cott, Arthur

    1987-01-01

    The appropriate management of atypical chest pain requires an integration of medical and behavioural treatments. Unnecessary medicalization can increase morbidity. A sensitivity to the behavioural factors contributing to symptoms and disability may reduce both. The purpose of this paper is to provide physicians with a cognitive-behavioural perspective of the nature of morbidity and disability associated with chronic chest discomfort; some strategies for detecting heretofore unsuspected disability associated with chronic chest pain and related discomfort in patients with organic findings (both cardiac and non-cardiac), as well those with no identifiable disease process or organic cause; and some simple behavioural and cognitive-behavioural therapeutic techniques for treating and preventing such problems. PMID:21263912

  1. Testing the bi-dimensional effects of attitudes on behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Brewster, Sarah E; Thomson, James A; Malcolm, Carly; Rasmussen, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Attitudes are typically treated as unidimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. On the basis of previous research showing that attitudes comprise two independent, positive and negative dimensions, we hypothesized that attitudes would be bi-dimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. We focused on health-risk behaviours. We therefore also hypothesized that the positive dimension of attitude (evaluations of positive behavioural outcomes) would better predict both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour than would the negative dimension, consistent with the positivity bias/offset principle. In Study 1 (cross sectional design), N = 109 university students completed questionnaire measures of their intentions to binge-drink and the positive and negative dimensions of attitude. Consistent with the hypotheses, both attitude dimensions independently predicted behavioural intentions and the positive dimension was a significantly better predictor than was the negative dimension. The same pattern of findings emerged in Study 2 (cross sectional design; N = 186 university students) when we predicted intentions to binge-drink, smoke and consume a high-fat diet. Similarly, in Study 3 (prospective design; N = 1,232 speed limit offenders), both the positive and negative dimensions of attitude predicted subsequent (6-month post-baseline) speeding behaviour on two different road types and the positive dimension was the better predictor. The implications for understanding the motivation of behaviour and the development of behaviour-change interventions are discussed. PMID:25440892

  2. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, L; Damgaard, B M; Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Herskin, M S

    2012-12-01

    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows. Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P=0.008), frequency of head shaking (P=0.016), and decreased rumination (P=0.064). After biopsies, tail pressing (P=0.016) and time spent perching (P=0.058) increased. Time spent upright (P=0.10) and number of leg movements (P=0.033) increased during the night as compared to controls. Thus, liver biopsy induced behavioural changes for up to 19 h--and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare. Therefore, if the present biopsy procedure--involving several biopsy passes--is to be used, improvement of the anaesthetic protocol as well as the inclusion of analgesics should be considered. PMID:22542802

  3. Relationship between atypical depression and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Binbay, Zerrin; Yüksel, Cağrı; Deveci, Erdem; Tükel, Raşit

    2015-01-30

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of atypical and non-atypical depression comorbidity on the clinical characteristics and course of social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 247 patients with SAD were enrolled: 145 patients with a current depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar) with atypical features, 43 patients with a current depressive episode with non-atypical features and 25 patients without a lifetime history of depressive episodes were compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical features, comorbidity rates, and severity of SAD, depression and functional impairment. Thirty four patients with a past but not current history of major depressive episodes were excluded from the comparisons. 77.1% of current depressive episodes were associated with atypical features. Age at onset of SAD and age at initial major depressive episode were lower in the group with atypical depression than in the group with non-atypical depression. History of suicide attempts and bipolar disorder comorbidity was more common in the atypical depression group as well. Atypical depression group has higher SAD and depression severity and lower functionality than group with non-atypical depression. Our results indicate that the presence of atypical depression is associated with more severe symptoms and more impairment in functioning in patients with SAD. PMID:25454116

  4. Atypical autoerotic deaths

    SciTech Connect

    Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. )

    1992-06-01

    So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of death are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.

  5. Personalising nutritional guidance for more effective behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Lara, Jose; Mathers, John C

    2015-05-01

    Improving diet and other lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing wellbeing. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Evidence-based, personalised (or stratified) interventions which incorporate effective behaviour change techniques (BCT) and which are delivered digitally are likely to be an important route to scalable and sustainable interventions. Progress in developing such interventions will depend on the outcomes of research on: (i) the best bases for personalisation of dietary advice; (ii) identification of BCT which are proven to enhance intervention efficacy; (iii) suitable platforms (digital-based tools) for collection of relevant participant characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic information, current diet and lifestyle and dietary preferences) linked with intelligent systems which use those characteristics to offer tailored feedback and advice in a cost-effective and acceptable manner. Future research should focus on such interventions aiming to reduce health inequalities and to improve overall public health. PMID:25497396

  6. Atypical presentation of atypical mycobacteria in atypical diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sugata Narayan; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Satpathi, Partha Sarathi; Patra, Shinjan

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old, non-obese male presented with low-grade, remittent fever and a fluctuant swelling over the posterior aspect of his lower left flank. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, raised ESR, hyperglycemia and raised HbA1C levels. Light microscopy of Ziehl–Neelsen-stained pus sample revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli. After 72 h of incubating aspirated pus in Löwenstein–Jensen media, non-pigmented, cream-colored colonies were observed, suggestive of rapid-growing atypical forms of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction of isolated bacteria identified Mycobacterium chelonae as causative organism. Abdominal skiagram revealed extensive pancreatic intraductal calcifications suggestive of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes and lumbar vertebral body destruction with evidence of paravertebral abscess. The patient was prescribed a split-mixed insulin regimen, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin with complete resolution of the subcutaneous abscess at 6 months. Diabetic patients are prone to infections. Mycobacteria, especially atypical ones, involving the spine and subcutaneous tissues have rarely been reported. PMID:27127641

  7. Evolving effective behaviours to interact with tag-based populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Osman; Crawford, Chad; Sen, Sandip

    2015-07-01

    Tags and other characteristics, externally perceptible features that are consistent among groups of animals or humans, can be used by others to determine appropriate response strategies in societies. This usage of tags can be extended to artificial environments, where agents can significantly reduce cognitive effort spent on appropriate strategy choice and behaviour selection by reusing strategies for interacting with new partners based on their tags. Strategy selection mechanisms developed based on this idea have successfully evolved stable cooperation in games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game but relies upon payoff sharing and matching methods that limit the applicability of the tag framework. Our goal is to develop a general classification and behaviour selection approach based on the tag framework. We propose and evaluate alternative tag matching and adaptation schemes for a new, incoming individual to select appropriate behaviour against any population member of an existing, stable society. Our proposed approach allows agents to evolve both the optimal tag for the environment as well as appropriate strategies for existing agent groups. We show that these mechanisms will allow for robust selection of optimal strategies by agents entering a stable society and analyse the various environments where this approach is effective.

  8. Management of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with atypical antipsychotics: a systematic review of published clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter S; Buitelaar, Jan; Pandina, Gahan J; Binder, Carin; Haas, Magali

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to provide a descriptive review of treatment studies of atypical antipsychotics in paediatric psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of the literature used Medline and EMBASE databases to identify clinical trials of atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents between 1994 and 2006. Trials were limited to double-blind studies and open-label studies of > or = 8 weeks duration that included > or = 20 patients. Nineteen double-blind and 22 open-label studies were identified. Studies included use of clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in the treatment of disruptive behavioural disorders (DBDs), pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), tic disorder, psychotic disorders, and mania. These medications generally reduced the severity of a variety of psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents. Less frequent adverse events included extrapyramidal symptoms, hyperglycaemia and diabetes, and endocrine effects. The review of published scientific data suggests that most of the atypical antipsychotics, excluding clozapine, have a favourable risk/benefit profile and effectively reduce disabling behaviours in paediatric psychiatric patients. While there is a body of evidence published of treatment of DBDs and PDDs, there is a lack of controlled data to guide clinical practice for the use of atypical antipsychotics for paediatric psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder. While there have been studies with duration up to 2 years, no definitive data are available that suggest long-term safety; additional studies are warranted. PMID:17075688

  9. Atypical Optic Neuritis.

    PubMed

    Gaier, Eric D; Boudreault, Katherine; Rizzo, Joseph F; Falardeau, Julie; Cestari, Dean M

    2015-12-01

    Classic demyelinative optic neuritis is associated with multiple sclerosis and typically carries a good prognosis for visual recovery. This disorder is well characterized with respect to its presentation and clinical features by baseline data obtained through the optic neuritis treatment trial and numerous other studies. Atypical optic neuritis entails clinical manifestations that deviate from this classic pattern of features. Clinical signs and symptoms that deviate from the typical presentation should prompt consideration of less common etiologies. Atypical features to consider include lack of pain, simultaneous or near-simultaneous onset, lack of response to or relapse upon tapering from corticosteroids, or optic nerve head or peripapillary hemorrhages. The most important alternative etiologies to consider and the steps towards their respective diagnostic evaluations are suggested for these atypical features. PMID:26467052

  10. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: the impact of socio-economic factors and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics drugs.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; de Araújo Dantas, Diego; do Nascimento, Gemma Galgani; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Chaves, Katarina Melo; de Lima Silva, Vanessa; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on quality of life (QoL) and side effects in 218 patients with schizophrenia attending the ambulatory services of psychiatric in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socio-economic variables were compared. The five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate QoL, and side effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. Data were analysed using the χ (2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Average monthly household incomes in the medication groups were 1.1-2.1 minimum wages ($339-$678). UKU Scale scores showed significant differences in side effects, mainly, clozapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone (p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores showed that all drugs except olanzapine significantly impacted mobility (p < 0.05), and proportions of individuals reporting problems in other dimensions were high: 63.6 % of clozapine users reported mobility problems, 63.7 and 56.3 % of clozapine and ziprasidone users, respectively, had difficulties with usual activities, 68.8 and 54.5 % of ziprasidone and clozapine users, respectively, experienced pain and/or discomfort, and 72.8 % of clozapine users reported anxiety and/or depression. Psychiatric, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects, as well as other side effects, were prevalent in users of atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine and ziprasidone. Olanzapine had the least side effects. QoL was impacted by side effects and economic conditions in all groups. Thus, the effects of these antipsychotic agents appear to have been masked by aggravating social and economic situations. PMID:24789610

  11. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  12. Atypical parkinsonism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2015-02-01

    Atypical parkinsonism comprises typically progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and mutilple system atrophy, which are distinct pathologic entities; despite ongoing research, their cause and pathophysiology are still unknown, and there are no biomarkers or effective treatments available. The expanding phenotypic spectrum of these disorders as well as the expanding pathologic spectrum of their classic phenotypes makes the early differential diagnosis challenging for the clinician. Here, clinical features and investigations that may help to diagnose these conditions and the existing limited treatment options are discussed. PMID:25432722

  13. The effect of road tunnel environment on car following behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jian Sheng; Wong, Yiik Diew

    2014-09-01

    In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this study, car following data are obtained from traffic video footages of open and tunnel expressways in Singapore. A total of 15,325 car following headways (with car as the follower) are analysed and significant factors affecting headways are found to be speed, and lane. Significant effect of leading vehicle type is only found for tunnel expressway. Headways are generally longer in the tunnel environment. Assessment of collision time measures and safety margins also reveal safer car following behaviour and lower rear-end collision risks in the tunnel expressway. The results are discussed from a behavioural perspective. Overall, the findings show that road tunnels are superior in terms of safety but at reduced traffic capacity . PMID:24713218

  14. Environmental effects of dredging. Routine and atypical wetland determinations according to ce wetlands delineation manual. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods for delineating wetlands that have been published as the Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. It provides an abbreviated version of the manual and lists the wetland indicators and steps in the basic procedure for making routine and atypical wetlands determinations. This procedure does not replace that described in the manual, but serves as a reminder of steps required for making wetland determinations. The user should be familiar with both the manual and the terms used in this reference; many details and cautionary statements contained in the manual are omitted here. The user is referred to the manual for details. This abbreviated version is also being printed on waterproof paper in a size that will fit into the loose leaf binder used for the Munsell soil color charts and will serve as a field reference.

  15. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of off-label atypical antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD who have failed stimulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Minji; Talbert, Jeffery; Moga, Daniela C; Blumenschein, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the expected health outcomes of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and other non-stimulant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of AAPs compared to other non-stimulant ADHD medications. We used decision analysis to compare three alternatives for treating children and adolescents with ADHD who failed initial stimulant treatment: (1) AAPs, (2) a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (atomoxetine), and (3) selective α2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine and guanfacine). Probability estimates and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) weights were derived from a literature review. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using the expected health outcomes derived from the decision analysis and expected costs from the literature. The study was conducted from the third-party payer perspective, and the study period was 1 year. One-way deterministic sensitivity analysis and a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Over the course of 1 year of ADHD pharmacotherapy, the highest QALY was for clonidine/guanfacine (expected QALY = 0.95) followed by atomoxetine (expected QALY = 0.94). Atypical antipsychotics yielded the lowest health outcome with an expected QALY of 0.84. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the AAP strategy was dominated as it was less effective and more costly than other two strategies. Compared to clonidine/guanfacine, AAPs provided lower QALYs (0.11 QALY lost) at an additional cost of $2186 on average. Compared to atomoxetine, AAPs resulted in 0.10 QALYs lost at an additional cost of $2186. In this decision analysis model, AAPs provide lower expected health outcomes than other ADHD medications in children and adolescents who failed prior stimulant therapy. Furthermore, AAPs were not a cost-effective option. PMID:27143026

  17. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive. PMID:26549151

  18. Endocervical Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanasios; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Athanasiou, Stavros; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Atypical polypoid adenomyomas (APAMs) are rare uterine tumors that occur predominantly in premenopausal women, with less than 250 cases reported so far, worldwide. They may recur after treatment, and they may coexist with, or precede development of an endometrial adenocarcinoma. For this reason cases managed with conservative surgery or medical therapies require long-term follow-up. We report the case of a 41 years old nulliparous patient who during a diagnostic hysteroscopy was found with an endocervical atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APAM). The patient was desirous of a pregnancy, reported menometrorrhagia, and had a coexistent 5 cm, grade 2, submucous myoma, 3 endometrial polyps, and diffuse adenomyosis. She was treated with hysteroscopic resection of the APAM and polyps, plus laparoscopic myomectomy and wedge resection of adenomyosis. She is on an IVF list and after 4 months she is symptoms-free. PMID:26304721

  19. Possible role of more positive social behaviour in the clinical effect of antidepressant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon N.; Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Rot, Marije aan het

    2014-01-01

    Increasing serotonin decreases quarrelsome behaviours and enhances agreeable behaviours in humans. Antidepressants, even those whose primary action is not on serotonin, seem to increase serotonin function. We suggest that antidepressants act in part by effects on social behaviour, which leads to a gradual improvement in mood. We review the evidence supporting the idea that anti-depressants may be moving behaviour from quarrelsome to agreeable. The more positive social responses of interaction partners would initiate a cycle of more positive social behaviour, and this iterative process would result in a clinically significant improvement in mood. PMID:24280182

  20. Antidepressants but not antipsychotics have antiepileptogenic effects with limited effects on comorbid depressive-like behaviour in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Citraro, Rita; Leo, Antonio; De Fazio, Pasquale; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Two of the most relevant unmet needs in epilepsy are represented by the development of disease-modifying drugs able to affect epileptogenesis and/or the study of related neuropsychiatric comorbidities. No systematic study has investigated the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants on epileptogenesis. However, such drugs are known to influence seizure threshold. Experimental Approach We evaluated the effects of an early long-term treatment (ELTT; 17 weeks), started before seizure onset (P45), with fluoxetine (selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor), duloxetine (dual-acting 5-HT-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor), haloperidol (typical antipsychotic drug), risperidone and quetiapine (atypical antipsychotic drugs) on the development of absence seizures and comorbid depressive-like behaviour in the WAG/Rij rat model. Furthermore, we studied the effects of these drugs on established absence seizures in adult (6-month-old) rats after a chronic 7 weeks treatment. Key Results ELTT with all antipsychotics did not affect the development of seizures, whereas, both ELTT haloperidol (1 mg·kg−1 day−1) and risperidone (0.5 mg·kg−1 day−1) increased immobility time in the forced swimming test and increased absence seizures only in adult rats (7 weeks treatment). In contrast, both fluoxetine (30 mg·kg−1 day−1) and duloxetine (10–30 mg·kg−1 day−1) exhibited clear antiepileptogenic effects. Duloxetine decreased and fluoxetine increased absence seizures in adult rats. Duloxetine did not affect immobility time; fluoxetine 30 mg·kg−1 day−1 reduced immobility time while at 10 mg·kg−1 day−1 an increase was observed. Conclusions and Implications In this animal model, antipsychotics had no antiepileptogenic effects and might worsen depressive-like comorbidity, while antidepressants have potential antiepileptogenic effects even though they have limited effects on comorbid depressive-like behaviour. PMID

  1. Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication…

  2. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Leppämäki, Sami; Partonen, Timo; Vakkuri, Olli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partinen, Markku; Laudon, Moshe

    2003-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of melatonin on sleep, waking up and well being in subjects with varying degrees of seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Fifty-eight healthy adults exhibiting subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (s-SAD) and/or the negative or positive type of weather-associated syndrome (WAS) were randomised to either 2 mg of sustained-release melatonin or placebo tablets 1-2 h before a desired bedtime for 3 weeks. Outcome measures were changes from baseline in sleep quality, sleepiness after waking, atypical depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life by week three. Early morning salivary melatonin concentrations were measured at baseline and treatment cessation in all subjects. Melatonin administration significantly improved the quality of sleep (P=0.03) and vitality (P=0.02) in the subjects with s-SAD, but attenuated the improvement of atypical symptoms and physical parameters of quality of life compared to placebo in the subjects with WAS, positive type. PMID:12729938

  3. Atypical and Typical Antipsychotics in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Chad A.; Dean, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic medications within the school-age population is rapidly increasing. Although typical antipsychotics may be used in rare cases, this influx is largely secondary to the availability of the atypical antipsychotics. Reduction of possible adverse effects and increased efficacy represent the primary basis for the atypical…

  4. Noradrenaline effects on social behaviour, intergroup relations, and moral decisions.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, S; Savulescu, J; Chesterman, L P; Cowen, P J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has begun to elucidate the neural basis of higher order social concepts, such as the mechanisms involved in intergroup relations, and moral judgments. Most theories have concentrated on higher order emotions, such as guilt, shame, or empathy, as core mechanisms. Accordingly, psychopharmacological and neurobiological studies have investigated the effects of manipulating serotonin or oxytocin activity on moral and social decisions and attitudes. However, recently it has been determined that changes in more basic emotions, such as fear and anger, might also have a significant role in social and moral cognition. This article summarizes psychopharmacological and fMRI research on the role of noradrenaline in higher order social cognition suggesting that indeed noradrenergic mediated affective changes might play key - and probably causal - role in certain social attitudes and moral judgments. Social judgments may also be directly influenced by numerous neurotransmitter manipulations but these effects could be mediated by modulation of basic emotions which appear to play an essential role in the formation of social concepts and moral behaviour. PMID:27126289

  5. Atypical odontalgia--an update.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seena B; Boros, Audrey L; Kumar, Satish K S

    2012-09-01

    Atypical odontalgia is a commonly misdiagnosed condition that frequently leads to unnecessary dental treatments such as extraction and endodontic therapy. These treatments often worsen the pain. Despite greater recognition and understanding of this condition, proper diagnosis and treatment remains a challenge. It is believed that atypical odontalgia is a neuropathic condition. This article updates the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of atypical odontalgia, and provides appropriate diagnostic and management approaches for this condition. PMID:23097829

  6. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  7. The effect of noncognitive traits on health behaviours in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendolia, Silvia; Walker, Ian

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between personality traits and health behaviours in adolescence using a large and recent cohort study. In particular, we investigate the impact of locus of control, self-esteem and work ethics at ages 15-16 years on the incidence of health behaviours such as alcohol consumption, cannabis and other drug use, unprotected and early sexual activity and sports and physical activity. We use matching methods to control for a very rich set of adolescent and family characteristics, and we find that personality traits do affect health behaviours. In particular, individuals with external locus of control, low self-esteem or with low levels of work ethics seem more likely in engage in risky health behaviours. PMID:24677274

  8. Silver nanoparticles: behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Fabrega, Julia; Luoma, Samuel N; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S; Lead, Jamie R

    2011-02-01

    This review summarises and evaluates the present knowledge on the behaviour, the biological effects and the routes of uptake of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to organisms, with considerations on the nanoparticle physicochemistry in the ecotoxicity testing systems used. Different types of Ag NP syntheses, characterisation techniques and predicted current and future concentrations in the environment are also outlined. Rapid progress in this area has been made over the last few years, but there is still a critical lack of understanding of the need for characterisation and synthesis in environmental and ecotoxicological studies. Concentration and form of nanomaterials in the environment are difficult to quantify and methodological progress is needed, although sophisticated exposure models show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for Ag NPs in different environmental compartments are at the range of ng L(-1) to mg kg(-1). The ecotoxicological literature shows that concentrations of Ag NPs below the current and future PECs, as low as just a few ng L(-1), can affect prokaryotes, invertebrates and fish indicating a significant potential, though poorly characterised, risk to the environment. Mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood although it seems clear that in some cases nanoscale specific properties may cause biouptake and toxicity over and above that caused by the dissolved Ag ion. This review concludes with a set of recommendations for the advancement of understanding of the role of nanoscale silver in environmental and ecotoxicological research. PMID:21159383

  9. Authentic leadership and its effect on employees' organizational citizenship behaviours.

    PubMed

    Edú Valsania, Sergio; Moriano León, Juan A; Molero Alonso, Fernando; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela

    2012-11-01

    The studies that have verified the positive association of authentic leadership with organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs), have used global measures of both constructs. Therefore, the goal of this work is to analyze the effect of authentic leadership on employees' OCBs, specifically focusing on the relations of the four components of authentic leadership with the individual and organizational dimensions of the OCBs. The participants of this study were 220 Spanish employees (30.9% men and 69.1% women) who completed a questionnaire that included the variables of interest in this study: Authentic Leadership, OCB and Sociobiographical control variables. The results, obtained with stepwise multiple regression analysis, show that two components of authentic leadership-moral perspective and relational transparency-present significant relationships with OCB. Moreover, authentic leadership is a better predictor of employees' OCB when these behaviors are impersonal and directed towards the organization than when they are directed towards other people. These results have practical implications for human resources management in organizations, especially in selection processes and when training top executives. PMID:23079352

  10. Preparation of Methylated Products of A-type Procyanidin Trimers in Cinnamon Bark and Their Protective Effects on Pancreatic β-Cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Chen, Liang; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Pulong; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Wang, Heyao; Li, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenols are partial metabolized to methylated conjugations in vivo, and then could modify bioavailability and bioactivity related to the uptake of parent compounds. Our previous studies have found that the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon barks are mainly related to polyphenol components, particularly A-type procyanidin trimer cinnamtannin-1 (CT1). It is necessary to understand the antidiabetic activity of methylations of CT1, nevertheless, sufficient amounts of methylated CT1 are difficult to obtain from metabolites in vivo. In this study, O-methyl derivatives of CT1 were prepared through one-pot methyl iodide reaction and isolation via column chromatography and RP-HPLC semipreparation. The structures of O-methyl substituents were determined through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and HPLC-ESI-MS (High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry). Five purified O-methyl substituents and 2 isomers of CT1 were obtained. Their protective effects on a palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis model were then evaluated. Results showed that the protective effects on pancreatic β-cell of O-methyl substituents were weaker than those of CT1. The results suggested that the methylation of catechol groups could be a relevant factor contributing to the decline of protective effects on pancreatic β-cell of CT1 via obstructing quinone intermediate formation and affecting antioxidant abilities. The antidiabetic effects of O-methyl derivatives of CT1 should be further determined by other antidiabetic models. PMID:27074527

  11. Testing atypical depression definitions.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2005-01-01

    The evidence supporting the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression (AD) is weak. This study aimed to test different definitions of AD. Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients (N = 254) and bipolar-II (BP-II) outpatients (N = 348) were interviewed consecutively, during major depressive episodes, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. DSM-IV criteria for AD were followed. AD validators were female gender, young onset, BP-II, axis I comorbidity, bipolar family history. Frequency of DSM-IV AD was 43.0%. AD, versus non-AD, was significantly associated with all AD validators, apart from comorbidity when controlling for age and sex. Factor analysis of atypical symptoms found factor 1 including oversleeping, overeating and weight gain (leaden paralysis at trend correlation), and factor 2 including interpersonal sensitivity, mood reactivity, and leaden paralysis. Multiple logistic regression of factor 1 versus AD validators found significant associations with several validators (including bipolar family history), whereas factor 2 had no significant associations. Findings may support a new definition of AD based on the state-dependent features oversleeping and overeating (plus perhaps leaden paralysis) versus the current AD definition based on a combination of state and trait features. Pharmacological studies are required to support any new definition of AD, as the current concept of AD is based on different response to TCA antidepressants versus non-AD. PMID:16175877

  12. Effect of Embelin Against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Sickness Behaviour in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ashique; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S; Thippeswamy, B S; Patil, Jagadevappa S

    2016-05-01

    Sickness behaviour is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioural changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection. It is relevant to understanding depression and some aspects of the suffering that in cancer. Embelin has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and anxiolytic assets and has been shown to inhibit nuclear factor κB pathway and cytokine production. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of embelin isolated from Embelia ribes Burm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were pre-treated with embelin (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then challenged with LPS (400 µg/kg, i.p.). At different time intervals of post-LPS challenge, sickness behaviour was evaluated in the animals by battery of behavioural tests (plus maze, open field, light-dark box, forced swim, social behaviour assessment, sucrose preference and food and water intake). Levels of oxidative stress makers (reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation) in mice brain were also analysed. LPS induced behavioural alterations, anhedonia and anorexia, in mice. Pre-treatment with embelin attenuated behavioural changes induced by LPS. In addition, embelin prevented anhedonia, anorexia and ameliorated brain oxidative stress markers. The experimental outcomes of the present study demonstrated protective effect of embelin in LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26890475

  13. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. PMID:25448429

  14. Atypical histiocytosis in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weijun; Zhang, Rongxuan; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Jinfu; Garfield, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report a rare case of atypical histiocytic tumor of the lung with a review of literature. Methods The clinical materials were noted. Literature related to this condition from the past 50 years was reviewed from the group of histiocytic tumors. Results and conclusions Clinical manifestations were non-specific. The imaging characteristics of our case were infiltrative lesions with multiple cysts in both lungs. Pathology showed nodular proliferation of atypical cells. Immunohistochemistry suggested a histiocytic origin of the infiltrating atypical cells. Because the pathological findings did not fall into any particular category of typical histiocytic tumors, the final diagnosis was atypical histiocytic tumor. The presentation of atypical histiocytic tumor of the lungs, only, with infiltrative lesions and multiple air cysts seems very rare, with pathological examination being “gold standard” for the diagnosis. PMID:23991320

  15. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes. PMID:26250476

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Effects on Challenging Behaviour among Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…

  17. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  18. The Effects of Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teacher job satisfaction. The population of this study is 29 primary schools in Duzce, Turkey. Data were collected from 595 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce province of Turkey. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were determined…

  19. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  20. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  1. Effects of Conformism on the Cultural Evolution of Social Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner’s Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23874528

  2. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  3. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  4. Atypical odontalgia: a review.

    PubMed

    Koratkar, Harish; Pedersen, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Since persistent and chronic pain is more common in the head and neck region than in any other part of the body, dentists are more likely to encounter these rather complex cases in their practices. This article is a review and update on atypical odontalgia (AO). AO is a persistent neuropathic pain which may be initiated after deafferentiation of trigeminal nerve fibers following root canal treatment, apicectomy, or tooth extraction, or it may be of idiopathic origin. Details concerning its characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and treatment are made. The aim of this article is to help the clinician with the diagnosis and management of AO. The prognosis for AO is most often only fair, and the administration of tricyclic antidepressants often resolves symptoms. Invasive and irreversible treatment attempts are not recommended. PMID:18363287

  5. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  6. Atypical chemokine receptors in cancer: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Massara, Matteo; Bonavita, Ornella; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine system is a fundamental component of cancer-related inflammation involved in all stages of cancer development. It controls not only leukocyte infiltration in primary tumors but also angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and migration to metastatic sites. Atypical chemokine receptors are a new, emerging class of regulators of the chemokine system. They control chemokine bioavailability by scavenging, transporting, or storing chemokines. They can also regulate the activity of canonical chemokine receptors with which they share the ligands by forming heterodimers or by modulating their expression levels or signaling activity. Here, we summarize recent results about the role of these receptors (atypical chemokine receptor 1/Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine, atypical chemokine receptor 2/D6, atypical chemokine receptor 3/CXC-chemokine receptor 7, and atypical chemokine receptor 4/CC-chemokine receptor-like 1) on the tumorigenesis process, indicating that their effects are strictly dependent on the cell type on which they are expressed and on their coexpression with other chemokine receptors. Indeed, atypical chemokine receptors inhibit tumor growth and progression through their activity as negative regulators of chemokine bioavailability, whereas, on the contrary, they can promote tumorigenesis when they regulate the signaling of other chemokine receptors, such as CXC-chemokine receptor 4. Thus, atypical chemokine receptors are key components of the regulatory network of inflammation and immunity in cancer and may have a major effect on anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26908826

  7. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  8. Behavioural and physiological effects of virginiamycin in the diets of horses with stereotypies.

    PubMed

    Freire, R; Clegg, H A; Buckley, P; Friend, M A; McGreevy, P D

    2008-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplements of virginiamycin on the behaviour and physiology of 17 thoroughbred geldings (five cribbers, six weavers and six control horses) were compared with the effects of a placebo over a period of 16 weeks. Virginiamycin had no effect on the horses' stereotypic behaviour, but it reduced their explorative behaviour, possibly owing to a reduction in feeding motivation. Virginiamycin increased the water intake of the cribbers and decreased the water intake of the control horses, but it was not possible to eliminate possible confounding factors for this effect. Virginiamycin had no other significant effects on the behaviour or physiology of the horses, and had no effect on the digestibility of their diets. PMID:18836155

  9. Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

  10. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  11. Role of F1C Fimbriae, Flagella, and Secreted Bacterial Components in the Inhibitory Effect of Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on Atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H.; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Bleiß, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression. PMID:24549324

  12. Domestication effects on behavioural synchronization and individual distances in chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Eklund, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2011-02-01

    Behavioural synchrony (allelomimetic behaviour), and inter-individual distances are aspects of social and anti-predator strategies which may have been affected by domestication. Chickens are known to adjust synchronization and inter-individual distances depending on behaviour. We hypothesized that White Leghorn (WL) chickens would show less synchronized behaviour than the ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF). Sixty birds, 15 female and 15 male WL and the same number of RJF (28 weeks old) were studied in groups of three in furnished pens (1 m×2 m) for 24 consecutive hours per group, following 24 h of habituation. Video tapes covering 4 h per group (dawn, 9-10 am, 1-2 pm and dusk) were analysed. Red junglefowl perched significantly more, but there were no breed effects on the frequency or daily rhythm of any other activities, or on average inter-individual distances. Red junglefowl were more synchronized during perching and a tendency for the same was found for social behaviour. After performance of the two most synchronized behaviours, perching and comfort behaviour, individual distance increased more for RJF than WL. According to this study domestication of chickens appears not to have significantly altered the relative frequencies of different activities or average inter-individual distances, but have caused some changes in behavioural synchronization and maintenance of activity-specific inter-individual distances in chickens. The changes may indicate an adaptive response to captivity and domestication. PMID:21187131

  13. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction. PMID:26221831

  14. Single case evaluation of the effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Brooker, D J; Snape, M; Johnson, E; Ward, D; Payne, M

    1997-05-01

    Aromatherapy and massage could provide a useful addition to psychological therapeutic interventions with clients suffering from dementia. The effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in four individuals with severe dementia were evaluated using a single-case research design. Each participant received 10 treatment sessions of aromatherapy, aromatherapy and massage combined, and massage alone. The effects on each individual's behaviour in the hour following treatment were assessed against 10 'no treatment' control sessions. Reliable individualized disturbed behaviour scales were designed. The effects of the treatments were mixed. The opinion of the staff providing treatment was that all participants benefited. On close scrutiny, only one of the participants benefited from the aromatherapy and massage to a degree that reached statistical significance. In two of the cases aromatherapy and massage led to an increase in agitated behaviour. The importance of the single case study approach with this client group is discussed. PMID:9167869

  15. [Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Blasco Pelicano, Miquel; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Campistol Plana, Josep M

    2015-11-20

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, non-immune hemolytic anemia and renal impairment. Kidney pathology shows thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with endothelial cell injury leading to thrombotic occlusion of arterioles and capillaries. Traditionally, HUS was classified in 2 forms: Typical HUS, most frequently occurring in children and caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, and atypical HUS (aHUS). aHUS is associated with mutations in complement genes in 50-60% of patients and has worse prognosis, with the majority of patients developing end stage renal disease. After kidney transplantation HUS may develop as a recurrence of aHUS or as de novo disease. Over the last years, many studies have demonstrated that complement dysregulation underlies the endothelial damage that triggers the development of TMA in most of these patients. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of aHUS, together with the availability of novel therapeutic options, will enable better strategies for the early diagnosis and etiological treatment, which are changing the natural history of aHUS. This review summarizes the aHUS clinical entity and describes the role of complement dysregulation in the pathogenesis of aHUS. Finally, we review the differential diagnosis and the therapeutic options available to patients with aHUS. PMID:25433773

  16. Effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Flodgren, Gerd; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Taber, Sarah A; Eccles, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Inspection systems are used in health care to promote quality improvements, i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes. These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of health care. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational, provider and patient level outcomes are not clear. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of external inspection of compliance with standards in improving healthcare organisation behaviour, healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases for studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Scopus, HMIC, Index to Theses and Intute from their inception dates up to May 2011. There was no language restriction and studies were included regardless of publication status. We searched the reference lists of included studies and contacted authors of relevant papers, accreditation bodies and the International Organization for Standardisation (ISO), regarding any further published or unpublished work. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), interrupted time-series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) evaluating the effect of external inspection against external standards on healthcare organisation change, healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes in hospitals, primary healthcare organisations and other community-based healthcare organisations. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. Since meta-analysis was

  17. KINOMIC ALTERATIONS IN ATYPICAL MENINGIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Taylor, Robert B.; Fiveash, John B.; de Wijn, Rik; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Willey, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to profile Atypical Meningioma in a high-throughput manner to better understand the altered signaling within these tumors and specifically the kinases altered in recurrent atypical meningioma. Kinomic Profiles could be used to identify prognostic biomarkers for responders/non-responders to classify future patients that are unlikely to benefit from current therapies. Directly these results could be used to identify drug-actionable kinase targets as well. Methods Peptide-substrate microarray kinase activity analysis was conducted with a PamStation®12 analyzing the tyrosine kinome in each tumor kinetically against ~144 target peptides. These data were then analyzed relative to clinical outcome (e.g., tumor recurrence). Results 3 major clusters of atypical meningiomas were identified with highly variant peptides primarily being targets of EGFR family, ABL, BRK and BMX kinases. Kinomic analysis of recurrent atypical meningiomas indicated patterns of increased phosphorylation of BMX, TYRO3 and FAK substrates as compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion The atypical meningiomas profiled here exhibited molecular sub-clustering that may have phenotypic corollaries predictive of outcome. Recurrent tumors had increases in kinase activity that may predict resistance to current therapies, and may guide selection of directed therapies. Taken together these data further the understanding of kinomic alteration in atypical meningioma, and the processes that may not only mediate recurrence, but additionally may identify kinase targets for intervention. PMID:27158663

  18. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species. PMID:21880086

  19. Effect of railway safety education on the safety knowledge and behaviour intention of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether railway safety lessons are effective in increasing schoolchildren's safety knowledge and behaviour intention. The railway safety education in schools included a 45-min lesson on safe behaviour in a railway environment directed at 8-11 year old schoolchildren. The lessons were held in four schools located near railway lines in Finland. The effectiveness of this measure was evaluated based on a short survey directed at pupils before the lesson (base level) and around 2-3 months later (post-lesson) based on three variables which are considered as strong determinants of actual behaviour: behaviour intention, estimated dangerousness of the behaviour, and level of knowledge on the legality of the behaviour. The results show that the change in the share of correct answers was positive regarding all questions except for one question in which the difference was not significant. Based on this we can reasonably assume that railway safety education in schools can have a positive effect for all the measured variables, although the effect is not necessarily large. The results indicate that these positive changes can have a positive effect on the frequency of trespassing (i.e. fewer unsafe crossings in the future). We can further assume that reduction in the frequency of trespassing would reduce the frequency of trespassing accidents. PMID:26690273

  20. Sintering behaviour of feldspar and influence of electric charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallala, W.; Gaied, M. E.

    2011-04-01

    The characterization of feldspar for electric porcelain and the behaviour of these materials after heating at 1230°C were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the present phases and the densification level. Feldspar sand was treated by flotation. The floated feldspar is constituted by microcline, quartz, and minor amounts of albite. The microstructure of sintered feldspar at 1230°C is essentially vitreous with open microporosities. The dielectrical properties of composites were characterized by using the induced courant method (ICM), which indicates that the charge trapping capacity depends on the mineralogical and chemical composition of feldspar.

  1. Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Niwant, Premeshwar; Motwani, Mukta; Naik, Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain that lasts from few seconds to few minutes in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed. More than one nerve branch can be affected by the disorder. We report an unusual case of trigeminal neuralgia affecting right side of face presenting atypical features of neuralgia and not responding to the usual course of treatment. The magnetic resonance imaging study of brain revealed a large extra-axial mass involving right cerebellopontine angle region causing moderate pressure effect on trigeminal nerve and brain stem. The aim of this case report is to show a tumor of cerebellopontine angle, presenting clinically as atypical trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:26664753

  2. Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Niwant, Premeshwar; Motwani, Mukta; Naik, Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve that causes episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain that lasts from few seconds to few minutes in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed. More than one nerve branch can be affected by the disorder. We report an unusual case of trigeminal neuralgia affecting right side of face presenting atypical features of neuralgia and not responding to the usual course of treatment. The magnetic resonance imaging study of brain revealed a large extra-axial mass involving right cerebellopontine angle region causing moderate pressure effect on trigeminal nerve and brain stem. The aim of this case report is to show a tumor of cerebellopontine angle, presenting clinically as atypical trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:26664753

  3. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently

  4. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  5. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2010-05-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects' self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  6. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  7. Cost effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and behavioural stress management for severe health anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Lekander, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis. ICBT was hypothesised to be the more cost-effective treatment. Setting This was a cost-effectiveness study within the context of a randomised controlled trial conducted in a primary care/university setting. Participants from all of Sweden could apply to participate. Participants Self-referred adults (N=158) with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV hypochondriasis, of whom 151 (96%) provided baseline and post-treatment data. Interventions ICBT or IBSM for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the Health Anxiety Inventory. The secondary outcome was the EQ-5D. Other secondary measures were used in the main outcome study but were not relevant for the present health economic analysis. Results Both treatments led to significant reductions in gross total costs, costs of healthcare visits, direct non-medical costs and costs of domestic work cutback (p=0.000–0.035). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicated that the cost of one additional case of clinically significant improvement in ICBT compared with IBSM was $2214. The cost-utility ICER, that is, the cost of one additional quality-adjusted life year, was estimated to be $10 000. Conclusions ICBT is a cost-effective treatment compared with IBSM and treatment costs are offset by societal net cost reductions in a short time. A cost-benefit analysis

  8. Fertility-preserving treatment in complex atypical hyperplasia and early endometrial cancer in young women with oral progestin: Is it effective?

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Sun; Lee, Wan Ho; Kang, Woo Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oral progestin treatment in women diagnosed with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) or grade 1 endometrial cancer (G1EC), who desire to preserve their fertility, as alternative treatment to a hysterectomy. Methods We reviewed the medical records of women younger than 45 years old that had been diagnosed with CAH or G1EC, who expressed a desire to preserve their fertility using alternative treatment at our institution. Women without evidence of myometrial invasion on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans were included. The study period was between 2004 and 2014. Endometrial biopsies were taken at follow-up appointments. Results We identified 31 young women with CAH or G1EC. The median age was 33 years old (range, 20 to 41), and the median period of time undertaking the treatment was 5 months (range, 1 to 12). Twenty-three patients (74.2%) achieved complete remission (CR; median time to CR was 3 months; range, 1 to 22), 16 patients (88.9%) with CAH and 7 (53.8%) with G1EC achieved CR. 6 patients (26.1%) who had achieved CR, had recurrence of the disease (median time from CR to recurrence was 12.5 months; range, 4 to 18). Eight patients (25.8%) finally underwent a hysterectomy. Conclusion Oral progestin therapy is an alternative treatment for women with CAH or G1EC who desire fertility preservation. However, more prospective studies are needed for standard progestin regimen. Also, there still remains a risk of disease progression and recurrence. Therefore, close follow-up is important during treatment and after CR. In addition, a hysterectomy is recommended as a definitive treatment after completion of childbearing. PMID:26866032

  9. Atypical audio-visual speech perception and McGurk effects in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leybaert, Jacqueline; Macchi, Lucie; Huyse, Aurélie; Champoux, François; Bayard, Clémence; Colin, Cécile; Berthommier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development (TLD) was compared in two experiments using /aCa/ syllables presented in the context of a masking release paradigm. Children had to repeat syllables presented in auditory alone, visual alone (speechreading), audiovisual congruent and incongruent (McGurk) conditions. Stimuli were masked by either stationary (ST) or amplitude modulated (AM) noise. Although children with SLI were less accurate in auditory and audiovisual speech perception, they showed similar auditory masking release effect than children with TLD. Children with SLI also had less correct responses in speechreading than children with TLD, indicating impairment in phonemic processing of visual speech information. In response to McGurk stimuli, children with TLD showed more fusions in AM noise than in ST noise, a consequence of the auditory masking release effect and of the influence of visual information. Children with SLI did not show this effect systematically, suggesting they were less influenced by visual speech. However, when the visual cues were easily identified, the profile of responses to McGurk stimuli was similar in both groups, suggesting that children with SLI do not suffer from an impairment of audiovisual integration. An analysis of percent of information transmitted revealed a deficit in the children with SLI, particularly for the place of articulation feature. Taken together, the data support the hypothesis of an intact peripheral processing of auditory speech information, coupled with a supra modal deficit of phonemic categorization in children with SLI. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24904454

  10. The effects of hypothalamic implants of ovarian steroids on oestrous behaviour in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Palka, Yvonne S.; Sawyer, Charles H.

    1966-01-01

    1. The brains of ovariectomized female rabbits which were anoestrous in behaviour when tested with vigorous males were implanted either bilaterally or unilaterally with 10% oestradiol benzoate in cholestrol. 2. Rabbits with implants in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus ca. 1 mm lateral to the mid line became highly oestrous in behaviour within 1-2 days of implantation and mated 100% of the times tested. Implants of blank tubing, cholesterol or progesterone in this area, or oestrogen implants elsewhere in the hypothalamus had no effect on sexual behaviour. 3. The uteri of all females implanted with diluted oestrogen were atrophic and similar to those of castrate controls, indicating that the effects of hypothalamic implants on sexual behaviour were direct local effects of oestrogen on the C.N.S. 4. Rabbits implanted bilaterally with undiluted oestradiol benzoate showed some slight systemic spread of the implanted oestrogen. Oestrous behaviour was evoked within an average of 3·4 days by implantation into a large hypothalamic area, presumably as a result of oestrogen diffusing from the site of implantation to the critical ventromedial-premammillary region. 5. Injections of progesterone in dosages known to block oestrous behaviour in intact or oestrogen-primed rabbits, failed to block this behaviour in females implanted with pure oestrogen in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus. 6. Implantation of progestins into the ventromedial-premammillary area in overiectomized rabbits did not usually inhibit oestrous behaviour induced by small threshold doses of systemically administered oestrogen. The possibilities that oestrogen and progesterone (1) interact in different areas of the C.N.S. or (2) compete for `steroid receptors' in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus are discussed. PMID:16992222

  11. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  12. The Treatment of Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disabilities: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…

  13. Interventional trials in atypical parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Eschlböck, S; Krismer, F; Wenning, G K

    2016-01-01

    Atypical parkinson disorders (APD) are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases with a variable clinical presentation that may even mimic Parkinson's disease. Multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are commonly summarized under this umbrella term. Significant developments in research have expanded knowledge and have broadened available symptomatic treatments, particularly for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Nonetheless, symptomatic support still remains limited in all of these disorders. Currently, there exists no effective treatment to delay disease progression and disease-modifying trials have failed to provide coherent and convincing results. Recent trials of rasagiline (in MSA), rifampicin (in MSA), tideglusib (in PSP) and davunetide (in PSP) reported negative results. Nevertheless, large cohorts of patients were recruited for interventional studies in the last few years which improved our understanding of trial methodology in APDs immensely. In addition, remarkable progress in basic research has been reported recently and will provide a solid foundation for future therapeutic trials. In this review, we will summarize published randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in APDs. Additionally, the design of ongoing and unpublished interventions will be presented. PMID:26421389

  14. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people) and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency). Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008). Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse), whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating). Almost 50% (n = 48) of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation). Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained/longer-term impact and

  15. The atypical chemokine receptor CCX-CKR regulates metastasis of mammary carcinoma via an effect on EMT.

    PubMed

    Harata-Lee, Yuka; Turvey, Michelle E; Brazzatti, Julie A; Gregor, Carly E; Brown, Michael P; Smyth, Mark J; Comerford, Iain; McColl, Shaun R

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the significance of the homeostatic CC chemokine receptor-7 and its ligands CC chemokine ligand-19 (CCL19) and CCL21, in various types of cancer, particularly mammary carcinoma, has been highlighted. The chemokine receptor CCX-CKR is a high-affinity receptor for these chemokine ligands but rather than inducing classical downstream signalling events promoting migration, it instead sequesters and targets its ligands for degradation, and appears to function as a regulator of the bioavailability of these chemokines in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that local regulation of chemokine levels by CCX-CKR expressed on tumours alters tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. Expression of CCX-CKR on 4T1.2 mouse mammary carcinoma cells inhibited orthotopic tumour growth. However, this effect could not be correlated with chemokine scavenging in vivo and was not mediated by host adaptive immunity. Conversely, expression of CCX-CKR on 4T1.2 cells resulted in enhanced spontaneous metastasis and haematogenous metastasis in vivo. In vitro characterisation of the tumourigenicity of CCX-CKR-expressing 4T1.2 cells suggested accelerated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) revealed by their more invasive and motile character, lower adherence to the extracellular matrix and to each other, and greater resistance to anoikis. Further analysis of CCX-CKR-expressing 4T1.2 cells also revealed that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression was increased both at mRNA and protein levels leading to enhanced autocrine phosphorylation of Smad 2/3 in these cells. Together, our data show a novel function for the chemokine receptor CCX-CKR as a regulator of TGF-β1 expression and the EMT in breast cancer cells. PMID:25027038

  16. Visualising future behaviour: Effects for snacking on biscuit bars, but no effects for snacking on fruit.

    PubMed

    Adams, Catherine; Rennie, Laura; Uskul, Ayse K; Appleton, Katherine M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, participants (N = 223) were randomised to visualise snacking on fruit, visualise snacking on biscuit bars or no visualisation, and intentions and attitudes towards fruit and biscuit bars, immediate selection of fruit or biscuit bars and subsequent consumption were measured. No effects of visualising snacking on fruit were found once background variables were taken into account. Visualising snacking on biscuit bars, however, resulted in greater intentions to consume biscuit bars (smallest β = 0.19, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that specifics of the visualised target behaviour may be important in visualisation. Further investigation is needed before recommending visualisation for increasing fruit consumption. PMID:24217063

  17. The effects of enhancing cage complexity on the behaviour and welfare of laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Abou-Ismail, Usama A; Burman, Oliver H P; Nicol, Christine J; Mendl, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the long-term effects of enhancing cage complexity on behavioural measures of welfare in laboratory rats. We housed 72 rats in groups of four in either 'enriched' or 'unenriched' cages for six weeks. Scan and focal animal sampling were conducted in both the light and dark phase of the second, fourth and sixth weeks. Results revealed that rats in the 'enriched' cages showed longer durations of sleep behaviour, and low levels of agonistic behaviour compared to rats in the 'unenriched' cages. Results importantly demonstrated that the behavioural changes observed in the enriched environment were due to the presence of the enrichments themselves in the cages (indirect effects) and not due merely to rats interacting with the enrichment items in their environment. Thus, enhancing the complexity of conventional laboratory cages can promote behaviour such as longer bouts of sleep that is likely to be indicative of good welfare, and diminish levels of behaviour such as aggression that is likely to lead to poor welfare. PMID:20637270

  18. The Effects of Breeding Protocol in C57BL/6J Mice on Adult Offspring Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Foldi, Claire J.; Eyles, Darryl W.; McGrath, John J.; Burne, Thomas H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated that a wide range of prenatal exposures can impact on the behaviour of the offspring. However, there is a lack of evidence as to whether the duration of sire exposure could affect such outcomes. We compared two widely used methods for breeding offspring for behavioural studies. The first involved housing male and female C57Bl/6J mice together for a period of time (usually 10–12 days) and checking for pregnancy by the presence of a distended abdomen (Pair-housed; PH). The second involved daily introduction of female breeders to the male homecage followed by daily checks for pregnancy by the presence of vaginal plugs (Time-mated; TM). Male and female offspring were tested at 10 weeks of age on a behavioural test battery including the elevated plus-maze, hole board, light/dark emergence, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding, active avoidance and extinction, tests for nociception and for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. We found that length of sire exposure (LSE) had no significant effects on offspring behaviour, suggesting that the two breeding protocols do not differentially affect the behavioural outcomes of interest. The absence of LSE effects on the selected variables examined does not detract from the relevance of this study. Information regarding the potential influences of breeding protocol is not only absent from the literature, but also likely to be of particular interest to researchers studying the influence of prenatal manipulations on adult behaviour. PMID:21448436

  19. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

  20. Atypical spatiotemporal signatures of working memory brain processes in autism.

    PubMed

    Urbain, C M; Pang, E W; Taylor, M J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairments may contribute to the profound behavioural manifestations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous behavioural results are discrepant as are the few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results collected in adults and adolescents with ASD. Here we investigate the precise temporal dynamics of WM-related brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 20 children with ASD and matched controls during an n-back WM task across different load levels (1-back vs 2-back). Although behavioural results were similar between ASD and typically developing (TD) children, the between-group comparison performed on functional brain activity showed atypical WM-related brain processes in children with ASD compared with TD children. These atypical responses were observed in the ASD group from 200 to 600 ms post stimulus in both the low- (1-back) and high- (2-back) memory load conditions. During the 1-back condition, children with ASD showed reduced WM-related activations in the right hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus compared with TD children who showed more activation in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the insulae. In the 2-back condition, children with ASD showed less activity in the left insula and midcingulate gyrus and more activity in the left precuneus than TD children. In addition, reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was correlated with symptom severity in children with ASD. Thus, this MEG study identified the precise timing and sources of atypical WM-related activity in frontal, temporal and parietal regions in children with ASD. The potential impacts of such atypicalities on social deficits of autism are discussed. PMID:26261885

  1. Short-term effects of neuroactive pharmaceutical drugs on a fish species: biochemical and behavioural effects.

    PubMed

    Brandão, F P; Rodrigues, S; Castro, B B; Gonçalves, F; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2013-11-15

    The presence of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment is receiving great attention since significant levels of contamination have been found, not only in sewage treatment plant effluents, but also in open waters. In our study, the toxicity of three anticonvulsant drugs commonly found in the environment (diazepam, carbamazepine, and phenytoin) was evaluated in Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed sunfish). This study focused on oxidative stress parameters, namely: glutathione reductase (GRed), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) in the hepatic, digestive, and gill tissues of exposed animals. Simultaneously, we assessed the effects of these drugs in terms of behavioural parameters, such as scototaxis and activity. Exposure to diazepam caused an increase in GST activities in the gills and an inhibition of GRed in the digestive tract, relative to control, suggesting an antioxidant response. It also caused fish to spend more time swimming and less time in a refuge area (black compartment of an aquarium). Exposure to carbamazepine caused an increase in GSTs and GRed activity in the digestive tract, which is not always consistent with the literature. A significant positive correlation was found between carbamazepine concentration and time spent in motion and a negative correlation with time spent in black compartment. Exposure to phenytoin was responsible for adaptive responses in the activities of CAT and GSTs (in the liver), but it did not elicit any behavioural alterations. Although all three drugs seemed to induce oxidative stress in some organs, peroxidative damage (measured as TBARS concentrations) was not found at the selected range of concentrations. Our results enlighten the need for more research on the ecological consequences of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, especially drugs that interfere with the CNS and behaviour, because the net outcome of these

  2. Effect of light sources and light intensity on growth performance and behaviour of female turkeys.

    PubMed

    Denbow, D M; Leighton, A T; Hulet, R M

    1990-09-01

    1. The effect of different light sources (incandescent, sodium vapour, daylight fluorescent and warm fluorescent) and light intensities (10.8 and 86.1 lux) on growth performance and behaviour of female turkeys was investigated in two experiments conducted at different times of the year. 2. Although light source influenced body weight and efficiency of food utilisation, there was no consistent effect between experiments in favour of any particular source. 3. Light intensity had no effect on body weight, efficiency of food utilisation or behaviour. PMID:2245342

  3. Identification of atypical flight patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

  4. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on behavioural responses of captive female hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Guy, Amanda J; Schuerch, Franziska S; Heffernan, Scott; Thomson, Peter C; O'Brien, Justine K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2008-11-01

    Female hormonal contraception is considered here as an alternative to vasectomy for population control in social groups of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). While female hormonal contraceptive methods have been successful, behavioural effects of such agents represent a potential welfare concern. This study examined the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 3.5mg/kg) on perineal tumescence and behaviour in three social groups (total of 3 males, 22 females) of captive hamadryas baboons. The agent had little effect on social interactions such as grooming relationships, aggression and affiliation (all P>0.05), but did cause a reduction in sexual behaviour (P<0.001). Females-mounting-females and females receiving mounting was decreased during MPA treatment compared with the minimal tumescence phase (P<0.001). Age strongly influenced the contraceptive's duration: there was a significant correlation between age and latency of return to oestrus post-MPA (r=0.832, P<0.001) with the latency increasing by 2.61 days per year of age on average. Age also influenced the frequency of behaviours such as affiliation and aggression (P<0.001 and P=0.044, respectively). The absence of adverse behavioural effects further supports the use of MPA in the hamadryas baboon, and its potential use in other non-human primates. PMID:17980521

  5. Effects of altered gravity on the swimming behaviour of fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, R.; Anken, R. H.; Sonntag, G.; Höhne, S.; Henneberg, J.; Kretschmer, N.; Rahmann, H.

    Humans taking part in parabolic aircraft flights (PAFs) may suffer from space motion sickness-phenomena (SMS, a kinetosis). It has been argued that SMS during PAFs might not be based on microgravity alone but rather on changing accelerations from 0g to 2g. We test here the hypothesis that PAF-induced kinetosis is based on asymmetric statoliths (i.e., differently weighed statoliths on the right and the left side of the head), with asymmetric inputs to the brain being disclosed at microgravity. Since fish frequently reveal kinetotic behaviour during PAFs (especially so-called spinning movements and looping responses), we investigated (1) whether or not kinetotically swimming fish at microgravity would have a pronounced inner ear otolith asymmetry and (2) whether or not slow translational and continuously changing linear (vertical) acceleration on ground induced kinetosis. These latter accelerations were applied using a specially developed parabel-animal-container (PAC) to stimulate the cupular organs. The results suggest that the fish tested on ground can counter changing accelerations successfully without revealing kinetotic swimming patterns. Kinetosis could only be induced by PAFs. This finding suggests that it is indeed microgravity rather than changing accelerations, which induces kinetosis. Moreover, we demonstrate that fish swimming kinetotically during PAFs correlates with a higher otolith asymmetry in comparison to normally behaving animals in PAFs.

  6. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  7. Atypical neurological manifestations of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Neeraj; Gupta, Monica; Singh, Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is known as a great mimic. It can manifest subtly or abruptly, typically or atypically. This aspect of the disease can frequently mislead physicians. We present two patients of malaria with atypical neurological manifestations. The first patient of Plasmodium falciparum malaria presented with fever and altered sensorium; MRI of the brain suggested cerebral venous thrombosis. The second patient of Plasmodium vivax presented with fever, double vision and right eye lateral rectus palsy due to unilateral sixth cranial nerve involvement. Both patients were managed with antimalarials and supportive medical management, and had uneventful recoveries. PMID:25150266

  8. Interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour: studying cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Conner, M; McMillan, B

    1999-06-01

    This study employed the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate the factors underlying intentions and frequency of use of cannabis over a three-month period in a population of students (N = 249). In addition, several hypotheses in relation to the TPB were investigated. The TPB provided good predictions of both intentions (R2 = 0.653; attitude, injunctive norms and perceived behavioural control significant) and behaviour (R2 = 0.711; intentions significant). Other norm measures (descriptive and moral norms) explained additional variance in intentions (p < .01). In addition, habit strength and self-identity explained significant additional portions of the variance in intentions (p < .001), but not behaviour, over and above the TPB variables. Several interactions among these variables were also tested. Attitude moderated the impact of perceived behavioural control (PBC) on intentions (p < .001). Moral norms moderated the impact of attitudes on intentions (p < .001). Habit strength moderated the impact of self-identity on intentions (p < .001). PBC was found to moderate the impact of intentions on behaviour (p < .05). The findings are discussed in relation to how interaction effects further our understanding of the social processes by which variables are related in the TPB. PMID:10392450

  9. Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems—impacts through behavioural alterations

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, Tomas; Piovano, Susanna; Fick, Jerker; Klaminder, Jonatan; Heynen, Martina; Jonsson, Micael

    2014-01-01

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes. PMID:25405968

  10. The Effectiveness of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviour Change: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Robalino, Shannon; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Adams, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Financial incentive interventions have been suggested as one method of promoting healthy behaviour change. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviour change; to explore whether effects vary according to the type of behaviour incentivised, post-intervention follow-up time, or incentive value. Data Sources Searches were of relevant electronic databases, research registers, www.google.com, and the reference lists of previous reviews; and requests for information sent to relevant mailing lists. Eligibility Criteria Controlled evaluations of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions, compared to no intervention or usual care, to encourage healthy behaviour change, in non-clinical adult populations, living in high-income countries, were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess all included studies. Meta-analysis was used to explore the effect of financial incentive interventions within groups of similar behaviours and overall. Meta-regression was used to determine if effect varied according to post-intervention follow up time, or incentive value. Results Seventeen papers reporting on 16 studies on smoking cessation (n = 10), attendance for vaccination or screening (n = 5), and physical activity (n = 1) were included. In meta-analyses, the average effect of incentive interventions was greater than control for short-term (≤six months) smoking cessation (relative risk (95% confidence intervals): 2.48 (1.77 to 3.46); long-term (>six months) smoking cessation (1.50 (1.05 to 2.14)); attendance for vaccination or screening (1.92 (1.46 to 2.53)); and for all behaviours combined (1.62 (1.38 to 1.91)). There was not convincing evidence that effects were different between different groups of behaviours. Meta-regression found some, limited, evidence that effect sizes decreased as post-intervention follow

  11. Behavioural and physiological effects of electrical stimulation in the nucleus accumbens: a review.

    PubMed

    van Kuyck, K; Gabriëls, L; Cosyns, P; Arckens, L; Sturm, V; Rasmussen, S; Nuttin, B

    2007-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) in the brain is becoming a new treatment option in patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A possible brain target might be the nucleus accumbens (NACC). This review aims to summarise the behavioural and physiological effects of ES in the NACC in humans and in animals and to discuss these findings with regard to neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural insights. The results clearly demonstrate that ES in the NACC has an effect on reward, activity, fight-or-flight, exploratory behaviour and food intake, with evidence for only moderate physiological effects. Seizures were rarely observed. Finally, the results of ES studies in patients with treatment-resistant OCD and in animal models for OCD are promising. PMID:17691326

  12. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  13. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  14. Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on Student Discipline Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2005-01-01

    Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…

  15. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O.; Vinson, Gavin P.; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1–9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26862749

  16. The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44°C±0.4°C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. PMID:26267501

  17. Reprint of: The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44 °C ± 0.4 °C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. PMID:26615722

  18. Effects of an awareness raising campaign on intention and behavioural determinants for handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, E; Kumar, S; Mosler, H-J

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were conducted with 687 visitors before and after their visit to the campaign. Data showed that a campaign visit had little effect on the intention to wash hands with soap, even when comparing visitors who had actively participated in handwashing games with those who had not. After a campaign visit, knowledge about the benefits of washing hands had increased by almost half a standard deviation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that when considering all behavioural determinants change scores simultaneously, they were able to explain 57% of the variance in the intention change score. These findings suggest that substantively changing behaviour requires more than improving knowledge and emphasizing the importance of washing hands. Identifying the crucial behavioural determinants for handwashing may be an important first step in planning effective large-scale promotion programmes. PMID:26936481

  19. Sustained Effects of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol on Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Matteo; Parker, Matthew O; Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish developmentally exposed to ambient ethanol (20mM-50mM) 1-9 days post fertilization (dpf), the cortisol response to stress has been shown to be significantly attenuated in larvae, juveniles and 6 month old adults. These data are somewhat at variance with similar studies in mammals, which often show heightened stress responses. To test whether these cortisol data correlate with behavioural changes in treated animals, anxiety-like behaviour of zebrafish larvae (9dpf and 10dpf) and juveniles (23dpf) was tested in locomotor assays designed to this end. In open field tests treated animals were more exploratory, spending significantly less time at the periphery of the arena. Behavioural effects of developmental exposure to ethanol were sustained in 6-month-old adults, as judged by assessment of thigmotaxis, novel tank diving and scototaxis. Like larvae and juveniles, developmentally treated adults were generally more exploratory, and spent less time at the periphery of the arena in thigmotaxis tests, less time at the bottom of the tank in the novel tank diving tests, and less time in the dark area in scototaxis tests. The conclusion that ethanol-exposed animals showed less anxiety-like behaviour was validated by comparison with the effects of diazepam treatment, which in thigmotaxis and novel tank diving tests had similar effects to ethanol pretreatment. There is thus a possible link between the hypophyseal-pituitary-interrenal axis and the behavioural actions of developmental ethanol exposure. The mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26862749

  20. Effect of clay induced morphological transitions on behaviour of epoxy/PCL nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelnar, Ivan; Rotrekl, Jakub

    2012-07-01

    Effect of organophilized montmorillonite (MMT) on structure formed by reactively induced phase separation (RIPS) and related properties of epoxy containing 5-30% polycaprolactone (PCL) was studied. The effect of clay is significant especially with supercritical PCL concentration, the radical change in morphology with 15% and 20% PCL leads to substantial improvement of mechanical behaviour. The main reason is change in epoxy phase parameters by clay, supporting its continuity. The mechanical behaviour is further influenced by change in coexisting phases composition due to reduced degree of phase separation caused by clay. The results indicate the potential of clay to tailor structure and properties of RIPS system with significant dynamic asymmetry of components.

  1. Effect of strain path change on precipitation behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Kulkarni, K.; Gurao, N. P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of strain path change on precipitation behaviour of Al- Cu-Mg-Si alloy was investigated. Two different types of crystallographic textures were produced by changing the strain path during rolling. The deformed samples were subjected to a short recrystallization treatment and ageing to identify the effect of strain path change manifested in terms of crystallographic texture on precipitation behaviour. Preliminary characterization indicates that ageing kinetics as well as precipitate morphology vary depending upon the mode of rolling. The coherency strains associated with a coherent interface is relieved in a unlike manner for differently rolled samples.

  2. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Nayer, Ali; Asif, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare life-threatening disorder characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and ischemic injury to organs, especially the kidneys. Microvascular injury and thrombosis are the dominant histologic findings. Complement activation through the alternative pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atypical HUS. Genetic abnormalities involving complement regulatory proteins and complement components form the molecular basis for complement activation. Endothelial cell dysfunction, probably because of the effects of complement activation, is an intermediate stage in the pathophysiologic cascade. Atypical HUS has a grave prognosis. Although mortality approaches 25% during the acute phase, end-stage renal disease develops in nearly half of patients within a year. Atypical HUS has a high recurrence rate after renal transplantation, and recurrent disease often leads to graft loss. Plasma therapy in the form of plasma exchange or infusion has remained the standard treatment for atypical HUS. However, many patients do not respond to plasma therapy and some require prolonged treatment. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the treatment of atypical HUS, eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks cleavage of complement C5 into biologically active mediators of inflammation and cytolysis. Although case reports have shown the efficacy of eculizumab, randomized clinical trials are lacking. Therapeutic strategies targeting endothelial cells have demonstrated promising results in experimental settings. Therefore, inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, HMG-CoA reductase, and xanthine oxidase as well as antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, may have salutary effects in patients with atypical HUS. PMID:24681522

  3. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932

  4. Youth hedonistic behaviour: moderating role of peer attachment on the effect of religiosity and worldview

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513

  5. Atypical cadherin negotiates a turn.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongbo; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Uemura, Tadashi

    2013-07-15

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is involved in many polarized cell behaviors. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Tatin et al. (2013) show that the atypical cadherin Celsr1 is transiently localized to cellular protrusions in lymphatic endothelial cells and acts to orient valve-forming cells perpendicular to the vessel axis. PMID:23867224

  6. Atypical Cogan's syndrome mimicking encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lepur, Dragan; Vranjican, Zoran; Himbele, Josip; Barsić, Bruno; Klinar, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune multisystem disease. The main clinical features of typical Cogan's syndrome are vestibuloauditory dysfunction and interstitial keratitis. The authors present a case of atypical Cogan's syndrome with headache, fever, deafness, trigeminal neuralgia and electroencephalographic abnormality which mimicked viral encephalitis. PMID:15307593

  7. Recognition and diagnosis of atypical depression.

    PubMed

    Thase, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The term atypical depression dates to the first wave of reports describing differential response to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In contrast to more TCA-responsive depressions, patients with so-called atypical symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia, interpersonal sensitivity, leaden paralysis, increased appetite and/or weight, and phobic anxiety) were observed to be more responsive to MAOIs. After several decades of controversy and debate, the phrase "with atypical features" was added as an episode specifier in the DSM-IV in 1994. The 1-year prevalence of the defined atypical depression subtype is approximately 1% to 4%; around 15% to 29% of patients with major depressive disorder have atypical depression. Hardly "atypical" in contemporary contexts, atypical depression also is common in dysthymic bipolar II disorders and is notable for its early age at onset, more chronic course, and high rates of comorbidity with social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia. The requirement of preserved mood reactivity is arguably the most controversial of the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression. When compared with melancholia, the neurobiological profiles of patients with atypical depression are relatively normal. The utility of the atypical depression subtype for differential therapeutics diminished substantially when the TCAs were supplanted as first-line antidepressants by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although introduction of safer MAOIs has fostered renewed interest in atypical depression, the validity and importance of the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression for the nosology of affective illness remains an open question. PMID:17640153

  8. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  9. Parental effects and flight behaviour in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, Alfredo; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a key role in determining the phenotype of their offspring. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether parents can change their offspring's behaviour in a sustained way that persists into adulthood. With experiments on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, we investigated how the developmental environment created by parents affects their offspring's wing morphology in adulthood, and the correlated effects on adult flight behaviour. Burying beetles exhibit complex biparental care, but offspring can survive without parental provisioning. By removing parents just prior to hatching, while holding the nutritional environment constant, we investigated the downstream consequences for offspring morphology and behaviour. Larvae that developed in the absence of their parents had relatively long and more slender wings than those that developed in their parents' presence. Flight mill tests revealed that flight performance was dependent on the presence of parents during development but not on wing shape. Our results demonstrate that parents have long-lasting effects on the behaviour of their offspring, by influencing the morphology and flight behaviour of their young even after they have matured into adults. PMID:26681810

  10. The behavioural toxicity of antidepressants: effects on cognition and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1998-07-01

    The cognitive system is structured from sets of schema, patterns of neural activity that allow the assimilation or accommodation of new experiences and so, by a process of consolidation, the gradual development of knowledge and understanding. As well as schema for purely cognitive processes, there are similar structures that enable individuals to deal with sexual behaviour and affectual relationships (e.g. hedonia, self-esteem, personal preferences and body image). In depression, there is a well established disruption of cognitive function that results in anhedonia and a loss of pleasure, including that from sexual activities. Many antidepressants also have a direct pharmacological action on the central nervous system and disrupt cognitive function, so increasing anhedonia and impairing sexual function. Drug actions on cognitive structures, which in turn increase anhedonia and reduce sexual libido, are over and above any direct pharmacological effects on the more overt behavioural activities associated with sex, including orgasm, erectile function, potency and ejaculation. The tricyclic antidepressants, for example, destroy the cognitive structures that are vital to maintain normal libido as well as disturbing overt sexual behaviours. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; paroxetine and sertraline) are associated with behavioural activation that is also responsible for an impairment of sexual function. However, there are clear differences between the SSRIs, and fluvoxamine (relative to the other SSRIs) has little effect on objective measures of cognition or on cerebral and behavioural components of sexual function. PMID:9728668

  11. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. PMID:24878317

  12. Management of Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Buttrick, Simon; Shah, Ashish H; Komotar, Ricardo J; Ivan, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Meningiomas are the most prevalent primary tumor of central nervous system origin and, although most neoplasms are benign, a small proportion exemplifies an aggressive profile characterized by high recurrence rates, pleomorphic histology, and overall resistance to standard treatment. Standard initial therapy for malignant meningiomas includes maximal safe surgical resection followed by focal radiation in certain cases. The role for chemotherapy during recurrence of these aggressive meningiomas is less clear. Prognosis is poor and recurrence of malignant meningiomas is high. This article provides an overview of atypical and anaplastic malignant meningiomas, their treatment, and ongoing research for more effective treatments. PMID:27012388

  13. Generic Behavioural Criteria of Managerial Effectiveness: An Empirical and Comparative Case Study of UK Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing "leadership and…

  14. Examining the Effect of Positive Behaviour Support on Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Makweche-Chitiyo, Plaxedes; Park, Meungguk; Ametepee, Lawrence K.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in challenging behaviour compromise the fundamental ability of schools to educate children. Consequently, teachers face the daunting task of designing effective strategies to promote positive educational outcomes for their students. Since the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments, the use of positive…

  15. Effects of Variations in Toy Presentation on Social Behaviour of Infants and Toddlers in Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Cilly; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of variations in presentation of play materials on social behaviour of 18- to 30-month-old children. The study group included 102 children attending infant and toddler classes in 14 public childcare centres in Israel. Play materials were presented to the children either in a suggestive manner…

  16. Teacher-Reported Effects of the Playing-2-Gether Intervention on Child Externalising Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…

  17. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes on Satisfaction with Innovation Behaviour and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Natalia Martin; Escudero, Ana Isabel Rodriguez; Barahona, Juan Hernangomez; Leitao, Fernando Saboia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to shed light on the effect of educational programmes aimed at entrepreneurs on innovation and business success. Design/methodology/approach: We use as theoretical framework the theory of planned behaviour. We use a sample of 354 entrepreneurs from Castile and Leon, Spain. To estimate the model we use a path analysis…

  18. Effects of Test Format, Self Concept and Anxiety on Item Response Changing Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afolabi, E. R. I.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the effects of item format, self-concept and anxiety on response changing behaviour. Four hundred undergraduate students who offered a counseling psychology course in a Nigerian university participated in the study. Students' answers in multiple--choice and true--false formats of an achievement test were observed for response…

  19. Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin JM; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07340.001 PMID:26393686

  20. The Effect of Light Intensity and Noise on the Classroom Behaviour of Pupils with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzinger, Bernhard; Jackson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the study reported in this article is the behavioural response of pupils with Asperger syndrome to light and sound intensity and the development of ways to help them to cope with such sensory stimuli. A number of practical ways of minimising the negative effects of various sensory stimuli are noted: (1) the establishment of "a place…

  1. Leadership Behaviour and Effectiveness of Academic Program Directors in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on leadership behaviour and effectiveness of university academic program directors who have responsibility for managing a program or course of study. The leadership capabilities were assessed using the Integrated Competing Values Framework as its theoretical foundation. Data from 90 academic program directors and 710…

  2. The Effects of Using a Model-Reinforced Video on Information-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing a ten-minute model-reinforced video on careers information-seeking behaviour of 280 students in ten sections of a university careers course randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. The video portrayed an undergraduate student seeking careers counselling services and a counsellor using…

  3. The Effects of Family Cultural Capital and Reading Motivation on Reading Behaviour in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…

  4. Toothbrushing at School: Effects on Toothbrushing Behaviour, Cognitions and Habit Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Marianne; Kremers, Stef; Thijs, Carel; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a school-based toothbrushing intervention aimed at encouraging primary school children to brush their teeth daily at school, on cognitions, toothbrushing behaviour and habit strength. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of an intervention were examined in a quasi-experimental trial among 296 fifth-graders in…

  5. School Effects on Pupils' Health Behaviours: Evidence in Support of the Health Promoting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, P.; Sweeting, H.; Leyland, A.

    2004-01-01

    Compared with the volume of research on school effects on educational outcomes, and in spite of growing interest in the health promoting school, there are very few studies that have investigated the way schools influence pupils' health behaviours. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study of over 2000 young people in the West of…

  6. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Antoine O. H. C.; Munday, Philip L.; Brown, Grant E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  7. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Antoine O H C; Munday, Philip L; Brown, Grant E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 on fish behaviour undiminished by transgenerational acclimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Megan J.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Welsh, Justin Q.; McCormick, Mark I.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-12-01

    Behaviour and sensory performance of marine fishes are impaired at CO2 levels projected to occur in the ocean in the next 50-100 years, and there is limited potential for within-generation acclimation to elevated CO2 (refs , ). However, whether fish behaviour can acclimate or adapt to elevated CO2 over multiple generations remains unanswered. We tested for transgenerational acclimation of reef fish olfactory preferences and behavioural lateralization at moderate (656 μatm) and high (912 μatm) end-of-century CO2 projections. Juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, from control parents (446 μatm) exhibited an innate avoidance to chemical alarm cue (CAC) when reared in control conditions. In contrast, juveniles lost their innate avoidance of CAC and even became strongly attracted to CAC when reared at elevated CO2 levels. Juveniles from parents maintained at mid-CO2 and high-CO2 levels also lost their innate avoidance of CAC when reared in elevated CO2, demonstrating no capacity for transgenerational acclimation of olfactory responses. Behavioural lateralization was also disrupted for juveniles reared under elevated CO2, regardless of parental conditioning. Our results show minimal potential for transgenerational acclimation in this fish, suggesting that genetic adaptation will be necessary to overcome the effects of ocean acidification on behaviour.

  9. Effect of ventricle motion on the dynamic behaviour of chorded mitral valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watton, P. N.; Luo, X. Y.; Yin, M.; Bernacca, G. M.; Wheatley, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    An Immersed Boundary (IB) model is employed to investigate the dynamic behaviour of a novel chorded mitral prosthesis, which is in the early stages of its development, under physiological flow conditions. In vivo magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the left ventricle are analysed to determine the relative motion of the mitral annulus and the papillary muscle regions of the ventricle. The dynamic boundary conditions are incorporated into IB simulations to test the valve in a more realistic dynamic geometric environment. The IB model has successfully identified the effect of the dynamic boundary conditions on the mechanical behaviour of the valve and revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the current mitral design. The mechanical performance of the prosthesis is compared with recent studies of native porcine valves; differences in mechanical behaviour are observed. Potential improvements for the design of the prosthesis are proposed.

  10. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  11. Direct investment by stepfathers can mitigate effects on educational outcomes but does not improve behavioural difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Emmott, Emily H.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developed populations, stepfather presence has been associated with detrimental effects on child development. However, the proximate mechanisms behind such effects are yet to be fully explored. From a behavioural ecological perspective, the negative effects associated with stepfathers may be due to the reduced quantity and quality of investments children receive within stepfather households. Here, we build on previous studies by investigating whether the effects of stepfather presence on child outcomes are driven by differences in maternal and partner (i.e., father or stepfather) direct investments. We use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to explore stepfather effects on children’s educational achievement and behavioural difficulties at age 7. Our results indicate that, for educational achievement, stepfather effects are due to the lower levels of direct investments children receive. For behavioural difficulty, stepfather effects are due to multiple factors whereby stepfather presence is associated with greater difficulties independent of investment levels, and direct investments from stepfathers are ineffective. Our results suggest that the negative effects of stepfathers on child outcomes can be explained, in part, by the reduced quantity and the ineffectiveness of direct investments children receive from stepfathers. Furthermore, the effects of stepfather direct investments seem to vary between child outcomes. PMID:25214758

  12. Genotype effect on regulation of behaviour by vitellogenin supports reproductive origin of honeybee foraging bias

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, Kate E.; Page, Robert E.; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M. Kim; Amdam, Gro V.

    2010-01-01

    In honeybee colonies, food collection is performed by a group of mostly sterile females called workers. After an initial nest phase, workers begin foraging for nectar and pollen, but tend to bias their collection towards one or the other. The foraging choice of honeybees is influenced by vitellogenin (vg), an egg-yolk precursor protein that is expressed although workers typically do not lay eggs. The forager reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) proposes an evolutionary path in which the behavioural bias toward collecting nectar or pollen on foraging trips is influenced by variation in reproductive physiology, such as hormone levels and vg gene expression. Recently, the connections between vg and foraging behaviour were challenged by Oldroyd and Beekman (2008), who concluded from their study that the ovary, and especially vg, played no role in foraging behaviour of bees. We address their challenge directly by manipulating vg expression by RNA interference- (RNAi) mediated gene knockdown in two honeybee genotypes with different foraging behaviour and reproductive physiology. We show that the effect of vg on the food-loading decisions of the workers occurs only in the genotype where timing of foraging onset (by age) is also sensitive to vg levels. In the second genotype, changing vg levels do not affect foraging onset or bias. The effect of vg on workers' age at foraging onset is explained by the well-supported double repressor hypothesis (DHR), which describes a mutually inhibitory relationship between vg and juvenile hormone (JH) — an endocrine factor that influences development, reproduction, and behaviour in many insects. These results support the RGPH and demonstrate how it intersects with an established mechanism of honeybee behavioural control. PMID:20454635

  13. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  14. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. We concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rates to sedentary mares resulted in no effect on dominance hierarchies, body mass or condition score. PMID:15683772

  15. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. It was concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rate to sedentary mares had no effect on dominance hierarchies, body-mass or condition score. PMID:15912604

  16. U.S. tobacco taxes: behavioural effects and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Lewit, E M

    1989-10-01

    This paper examines U.S. tobacco taxation, the effect of cigarette taxes on smoking and on the health effects of smoking, and equity and efficiency considerations that arise when cigarette excise taxes are used to reduce smoking. Cigarette excise taxes, imposed by the Federal Government, all State governments, and nearly 400 cities and counties, add approximately 34 cents per pack to the price of cigarettes. Real cigarette excise tax rates have fallen because tax increases have not kept pace with inflation. Increases in the price of cigarettes decrease smoking, particularly by adolescents. An estimated 100,000 additional persons may live to the age of 65 as a result of doubling the Federal cigarette tax in 1983. Because cigarette taxes are regressive and are borne primarily by smokers, inequities may arise when they are used to reduce smoking. Success in achieving a tobacco-free society will require that tobacco taxes be replaced with alternative sources of revenue. PMID:2819277

  17. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes. PMID:22309069

  18. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  19. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Family-Centred Positive Behaviour Support of Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) is an evidence-based approach that has been proven to be effective in remediating problem behaviours in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the family-centred PBIS approach when involving Taiwanese families in the treatment of off-task and non-compliant…

  20. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  1. Novel antipsychotics: issues and controversies. Typicality of atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stip, E

    2000-01-01

    The typicality of atypical antipsychotic drugs remains debatable. Preclinical studies and findings from randomized, controlled and open trials of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone and a substituted benzamide were examined. A MEDLINE search was conducted using key words, including "extrapyramidal side effects," "cognition," "schizophrenia" and the generic drug names. Over 140 articles from peer-reviewed journals were reviewed, some of which were based on a meta-analysis. New-generation neuroleptic agents were found to have greater efficacy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and to cause fewer unwanted extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) than the traditional antipsychotic drugs. On one hand, atypical neuroleptic agents could be strictly defined as any neuroleptic agent with antipsychotic effects at a dosage that does not cause extrapyramidal side effects. Thus, clozapine is regarded as the "standard" atypical antipsychotic drug. On the other hand, typicality is about dimension rather than category, and we suggest the use of the term "spectrum of atypicality." For example, an emphasis is placed on quetiapine to illustrate where a new compound fits in this spectrum. Although dose-related, atypicality may be more a question of prescription attitude than of a specific characteristic of a compound. The degree to which a new compound is clinically superior to another atypical antipsychotic drug, in terms of improving positive, negative or affective symptoms, cognitive function and long-term outcome, will require further a priori hypotheses based on conceptual frameworks that are clinically meaningful. In addition, the results from industry-sponsored trials should be more comparable to those obtained from investigator-leading trials. Finally, the patient characteristics that define a patient's response to a specific antipsychotic drug are unknown. PMID:10740987

  2. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  3. Atypical fractures, a biased perspective.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    When stress fractures started to show up in the femurs of elderly ladies, it was soon evident that bisphosphonate use lay behind, and the absolute risk increase due to bisphosphonate use was reasonably well estimated already in 2008. Thereafter followed a period of confusion: the term atypical fracture was introduced, with a definition so vague that the true stress fractures tended to disappear in a cloud of ambiguity. This cast doubt on the association with bisphosphonates. The association was then re-established by large epidemiological studies based on radiographic adjudication. Atypical fractures are largely caused by bisphosphonates. With a correct indication, bisphosphonates prevent many more fractures than they cause, at least during the first years of use. With an incorrect indication they are likely to cause more harm than good. PMID:26768286

  4. Self-limiting Atypical Antipsychotics-induced Edema: Clinical Cases and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Musa Usman; Abdullahi, Aminu Taura

    2016-01-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotics have been associated with peripheral edema. The exact cause is not known. We report two cases of olanzapine-induced edema and a brief review of atypical antipsychotic-induced edema, possible risk factors, etiology, and clinical features. The recommendation is given on different methods of managing this side effect. PMID:27335511

  5. Mechanical preparation of nanocrystalline biocompatible single-phase Mn-doped A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp): effect of Mn doping on microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lala, S; Ghosh, M; Das, P K; Kar, T; Pradhan, S K

    2015-12-14

    Nanocrystalline biocompatible single-phase Mn-doped A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp) powder has been synthesized by mechanical alloying of a stoichiometric mixture of CaCO3, CaHPO4·2H2O and MnO powder for 10 h at room temperature under open air. The A-type carbonation in HAp (substitution of CO3(2-) for OH(-)) is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Microstructure characterization in terms of lattice imperfections and phase quantification of ball milled samples are made by analyzing XRD patterns employing the Rietveld structure refinement method. Rietveld analysis of XRD patterns recorded from Mn-doped HAp samples has been used to locate Mn(2+) cations in HAp. The Ca2 vacancy site is found to be more favorable for Mn substitution. Microstructure characterization by HRTEM corroborates the findings of the X-ray analysis where the presence of a significant amount of amorphous phase of HAp analogous to indigenous bone mineral is clearly found. MTT assay shows sufficiently high percentage cell viability confirming the cytocompatibility of the sample. PMID:26530783

  6. Screening of Infants at Eight Months for Atypical Development in Primary Health Care in Southern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivberg, Bengt; Lundqvist, Pia; Johanson, Ingmarie; Nordström, Berit; Persson, Bengt A.

    2016-01-01

    Screening studies of a population in primary health care are sparsely reported. The aim was to describe observed atypical behaviours that may be associated with autism spectrum conditions, in a population (n?=?4,329) of infants at eight months. Observations were performed by paediatric nurses. An observational instrument, named SEEK developed for…

  7. Anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: The effect of photoelectrooxidation treatment.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Vanzella, Cláudia; Bianchetti, Paula; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Stülp, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The leather industry is a major producer of wastewaters and releases large quantities of many different chemical agents used in hide processing into the environment. Since the central nervous system is sensitive to many different contaminants, our aim was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of exposure of mice to tannery effluents using animal models of depression and anxiety, namely forced swim and elevated plus-maze. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of this effluent, we also investigated the exposure of mice to effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). Adult male Swiss albino mice (CF1 strain) were given free access to water bottles containing an effluent treated by a tannery (non-PEO) or PEO-treated tannery wastewater (0.1 and 1% in drinking water). Exposure to tannery wastewater induced behavioural changes in the mice in elevated plus-maze. Exposure to non-PEO 1% decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms, indicating anxiety-like behaviour. Exposure to tannery wastewater did not alter immobility time in the forced swim test, suggesting that tannery effluents did not induce depression-like behaviour in the mice. These behavioural data suggest that non-PEO tannery effluent has an anxiogenic effect, whereas PEO-treated tannery effluents do not alter anxiety levels. PMID:21664271

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, Shanshan; Qian, Linmao; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, ShanShan; Qian, LinMao; Yu, HaiYang

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel. PMID:26099692

  10. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L; Jo, Kyoung H

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the "zombie" centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology. PMID:25883936

  11. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L.; Jo, Kyoung H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the “zombie” centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology. PMID:25883936

  12. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

  13. Lifespan Psychomotor Behaviour Profiles of Multigenerational Prenatal Stress and Artificial Food Dye Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Zachary T.; Falkenberg, Erin A.; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate. PMID:24937660

  14. Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care in England: differential effects by level of initial antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ian; Parry, Elizabeth; Biehal, Nina; Fresen, John; Kay, Catherine; Scott, Stephen; Green, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), recently renamed Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) is an internationally recognised intervention for troubled young people in public care. This paper seeks to explain conflicting results with MTFC by testing the hypotheses that it benefits antisocial young people more than others and does so through its effects on their behaviour. Hard-to-manage young people in English foster or residential homes were assessed at entry to a randomised and case-controlled trial of MTFC (n = 88) and usual care (TAU) (n = 83). Primary outcome was the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) at 12 months analysed according to high (n = 112) or low (n = 59) baseline level of antisocial behaviour on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents. After adjusting for covariates, there was no overall treatment effect on CGAS. However, the High Antisocial Group receiving MTFC gained more on the CGAS than the Low group (mean improvement 9.36 points vs. 5.33 points). This difference remained significant (p < 0.05) after adjusting for propensity and covariates and was statistically explained by the reduced antisocial behaviour ratings in MTFC. These analyses support the use of MTFC for youth in public care but only for those with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Further work is needed on whether such benefits persist, and on possible negative effects of this treatment for those with low antisocial behaviour.Trial Registry Name: ISRCTNRegistry identification number: ISRCTN 68038570Registry URL: www.isrctn.com. PMID:26662809

  15. Challenging Behaviour: Principals' Experience of Stress and Perception of the Effects of Challenging Behaviour on Staff in Special Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Aine; Carey, Sean; McCarthy, Siobhan; Coyle, Ciaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of stress and the effects of managing challenging behaviour on principals of special schools in Ireland, including schools for pupils with an intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability and physical and sensory disability, and children of traveller families. In this study principals…

  16. Atypical trigeminal neuralgia: a consequence of central sensitization?

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-han; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jian-guo

    2010-07-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by sudden, recurrent, usually unilateral, severe brief stabbing pains in the distribution of trigeminal nerve. Although it is widely accepted that blood vessel or tumor compression contributes to paroxysms of TN, the pathogenesis of persistent background pain in atypical TN patient is unclear. Central sensitization is pain hypersensitivity caused by central neural plasticity. It is responsible for many temporal and symptomatic features of acute and chronic pain. We hypothesize that central sensitization might account for some symptoms of atypical TN. Based on this hypothesis, we postulate that early medical intervention predicts good outcomes in TN and medicines which are effective on central sensitization may be potential agents for the treatment of atypical TN. PMID:20172658

  17. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  18. Interesting Asian Plants: Their Compounds and Effects on Electrophysiology and Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-01-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  19. Interesting asian plants: their compounds and effects on electrophysiology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-10-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  20. Predator-Specific Effects on Incubation Behaviour and Offspring Growth in Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research. PMID:25830223

  1. Prehistory effects on the VHCF behaviour of engineering metallic materials with different strengthening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M.; Stöcker, C.; Müller-Bollenhagen, C.; Christ, H.-J.

    2010-07-01

    Engineering materials often undergo a plastic deformation during manufacturing, hence the effect of a predeformation on the subsequent fatigue behaviour has to be considered. The effect of a prestrain on the microstructure is strongly influenced by the strengthening mechanism. Different mechanisms are relevant in the materials applied in this study: a solid-solution hardened and a precipitation-hardened nickel-base alloy and a martensite-forming metastable austenitic steel. Prehistory effects become very important, when fatigue failure at very high number of cycles (N > 107) is considered, since damage mechanisms occur different to those observed in the range of conventional fatigue limit. With the global strain amplitude being well below the static elastic limit, only inhomogeneously distributed local plastic deformation takes place in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) region. The dislocation motion during cyclic loading thus depends on the effective flow stress, which is defined by the global cyclic stress-strain relation and the local stress distribution as a consequence of the interaction between dislocations and precipitates, grain boundaries, martensite phases and micro-notches. As a consequence, no significant prehistory effect was observed for the VHCF behaviour of the solid-solution hardening alloy, while the precipitation-hardening alloy shows a perceptible prehistory dependence. In the case of the austenitic steel, strain-hardening and the volume fraction of the deformation-induced martensite dominate the fatigue behaviour.

  2. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  3. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  4. Sex differences and serotonergic mechanisms in the behavioural effects of psilocin.

    PubMed

    Tylš, Filip; Páleníček, Tomáš; Kadeřábek, Lukáš; Lipski, Michaela; Kubešová, Anna; Horáček, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Psilocybin has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a clinical research and therapeutic tool. The aim of this paper is to bridge two major knowledge gaps regarding its behavioural pharmacology - sex differences and the underlying receptor mechanisms. We used psilocin (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg), an active metabolite of psilocybin, in two behavioural paradigms - the open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reaction. Sex differences were evaluated with respect to the phase of the female cycle. The contribution of serotonin receptors in the behavioural action was tested in male rats with selective serotonin receptor antagonists: 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY100635 1 mg/kg), 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100907 0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (SB215505 1 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB242084 1 mg/kg). Psilocin induced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotion and suppression of normal behaviour in rats (behavioural serotonin syndrome, impaired PPI). The effects were more pronounced in male rats than in females. The inhibition of locomotion was normalized by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B/C antagonists; however, PPI was not affected significantly by these antagonists. Our findings highlight an important issue of sex-specific reactions to psilocin and that apart from 5-HT2A-mediated effects 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C/B receptors also play an important role. These findings have implications for recent clinical trials. PMID:26461483

  5. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety. PMID:25946903

  6. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels. PMID:25809379

  7. Warming increases chlorpyrifos effects on predator but not anti-predator behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; Stoks, Robby

    2014-07-01

    Recent insights indicate that negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biota occur at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. We here address two, potentially interacting, mechanisms that may contribute to the underestimation of the impact of sublethal pesticide effects in single species tests at room temperature: the impairment of predator and antipredator behaviours and the stronger impact of organophosphate pesticides at higher temperatures. To address these issues we assessed the effects of chlorpyrifos on the predator and antipredator behaviours of larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans, important intermediate predators in aquatic food webs, in a common-garden warming experiment with replicated low- and high-latitude populations along the latitudinal gradient of this species in Europe. Chlorpyrifos reduced the levels of predator behavioural endpoints, and this reduction was stronger at the higher temperature for head orientations and feeding strikes. Chlorpyrifos also impaired two key antipredator behavioural endpoints, activity reductions in response to predator cues were smaller in the presence of chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos caused a lower escape swimming speed; these effects were independent of temperature. This suggests chlorpyrifos may impact food web interactions by changing predator-prey interactions both with higher (predators) and lower trophic levels (food). Given that only the interaction with the lower trophic level was more impaired at higher temperatures, the overall pesticide-induced changes in food web dynamics may be strongly temperature-dependent. These findings were consistent in damselflies from low- and high-latitude populations, illustrating that thermal adaptation will not mitigate the increased toxicity of pesticides at higher temperatures. Our study not only underscores the relevance of including temperature and prey-predator interactions in ecological risk assessment but also their potential

  8. Top-down Control of Stream Food Webs: Indirect Effects by Changed Behaviour and Species Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, C.; Petzoldt, T.; Koop, J. H.; Benndorf, J.

    2005-05-01

    Predators may directly control stream food webs by consuming invertebrates. But sub lethal effects on prey such as change of activity rhythm or feeding behaviour may lead to indirect effects of predation on other species. Thus, predators may strongly effect invertebrate community structure. The aim of a currently running paired ecosystem experiment is to detect changes of species interaction induced by benthivorous gudgeon (Gobio gobio). For this purpose we link the measurement of physiological fitness parameters to the observation of behavioural changes. Preliminary studies indicated a top-down control of the drift activity of Baetis larvae, while a bottom-up effect could not be observed. The presence of benthivorous gudgeon led to a significantly changed species composition of the invertebrate drift and reduced drift activity of Baetis larvae compared to the fish free control. The diurnal drift pattern of Baetis larvae with a nocturnal peak was observed both in the control and fish reaches. Thus benthivorous gudgeon controls the drift behaviour in a similar way as known for drift-feeding trout. The content of triglycerides and glycogen did not differ between the drifting and not-drifting individuals. Therefore their energetic status does not seem to control drift the activity of Baetis larvae.

  9. A randomised trial to demonstrate the effectiveness of electronic messages on sun protection behaviours.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Csanád; Ócsai, Henriette; Csabai, Márta; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-08-01

    Message exposure is effective at changing a variety of health behaviours. Our aim was to improve sun protection habits of a volunteer sample. We conducted a randomised, non-blinded, investigator-initiated trial (from 1st June to 31st August in 2011) on the effect of an electronic text-message system on sun protection behaviours. The assessments of 149 healthy volunteer participants took place at the Clinical Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the University of Szeged in Hungary. Psychological and medical assessments were also made. Total motivation scores for adherence to sunscreen use improved at a nearly significant level (t=-1.954, p=0.054). The intervention group used sunscreens more often than the other groups according to their sun exposure diaries (F=8.173, p<0.05) and their interview results (F=3.44, p<0.05). Using electronic messages offers an effective method to improve sun protection behaviours. Our intervention is a cost-effective method and it can easily be implemented at worksites. PMID:26114220

  10. Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

  11. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  12. Effects of a Short Teacher Training Programme on the Management of Children's Sexual Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnaud, Jean-Paul; Turner, William

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale quasi-experimental study set out to examine the effects of a brief training programme aiming to develop primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes and confidence in recognising and responding to children who display sexual behaviours. Data on prevalence of sexual behaviours observed by teachers in the study, their level of…

  13. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  14. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  15. Effects of Training on Controllability Attributions of Behavioural Excesses and Deficits Shown by Adults with Down Syndrome and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsy, Sunny; Heath, Rebecca; Adams, Dawn; Oliver, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background: Whereas there is a knowledge base on staff attributions of challenging behaviour, there has been little research on the effects of training, type of behaviour and biological context on staff attributions of controllability in the context of people with intellectual disabilities and dementia. Methods: A mixed design was used to…

  16. Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy in schoolchildren with depressive symptoms in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Habib, D; Seif El Din, A

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for 12-14-year-old school-children from a low socioeconomic area in Alexandria, Egypt during the academic year 2003-04. Our sample comprised 198 boys and 136 girls. Students were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The frequency of depression was 9.6%; 7.1% in boys and 13.2% in girls. The 32 children with depression were offered cognitive behaviour therapy. Only 17 accepted the offer and received 9 sessions of therapy. They were assessed 3 months after the intervention using the same tools and the results indicate the short-term effectiveness of the therapy. PMID:17687835

  17. Influence of idazoxan on the dopamine D2 receptor agonist-induced behavioural effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Giuliani, D

    1993-11-30

    The behavioural effects in rats of the dopamine D2 receptor agonists, lisuride, B-HT 920 and SND 919, were variously influenced by pre-treatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (2 mg/kg), depending on the nature of the effect in question and the doses of agonist employed. The influence of idazoxan on drug-induced stretching-yawning, penile erection, sedation, stereotyped behaviour, aggressiveness and mounting is described and tentatively interpreted in neurochemical terms, account being taken of the activity of respective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist and dopamine receptor agonists used, at alpha 2-adrenoceptors and at different dopamine D2 receptor subtypes, pre- and postsynaptically located. PMID:7907024

  18. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

  19. Effect of processing parameters on the corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed AA 2219 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surekha, K.; Murty, B. S.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of processing parameters (rotation speed and traverse speed) on the corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed high strength precipitation hardenable AA 2219-T87 alloy was investigated. The results indicate that the rotation speed has a major influence in determining the rate of corrosion, which is attributed to the breaking down and dissolution of the intermetallic particles. Corrosion resistance of friction stir processed alloy was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, salt spray and immersion tests.

  20. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  1. Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Finely Balanced Decision-Making in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Persson, Mia E.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, more difficult decisions result in behavioural and physiological changes suggestive of increased arousal, but little is known about the effect of decision difficulty in other species. A difficult decision can have a number of characteristics; we aimed to monitor how finely balanced decisions, compared to unbalanced ones, affected the behaviour and physiology of chickens. An unbalanced decision was one in which the two options were of unequal net value (1 (Q1) vs. 6 (Q6) pieces of sweetcorn with no cost associated with either option); a finely balanced decision was one in which the options were of equal net value (i.e. hens were "indifferent" to both options). To identify hens' indifference, a titration procedure was used in which a cost (electromagnetic weight on an access door) was applied to the Q6 option, to find the individual point at which hens chose this option approximately equally to Q1 via a non-weighted door. We then compared behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal (head movements, latency to choose, heart-rate variability and surface body temperature) when chickens made decisions that were unbalanced or finely balanced. Significant physiological (heart-rate variability) and behavioural (latency to pen) differences were found between the finely balanced and balanced conditions, but these were likely to be artefacts of the greater time and effort required to push through the weighted doors. No other behavioural and physiological measures were significantly different between the decision categories. We suggest that more information is needed on when best to monitor likely changes in arousal during decision-making and that future studies should consider decisions defined as difficult in other ways. PMID:25275440

  2. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  3. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46 mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23 mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23 mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

  5. Predator crypsis enhances behaviourally mediated indirect effects on plants by altering bumblebee foraging preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Predators of pollinators can influence pollination services and plant fitness via both consumptive (reducing pollinator density) and non-consumptive (altering pollinator behaviour) effects. However, a better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying behaviourally mediated indirect effects of predators is necessary to properly understand their role in community dynamics. We used the tripartite relationship between bumblebees, predatory crab spiders and flowers to ask whether behaviourally mediated effects are localized to flowers harbouring predators, or whether bees extend their avoidance to entire plant species. In a tightly controlled laboratory environment, bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) were exposed to a random mixture of equally rewarding yellow and white artificial flowers, but foraging on yellow flowers was very risky: bees had a 25 per cent chance of receiving a simulated predation attempt by ‘robotic’ crab spiders. As bees learnt to avoid ‘dangerous’ flowers, their foraging preferences changed and they began to visit fewer yellow flowers than expected by chance. Bees avoided spider-free yellow flowers as well as dangerous yellow flowers when spiders were more difficult to detect (the colour of yellow spiders was indistinguishable from that of yellow flowers). Therefore, this interaction between bee learning and predator crypsis could lead flower species harbouring cryptic predators to suffer from reduced reproductive success. PMID:19324797

  6. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  7. Atypical presentation of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Karuppiah

    2016-01-01

    The HACEK group of organisms are one of the infrequent causes of infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis should be recognized and treated promptly to prevent excessive morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Sometimes the diagnosis is delayed due to vague and subtle presentation. Through this case report, risk factors of Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis and its atypical presentation is illustrated to increase the recognition of infective endocarditis as one of the differential diagnosis. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-07.asp, free with no login]. PMID:27379355

  8. Atypical odontalgia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koratkar, Harish; Koratkar, Sonal

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain is not uncommon; however, reaching a definitive diagnosis in these cases can be a complex challenge. Dentists are most likely to face this situation, because persistent and chronic pain is more common in the head and neck region than in any other part of the body. However, the complexities and diagnostic challenges mean that misdiagnosing neuropathic pain is common. This article presents a case of atypical odontalgia and illustrates the complexities involved when diagnosing the condition. PMID:19284197

  9. An Atypical Articulatory Setting as Learned Behaviour: A Videofluorographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, M.; Manuel, R.; Muller, N.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the case of a child with severely unintelligible speech, referred to our clinic after unsuccessful therapy elsewhere. Thomas's speech was characterized by deapicalization and velodorsal articulations, together with hypernasality. Unusually, Thomas was also able to produce a small number of items normally. His speech was investigated by…

  10. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  11. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats’ performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects’ performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  12. The effects of smoking on whisker movements: A quantitative measure of exploratory behaviour in rodents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robyn A; Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen; Heulens, Nele; Galli, Gina L J; Janssens, Wim; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Degens, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Nicotine, an important component of cigarette smoke, is a neurotransmitter that contributes to stress, depression and anxiety in smokers. In rodents, it increases anxiety and reduces exploratory behaviours. However, so far, the measurements of exploratory behaviour in rodents have only been semi-quantitative and lacking in sufficient detail to characterise the temporal effect of smoking cessation. As rodents, such as mice and rats, primarily use whiskers to explore their environment, we studied the effect of 3 months smoking with 1 and 2 weeks smoking cessation on whisker movements in mice, using high-speed video camera footage and image analysis. Both protraction and retraction whisker velocities were increased in smoking mice (p<0.001) and returned to normal following just one week of smoking cessation. In addition, locomotion speeds were decreased in smoking mice, and returned to normal following smoking cessation. Lung function was also impacted by smoking and remained impaired even following smoking cessation. We suggest that the increased whisker velocities in the smoking mice reflect reduced exploration and impeded tactile performance. The increase in whisker velocity with smoking, and its reduction following smoking cessation, also lends support to acetylcholine being involved in awareness, attention and alertness pathways. It also shows that smoking-induced behavioural changes can be reversed with smoking cessation, which may have implications for human smokers. PMID:27045697

  13. Using implementation intentions to overcome the effect of mood on risky behaviour.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Totterdell, Peter; Miles, Eleanor; Mansell, Warren; Baker, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments investigated whether forming an if-then plan or implementation intention could break the link between mood and risky behaviour. In Expt 1, participants planned how to deal with unpleasant moods. Next, as part of an ostensibly unrelated experiment, participants underwent a disguised mood induction before rating their willingness to perform a series of risky behaviours. Unpleasant mood increased subsequent risk willingness among participants who did not form a plan but did not influence risk willingness among participants who formed an implementation intention. In Expt 2, mood arousal was manipulated and participants then undertook a gambling task. One-half of the sample formed implementation intentions that focused attention on the odds of winning. Greater arousal led to more risky betting among control participants. However, forming an implementation intention promoted good risk awareness and, consequently, shielded participants' task performance from the effects of arousal. Taken together, the findings suggest that people can strategically avoid the detrimental effect of unpleasant mood and arousal on risk by forming implementation intentions directed at controlling either the experience of mood or the risky behaviour. PMID:22687173

  14. Effect of genes, social experience, and their interaction on the courtship behaviour of transgenic Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Svetec, Nicolas; Houot, Benjamin; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    Behaviour depends (a) on genes that specify the neural and non-neural elements involved in the perception of and responses to sensory stimuli and (b) on experience that can modulate the fine development of these elements. We exposed transgenic and control Drosophila melanogaster males, and their hybrids, to male siblings during adult development and measured the contribution of genes and of experience to their courtship behaviour. The transgene CheB42a specifically targets male gustatory sensillae and alters the perception of male inhibitory pheromones which leads to frequent male-male interactions. The age at which social experience occurred and the genotype of tester males induced a variable effect on the intensity of male homo- and heterosexual courtship. The strong interaction between the effects of genes and of social experience reveals the plasticity of the apparently stereotyped elements involved in male courtship behaviour. Finally, a high intensity of homosexual courtship was found only in males that simultaneously carried a mutation in their white gene and the CheB42a transgene. PMID:16174337

  15. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  16. Effect of skin-core debonding on the dynamic behaviour of GFRP composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayatilake, Indunil; Karunasena, Karu; Lokuge, Weena

    2013-08-01

    Composites are materials made by combining two individual materials where one material forms the matrix while the other provides the reinforcement. A novel composite sandwich made up of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) face sheets and modified phenolic core has been developed recently. Although perfect bond between the skin and the core is a common assumption, an important issue that needs to be considered in using a composite beam is the development of debonding between the skin and the core. Debonding may arise during fabrication or under service conditions, which causes changes to the dynamic behaviour in addition to the strength degradation. This paper focuses on the effect of debonding on dynamic characteristics of sandwich beams of different debonding sizes and end conditions. Strand7 software is used for 3D finite element simulation. Free vibration behaviour reported in the literature for composite beams will first be used to compare the analytical results with the fully bonded and debonded beams. Study is extended to depict the effect of debonding on free vibration behaviour of novel composite beams. It is revealed that the decrease in natural frequency with the increase in the extent of debonding is more dependent on the width of debonding across the beam than the length along the beam. It is also perceived that full width debonding leads to increased participation of twisting modes in comparison to half-width debonding in clamped-clamped end condition. End conditions of the beam are a governing factor dictating which modes are more affected.

  17. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559

  18. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  19. Effects of calcination temperature on the drug delivery behaviour of Ibuprofen from hydroxyapatite powders.

    PubMed

    Melville, Amanda J; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Luis M; Forsythe, John S

    2008-03-01

    The effects of heat treatment time and temperature on the delivery behaviour of Ibuprofen from hydroxyapatite particles were investigated in this study. The drug release was seen to follow Fickian diffusion for the initial period of release for all heat treatment conditions. The gradient of Fickian release increased with (1) increasing crystallite size, attributed to the decreasing amount of boundary area, and (2) with decreasing surface area, due to the reduction in porosity and hence tortuosity within the apatite particles. This study has shown that altering the heat treatment conditions used to calcine hydroxyapatite may alter its drug delivery abilities, whereby calcination temperature was noted to influence the drug release behaviour to a greater extent than calcination time. PMID:17701302

  20. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  1. The effects of vasopressin and oxytocin on methamphetamine-induced place preference behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Subiah, Cassandra O; Mabandla, Musa V; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A; Daniels, Willie M U

    2012-09-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug whose illicit use and resultant addiction has become an alarming global phenomenon. The mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been shown to be fundamental to the establishment of addictive behaviour. This pathway, as part of the reward system of the brain, has also been shown to be important in classical conditioning, which is a learnt response. Within the modulation of learning and memory, the neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin have been reported to play a vital role, with vasopressin exerting a long- term facilitatory effect and oxytocin exerting an inhibitory effect. Therefore we adopted a conditioned place preference model to investigate whether vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist SSR 149415 or oxytocin treatment would cause a decrease in the seeking behaviour in a reinstatement paradigm. Behavioural findings indicated that methamphetamine induced a change in the place preference in the majority of our animals. This change in place preference was not seen when vasopressin was administered during the extinction phase. On the other hand the methamphetamine-induced change in place preference was enhanced during the reinstatement phase in the animals that were treated with oxytocin. Striatal dopamine levels were determined, as methamphetamine is known to increase dopamine transmission in this area. Significant changes in dopamine levels were observed in some of our animals. Rats that received both methamphetamine and oxytocin had significantly higher striatal dopamine than those that received oxytocin alone. Western blot analysis for hippocampal cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) was also conducted as a possible indicator of glutamatergic NMDA receptor activity, a pathway that is important for learning and memory. The Western blot analysis showed no changes in hippocampal pCREB expression. Overall our data led us to conclude that methamphetamine treatment can change place preference

  2. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  3. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology/Principal Findin...

  4. Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

    2012-03-01

    The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P<0.05). Furthermore, assisted calves also tended to be less likely to stand and walk within the first 3h after birth (P<0.1), spent more time lying on their flank (P=0.019) and had more frequent bouts of this behaviour (P=0.033). Assisted dams did not take longer to lick the calf and performed as much licking as unassisted dams (P>0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves. PMID:21958900

  5. The effects of direction similarity in visual working memory: Behavioural and event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Shouxin; Wang, Xiusong; Che, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Object similarity can improve visual working memory (VWM) performance in the change-detection task, but impair the recognition performance when it occurs at retrieval of VWM in the recognition task. The effect of direction similarity is an issue that has not been well resolved. Furthermore, electrophysiological evidence in support of the mechanisms that underlie the effects of similarity is still scarce. In the current study, we conducted three behavioural experiments to examine the effects of direction similarity on memory performance with regard to both the encoding and retrieval phases of VWM and one event-related potential (ERP) experiment to explore the neural signatures of direction similarity in VWM. Our behavioural studies indicated that direction similarity improved performance when it occurred at the encoding phase but impaired performance when it occurred at the retrieval phase. Moreover, the ERP experiment showed that the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) increased with the increasing set size for similar but not dissimilar directions. In addition, the CDA amplitude for similar directions was lower than that for dissimilar directions at set size 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that direction similarity at encoding has a positive effect on VWM performance and at retrieval has a negative effect. Given that VWM capacity depends on information load and the number of objects, the positive effect of similarity may be attributed to reduced information load of memory objects. PMID:26443895

  6. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-09-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here 'keystone individuals'. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  7. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  8. Course and treatment of atypical depression.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, A A; Alpert, J E; Pava, J; Rosenbaum, J F; Fava, M

    1998-01-01

    Atypical depression is the most common form of depression in outpatients, but compared with melancholia, little is known about its comorbidity, course, and treatment. Beyond the well-characterized constellation of symptoms that define atypical depression (mood reactivity, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, hyperphagia, and rejection sensitivity), specific Axis I and II comorbid conditions may differentiate atypical from other depressed patients. Similarly, age at onset, duration of episodes, frequency of relapses and recurrences, and frequency of complete remission in atypical depression may be different. It has not even been established if atypical depression is a stable subtype or if it is just one of several forms of depression that an individual may express during a lifetime of recurrent depressions. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are superior to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) for the treatment of atypical depression, but few studies have compared MAOIs to the newer generation of antidepressants (SSRIs, bupropion, venlafaxine, nefazodone, and mirtazapine). Because of the favorable benefit/risk ratio, clinicians tend to use these newer antidepressants for all outpatients, including those with atypical depression, even though the literature is limited. A review and critique of the relevant literature on atypical depression will be presented. PMID:9840192

  9. Higher Education and the Black Atypical Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, W. Frank, IV

    The black atypical student, defined as that black student who would be excluded from most colleges and universities in America by traditional admission policy, is beginning to find entrance into institutions of higher education. There is no indication reported of these institutions admitting large numbers of black atypical students. In the…

  10. The effects of dihydropyridine compounds in behavioural tests of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bourson, A.; Gower, A. J.; Mir, A. K.; Moser, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine and the activator Bay K 8644 were investigated in different behavioural tests involving dopaminergic systems. These were the discriminative stimulus induced by amphetamine, rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and apomorphine-induced yawning in rats. 2. The yawning induced by apomorphine (40 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) was significantly potentiated by nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.). Bay K 8644 (0.05-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited yawning induced by apomorphine (80 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) and, at 0.4 mgkg-1, inhibited the nifedipine potentiation of apomorphine-induced yawning. In contrast to their effects on apomorphine-induced yawning, nifedipine and Bay K 8644 had no effect on apomorphine-induced penile erection. 3. Bay K 8644 (0.06-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) and nifedipine (5-20 mgkg-1 i.p.) had no dose-related effect on the discrimination performance of rats trained to discriminate amphetamine from saline. However, nifedipine dose-dependently reduced the response rate of amphetamine-treated rats. Bay K 8644 had no effect on this measure except at high doses that also caused disruption. 4. Neither nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.) nor Bay K 8644 (0.06-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) affected the turning behaviour induced by amphetamine (1 mgkg-1 i.p.) in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle, and did not induce turning themselves. 5. As the dihydropyridine compounds affected apomorphine-induced yawning but not penile erection, and did not affect amphetamine-induced rotation or drug discrimination, it seems unlikely that they are affecting dopamine release in vivo. PMID:2482105

  11. Effects of Exercise Interventions on Stereotypic Behaviours in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Christopher; Adamson, Sarah R.; Block, Laurie; Einarson, Sarah J.; Sharifnejad, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from studies examining the effect of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Only exercise-related physical therapy (PT) interventions were included. A multifaceted search strategy identified studies published between 1980 and 2007. Quality was assessed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) Study Quality Scale, the Clinical Relevance Tool for Case Studies, and the Quality, Rigour or Evaluative Criteria tool. Results: Seven studies (1982–2003) met our inclusion criteria; four of these used single-subject research designs, two were group studies, and one was a case study. Ages and behavioural characteristics of the children (N = 25) varied among the studies. Levels of evidence ranged from II to V (of a possible I–V). Study quality scores ranged from 2 to 5 (range: 0 to 7); mean = 3.9, mode = 5. Few studies in this area of PT practice have been published, and those identified scored low levels of rigour on the AACPDM criteria. Conclusions: Research suggests that exercise provides short-term reductions of stereotypic behaviours in children with ASD. Future research with stronger evidence levels, greater rigour, and longer-term outcome assessment is required to determine specific exercise parameters. PMID:20145777

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem on the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2009-12-01

    The phytochemical constituents of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem and its effect on male rat sexual behaviour were evaluated for 7 days. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinones. Administration of the extract at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight resulted in the significant increase (p < 0.05) in mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculatory latency, ejaculation frequency, serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, computed indices of sexual behaviour, erection, quick flips, long flips and total penile reflexes whereas the mount latency, intromission latency and post-ejaculatory interval were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. The 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract produced contrasting pattern to the lower doses of the extract in all the parameters of sexual behaviour monitored throughout the experimental period. The results are indicative of prosexual stimulatory potentials of Bulbine natalensis in male rats. The aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis stem at these doses (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) may be used in the management of disorders of desire/libido, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:18710410

  13. Effect of protic ionic liquid on the volumetric properties and taste behaviour of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Chhotaray, Pratap K; Gardas, Ramesh L

    2015-02-15

    The volumetric properties and taste behaviour of sucrose in aqueous solutions of a protic ionic liquid (3-hydroxypropylammonium acetate) have been studied at temperatures, T=(293.15-318.15)K and at atmospheric pressure. Apparent molar volumes, V2,ϕ, apparent specific volumes, ASV, apparent molar isentropic compressibilities, Ks,2,ϕ, and apparent specific isentropic compressibilities, ASIC, were calculated from measured density, ρ and speed of sound, u data. Partial molar volumes, V2(°), and partial molar isentropic compressibilities, Ks,2(°) at infinite dilution, transfer parameters (ΔtV2(°) and ΔtKs,2(°)), expansion coefficients, [(∂V2(°)/∂T)P and (∂(2)V2(°)/∂T(2))P], interaction coefficients, (YAB and YABB) and hydration numbers, Nw, were also evaluated and discussed in terms of solute-cosolute interactions. Further, the effect of protic ionic liquid on the taste behaviour of sucrose has been discussed from ASV and ASIC parameters, as these parameters, which are sensitive to solvation behaviour of solute, are divided into four basic taste qualities occupying certain ranges. PMID:25236254

  14. Effect of temperature and strain rate on the compressive behaviour of supramolecular polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuegang; Siviour, Clive R.; Buckley, C. Paul; Feula, Antonio; Hayes, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Supramolecular polyurethanes (SPUs) possess thermoresponsive and thermoreversible properties, and those characteristics are highly desirable in both bulk commodity and value-added applications such as adhesives, shape-memory materials, healable coatings and lightweight, impact-resistant structures (e.g. protection for mobile electronics). A better understanding of the mechanical properties, especially the rate and temperature sensitivity, of these materials are required to assess their suitability for different applications. In this paper, a newly developed SPU with tuneable thermal properties was studied, and the response of this SPU to compressive loading over strain rates from 10-3 to 104 s-1 was presented. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on the mechanical response was also demonstrated. The sample was tested using an Instron mechanical testing machine for quasi-static loading, a home-made hydraulic system for moderate rates and a traditional split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPBs) for high strain rates. Results showed that the compression stress-strain behaviour was affected significantly by the thermoresponsive nature of SPU, but that, as expected for polymeric materials, the general trends of the temperature and the rate dependence mirror each other. However, this behaviour is more complicated than observed for many other polymeric materials, as a result of the richer range of transitions that influence the behaviour over the range of temperatures and strain rates tested.

  15. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  16. Using Activity-Related Behavioural Features towards More Effective Automatic Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumis, Dimitris; Drosou, Anastasios; Cipresso, Pietro; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Hassapis, George; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response) recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images) that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing. PMID:23028461

  17. Effect of calcium on nicotine-induced current expressed by an atypical alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2.

    PubMed

    Thany, Steeve H; Courjaret, Raphael; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-06-27

    Two distinct native alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), named nAChR1 and nAChR2, were identified in the cockroach Periplaneta americana dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. They differed in their electrophysiological, pharmacological properties and intracellular regulation pathways. nAChR2 being an atypical nicotinic receptor closed upon agonist application and its current-voltage relationship resulted from a reduction in potassium conductance. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that calcium modulated nAChR2-mediated nicotine response. Under 0.5 microM alpha-Bgt and 20 mM d-tubocurarine, the nicotine-induced inward current amplitude was strongly reduced in the presence of intracellularly applied BAPTA or bath application of calcium-free solution. In addition, using cadmium chloride, we showed that nicotine response was modulated by extracellular calcium through plasma membrane calcium channels. Moreover, extracellular application of caffeine and thapsigargin reduced nAChR2-mediated response. Together these experiments revealed a complex calcium-dependent regulation of nAChR2. PMID:18485593

  18. Emotionality Modulates the Effect of Chronic Stress on Feeding Behaviour in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Favreau-Peigné, Angélique; Calandreau, Ludovic; Constantin, Paul; Gaultier, Bernard; Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Laurence, Agathe; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Boissy, Alain; Leterrier, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a long-lasting negative emotional state that induces negative consequences on animals’ psycho-physiological state. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli (URNS) influence feeding behaviour in quail. Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed. Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure (using two diets of different energetic values) which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines. Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines. Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later. Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters. This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their

  19. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous. PMID:26074276

  20. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered. PMID:25146179

  1. Behavioural and cognitive effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin in rats.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Michaël; Rozan, Pascale; Nejdi, Amine; Hidalgo, Sophie; Desor, Didier

    2005-04-01

    The behavioural and cognitive effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin at the doses of 5 and 10 % in the diet, orally ingested daily during 2 weeks, were investigated using a functional observational battery (FOB) and the light extinction test in male Wistar rats. Control rats received a standard diet and were tested in the same test situations. The behavioural effects were assessed 2 d before and 14 d after the beginning of the treatment period and the cognitive effects were investigated after the administration period by lever-pressing activity and learning discrimination using the light extinction test paradigm. In general, the study demonstrated that oligofructose-enriched inulin at 5 % in the diet, and particularly at 10 % in the diet, caused relaxing-like effects, stimulated and increased the general activity and interest of the rats to the test environment. In addition, both doses of oligofructose-enriched inulin showed significant effects on learning discrimination in male rats, in comparison with the control diet. These results suggest that oligofructose-enriched inulin, particularly at the dose of 10 %, improves cognitive performances in the light extinction test and the well-being of male rats using the FOB. PMID:15877891

  2. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  3. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, David; Ferrucci, Michela; Busceti, Carla L.; Biagioni, Francesca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Liles, L. Cameron; Lenzi, Paola; Murri, Luigi; Paparelli, Antonio; Fornai, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) lesions of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major brain noradrenergic nucleus, exacerbate the damage to nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) terminals caused by the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). However, because noradrenergic terminals contain other neuromodulators and the noradrenaline (NA) transporter, which may act as a neuroprotective buffer, it was unclear whether this enhancement of METH neurotoxicity was caused by the loss of noradrenergic innervation or the loss of NA itself. We addressed the specific role of NA by comparing the effects of METH in mice with noradrenergic lesions (DSP-4) and those with intact noradrenergic terminals but specifically lacking NA (genetic or acute pharmacological blockade of the NA biosynthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase; DBH). We found that genetic deletion of DBH (DBH −/− mice) and acute treatment of wild-type mice with a DBH inhibitor (fusaric acid) recapitulated the effects of DSP-4 lesions on METH responses. All three methods of NA depletion enhanced striatal DA release, extracellular oxidative stress (as measured by in vivo microdialysis of DA and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid), and behavioural stereotypies following repeated METH administration. These effects accompanied a worsening of the striatal DA neuron terminal damage and ultrastructural changes to medium spiny neurons. We conclude that NA itself is neuroprotective and plays a fundamental role in the sensitivity of striatal DA terminals to the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of METH. PMID:18042179

  4. Effects of osmotic stress on predation behaviour of Asterias rubens L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, Antonio; Schellekens, Tim; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-05-01

    Environmental stress plays an important role in determining ecosystem functioning and structure. In estuarine areas both tidal and seasonal salinity changes may cause osmotic stress on predators, affecting their behaviour and survival. The interaction between these predators and their prey may affect performance, thus influencing predator impact on prey populations. The common starfish, Asterias rubens, inhabits estuarine areas, such as the Dutch Wadden Sea, that exhibit large seasonal variation in salinity (10-32 PSU). In those areas A. rubens exerts top down control on its prey, thus representing an important shellfish predator. This predation may impact on cultured and natural shellfish populations. However, the effects of osmotic stress on A. rubens performance may influence its effect on prey. Although the effect of salinity in A. rubens survival has been extensively studied, the impact on its predation behaviour and acclimation capacity remains unclear. In this study, we analyse the performance of A. rubens preying on mussels (Mytilus edulis) after a salinity decrease and monitor its acclimation capacity over a period of 22 days. Our experiments demonstrated that salinity affected performance by reducing feeding activity and altering size prey selection. Moreover, as acclimation occurred, A. rubens predation performance improved in all sub-lethal treatments. We conclude that osmotic stress caused by decreasing salinity potentially influences A. rubens distribution, abundance, and potential impact on prey populations. However the magnitude of the change in salinity (from 31 to a minimum of 10 PSU) and its timescale (3 weeks) mediate this effect.

  5. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

  6. An Atypical Case of Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Wang'ondu, Ruth W; Long, Theodore

    2016-03-01

    Hemoptysis, a common sign of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, can be caused by multiple factors, both infectious and noninfectious. A 45-year-old male with hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, and stage IV pulmonary sarcoidosis with cardiac involvement, presented with a two-month history of cough and acute nonmassive hemoptysis with hypoxia. A chest CT showed ground glass consolidation and interlobular septal thickening, concerning for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Flexible bronchoscopy confirmed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage; microbiological analyses of bronchoalveolar washings did not reveal a causative organism. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific IgM in serum studies was consistent with mycoplasma pneumonia as the most likely etiology of this patient's diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and resultant hemoptysis. This report points to the need to consider atypical mycoplasma pneumonia as a possible etiology of hemoptysis in patients with underlying sarcoidosis. PMID:27169298

  7. [Atypical trajectory of gunshot injury].

    PubMed

    Aygün, Mert; Tulay, Cumhur Murat

    2014-11-01

    Gunshot injuries are common medical-legal issues. Atypical tract lines resulting from this type of injuries cause difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, a gunshot injury on the right anterior thigh extending to the right hemithorax was presented. A 67-year-old Syrian refugee patient was brought to the emergency service due to gunshot injury. Bullet entrance hole was determined on the right anterior thigh region; however, exit side could not be seen. Bullet was determined on the right thorax at tomography and the patient was taken to operation due to diaphragm rupture and lung parenchymal injury. Other body parts must be examined radiologically for the bullet which cannot be determined at gunshot injury side. PMID:25541926

  8. Atypical combinations and scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Uzzi, Brian; Mukherjee, Satyam; Stringer, Michael; Jones, Ben

    2013-10-25

    Novelty is an essential feature of creative ideas, yet the building blocks of new ideas are often embodied in existing knowledge. From this perspective, balancing atypical knowledge with conventional knowledge may be critical to the link between innovativeness and impact. Our analysis of 17.9 million papers spanning all scientific fields suggests that science follows a nearly universal pattern: The highest-impact science is primarily grounded in exceptionally conventional combinations of prior work yet simultaneously features an intrusion of unusual combinations. Papers of this type were twice as likely to be highly cited works. Novel combinations of prior work are rare, yet teams are 37.7% more likely than solo authors to insert novel combinations into familiar knowledge domains. PMID:24159044

  9. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly. PMID:12596123

  10. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  11. Atypical prion diseases in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097

  12. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding. PMID:26769347

  13. The effect of perceived streakiness on the shot-taking behaviour of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting. PMID:25427817

  14. Effect of short term administration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on reproductive behaviour of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kantak, N M; Gogate, M G

    1992-04-01

    Effect of feeding Tulsi leaves along with the normal diet, on the reproductory behaviour of adult male Wistar rats, was studied. Experimental animals were given Tulsi extract in graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg along with the normal diet while control group only had similar normal diet. Each dose was given for 15 days and reproductory behaviour monitored in terms of score, on every alternative day. There was significant decrease in sexual behavioural score, when Tulsi leaves extract dose was increased to 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. PMID:1506071

  15. Parasites that change predator or prey behaviour can have keystone effects on community composition

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Melanie J.; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites play pivotal roles in structuring communities, often via indirect interactions with non-host species. These effects can be density-mediated (through mortality) or trait-mediated (behavioural, physiological and developmental), and may be crucial to population interactions, including biological invasions. For instance, parasitism can alter intraguild predation (IGP) between native and invasive crustaceans, reversing invasion outcomes. Here, we use mathematical models to examine how parasite-induced trait changes influence the population dynamics of hosts that interact via IGP. We show that trait-mediated indirect interactions impart keystone effects, promoting or inhibiting host coexistence. Parasites can thus have strong ecological impacts, even if they have negligible virulence, underscoring the need to consider trait-mediated effects when predicting effects of parasites on community structure in general and biological invasions in particular. PMID:24429680

  16. Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Schmid, Franziska; Hunger, Heike; Schwarz, Sandra; El-Sayeh, Hany George G; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have become first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether, and if so how much, the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examine how the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole differs from that of other second generation antipsychotics. Objectives To evaluate the effects of aripiprazole compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials comparing oral aripiprazole with oral forms of amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes four trials with 1404 participants on two out of eight possible comparisons - aripiprazole versus olanzapine and aripiprazole versus risperidone. The overall number of participants leaving the studies early was considerable (38.5%), limiting the validity of the findings, but with no significant differences between groups. Aripiprazole was less efficacious than olanzapine in terms of the general mental state (PANSS total score: n=794, 2 RCTs, MD 4.96 CI 1.85 to 8.06), but it was associated with fewer side-effects

  17. Effect of carbonate content on the mechanical behaviour of clay fault-gouges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Elisenda; Niemeijer, André; Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is considered to be the most promising technology to achieve large-scale reduction in anthropogenic emissions. In order to retain the stored CO2 from the atmosphere for the very long-term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103-104 years, it is essential to maintain the integrity of the caprock, and more specifically of any faults penetrating the seal. When selecting suitable CO2-storage reservoirs, pre-exisiting faults within the caprock require close attention, as changes in the stress state resulting from CO2-injection may induce fault slip motion which might cause leakage. Little is known about the effect of fluid-rock interactions on the mineral composition, mechanical properties and the integrity and sealing capacity of the caprock. Previous studies on the effect of mineral composition on the frictional properties of fault gouges have shown that friction is controlled by the dominant phase unless there is a frictionally weak, through-going fabric. However, the effect on stability is less clear. Since long-term CO2-exposure might cause chemical reactions, potentially resulting in the dissolution or precipitation of carbonate minerals, a change in mineralogy could affect the mechanical stability of a caprock significantly. Calcite, for example, is known to be prone to micro-seismicity and shows a transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour around 100-150°C. Therefore, we investigated the effect of varying clay:carbonate ratios on fault friction behaviour, fault reactivation potential and slip stability, i.e. seismic vs. aseismic behaviour. Three types of simulated fault gouges were used: i) carbonate-free, natural clay-rich caprock samples, consisting of predominantly phyllosilicates (~80%) and quartz ~20%), ii) pure calcite, and iii) mixtures of carbonate-free clay-rich caprock and pure calcite, with predetermined clay:carbonate ratios. For the natural clay

  18. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects. PMID:26739685

  19. Behavioural and neurotoxic long-lasting effects of MDMA plus cocaine in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Daza-Losada, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Maldonado, C; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2008-08-20

    The poly-drug pattern is the most common among MDMA users, with cocaine being a frequently associated drug. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the behavioural and neurotoxic long-term effects of exposure during adolescence to MDMA alone or plus cocaine. Mice of 28 to 30 days of age received a treatment of two daily injections of an identical dose of MDMA (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), alone or plus cocaine (25 mg/kg), for 3 days (6 administrations). Three weeks after receiving MDMA, an increase in the time dedicated by the animals to social contacts with their conspecifics was observed, whilst their behaviour in the elevated plus maze showed no differences from that of non-treated mice. After being exposed to MDMA plus cocaine, mice spent more time in social contacts during the interaction test, as well as exhibiting an anxiolytic profile in the elevated plus maze, with an increase in the time and number of entries in the open arms. The activity of mice treated with cocaine alone or plus MDMA remained constant; the decrease observed among the rest of the animals after the second hour was absent in their case. The level of dopamine in the striatum was diminished in mice treated with 20 mg/kg of MDMA, but this neurotransmitter was not affected in animals exposed to the same dose plus cocaine. The present results highlight pronounced alterations in the behaviour of adult mice after exposure to MDMA and cocaine during adolescence, and demonstrate that these long-term effects can occur without the dopaminergic system becoming affected. PMID:18585379

  20. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions. PMID:26928336

  1. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Regarding the Adverse Effects of Medicines in an Omani Population

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Jimmy; Jimmy, Beena; Al-Mamari, Moza N. S.; Al-Hadrami, Thuraiya S. N.; Al-Zadjali, Halima M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, beliefs and behaviours of an Omani population with regards to the adverse effects of medicines. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between February and June 2012. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to assess three aspects: knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to medicine safety. A total of 740 questionnaires were distributed in three representative governorates of Oman. Median total scores for the three sections were estimated. Associations with participants’ demographic variables and medication histories were also assessed. Results: A total of 618 participants completed the survey (response rate: 83.5%). Many participants (46.4%) believed that side-effects occurred only with high doses of medication and over 30% believed that they did not occur at all with traditional and over-the-counter medicines. The median total score was 19 (interquartile range: 6) out of a maximum of 30. Inadequate knowledge, incorrect beliefs and good behaviours were observed among the participants. There was a significant association between certain demographic parameters (age, educational qualification, history of chronic use of medicines and employment status) and median total scores. Participants reported obtaining additional information on medication safety from various sources, with doctors as the most widely used source. Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and incorrect beliefs among this Omani population indicate a need for interventions to improve public knowledge and address misconceptions regarding medication safety. These interventions could be initiated on both an individual and public scale, with patient interactions by healthcare professionals and mass education activities targeting the larger population. PMID:26052459

  2. Behavioural therapy for smoking cessation: The effectiveness of different intervention types for disadvantaged and affluent smokers☆

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Murray, Susan; Brose, Leonie S.; McEwen, Andy; Bee, Jo Leonardi; Dobbie, Fiona; Bauld, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. Methods 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. Results Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). Conclusion This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open

  3. Differential effects of naltrexone on cardiac, subjective and behavioural reactions to acute ethanol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jordan B.; Conrod, Patricia; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gianoulakis, Christina; Pihl, Robert O.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Alcohol may have psychomotor stimulant properties during the rising limb of the blood alcohol curve at commonly self-administered doses. Increased heart rate (HR) immediately after alcohol consumption may serve as an indicator or marker of such properties, which appear to be potentially opiate-mediated and dopamine-dependent. Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, has been used successfully in the treatment of alcoholism and may produce its therapeutic effects through its effects on alcohol metabolism or by blocking alcohol's rewarding effects. We hypothesized that, if naltrexone blocks the psychomotor stimulant properties of ethanol, then it would decrease or eliminate the HR increase associated with acute alcohol intoxication and that this would be independent of any effect on alcohol metabolism. Methods Twenty male subjects were administered placebo and alcohol (1.0 mL 95% USP ethanol/kg body weight) in a laboratory setting on one day and naltrexone (50 mg) and alcohol on another (counterbalanced). We assessed all subjects for a change in HR and for a subjective and behavioural response from 35 to 170 minutes after drug or alcohol administration. Results The placebo and alcohol mix produced a significant mean HR increase from baseline (F1,95 = 46.01, p < 0.0001, Cohen's d = 0.62), while naltrexone and alcohol did not (nonsignificant). The significant effects of naltrexone on blood alcohol level did not account for the effect of naltrexone on alcohol-induced HR change but did account for alterations in subjective and behavioural response to alcohol. Conclusions Naltrexone appears to substantially reduce the HR increase that is characteristic of alcohol intoxication. This finding appears to lend moderate support to the notions that, first, naltrexone has differential effects on alcohol reactions and, second, that it specifically blocks the acute psychomotor stimulant properties of alcohol. PMID:17136216

  4. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  5. Imaging appearances of atypical hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Amita; Chandra, Ranjan; Prasad, Rajni; Khanna, Geetika; Thukral, Brij B

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease continues to be a significant health problem in many parts of the world. It can occur in any part of the body, but liver is the commonest site of involvement. The disease may remain asymptomatic for years. Symptoms occur due to compression of local structures or complications like rupture and infection. The diagnosis is clear when typical radiological appearance is observed at the common sites of involvement. Complications give rise to atypical appearances. These coupled with unusual localizations pose diagnostic difficulty. The aim of this pictorial essay is to demonstrate the atypical manifestations of hydatid cysts – atypical either due to complications or the unusual site. PMID:27081221

  6. [Apropos of atypical melancholia with Sustiva (efavirenz)].

    PubMed

    Lang, J P; Halleguen, O; Picard, A; Lang, J M; Danion, J M

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of HIV infection has changed dramatically in recent years as a result of the development of new drugs which allows a variety of multitherapy combinations more adapted to patients' needs and thereby improving compliance. Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In addition to a potent antiretroviral activity, efavirenz is an easy-to-take drug with once-daily dosing and is usually well tolerated. Efavirenz, however, may induce psychic alterations which are variable and atypical in both their clinical presentation and severity. As early as the first days of treatment, efavirenz may provoke surprising phenomena such as nightmares, vivid dreams, hallucinations or illusions, and twilight states. Depersonalization and derealization episodes, personality alterations, stream of thought troubles and unusual thought contents, atypical depression and cognitive disorders have also been observed. These phenomena may occur either early or later on treatment. The prevalence of severe psychic disorders is less than 5%, but they are often responsible for harmful treatment discontinuations. Psychiatric side effects are heterogeneous and probably not related to pre-existing psychologic weakness. We do not have enough data to evaluate these side effects and their etiopathogeny. The drug could act directly on the central nervous system since it crosses the blood-brain barrier, on the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. Some authors have compared efavirenz-induced psychic effects to those associated with LSD and found structural similarities between the two molecules. However, the heterogeneity and low prevalence of the psychiatric side effects of efavirenz suggest and individual sensitivity. In order to improve patient care, a better clinical approach, neuropsychological evaluation, and functional brain imagery should be used to progress in the analysis and comprehension of these disorders. We discuss in this paper the case of Mister H. This HIV

  7. Adolescent soft drink consumption, television viewing and habit strength. Investigating clustering effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas

    2009-08-01

    Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:19463873

  8. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress. PMID:21105176

  9. Effect of different housing conditions on behaviour and foot lesions in Friesian heifers.

    PubMed

    Leonard, F C; O'Connell, J; O'Farrell, K

    1994-05-01

    Spring-calving Friesian heifers were randomly allocated either to Dutch Comfort cubicles (2130 x 1160 mm) bedded with rubber mats or to modified Newton Rigg cubicles (2060 x 1090 mm) without bedding. Their behavioural activities, including lying down and standing, were monitored every 30 minutes for two days and two nights each week from November to March, and all four feet of each animal were examined at housing, at calving and monthly thereafter. During January, February and March the 22 heifers in the Dutch Comfort cubicles lay down significantly longer and spent significantly less time standing half-in the cubicles than the 21 heifers in the Newton Rigg cubicles (P < 0.01). Claw health deteriorated in all the animals after housing, but less in the heifers in the Dutch Comfort cubicles, at both one and two months after calving (P < 0.05). There were moderate correlations between the lying behaviour and the total foot lesions and the lesions in the sole ulcer area of the heifers in the Dutch Comfort cubicles but none for the heifers in the Newton Rigg cubicles, possibly because lameness is a multifactorial condition and other factors may have masked the effect of lying down on foot lesions in this group. The better conditions provided by the Dutch Comfort cubicles were associated with better claw health and this effect was partially mediated through the increased time spent lying down by the heifers in these cubicles. PMID:8073591

  10. Effect of Bombax ceiba L. on spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour and erectile function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, C; Thakur, M; Yadav, S K

    2012-05-01

    A number of herbal drugs are advocated in the traditional Ayurvedic literature for the improvement of overall sexual function. Young roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Fam. Bombacaceae) [correction added after online publication 1 August 2011: the family of Bombax ceiba was incorrectly mentioned as Orchidaceae. It has been corrected to Bombacaceae] also known as Semal Musli are used traditionally in Indian subcontinent as sexual stimulant. Its juice is considered nutritive and restorative tonic. Lyophilised aqueous extract of roots was studied for effect on sexual behaviour and spermatogenesis in male albino rats. Administration of 100 mg Kg(-1) body weight of aqueous extract influenced the five parameters evaluated in vivo. Sexual behaviour analysis in the presence of a female rate, serum testosterone level, anabolic effects, epididymal sperm count and seminal fructose level were the parameters evaluated. In B. ceiba extract-treated animals, a gain in body and sexual organ weights was observed. Mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies were significantly improved (P < 0.05). An increase in serum testosterone levels was also observed, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Seminal fructose content and epididymal sperm count were significantly improved as well. Penile erection index was also higher compared to control group animals. Hesitation time was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and copulatory rate was doubled in treated animals compared with control group animals. PMID:21806665

  11. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  12. A comparative study of the effects of constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, H.; Rezasefat, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Dirks, J.-H.; Eshghi, Sh.; Shafiei, A.; Mostofi, T. Mirzababaie; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wings of insects show a large variation in morphology, they are all made from a network of irregular veins interconnected through membranous areas. Depending on their shape, size, and position, wing veins are usually divided into three different groups: longitudinal veins, cross-veins and ambient veins. The veins together with the membrane and some other elements such as spines, nodus and pterostigma can be considered as the wing's "constructional elements". In spite of rather extensive literature on dragonfly wing structure, the role of each of these elements in determining the wing's function remains mostly unknown. As this question is difficult to answer in vivo using biomechanical experiments on actual wings, this study was undertaken to reveal the effects of the constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings by applying numerical simulations. An image processing technique was used to develop 12 finite element models of the insect wings with different constructional elements. The mechanical behaviour of these models was then simulated under normal and shear stresses due to tension, bending and torsion. A free vibration analysis was also performed to determine the resonant frequencies and the mode shapes of the models. For the first time, a quantitative comparison was carried out between the mechanical effects selectively caused by different elements. Our results suggest that the complex interactions of veins, membranes and corrugations may considerably affect the dynamic deformation of the insect wings during flight.

  13. Effectiveness of cognitive-behaviour therapy for hoarding disorder in people with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Stephen; Matuozzo, Heather; Kotecha, Chandanee

    2015-12-01

    Evaluations of cognitive behavioural interventions for hoarding for those with intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been previously attempted. This investigation therefore examined the acceptability and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in a sample of N=14 adults with mild ID. All participants had hoarding as their primary problem and received twelve individual CBT sessions, all conducted via domiciliary visits. The primary outcome measure was an environmental measure (Clutter Image Rating Scale), which was scored at baseline, end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. Acceptability of CBT was measured via the treatment refusal and dropout rate. Secondary self-report outcomes included measures of hoarding, depression and anxiety. Results demonstrate that hoarding significantly reduced following treatment on both self-report and environmental assessment. No participants refused or dropped out of treatment and that there was no evidence of relapse over the follow-up period. No adverse treatment incidences were reported. This open trial suggests that CBT may be a safe and effective intervention for hoarding difficulties in people with ID, but that the evidence base in this population needs urgent and detailed attention. PMID:26479825

  14. Assessment of the Central Effects of Natural Uranium via Behavioural Performances and the Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Lestaevel, P.; Grison, S.; Favé, G.; Elie, C.; Dhieux, B.; Martin, J. C.; Tack, K.; Souidi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural uranium (NU), a component of the earth's crust, is not only a heavy metal but also an alpha particle emitter, with chemical and radiological toxicity. Populations may therefore be chronically exposed to NU through drinking water and food. Since the central nervous system is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development, we assessed the effects on the behaviour and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolome of rats exposed for 9 months from birth to NU via lactation and drinking water (1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 for male rats and 40 mg·L−1 for female rats). Medium-term memory decreased in comparison to controls in male rats exposed to 1.5, 10, or 40 mg·L−1 NU. In male rats, spatial working memory and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour were only altered by exposure to 40 mg·L−1 NU and any significant effect was observed on locomotor activity. In female rats exposed to NU, only locomotor activity was significantly increased in comparison with controls. LC-MS metabolomics of CSF discriminated the fingerprints of the male and/or female NU-exposed and control groups. This study suggests that exposure to environmental doses of NU from development to adulthood can have an impact on rat brain function. PMID:27247806

  15. Behavioural variability and motor performance: Effect of practice specialization in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Seifert, L; De Jesus, K; Komar, J; Ribeiro, J; Abraldes, J A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Fernandes, R J

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to examine behavioural variability within and between individuals, especially in a swimming task, to explore how swimmers with various specialty (competitive short distance swimming vs. triathlon) adapt to repetitive events of sub-maximal intensity, controlled in speed but of various distances. Five swimmers and five triathletes randomly performed three variants (with steps of 200, 300 and 400m distances) of a front crawl incremental step test until exhaustion. Multi-camera system was used to collect and analyse eight kinematical and swimming efficiency parameters. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between swimmers and triathletes, with significant individual effect. Cluster analysis put these parameters together to investigate whether each individual used the same pattern(s) and one or several patterns to achieve the task goal. Results exhibited ten patterns for the whole population, with only two behavioural patterns shared between swimmers and triathletes. Swimmers tended to use higher hand velocity and index of coordination than triathletes. Mono-stability occurred in swimmers whatever the task constraint showing high stability, while triathletes revealed bi-stability because they switched to another pattern at mid-distance of the task. Finally, our analysis helped to explain and understand effect of specialty and more broadly individual adaptation to task constraint. PMID:26991729

  16. The Predictive Effects of the Behaviour Problem Variables on Peer Victimisation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour problems in young children are fairly common. It has been suggested that approximately 5-14% of preschool children exhibit problem behaviour. There are many reasons for behaviour problems in preschool-aged period children. Researches reveal that link between victimisation and individual differences. However, but still, we do not know the…

  17. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  18. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence. PMID:24534705

  19. Effect of reward downshift on the behaviour and physiology of chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    When a reward is downgraded in quantity or quality from that which is expected, one of two possible outcomes can result. Acquisition responses may decline gradually, owing to a strong stimulus–response reinforcement history, and thus follow the Thorndikian law of effect. Alternatively, there may be an exaggerated reaction to a downgraded reward when it is initially altered, compared to the behaviour of individuals that have always been trained to receive the lower magnitude reward; this is known as successive negative contrast (SNC). While behavioural SNC effects have been commonly demonstrated in mammals, evidence that they occur in other taxa is more equivocal. Additionally, studies demonstrating immediate physiological reactions during reward downshifts are limited. We investigated the reaction of chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus, to a downshift in the quality of a food reward that they had been trained to expect in a runway apparatus. During a preshift phase, 16 chickens (control) were given food that was flavoured to make it less preferred, while the other 16 (contrast) were fed the same food but without flavouring. During trial 7, unflavoured food was substituted by flavoured food for contrast hens and all birds were fed the flavoured food during a postshift phase. In the contrast group, food consumption immediately decreased and heart rate increased when the reward was downshifted from unflavoured to flavoured food, but there was no evidence of SNC effects, which could stem from methodological or taxonomic differences from previous studies. The latency to reach the food appeared to follow the Thorndikian law of effect, gradually increasing following the downshift. We suggest that the disparity between the pattern shown by the latency results and other measures could relate to the time period in which measures were taken, as acquisition responses are more likely to follow the law of effect. PMID:26257402

  20. Differential effects of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention to perform skin cancer-related health behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pertl, M; Hevey, D; Thomas, K; Craig, A; Chuinneagáin, S Ní; Maher, L

    2010-10-01

    Previous research using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting skin cancer-related health behaviours has not adequately incorporated empirical advances in the conceptualization of the perceived behavioural control (PBC) component of the theory. This study examined the role of self-efficacy and controllability for predicting sunscreen and sunbed use intentions. Five hundred and ninety young adults completed a questionnaire on beliefs and intentions regarding sunscreen and sunbed use. Analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression supported a conceptual distinction between two PBC subcomponents: controllability and self-efficacy. While self-efficacy--but not controllability--emerged as a significant predictor of intentions to use sunscreen, the opposite pattern was observed for the prediction of intentions to use sunbeds, whereby lower controllability beliefs were associated with higher intentions. Campaigns aimed at influencing health behaviours should consider the differential effects of the components of perceived control. PMID:20439349

  1. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  2. Interstellar A-type methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Q.; Lou, G. F.

    1990-02-01

    The formation conditions for A-type methanol masers are discussed. The correlation between A-type masers and external radiation fields is determined, with emphasis on the energy levels of A-type methanol and brightness temperature. Radiative transfer equations and statistical equilibrium are solved using a large velocity gradient model and the escape probability model. It is demonstrated that the 9(2)-10(1)A+ emission in W3(OH) and 7(0)-6(1)A in SgrB2 are masers, as discovered previously. The formation of the first type of masers requires pumping from an external radiation field, while the second type might be excited in the absence of an external radiation field. It is also pointed out that according to calculations there are A-type maser series similar to E-type methanol maser series of J2-J1E.

  3. Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Hodgekins, Jo; Mugford, Miranda; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim; Fowler, David

    2009-07-01

    A randomised trial was conducted in order to estimate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of social recovery orientated cognitive behavioural therapy (SRCBT) for people diagnosed with psychosis, compared to case management alone (CMA). The mean incremental health and social care cost, and the mean incremental quality adjusted life year (QALY) gain, of SRCBT was calculated over the 9 month intervention period. The cost-effectiveness of SCRBT was in turn estimated, and considered in relation to the cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. The level of uncertainty associated with that decision was estimated by calculating the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for SRCBT. N=35 received SRCBT and N=42 received CMA. The mean incremental cost was estimated to be 668 UK pounds, and the mean incremental QALY gain 0.035. SRCBT was estimated to be cost-effective as it had a cost per QALY of 18844 UK pounds, which was more favourable than the assumed cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. At that threshold the probability of being cost-effective was however estimated to be 54.3% according to the CEAC, suggesting that further research may be warranted in order to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the decision as to whether SRCBT is cost-effective. PMID:19403270

  4. Behavioural and electroencephalographic effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, M R; Dorce, V A

    1993-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the convulsant effects of T. serrulatus scorpion venom in rats. Pretreatment of rats with venom increased the minimum convulsant dose of picrotoxin, impaired convulsion generalization and displaced to the left the dose-response curve for picrotoxin. It also decreased the intensity but prolonged the duration of seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol injection. Microinjection of the venom into the dorsal hippocampus induced behavioural alterations and epileptiform waves in the EEG. Venom also altered the threshold for, and intensity of, convulsions induced in different experimental models of epilepsy. Different fractions of the venom may be responsible for these different effects. Therefore, purification of venom toxins is necessary for the complete understanding of the present results. PMID:8456448

  5. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum. PMID:26974957

  6. Effect of simulated sampling disturbance on creep behaviour of rock salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessous, Z.; Gill, D. E.; Ladanyi, B.

    1987-10-01

    This article presents the results of an experimental study of creep behaviour of a rock salt under uniaxial compression as a function of prestrain, simulating sampling disturbance. The prestrain was produced by radial compressive loading of the specimens prior to creep testing. The tests were conducted on an artifical salt to avoid excessive scattering of the results. The results obtained from several series of single-stage creep tests show that, at short-term, the creep response of salt is strongly affected by the preloading history of samples. The nature of this effect depends upon the intensity of radial compressive preloading, and its magnitude is a function of the creep stress level. The effect, however, decreases with increasing plastic deformation, indicating that large creep strains may eventually lead to a complete loss of preloading memory.

  7. An improved cellular automaton model considering the effect of traffic lights and driving behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Di; Lu, Wei-Zhen; Dong, Li-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes an improved cellular automaton model to describe the urban traffic flow with the consideration of traffic light and driving behaviour effects. Based on the model, the characteristics of the urban traffic flow on a single-lane road are investigated under three different control strategies, i.e., the synchronized, the green wave and the random strategies. The fundamental diagrams and time-space patterns of the traffic flows are provided for these strategies respectively. It finds that the dynamical transition to the congested flow appears when the vehicle density is higher than a critical level. The saturated flow is less dependent on the cycle time and the strategies of the traffic light control, while the critical vehicle density varies with the cycle time and the strategies. Simulated results indicate that the green wave strategy is proven to be the most effective one among the above three control strategies.

  8. Aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes attenuate the behavioural and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xue; Yang, Jing-Yu; He, Yi; Wang, Li-Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Li-Sha; Bi, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yue-Yang; Xiang, Rong-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Min; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Wei, Tuo; Cui, Wei; Ge, Guang-Lu; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious social and health problem worldwide. At present, there are no effective medications to treat METH addiction. Here, we report that aggregated single-walled carbon nanotubes (aSWNTs) significantly inhibited METH self-administration, METH-induced conditioned place preference and METH- or cue-induced relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in mice. The use of aSWNTs alone did not significantly alter the mesolimbic dopamine system, whereas pretreatment with aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the ventral striatum. Electrochemical assays suggest that aSWNTs facilitated dopamine oxidation. In addition, aSWNTs attenuated METH-induced increases in tyrosine hydroxylase or synaptic protein expression. These findings suggest that aSWNTs may have therapeutic effects for treatment of METH addiction by oxidation of METH-enhanced extracellular dopamine in the striatum.

  9. The effect of interfaces on the mechanical behaviour of multilayered metallic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, Cameron; McPhie, Mathieu G.; Capolungo, Laurent; Cherkaoui, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical response of multilayered metallic laminates is dominated by size effects through the confinement of dislocation motion within the layers. We deconvolute the contributions to the plastic behaviour resulting from dislocation-dislocation interactions and dislocation-interface interactions, using discrete dislocation dynamics and atomistic simulations. Upper and lower bounds for the material strength are found by considering two limiting cases for the influence of the interfaces: hard and shearable. Hard interfaces, preserving interfacial dislocations, are shown to significantly increase the strength of the multilayered metallic laminates, whereas a deformable interface results in lesser hardening. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the {1 1 1}Cu ∥ {1 1 0}Nb Cu/Nb interface response lies between these two cases. Additionally, the plastic response of Cu/Nb multilayered metallic laminates is studied and shown to be isotropic due to an effect of averaging among layers, despite the plastic anisotropy of the respective layer materials.

  10. Effects of Humans on Behaviour of Wildlife Exceed Those of Natural Predators in a Landscape of Fear

    PubMed Central

    Ciuti, Simone; Northrup, Joseph M.; Muhly, Tyler B.; Simi, Silvia; Musiani, Marco; Pitt, Justin A.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human disturbance can influence wildlife behaviour, which can have implications for wildlife populations. For example, wildlife may be more vigilant near human disturbance, resulting in decreased forage intake and reduced reproductive success. We measured the effects of human activities compared to predator and other environmental factors on the behaviour of elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758) in a human-dominated landscape in Alberta, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected year-round behavioural data of elk across a range of human disturbances. We estimated linear mixed models of elk behaviour and found that human factors (land-use type, traffic and distance from roads) and elk herd size accounted for more than 80% of variability in elk vigilance. Elk decreased their feeding time when closer to roads, and road traffic volumes of at least 1 vehicle every 2 hours induced elk to switch into a more vigilant behavioural mode with a subsequent loss in feeding time. Other environmental factors, thought crucial in shaping vigilance behaviour in elk (natural predators, reproductive status of females), were not important. The highest levels of vigilance were recorded on public lands where hunting and motorized recreational activities were cumulative compared to the national park during summer, which had the lowest levels of vigilance. Conclusions/Significance In a human-dominated landscape, effects of human disturbance on elk behaviour exceed those of habitat and natural predators. Humans trigger increased vigilance and decreased foraging in elk. However, it is not just the number of people but also the type of human activity that influences elk behaviour (e.g. hiking vs. hunting). Quantifying the actual fitness costs of human disturbance remains a challenge in field studies but should be a primary focus for future researches. Some species are much more likely to be disturbed by humans than by non-human predators: for these species, quantifying human

  11. Buspirone hydrochloride in the treatment of an atypical paraphilia.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, J P

    1992-08-01

    A case report involving buspirone hydrochloride in the successful treatment of a patient with an atypical paraphilia and transvestic fetishism is presented. Treatment outcome was assessed by the patient's self-report as well as by retrospective examination of detailed notes about paraphilia fantasies which unknown to the therapists, had been kept by the patient. Preliminary evidence indicates that buspirone appears to effectively treat some paraphilias. PMID:1497477

  12. Pathogenesis, Management and Prevention of Atypical Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seung-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the relationship between atypical femoral fractures (AFF) and use of bisphosphonates (BPs). While a significant cause-effect relationship was not established in earlier studies, more recent data shows a growing relationship between AFF and BPs use. The definition of an 'AFF' has also undergone significant changes. This review briefly summarizes the definition, pathogenesis, and management of AFF. PMID:25774358

  13. Contrasting effects of different cannabinoid receptor ligands on mouse ingestive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Grey, Jonathan; Terry, Phil; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    This study characterized the effects of seven diverse cannabinoid receptor agonists (and one antagonist) on ingestive behaviour in nondeprived adult, male CD1 mice. Microstructural analysis of licking for a range of concentrations of condensed milk (10, 15 and 20%) was carried out following administration of vehicle or: Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg; CP55,940 at 10, 30 or 50 µg/kg; Win 55,212-2 at 0.5, 1 or 3 mg/kg; HU-210 at 0.01, 0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg; methanandamide at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg; arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg and JWH133 at 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg. The cannabinoid receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant was also tested at 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg. Test sessions comprised three 30 s presentations of the milk concentrations separated by 10 s interpresentation intervals. The nonselective CB1 receptor agonists Δ⁹-THC, CP55,940 and Win 55,212-2 increased the number of licks for condensed milk, primarily by a significant increase in bout number. The potent and nonselective CB1 receptor agonist HU-210 and the selective CB1 receptor agonists methanandamide and arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide did not significantly affect licking behaviour but did significantly increase the latency to start licking. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant produced effects that were opposite in direction to those produced by Δ⁹-THC, CP55,940 and Win 55,212-2. Finally, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 had no significant effects on behaviour. These data add to reports that cannabinoid agonists can enhance the appetitive aspects of feeding, but they also demonstrate that not all CB1 receptor agonists do this, and therefore the relationship between action at CB1 receptors and appetitive feeding effects is not straightforward. PMID:22772336

  14. Surgical Options for Atypical Facial Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Shervin; Lad, Shivanand P

    2016-07-01

    Atypical neuropathic facial pain is a syndrome of intractable and unremitting facial pain that is secondary to nociceptive signaling in the trigeminal system. These syndromes are often recalcitrant to pharmacotherapy and other common interventions, including microvascular decompression and percutaneous procedures. Herein, the authors present two other viable approaches (nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesioning and motor cortex stimulation), their indications, and finally a possible treatment algorithm to consider when assessing patients with atypical facial pain. PMID:27325003

  15. Stereochemistry of mephedrone neuropharmacology: enantiomer-specific behavioural and neurochemical effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Ryan A; Baumann, Michael H; Partilla, John S; Bonano, Julie S; Vouga, Alexandre; Tallarida, Christopher S; Velvadapu, Venkata; Smith, Garry R; Peet, M Melissa; Reitz, Allen B; Negus, S Stevens; Rawls, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Synthetic cathinones, commonly referred to as ‘bath salts’, are a group of amphetamine-like drugs gaining popularity worldwide. 4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone, MEPH) is the most commonly abused synthetic cathinone in the UK, and exerts its effects by acting as a substrate-type releaser at monoamine transporters. Similar to other cathinone-related compounds, MEPH has a chiral centre and exists stably as two enantiomers: R-mephedrone (R-MEPH) and S-mephedrone (S-MEPH). Experimental Approach Here, we provide the first investigation into the neurochemical and behavioural effects of R-MEPH and S-MEPH. We analysed both enantiomers in rat brain synaptosome neurotransmitter release assays and also investigated their effects on locomotor activity (e.g. ambulatory activity and repetitive movements), behavioural sensitization and reward. Key Results Both enantiomers displayed similar potency as substrates (i.e. releasers) at dopamine transporters, but R-MEPH was much less potent than S-MEPH as a substrate at 5-HT transporters. Locomotor activity was evaluated in acute and repeated administration paradigms, with R-MEPH producing greater repetitive movements than S-MEPH across multiple doses. After repeated drug exposure, only R-MEPH produced sensitization of repetitive movements. R-MEPH produced a conditioned place preference whereas S-MEPH did not. Lastly, R-MEPH and S-MEPH produced biphasic profiles in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), but R-MEPH produced greater ICSS facilitation than S-MEPH. Conclusions and Implications Our data are the first to demonstrate stereospecific effects of MEPH enantiomers and suggest that the predominant dopaminergic actions of R-MEPH (i.e. the lack of serotonergic actions) render this stereoisomer more stimulant-like when compared with S-MEPH. This hypothesis warrants further study. PMID:25255824

  16. Effects of partially hydrolysed guar gum on feeding behaviour and crop emptying rate in chicks.

    PubMed

    Feruse, M; Mabayo, R T

    1996-03-01

    1. The effects of partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) or intact guar gum (GG) on feeding behaviour and crop emptying rate in growing chicks were investigated. 2. Several combinations of dietary PHGG and GG at 50 g per kg diets were prepared for a feed intake experiment. Birds (1 7-d-old) were given diets for 3 h after 16 h fasting, and food consumption was measured at 1 h intervals. The food intake rapidly decreased as the dietary GG content increased even at 1 h after feeding. 3. The rate of food passage from the crop was also investigated with birds (20-d-old after 16 h fasting. Birds were tube-fed diets having several ratios of dietary PHGG and GG. After 1 h of feeding, the diet remaining in the crop was measured after drying. The crop emptying rate decreased linearly as dietary PHGG concentration decreased. 4. The present study suggests that partial hydrolysis of dietary GG improve both feeding behaviour and food passage from the crop in growing chicks. PMID:8833541

  17. Effects of acidity and alkalinity on corrosion behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg based anode alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingling; Wen, Jiuba; Li, Quanan; Zhang, Qin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of 1 M HCl, 0.6 M NaCl with different pH values and 4 M NaOH solutions on the corrosion behaviour of Al-5Zn-1Mg-0.02In-0.05Ti-0.5Mn (wt%) alloy have been investigated using measurements of self-corrosion, potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization experiment combined with open circuit potential technique and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the alloy was found to be dependant on the Cl-, OH- ions and pH value. In acidic or slightly neutral solutions, general and pitting corrosion occurred simultaneously. In contrast, exposure to alkaline solutions results in general corrosion which was traced back to the dissolution of the resistive oxidation film on the surface of the alloy. Experience revealed that the alloy was susceptible to pitting corrosion in all chloride solution. The alloy undergoes two types of localized corrosion process, leading to the formation of hemispherical and crystallographic pits. Polarization resistance measurements which are in good agreement with those of self-corrosion, show that the corrosion kinetic is minimized in slightly neutral solutions (pH = 7).

  18. Effects of various cannabinoid ligands on choice behaviour in a rat model of gambling

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Aliou B.; Trigo, Jose M.; Vemuri, Kiran V.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that 0.6–1% of the population in the USA and Canada fulfil the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) criteria for gambling disorders (GD). To date, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for GD. The rat gambling task (rGT) is a recently developed rodent analogue of the Iowa gambling task in which rats are trained to associate four response holes with different magnitudes and probabilities of food pellet rewards and punishing time-out periods. Similar to healthy human volunteers, most rats adopt the optimal strategies (optimal group). However, a subset of animals show preference for the disadvantageous options (suboptimal group), mimicking the choice pattern of patients with GD. Here, we explored for the first time the effects of various cannabinoid ligands (WIN 55,212-2, AM 4113, AM 630 and URB 597) on the rGT. Administration of the cannabinoid agonist CB1/CB2 WIN 55,212-2 improved choice strategy and increased choice latency in the suboptimal group, but only increased perseverative behaviour, when punished, in the optimal group. Blockade of CB1 or CB2 receptors or inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase did not affect rGT performance. These results suggest that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors could affect gambling choice behaviours differentially in some subgroups of subjects. PMID:26905189

  19. On the effect of unsupported sleepers on the dynamic behaviour of a railway track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of unsupported sleepers on the dynamic behaviour of a railway track is studied based on vehicle-track dynamic interaction theory, using a model of the track as a Timoshenko beam supported on a periodic elastic foundation. Considering the vehicle's running speed and the number of unsupported sleepers, the track dynamic characteristics are investigated and verified in the time and frequency domains by experiments on a 1:5 scale model wheel-rail test rig. The results show that when hanging sleepers are present, leading to a discontinuous and irregular track support, additional wheel-rail interaction forces are generated. These forces increase as further sleepers become unsupported and as the vehicle's running speed increases. The adjacent supports experience increased dynamic forces which will lead to further deterioration of track quality and the formation of long wavelength track irregularities, which worsen the vehicles' running stability and riding comfort. Stationary transfer functions measurements of the dynamic behaviour of the track are also presented to support the findings.

  20. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control. PMID:26439112

  1. The effect of need supportive text messages on motivation and physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Few short messaging service (SMS) studies to support behaviour change have used a theoretical underpinning. Using a self-determination theory perspective, we explored the effects of need supportive (NS) SMS on physical activity in 65 (BMI = 24.06 kg/m(2), SD = 5.49; M = 25.76 years, SD = 10.23) insufficiently active individuals embarking on an existing exercise programme. For 10 weeks participants were randomised to an intervention group (NS) or control group (neutral). SMS were sent twice weekly, randomly, via an online SMS service. Mixed design ANCOVA and MANCOVA analyses of measures taken at baseline, mid and post intervention revealed increased levels of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction in the intervention group post intervention. Both groups reported increases in intrinsic motivation from pre to post intervention. Moderate intensity physical activity was greater in the intervention than the control group at 4-month post intervention with control group returning to baseline levels. Findings provide preliminary causal evidence to support the use of NS SMS to optimise physical activity behaviour change in individuals who are insufficiently active. PMID:26915963

  2. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  3. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study. PMID:17522960

  4. Effects of various cannabinoid ligands on choice behaviour in a rat model of gambling.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Aliou B; Trigo, Jose M; Vemuri, Kiran V; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    It is estimated that 0.6-1% of the population in the USA and Canada fulfil the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) criteria for gambling disorders (GD). To date, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for GD. The rat gambling task (rGT) is a recently developed rodent analogue of the Iowa gambling task in which rats are trained to associate four response holes with different magnitudes and probabilities of food pellet rewards and punishing time-out periods. Similar to healthy human volunteers, most rats adopt the optimal strategies (optimal group). However, a subset of animals show preference for the disadvantageous options (suboptimal group), mimicking the choice pattern of patients with GD. Here, we explored for the first time the effects of various cannabinoid ligands (WIN 55,212-2, AM 4113, AM 630 and URB 597) on the rGT. Administration of the cannabinoid agonist CB1/CB2 WIN 55,212-2 improved choice strategy and increased choice latency in the suboptimal group, but only increased perseverative behaviour, when punished, in the optimal group. Blockade of CB1 or CB2 receptors or inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase did not affect rGT performance. These results suggest that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors could affect gambling choice behaviours differentially in some subgroups of subjects. PMID:26905189

  5. Environmental effects of driving behaviour and congestion related to passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vlieger, I.; De Keukeleere, D.; Kretzschmar, J. G.

    Using Vito's on-board measuring system the influence of track, driving behaviour and traffic conditions on fuel consumption and emissions were studied for a small test fleet of passenger cars. City traffic resulted in the highest fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption was about two times higher than for ring roads, which generally gave the lowest values. This was even more pronounced for emissions. Depending on road type and technology, fuel consumption increased with up to 40% for aggressive driving compared to normal driving. Again, this was more pronounced for emissions, with increases up to a factor 8. Driving behaviour had a greater influence on petrol-fuelled than on diesel-fuelled cars.Traffic condition also has a major effect on fuel consumption and emissions. For city driving intense traffic increased fuel consumption by 20-45%. The increase in fuel consumption and emissions during rush hours were the highest on ring roads, with increases between 10 and 200%. In absolute terms, a surplus of up to 5 l fuel per 100 km was measured. More environment-friendly route option requires the use of ring roads and motorways during rush hours instead of short cuts.

  6. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2015-01-01

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. PMID:25750437

  7. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control. PMID:26439112

  8. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F.

    2015-01-01

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. PMID:25750437

  9. Effects of poor forage conditions on the behaviour of grazing ruminants.

    PubMed

    Manteca, X; Smith, A J

    1994-08-01

    This paper shows that the study of animal behaviour is a valuable aid to the improvement of the management of grazing livestock under extensive conditions. The food available to grazing animals in developing countries, and particularly in the dry season in the tropics, is often of very low quality and, in addition, is frequently available at low densities per unit area. Grazing ruminants attempt to adapt to these adverse conditions by increasing the time for which they graze each day and also by dispersing more widely. However, the time for which animals can graze may be limited by solar radiation and fly irritation in the day, and by the confining of the animals in pens at night. The adverse effects of the above limitations may be partially overcome when adapted local breeds are used. Dispersion of animals improves their ability to make use of extensive pasture and in order to encourage it, an understanding of the factors that affect it such as breed differences, social behaviour, adaptation and location of watering points and other unique environmental factors must be achieved. The paper concludes with recommendations of areas worth further research. PMID:7809984

  10. Effect of leaching behaviour by quenching of bottom ash from MSW incineration.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Franco; Genon, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Bottom ashes (BA) obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, have shown different pH and lead concentrations in leachate for different lines. In order to explain this behaviour, combustion tests were performed concerning the lines and the effect of the type of wastes. The BA obtained from the same waste has shown the same raw chemical composition, but different leachate characteristics for the different lines. The bottom ash from different wastes burned on the same line instead showed very similar leachate behaviour. The results suggest that the quality of leach ate depends on the plant and process conditions (in particular the ash quenching phase) and not on the composition of the waste. During ash quenching, the formation and dissolution of soluble alkalis depends on the washing ratio and on the residence time. A different washing degree leads to a different residual alkalinity in the bottom ash, and consequently to a different value of leachate pH with different metal releases. Therefore, with the practical aim of establishing the best conditions for the final disposal of bottom ash, a careful planning of this phase could be proposed as an alternative to a weathering process. PMID:21057006

  11. Atypical antipsychotics: sedation versus efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M; Sharif, Zafar A

    2008-01-01

    Many patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder experience disturbances in their sleep-wake cycle, which may be a result of the disorder itself, of pharmacotherapy, or of a comorbid sleep disorder. These sleep disruptions can seriously impair patients' functioning as well as their quality of life. Therefore, accurate assessment of sleep problems is essential to appropriately treat patients and promote symptomatic remission. Sedating antipsychotics may ameliorate sleep disturbances, as well as agitation or other behavioral emergencies; however, these agents may also sedate patients to the point of dissatisfaction with the medication and/or impaired functioning, which may, in turn, increase treatment noncompliance and nonadherence. Using short-term adjunctive medications, such as benzo-diazepines or hypnotic agents, with a nonsedating antipsychotic to alleviate sleep disturbances is a reasonable treatment option for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Overall, the pharma-cokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atypical antipsychotics are important factors to consider in the risk-benefit analysis, as are dosing strategies and individual patient factors, and clinicians must decide which agents are most appropriate for which patients. PMID:18484805

  12. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Atypical Odontalgia

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramella, A.; Paroli, M.; Lonia, L.; Bosco, M.; Poli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower Aβ, Aδ, and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to Aβ (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), Aδ (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction. PMID:24959561

  13. Biopsychosocial aspects of atypical odontalgia.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, A; Paroli, M; Lonia, L; Bosco, M; Poli, P

    2013-01-01

    Background. A few studies have found somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The aim of the study is to explore the presence of specific abnormalities in facial pain patients that can be considered as psychophysical factors predisposing to AO. Materials and Methods. The AO subjects (n = 18) have been compared to pain-free (n = 14), trigeminal neuralgia (n = 16), migraine (n = 17), and temporomandibular disorder (n = 14). The neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) was used to investigate somatosensory perception. Structured clinical interviews based on the DSM-IV axis I and DSM III-R axis II criteria for psychiatric disorders and self-assessment questionnaires were used to evaluate psychopathology and aggressive behavior among subjects. Results. Subjects with AO showed a lower A β , A δ , and C trigeminal fiber pain perception threshold when compared to a pain-free control group. Resentment was determined to be inversely related to A β (rho: 0.62, P < 0.05), A δ (rho: 0.53, P < 0.05) and C fibers (rho: 0.54, P < 0.05), and depression was inversely related with C fiber (rho: 0.52, P < 0.05) perception threshold only in AO subjects. Conclusion. High levels of depression and resentment can be considered predictive psychophysical factors for the development of AO after dental extraction. PMID:24959561

  14. Saccular cyst with atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A; Gheorghe, DC

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory obstruction and stridor in infants and children are not uncommon. A rare cause of these sometimes life-threatening symptoms is the congenital saccular cyst. Objectives: We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with a cervical tumor, which appeared after a laryngeal endoscopic surgery of a saccular cyst with two relapses and a particular local evolution of its recurrence through the cricothyroid membrane. Material and method: The patient data has been reviewed over the entire follow-up period and a thorough an analysis of her investigations and surgery was performed. Results: The unusual evolution of this case was marked by an atypical exteriorization – not found in the published literature. The surgical approach was external, by paramedian thyrotomy, with no further long-term recurrence. Conclusions: An accurate diagnosis of saccular cysts can be made with the help of medical history, by an endoscopic visualization of the lesion and by the CT-scan imaging of the cervical region. Sometimes, saccular cysts can extend beyond laryngeal limits, determining fluid-filled tumors in the cervical region. PMID:27453755

  15. Effect of Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour on superconductive properties as determined by microstructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhanglian; Wang, Minquan; Xiong, Guohong; Fan, Xianping

    1997-02-01

    The effects of the Sr and Ca composition and site-selection in a solid solution of a Bi-system superconductor on the superconductive properties were studied. Results showed that the Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour had a remarkable effect on the superconductive properties. Further analysis indicated that this effect originated from varied hole concentration which was determined by the content of Sr atoms substituting for Bi atoms within the BiO layers. This substitution was influenced by the Sr and Ca solid-solution behaviour. This result offers a new mechanism for clarifying why the bivalent Sr and Ca cations affect the superconductive properties.

  16. Shallow trench isolation-related narrow channel effect on the kink behaviour of 40 nm PD SOI NMOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, H. J.; Kuo, J. B.; Chen, D.; Tsai, C. T.; Yeh, C. S.

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the shallow trench isolation (STI)-related narrow channel effect (NCE) on the kink behaviour of the 40 nm PD SOI NMOS device. As verified by the experimentally measured data, with a smaller channel width, the onset of the kink effect behaviour occurs at a higher drain voltage and the breakdown voltage is also larger due to the weaker parasitic bipolar device in the floating thin film as a result of a smaller electron recombination lifetime caused by the STI-related defect effect.

  17. Dermatitis artefacta manifesting as genital scars: a result of an unusual behaviour pattern.

    PubMed

    Verma, P; Pandhi, D; Yadav, P

    2012-07-01

    A 25-year-old man, diagnosed previously with borderline personality disorder, presented with curvilinear genital scars. A meticulous history and examination led to a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta with an atypical behaviour pattern. PMID:22844013

  18. Methylmercury effects on migratory behaviour in glass eels (Anguilla anguilla): an experimental study using isotopic tracers.

    PubMed

    Claveau, Julie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Jarry, Marc; Baudrimont, Magalie; Gonzalez, Patrice; Cavalheiro, Joana; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Bolliet, Valérie

    2015-05-01

    The effect of methylmercury (MeHg) on glass eels' propensity to migrate, mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems was investigated. Marine glass eels were first sorted in an experimental flume according to their response to dusk. Fish responding to the decrease in light intensity by ascending in the water column and moving with or against the flow were considered as having a high propensity to migrate (migrant). Glass eels still sheltering at the end of the 24 h catching period were considered as having a low propensity to migrate and were called non-migrant. Migrant and non-migrant glass eels were then individually tagged and exposed to isotopically enriched (201)MeHg (50 ng L(-1)) for 11 days. The effect of contamination was studied on muscle fibre structure, and the expression level of genes involved in mitochondrial activity and antioxidative defence systems. To investigate the effect of MeHg on glass eel behaviour, migrant and non-migrant glass eels were sorted again and the bioaccumulation of (201)MeHg and its demethylation product ((201)Hg(II)) were determined for each individual. MeHg exposure increased activity in non-migrant glass eels but not migratory behaviour. Contamination affected mitochondrial structure and metabolism and suggests a higher oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defence systems in non-migrant glass eels. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to MeHg might induce an increase in energy expenditure and a higher vulnerability to predation in non-migrant glass eels in the wild. PMID:25797033

  19. An Atypical and Resistant Case of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Responding Satisfactorily with an Unusual way of Exposure and Response Prevention Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamal; Victor, Robin; Naskar, Subrata

    2016-03-01

    It is well established fact that a combination of pharmacological therapy plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) - exposure and response prevention (ERP) is considered first line for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This case presented here supports this point in unusual way of ERP administration in an atypical and resistant case of OCD proved to be beneficial over pharmacotherapy. The case was atypical in the sense that it had many overvalued ideas, superstitions and religious beliefs playing major role in its aetiology. Also, misconstruction of chance associations, intense stimulus generalization and invivo exposure proving the best modality of treatment made it atypical. PMID:27134980

  20. An Atypical and Resistant Case of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Responding Satisfactorily with an Unusual way of Exposure and Response Prevention Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kamal; Victor, Robin

    2016-01-01

    It is well established fact that a combination of pharmacological therapy plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) - exposure and response prevention (ERP) is considered first line for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This case presented here supports this point in unusual way of ERP administration in an atypical and resistant case of OCD proved to be beneficial over pharmacotherapy. The case was atypical in the sense that it had many overvalued ideas, superstitions and religious beliefs playing major role in its aetiology. Also, misconstruction of chance associations, intense stimulus generalization and invivo exposure proving the best modality of treatment made it atypical. PMID:27134980

  1. The Effects of Demand Characteristics on Research Participant Behaviours in Non-Laboratory Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; de Bruin, Marijn; Witton, John

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of demand characteristics, which involves research participants being aware of what the researcher is investigating, is well known and widely used within psychology, particularly in laboratory-based studies. Studies of this phenomenon may make a useful contribution to broader consideration of the effects of taking part in research on participant behaviour. This systematic review seeks to summarise data from studies of the effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviours in non-laboratory settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies. These had to be purposely designed to evaluate possible effects of demand characteristics on at least one behavioural outcome under the autonomous control of the participants and use longitudinal study designs. Only 7 studies were included, 6 providing observational data and 1 experimental study, with 5 studies involving examination of possible effects on health behaviours. Although studies provided some evidence of effects of demand characteristics on participant behaviour, heterogeneous operationalisation of the construct, the limited number of studies and poor quality of study designs made synthesis and interpretation of study findings challenging. Conclusions/Significance Although widely accepted as important in psychology, there have been few dedicated studies of the effects of demand characteristics on research participant behaviours outside laboratory settings. This body of literature does not currently contribute to the wider study of research participation effects. A systematic review of data from laboratory-based studies is needed, as are high-quality primary studies in non-laboratory settings. We suggest that unqualified use of the term demand characteristics should be abandoned. PMID:22723942

  2. Virtual design of electrospun-like gelatin scaffolds: the effect of three-dimensional fibre orientation on elasticity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Guessasma, S; Oyen, M

    2016-01-14

    Remarkable mechanical performance of biological tissues is explained by a hierarchical fibrous structure. Designing materials that have similar properties is challenging because of the need to assess complex deformation mechanisms. In order to shed more light on architectural possibilities of biopolymer fibrous networks, we propose a numerical study that relates the fibre arrangement to the elastic modulus of a gelatin scaffold obtained using electrospinning. The adopted approach is based on the virtual designing of scaffolds using all possible combinations of Euler angles that define fibre orientations including preferable alignment. The generated networks are converted into a finite element model and the predicted elastic behaviour is examined. Predictions show that the fibre alignment achieved experimentally in biopolymer fibrous networks is for most of the fibres exhibiting an orthotropic behaviour. Some particular combinations of Euler angles allow transverse isotropic architectures while only limited cases are isotropic. A large sensitivity of Young's moduli to Euler angles is achieved describing multiple scenarios of independent anisotropic behaviours. An anisotropy ratio of the elastic behaviour is suggested based on a suitable combination of elastic moduli. Such a ratio exhibits a wide variation depending on individual and coupled effects of Euler angles. The finite element model predicts 2D, 3D and 4D maps representing all possible configurations of fibre alignment and their consequences on elastic behaviour. The predicted fibre orientation representing the observed anisotropic behaviour of electrospun gelatin networks demonstrates unbalanced contributions of in-plane and out-of plane fibres for a large range of processing conditions. PMID:26508563

  3. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  4. Clinical pharmacology of atypical antipsychotics: an update

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, M.C.; Paletta, S.; Maffini, M.; Colasanti, A.; Dragogna, F.; Di Pace, C.; Altamura, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This review will concentrate on the clinical pharmacology, in particular pharmacodynamic data, related to atypical antipsychotics, clozapine, risperidone, paliperidone, olanzapine, que¬tiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone and cariprazine. A summary of their acute pharmacokinetics properties are also reported. Four new second-generation antipsychotics are available: iloperidone, asenapine, lurasidone and in the next future cariprazine. Similar to ziprasidone and aripiprazole, these new agents are advisable for the lower propensity to give weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in comparison with older second-generation antipsychotics such as olanzapine or clozapine. Actually lurasidone seems to be best in terms of minimizing unwanted alterations in body weight and metabolic variables. Therapeutic drug monitoring is not strictly necessary for all of the new antipsychotic drugs because there are no unequivocal data supporting a relationship between plasma drug levels and clinical outcomes or side effects. The exception can be represented by clozapine for which plasma levels of 350-420 ng/ml are reported to be associated with an increased probability of a good clinical response. Also for olanzapine an established therapeutic range (20-50 ng/ml) is proposed to yield an optimal response and minimize side effects. PMID:26417330

  5. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S. F.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2004-09-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90°C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4°C.

  6. Effect of scandium on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of cast Al-6Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M.S.; Datta, S.; Roychowdhury, A. Banerjee, M.K.

    2008-11-15

    Microstructural modification and grain refinement due to addition of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy is used to understand the microstructure and precipitation behaviour in Al-6Mg alloy doped with scandium. It is seen from the microstructure that the dendrites of the cast Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium. Increasing amount of scandium leads to a greater dendrite refinement. The age hardening effect in scandium added Al-6Mg alloys has been studied by subjecting the alloys containing varying amount of scandium ranging from 0.2 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% to isochronal and isothermal ageing at various temperatures for different times. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides.

  7. Effects of attention training on self-reported, implicit, physiological and behavioural measures of spider fear.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Verschuere, Bruno; Koster, Ernst H W; Tibboel, Helen; De Houwer, Jan; Crombez, Geert

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive theories hold that biased attention to threat plays a prominent role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In support of this view, attention training has been shown to affect emotional reactivity. An important limitation of most attention training studies is that they almost exclusively rely on self-report measures to assess changes in fear. In the present study, we trained attention towards or away from spiders. We assessed not only self-reported spider fear, but also implicit spider associations, physiological, and behavioural measures of spider fear. Although we successfully changed the attentional processing of spiders, attention training had no effect on any of the outcome variables. These results indicate that changes in attentional bias are not necessarily associated with changes in fear, suggesting that attention training may be unsuitable as a clinical intervention for spider fear. PMID:21315884

  8. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  9. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  10. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits. PMID:21420787

  11. Behavioural Criteria of Perceived Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Effective and Ineffective Mentor and Mentee Behaviour within Formal Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Most past research on formal mentoring has investigated its antecedents, outcomes and benefits with little attention given to what goes on inside the dyadic relationship. The purpose of this paper is to explore the types of mentor and mentee behaviours that are perceived as critical factors contributing to either a positive or negative…

  12. Effects of the School for Health network on students' behaviour in Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    García-Vázquez, Jose

    2014-09-10

    From 1995, Asturias participates in the European Network of Schools for Health (SHE); in 2010, the schools in net were 44 (11 of secondary school). This study evaluates the effect of SHE in secondary school students' behaviour. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with four public SHE and four non-SHE-schools; the study population consisted of the first- and fourth-year students. By questionnaire, data on socio-demographics, the school environment, well-being and behaviours were collected. In the intervention group (the SHE-schools), the percentage of students who declared that their school engaged in health activities was significantly higher. Among the first-year students, the percentages of children having breakfast daily, occasionally eating pastries and occasional consumption of soft drinks were significantly higher in the control group; among the fourth-year students, the percentages of children reporting high school satisfaction, good relations with teachers, good academic performance, no alcohol use, never having been drunk and collaboration in housework were significantly higher in the intervention group. Significant gender differences were observed among the first-year students in both groups with boys consuming more hours of electronic entertainment; among the fourth-year students, the perception of school performance was significantly better for girls, while weekly physical activity, daily breakfast and high self-esteem were more prevalent among the boys. The results suggest a positive effect of the SHE programme, because differences among the first-year students favouring the control group were not present among the fourth-year students, while the intervention group showed significantly better results in 6 of 25 compared outcome variables. PMID:25209919

  13. Effect of curing environment on mechanical properties and polymerizing behaviour of methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Hasegawa, A

    2005-03-01

    Methyl-methacrylate autopolymerizing resin is used for multiple applications. Therefore, the mechanical properties of autopolymerizing resin should be assessed comprehensively including strength, stiffness and hardness. Any methods that effectively improve these mechanical properties are desirable. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the curing environment: air or water with/without pressure, and air or water temperature during polymerization, on the strength, stiffness and hardness of autopolymerizing resin. In addition, we examined the polymerizing behaviour associated with the mechanical properties. Autopolymerizing methyl-methacrylate resin (Unifast II) was polymerized under the following conditions: in air and water with/without pressure at 10, 23, 30, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C. The resin specimens were subjected to a transverse test (three-point flexural test) and micro-Brinell surface hardness test. Fractured surfaces of the specimens after the transverse test were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The transverse strength and transverse modulus increased with increasing curing temperature in both wet and dry conditions. Pressured wet conditions increased transverse strength and transverse modulus over non-pressured wet and dry conditions. The resin polymerized in dry conditions showed higher surface hardness than the one polymerized in wet conditions at matching temperature. The SEM images of fractured surfaces cured at lower temperature exhibited porosity within the polymer base and cracks between the base and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) particulates. Surfaces of the resin polymerized in wet conditions were characterized with PMMA particulates having rougher surfaces suggestive of water incorporation. Raising temperature and pressuring during polymerization increase strength and stiffness of autopolymerizing resin. However, wet condition reduces surface hardness of resin compared with dry condition. These altered

  14. The effect of seasonal temperature variation on behaviour and metabolism in the freshwater mussel (Unio tumidus).

    PubMed

    Lurman, Glenn J; Walter, Johanna; Hoppeler, Hans H

    2014-07-01

    Temperature plays a critical role in determining the biology of ectotherms. Many animals have evolved mechanisms that allow them to compensate biological rates, i.e. adjust biological rates to overcome thermodynamic effects. For low energy-organisms, such as bivalves, the costs of thermal compensation may be greater than the benefits, and thus prohibitive. To examine this, two experiments were designed to explore thermal compensation in Unio tumidus. Experiment 1 examined seasonal changes in behaviour in U. tumidus throughout a year. Temperature had a clear effect on burrowing rate with no evidence of compensation. Valve closure duration and frequency were also strongly affected by seasonal temperature change, but there was slight evidence of partial compensation. Experiment 2 examined oxygen consumption during burrowing, immediately following valve opening and at rest in summer (24 °C), autumn (14 °C), winter (4 °C), and spring (14 °C) acclimatized U. tumidus. Again, there was little evidence of burrowing rate compensation, but some evidence of partial compensation of valve closure duration and frequency. None of the oxygen compensation rates showed any evidence of thermal compensation. Thus, in general, there was only very limited evidence of thermal compensation of behaviour and no evidence of thermal compensation of oxygen compensation rates. Based upon this evidence, we argue that there is no evolutionary pressure for these bivalves to compensate these biological rates. Any pressure may be to maintain or even lower oxygen consumption as their only defence against predation is to close their valves and wait. An increase in oxygen consumption will be detrimental in this regard so the cost of thermal compensation may outweigh the benefits. PMID:24956953

  15. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. Part I: A review of the effects of child and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernald, L C; Ani, C; Gardner, J M

    1997-12-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major public health concern throughout the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. Many factors contribute to a youth's violent or aggressive behaviour, ranging from individual temperament, to family structure, to large sociocultural influences. In Part I, we review the incidence and severity of violence, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics, and of family structure and discipline. In Part II, the reported effects of school structure, peer relationships and interaction, corporal punishment and the media on violent behaviour in children and adolescents are reviewed, and potential policy implications are discussed. PMID:9494402

  16. Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyu; Keitner, Gabor I; Qin, Bin; Ravindran, Arun V; Bauer, Michael; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Zhao, Jingping; Liu, Yiyun; Fang, Yiru; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous meta-analyses of atypical antipsychotics for depression were limited by few trials with direct comparisons between two treatments. We performed a network meta-analysis, which integrates direct and indirect evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to investigate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive atypical antipsychotics for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Methods: Systematic searches resulted in 18 RCTs (total n = 4422) of seven different types and different dosages of atypical antipsychotics and a placebo that were included in the review. Results: All standard-dose atypical antipsychotics were significantly more efficacious than placebo in the efficacy (standardized mean differences [SMDs] ranged from -0.27 to -0.43). There were no significant differences between these drugs. Low-dose atypical antipsychotics were not significantly more efficacious than the placebo. In terms of tolerability, all standard-dose atypical antipsychotics, apart from risperidone, had significantly more side-effect discontinuations than placebo (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.72 to 6.40). In terms of acceptability, only quetiapine (mean 250–350mg daily) had significantly more all-cause discontinuation than placebo (OR = 1.89). In terms of quality of life/functioning, standard-dose risperidone and standard-dose aripiprazole were more beneficial than placebo (SMD = -0.38; SMD = -0.26, respectively), and standard-dose risperidone was superior to quetiapine (mean 250–350mg daily). Conclusions: All standard-dose atypical antipsychotics for the adjunctive treatment of TRD are efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms. Risperidone and aripiprazole also showed benefits in improving the quality of life of patients. Atypical antipsychotics should be prescribed with caution due to abundant evidence of side effects. PMID:26012350

  17. Effect of spatial organisation behaviour on upscaling the overland flow formation in an arable land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-05-01

    Overland flow during rainfall events on arable land is important to investigate as it affects the land erosion process and water quality in the river. The formation of overland flow may happen through different ways (i.e. Hortonian overland flow, saturation excess overland flow) which is influenced by the surface and subsurface soil characteristics (i.e. land cover, soil infiltration rate). As the soil characteristics vary throughout the entire catchment, it will form distinct spatial patterns with organised or random behaviour. During the upscaling of hydrological processes from plot to catchment scale, this behaviour will become substantial since organised patterns will result in higher spatial connectivity and thus higher conductivity. However, very few of the existing studies explicitly address this effect of spatial organisations of the patterns in upscaling the hydrological processes to the catchment scale. This study will assess the upscaling of overland flow formation with concerns of spatial organisation behaviour of the patterns by application of direct field observations under natural conditions using video camera and soil moisture sensors and investigation of the underlying processes using a physical-based hydrology model. The study area is a Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) located at Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria. It is a 64 ha catchment with land use consisting of arable land (87%), forest (6%), pasture (5%) and paved surfaces (2%). A video camera is installed 7m above the ground on a weather station mast in the middle of the arable land to monitor the overland flow patterns during rainfall events in a 2m x 6m plot scale. Soil moisture sensors with continuous measurement at different depth (5, 10, 20 and 50cm) are installed at points where the field is monitored by the camera. The patterns of overland flow formation and subsurface flow state at the plot scale will be generated using a coupled surface-subsurface flow physical-based hydrology

  18. Activity in A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Kepler photometry shows that most A-type stars have low frequency variations which can be understood in terms of rotational modulation. Indeed, the distribution of equatorial velocities derived from the photometric periods agrees with the distribution of equatorial velocities of A-type stars in the general field. The amplitude of the rotational frequency varies by 20-30 percent as might be expected of star spots. From the light amplitudes we estimate that most spots are considerably larger than typical sunspots but generally smaller than the largest sunspots. The rotation peaks in the periodograms of a significant fraction of A-type stars have a peculiar structure which is not understood. Although peaks corresponding to the rotation frequency can be identified in many δ Scuti stars, the low frequency peaks in these stars are too numerous to be caused by rotational modulation. It thus appears that while the variability of non-pulsating A stars can be explained by rotation, the low-frequency variability in A-type δ Sct stars requires a new pulsation mechanism. We also find several γ Dor stars much hotter than the theoretical hot edge of the instability strip. We find 13 new A-type flare stars, which means that about 1.5 percent of A stars flare. Less dramatic flares may be common in all A-type stars. We show that these superflares cannot be attributed to normal flares on a cool companion. We conclude that A-type stars are active and, like cooler stars, have starspots and flares. Surprisingly, there does not seem to be a drop in activity as the granulation boundary is crossed.

  19. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour. PMID:23750905

  20. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Sawyer, Hall; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour.

  1. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal

  2. Acute effects of copper and mercury on the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps: linking biomarkers to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L R; Gravato, C; Soares, A M V M; Morgado, F; Guilhermino, L

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate possible links between biomarkers and swimming performance in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps acutely exposed to metals (copper and mercury). In independent bioassays, P. microps juveniles were individually exposed for 96 h to sub-lethal concentrations of copper or mercury. At the end of the assays, swimming performance of fish was measured using a device specially developed for epibenthic fish (SPEDE). Furthermore, the following biomarkers were measured: lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). LC(50)s of copper and mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations) at 96h were 568 microg L(-1), and 62 microg L(-1), respectively. Significant and concentration-dependent effects of both metals on swimming resistance and covered distance against water flow were found at concentrations equal or higher than 50 microg L(-1) for copper and 3 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). These results indicate that SPEDE was efficacious to quantify behavioural alterations in the epibenthic fish P. microps at ecologically relevant concentrations. Significant alterations by both metals on biomarkers were found including: inhibition of AChE and EROD activities, induction of LDH, GST and anti-oxidant enzymes, and increased LPO levels, with LOEC values ranging from 25 to 200 microg L(-1), for copper and from 3 to 25 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were found between some biomarkers (AChE and EROD) and behavioural parameters, while negative correlations were found for others (LPO, anti-oxidant enzymes and LDH) suggesting that disruption of cholinergic

  3. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p < .001; I(2) = 71%). Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  4. Urban surface temperature behaviour and heat island effect in a tropical planned city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Adeb Qaid; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Jamei, Elmira; Manaf, Norhashima Abd; Said, Ismail; Ahmad, Mohd Hamdan

    2015-02-01

    Putrajaya is a model city planned with concepts of a "city in the garden" and an "intelligent city" in the tropics. This study presents the behaviour of the surface temperature and the heat island effect of Putrajaya. Findings show that heat island intensity is 2 °C on average at nighttime and negligible at daytime. But high surface temperature values were recorded at the main boulevard due to direct solar radiation incident, street orientation in the direction of northeast and southwest and low building height-to-street width ratio. Buildings facing each other had cooling effect on surfaces during the morning and evening hours; conversely, they had a warming effect at noon. Clustered trees along the street are effective in reducing the surface temperature compared to scattered and isolated trees. Surface temperature of built up areas was highest at noon, while walls and sidewalks facing northwest were hottest later in the day. Walls and sidewalks that face northwest were warmer than those that face southeast. The surface temperatures of the horizontal street surfaces and of vertical façades are at acceptable levels relative to the surface temperature of similar surfaces in mature cities in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean climates.

  5. The relative effect of behaviour in larval dispersal in a low energy embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Rémi M.; Chassé, Joël; Metaxas, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative importance of tidal phase, larval behaviour, release site, depth layer, and vertical swimming velocity on mean in-sea dispersal distance, retention, distance from shore, and population connectivity. Using a biophysical model, we simulated larval dispersal of marine benthic invertebrates for 6 taxonomic groups representing different combinations of swimming speed, and depth preference in St. George's Bay, NS, Canada, a shallow bay with low energy (e.g. lack of estuarine circulation). The biophysical model was run over a period of 3 months, from Jul to Sep, representing the period when larvae of the targeted species were present, and at each of 3 years. Overall, release site had the strongest effect of all factors on the dispersal metrics. Although less important than release site in our system, vertical distribution and swim speed had a significant effect which would likely be more pronounced in high (i.e. with features such as estuarine circulation or internal waves) than low energy environments. Retention and distance from shore were more responsive to our manipulations than dispersal distance, both in terms of the number of ecologically significant effects and the magnitudes of their effect size. These findings allow for the prioritization of biophysical model parameters and improved simulations of larval dispersal.

  6. Valuing empathy and emotional intelligence in health leadership: a study of empathy, leadership behaviour and outcome effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Skinner, C; Spurgeon, P

    2005-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between health managers' self-assessed empathy, their leadership behaviours as rated by their staff, and staff's personal ratings on a range of work satisfaction and related outcome measures. Empathy was conceived of as four distinct but related individual dispositions, namely empathic concern (EC), perspective taking (PT), personal distress (PD) and empathic matching (EM). Results showed three empathy scales (EC, PT and EM) were, as postulated, positively related to transformational behaviour (inspiring followers to achieve more than expected). The same three measures, also as expected, showed no relationship to transactional behaviour (motivating followers to achieve expected results) and were negatively associated with laissez-faire leadership (an absence of leadership style). Relationships between empathy scales and outcome measures were selective and moderate in size. Strongest empathy association was evident between the PT scale and most outcome measures. Conversely, the extra effort outcome appeared most sensitive to the range of empathy scales. Where significant relationships did exist between empathy and outcome, leadership behaviour was in all cases a perfect mediator. Whilst not denying the smaller dispositional effects on leadership outcomes, leadership behaviour itself, rather than individual traits such as empathy, appear to be major influencing factors in leadership effectiveness. PMID:15807976

  7. Effects of oxytocin and genetic variants on brain and behaviour: Implications for treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Ganella, Eleni P; Labuschagne, Izelle; Bousman, Chad; Pantelis, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Impairments in social cognition and poor social functioning are core features of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In recent years, there has been a move towards developing new treatment strategies that specifically target social cognitive and social behavioural deficits. Oxytocin (OXT) is one such strategy that has gained increasing attention. There is a strong rationale for studying OXT in psychosis, from both an evolutionary perspective and neurodevelopmental-cognitive model of schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of this review was to critique and examine the observational and clinical oxytocin trial literature in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A handful of clinical trials suggest that OXT treatment may be beneficial for remediating social cognitive impairments, psychiatric symptoms, and improving social outcomes. However, inconsistencies exist in this literature, which may be explained by individual differences in the underlying neural response to OXT treatment and/or variation in the oxytocin and oxytocin receptor genes. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the evidence for structural and functional neural intermediate phenotypes in humans that link genetic variants to social behaviour/thinking, and discuss the implications of such interactions in the context of dysfunctional brain networks in schizophrenia. Factors that pose challenges for future OXT clinical research include the impact of age, sex, and ancestry, task-specific effects, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, as well as neurotransmitter and drug interactions. While initial findings from OXT single dose/clinical trial studies are promising, more interdisciplinary research in both healthy and psychiatric populations is needed before determining whether OXT is a viable treatment option/adjunct for addressing poor illness outcomes in psychotic disorders. PMID:26123171

  8. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  9. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  10. The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: an open trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Susan M; Fursland, Anthea; Allen, Karina L; Watson, Hunna

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders in an open trial for adults with the full range of eating disorders found in the community. The only previously published trial of CBT-E for eating disorders was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted in the U.K. for patients with a BMI ≥ 17.5. The current study represents the first published trial of CBT-E to include patients with a BMI<17.5. The study involved 125 patients referred to a public outpatient clinic in Perth, Western Australia. Patients attended, on average, 20-40 individual sessions with a clinical psychologist. Of those who entered the trial, 53% completed treatment. Longer waiting time for treatment was significantly associated with drop out. By the end of treatment full remission (cessation of all key eating disorder behaviours, BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2), not meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder) or partial remission (meeting at least 2 these criteria) was achieved by two thirds of the patients who completed treatment and 40% of the total sample. The results compared favourably to those reported in the previous RCT of CBT-E, with one exception being the higher drop-out rate in the current study. Overall, the findings indicated that CBT-E results in significant improvements, in both eating and more general psychopathology, in patients with all eating disorders attending an outpatient clinic. PMID:21345418

  11. Intraguild predation leads to cascading effects on habitat choice, behaviour and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Chakarov, Nayden; Heseker, Hanna; Krüger, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    force of behavioural change, simultaneously influencing habitat use and aggressiveness in predator communities. These changes might help to buffer mesopredator populations against the negative effects of intraguild predation. PMID:26781959

  12. Effect of intermolecular force on the static/dynamic behaviour of M/NEM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namjung; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-12-01

    Advances made in the fabrication of micro/nano-electromechanical (M/NEM) devices over the last ten years necessitate the understanding of the attractive force that arises from quantum fluctuations (generally referred to as Casimir effects) [Casimir H B G 1948 Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. 51 793]. The fundamental mechanisms underlying quantum fluctuations have been actively investigated through various theoretical and experimental approaches. However, the effect of the force on M/NEM devices has not been fully understood yet, especially in the transition region involving gaps ranging from 10 nm to 1 μm, due to the complexity of the force. Here, we numerically calculate the Casimir effects in M/NEM devices by using the Lifshitz formula, the general expression for the Casimir effects [Lifshitz E 1956 Sov. Phys. JETP 2 73]. Since the Casimir effects are highly dependent on the permittivity of the materials, the Kramer-Kronig relation [Landau L D, Lifshitz E M and Pitaevskii L P 1984 Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (New York: Pergamon Press)] and the optical data for metals and dielectrics are used in order to obtain the permittivity. Several simplified models for the permittivity of the materials, such as the Drude and Lorentz models [Jackson J D 1975 Classical Electrodynamics (New York: Wiley)], are also used to extrapolate the optical data. Important characteristic values of M/NEM devices, such as the pull-in voltage, pull-in gap, detachment length, etc, are calculated for devices operating in the transition region. Our results show that accurate predictions for the pull-in behaviour are possible when the Lifshitz formula is used instead of the idealized expressions for Casimir effects. We expand this study into the dynamics of M/NEM devices, so that the time and frequency response of M/NEM devices with Casimir effects can be explored.

  13. A comparison of the effects of different serotonin reuptake blockers on sexual behaviour of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Mos, J; Mollet, I; Tolboom, J T; Waldinger, M D; Olivier, B

    1999-01-01

    In human males, SSRIs differentially affect (premature) ejaculation; paroxetine and fluoxetine markedly and sertraline, moderately inhibited ejaculation latency, whereas fluvoxamine did not inhibit this parameter (Waldinger, M.D., Hengeveld, M.W., Zwinderman, A.H., Olivier, B., The effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. (in press)). The present studies tried to investigate, using sexual behaviour in male rats, whether such differences could also be found in animal paradigms of sexual behaviour. In a series of three experiments we compared various specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for their ability to suppress sexual behaviour in male rats. In the first experiment sexually experienced rats were tested 60 min after oral administration of clomipramine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine (all in a range of 0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg p.o.), sertraline or paroxetine (both in a range of 0, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg p.o.). Clomipramine, paroxetine and fluvoxamine did not significantly inhibit male sexual behaviour, although some trends were observed. Sertraline inhibited sexual behaviour at 3 and 10 mg/kg p.o., the effects being stronger at 3 mg/kg p.o. Fluoxetine (3 mg/kg p.o.) facilitated sexual behaviour, while at 30 mg/kg p.o. a modest increase in the postejaculatory interval was noted. In the second experiment, sexual behaviour of sexually naive male rats was slightly inhibited by paroxetine 10 mg/kg p.o., but sertraline (range 1-10 mg/kg p.o.), fluvoxamine and fluoxetine (both in a range of 3-30 mg/kg p.o.) were ineffective. In the last experiment the effects of paroxetine (0-10 mg/kg p.o.), fluvoxamine and fluoxetine (both 0-30 mg/kg p.o.) were studied during an exhaustion design in sexually experienced male rats. As rats get more 'sluggish' when they have had multiple ejaculations, we hoped to see stronger inhibitory effects in the

  14. Effects of chronic social defeat stress on behaviour, endoplasmic reticulum proteins and choline acetyltransferase in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Muna, Sushma Shrestha; Bagalkot, Tarique Rajasaheb; Jin, Hong-Mei; Chae, Han-Jung; Chung, Young-Chul

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on the behaviours and expressions of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and choline acetyltransferase (Chat) in the brains of adolescent mice. Adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups (susceptible and unsusceptible) after 10 d social defeat stress. In expt 1, behavioural tests were conducted and brains were processed for Western blotting on day 21 after stress. In expt 2, social avoidance tests were conducted and brains were subsequently processed for Western blotting on day 12 after stress. Chronic social defeat stress produced more pronounced depression-like behaviours such as decreased locomotion and social interaction, increased anxiety-like behaviours and immobility, and impaired memory performance in susceptible mice. Moreover, susceptible mice showed greater expression of Grp78 and CHOP in the amygdala (Amyg) on days 12 and 21 compared with the other groups. Susceptible and unsusceptible groups showed significant increases in Grp78 and CHOP expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) on day 12 compared with the control group; this persisted until day 21. The levels of Chat measured on days 12 and 21 were significantly lower in the PFC, Amyg and Hipp of all defeated mice compared with controls. The findings of the behavioural tests indicate that chronic social defeat in adolescents produces anxiety-like behaviours, social withdrawal, despair-like behaviours and cognitive impairment. The Grp78, CHOP and Chat results suggest that the selective response of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in the Amyg plays an important role in the vulnerability-stress model of depression. PMID:23442729

  15. Atypical vertical sound localization and sound-onset sensitivity in people with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Eelke; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Kan, Cornelis C.; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; van Opstal, A. John; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with auditory hyper- or hyposensitivity; atypicalities in central auditory processes, such as speech-processing and selective auditory attention; and neural connectivity deficits. We sought to investigate whether the low-level integrative processes underlying sound localization and spatial discrimination are affected in ASDs. Methods We performed 3 behavioural experiments to probe different connecting neural pathways: 1) horizontal and vertical localization of auditory stimuli in a noisy background, 2) vertical localization of repetitive frequency sweeps and 3) discrimination of horizontally separated sound stimuli with a short onset difference (precedence effect). Results Ten adult participants with ASDs and 10 healthy control listeners participated in experiments 1 and 3; sample sizes for experiment 2 were 18 adults with ASDs and 19 controls. Horizontal localization was unaffected, but vertical localization performance was significantly worse in participants with ASDs. The temporal window for the precedence effect was shorter in participants with ASDs than in controls. Limitations The study was performed with adult participants and hence does not provide insight into the developmental aspects of auditory processing in individuals with ASDs. Conclusion Changes in low-level auditory processing could underlie degraded performance in vertical localization, which would be in agreement with recently reported changes in the neuroanatomy of the auditory brainstem in individuals with ASDs. The results are further discussed in the context of theories about abnormal brain connectivity in individuals with ASDs. PMID:24148845

  16. A Review of the Extent, Nature, Characteristics and Effects of Bullying Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adeleke, Fajoju; Omoike, Don; Afen-Akpaida, Justina

    2008-01-01

    Bullying behaviour no doubt is becoming a common feature, and a nightmare in schools all over the world. It is a worrisome practice in schools because it infringes on the child's right to human dignity, privacy, freedom and security. The physical, emotional and educational consequences of bullying behaviour can never be underestimated. Therefore,…

  17. Eye Movement Behaviour during Reading of Japanese Sentences: Effects of Word Length and Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.; Hirotani, Masako; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that examine how the visual characteristics of Japanese words influence eye movement behaviour during reading. In Experiment 1, reading behaviour was compared for words comprising either one or two kanji characters. The one-character words were significantly less likely to be fixated on first-pass, and had…

  18. The Effect of Systematic Academic Instruction on Behavioural and Academic Outcomes of Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy J.; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of systematic academic instruction on academic progress and behavioural problems of students with emotional and/or behavioural disorders (EBD) in special education. Earlier studies have noted the importance of a systematic approach as well as the significance of focusing on academic instruction instead of on…

  19. Effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine on cognition, function and behaviour in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, D W; Guyatt, G H; Wilson, D B; Duke, R; Rees, L; Singer, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, multiple crossover trial with three treatment periods, each consisting of 3 weeks of active drug therapy and 3 weeks of placebo administration. SETTING: Referral-based geriatric practice in a community hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-four patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Subjects were included if they had stage 3 to 6 disease (as determined by the Reisberg scale) and had not been taking psychotropic drugs for at least 1 month and if informed consent had been obtained from the patients and their next of kin. INTERVENTIONS: Fifty to 100 mg of THA daily and matched placebo. RESULTS: Of the initial 34 patients 14 experienced liver toxicity and 3 gastrointestinal side effects during the study; however, all 22 who completed the study were able to tolerate at least the minimum dose. For the 22 patients there was no clinically or statistically significant effect of THA on cognition, functional status or behaviour. The results for individual patients showed no subgroup of THA-responsive patients. CONCLUSION: THA has no clinically important benefits in Alzheimer's disease and is associated with appreciable toxic effects. PMID:1984813

  20. Amisulpride versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Hunger, Heike; Schmid, Franziska; Schwarz, Sandra; da Mota Neto, Joaquim I Silveira; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have become first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether, and if so how much, the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examine how the efficacy and tolerability of amisulpride differs from that of other second generation antipsychotics. Objectives To evaluate the effects of amisulpride compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We updated this search in July 2012 and added 47 new trials to the awaiting classification section. Selection criteria We included randomised, at least single-blind, trials comparing oral amisulpride with oral forms of aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For continuous data we calculated weighted mean differences (MD), for dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results The review currently includes ten short to medium term trials with 1549 participants on three comparisons: amisulpride versus olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. The overall attrition rate was considerable (34.7%) with no significant difference between groups. Amisulpride was similarly effective as olanzapine and risperidone and more effective than ziprasidone (leaving the study early due to inefficacy: n=123, 1 RCT, RR 0.21 CI 0.05 to 0.94, NNT 8 CI 5 to 50

  1. Effects of School-Based Interventions on Secondary School Students with High and Low Risks for Antisocial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin; John, Lindsay; Livingstone, Anne-Marie; Shepherd, Nicole; Duku, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the methodology and program effects of a multicomponent model of interventions designed to prevent antisocial behaviour in secondary school students. Interventions included cooperative learning, classroom management, and peer tutoring, mentoring, and mediation. Data from the Secondary Schools Demonstration Project (SSDP)…

  2. Effects of Different Teaching Styles on the Teacher Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate and Pupils' Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran; Sproule, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils' cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two schools in the UK, participated in the…

  3. How Should the Effectiveness of Social Stories to Modify the Behaviour of Children on the Autistic Spectrum be Tested?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan; Smith, Ailsa

    2006-01-01

    Social Stories are an extensively used intervention to address behaviour difficulties of children on the autistic spectrum. This article summarizes what Social Stories are and sets out to determine whether there is any relevant literature demonstrating the effectiveness of this intervention. Whilst the existing literature suggests positive…

  4. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some key practice and policy implications emerging from a review of literature on effective teacher strategies for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are set out. Particular attention is given to implications in relation to the development of teachers' skills.

  5. Evaluation of Social and Academic Effects of School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support in a Canadian School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Bennett, Joanna L.; Price, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses School-wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS), an evidence-based approach to teaching social competencies and enhancing the school social environment. The focus of this article is on the value of evaluation and evaluation plans at a district level for maintaining and increasing the effectiveness of SWPBS in a district. We…

  6. The Effect of Music Therapy Services on Classroom Behaviours of Newly Arrived Refugee Students in Australia--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one or two…

  7. Parents Plus Programme 1: Evaluation of Its Effectiveness for Pre-School Children with Developmental Disabilities and Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mark; Carr, Alan; Carroll, Louise; O'Sullivan, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parents Plus programme with families of pre-school children with developmental disabilities and significant behavioural problems in the Irish health service. The Parents Plus programme is a group-based parent training package involving video modelling, which was designed to be…

  8. The Rhythm's Gonna Get Ya'--Background Music in Primary Classrooms and Its Effect on Behaviour and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloor, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Three classes in different primary schools in a west London borough were given four tests, two with music and two with silence, to see if the music had a measurable effect on the behaviour and attainment of the children during tests. The results were then cross-referenced with the children's self-evaluation of their own musicality to ascertain if…

  9. The Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohanpal, S. K.; Deb, S.; Thomas, C.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to establish the current evidence base regarding the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: An electronic search of PsycInfo, Embase, Medline and Cinahl databases was conducted spanning the time…

  10. Perceptions of Effective Support Services to Families with Disabled Children whose Behaviour is Severely Challenging: A Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkey, Roy; Gent, Clare; Scowcroft, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Specialist short break services aim to provide enhanced support to family carers as a means of preventing children whose behaviours severely challenge from being placed in full-time residential care. To date, there is limited evidence as to the functioning and effectiveness of such services. Methods: In all, 17 children were selected…

  11. Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety among University Students: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapies in the treatment of anxiety among university students. To this aim, the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) was completed by 30 students assigned to CBT and by 24 students assigned to PDT, both at the beginning and at the end of…

  12. The Effects of an Experimental Programme to Support Students' Autonomy on the Overt Behaviours of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits of autonomy supportive behaviours are now well established in the literature, very few studies have attempted to train teachers to offer a greater autonomy support to their students. In fact, none of these studies has been carried out in physical education (PE). The purpose of this study is to test the effects of an…

  13. The behavioural effects of predator-induced stress responses in the cricket (Gryllus texensis): the upside of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Mosher, Brianna

    2013-12-15

    Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent for at least 1/2 of its adult life. However, after exposure to a model predator, both male and female crickets showed a reduced period of immobility and an increased amount of time spent under shelter compared with controls. These changes could be mimicked by injections of the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. These behavioural changes probably aid crickets in evading predators. Exposure to a model predator increased the ability of crickets to escape a live predator (a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps). An injection of octopamine had the same effect, showing that stress hormones can reduce predation. Using crickets to study the fitness consequences of predator-induced stress responses will help integrate ecological and biomedical concepts of 'stress'. PMID:24307711

  14. Low-dose effect of developmental bisphenol A exposure on sperm count and behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Hass, U; Christiansen, S; Boberg, J; Rasmussen, M G; Mandrup, K; Axelstad, M

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A is widely used in food contact materials and other products and is detected in human urine and blood. Bisphenol A may affect reproductive and neurological development; however, opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on bisphenol A (EFSA J, 13, 2015 and 3978) concluded that none of the available studies were robust enough to provide a point of departure for setting a tolerable daily intake for bisphenol A. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats (n = 17-21) were gavaged from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with bisphenol A doses of 0, 25 μg, 250 μg, 5 mg or 50 mg/kg bw/day. In the offspring, growth, sexual maturation, weights and histopathology of reproductive organs, oestrus cyclicity and sperm counts were assessed. Neurobehavioural development was investigated using a behavioural testing battery including tests for motor activity, sweet preference, anxiety and spatial learning. Decreased sperm count was found at the lowest bisphenol A dose, that is 25 μg/kg/day, but not at the higher doses. Reproductive organ weight and histology were not affected and no behavioural effects were seen in male offspring. In the female offspring, exposure to 25 μg/kg bw/day bisphenol A dose resulted in increased body weight late in life and altered spatial learning in a Morris water maze, indicating masculinization of the brain. Decreased intake of sweetened water was seen in females from the highest bisphenol A dose group, also a possible sign of masculinization. The other investigated endpoints were not significantly affected. In conclusion, the present study using a robust experimental study design, has shown that developmental exposure to 25 μg/kg bw/day bisphenol A can cause adverse effects on fertility (decreased sperm count), neurodevelopment (masculinization of spatial learning in females) and lead to increased female body weight late in life. These results suggest that the new EFSA temporary tolerable daily intake of 4 μg/kg bw

  15. Effect of gender and school level on disordered eating behaviours and attitudes in Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Díaz, J M; López-Aguilar, X; Franco-Paredes, K; Alvarez-Rayón, G; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Trinidad Ocampo Téllez-Girón, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eating behaviours and attitudes in a community sample of 615 adolescent Mexican students recruited at a middle school (192 boys and 226 girls; mean age +/- standard deviation 13.56+/-0.09) and high school (90 boys and 107 girls; mean age 16.04+/-0.12 years), who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Multiple analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of gender on the negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness and perceived social pressure subscales, and school level on the body dissatisfaction and food preoccupation subscales. Among the high school girls, the gender x school level interaction had a significant effect on negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness, food preoccupation and perceived social pressure subscales. These data support previous findings concerning gender, and also suggest that perceived social pressure in the case of girls and food preoccupation in the case of boys could be important factors in the natural development of eating disorders. PMID:20179402

  16. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy. PMID:26392037

  17. Effect of horizontal strong static magnetic field on swimming behaviour of Paramecium caudatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Tomishige, Masahiko; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masao; Shibata, Naho; Kosaka, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-05-01

    Effect of horizontal strong static magnetic field on swimming behaviour of Paramecium caudatum was studied by using a superconducting magnet. Around a centre of a round vessel, random swimming at 0 T and aligned swimming parallel to the magnetic field (MF) of 8 T were observed. Near a wall of the vessel, however, swimming round and round along the wall at 0 T and aligned swimming of turning at right angles upon collision with the wall, which was remarkable around 1-4 T, were detected. It was experimentally revealed that the former MF-induced parallel swimming at the vessel centre was caused physicochemically by the parallel magnetic orientation of the cell itself. From magnetic field dependence of the extent of the orientation, the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (χ ∥-χ ⊥) was first obtained to be 3.4× 10-23 emu cell-1 at 298 K for Paramecium caudatum. The orientation of the cell was considered to result from the magnetic orientation of the cell membrane. On the other hand, although mechanisms of the latter swimming near the vessel wall regardless of the absence and presence of the magnetic field are unclear at present, these experimental results indicate that whether the cell exists near the wall alters the magnetic field effect on the swimming in the horizontal magnetic field.

  18. Effects on rat sexual behaviour of acute MDMA (ecstasy) alone or in combination with loud music.

    PubMed

    Cagiano, R; Bera, I; Sabatini, R; Flace, P; Vermesan, D; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Bottalico, L; Santacroce, L

    2008-01-01

    The effects on sexual behaviour of acute low doses of methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/i.p.), alone or in combination with exposure to loud music (1 h stimulation), were investigated in Wistar rats. Results indicate that acute MDMA, at dose of 3 mg/kg, notably impaired copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. In particular, MDMA-exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies as well as a significant decrease in percentage of rats displaying copulatory activity (one intromission at least). Surprisingly, one hour exposure to loud music, which per se resulted ineffective, antagonized the suppressive effect of MDMA by increasing the percent of animals displaying sexual activity. However, combined treatment of MDMA and music stimulation did not fully restore normal sexual behavior as the animals reaching ejaculation still showed a marked reduction of copulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the systemic administration of a single low dose of MDMA, alone or in combination with loud music, which is commonly present in certain environments such as rave parties, notably impairs copulatory activity of male rats. PMID:19024211

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Mothers of Children with Food Allergy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knibb, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriateness and effectiveness of CBT to improve psychological outcomes in parents of children with food allergy. Methods: Five parents (all mothers) from a local allergy clinic requested to have CBT; six mothers acted as controls and completed questionnaires only. CBT was individual and face-to face and lasted 12 weeks. All participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, worry, stress, general mental health, generic and food allergy specific quality of life at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Anxiety, depression and worry in the CBT group significantly reduced and overall mental health and QoL significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks (all p < 0.05) in mothers in the CBT group; control group scores remained stable. Conclusions: CBT appears to be appropriate and effective in mothers of children with food allergy and a larger randomised control trial now needs to be conducted. Ways in which aspects of CBT can be incorporated into allergy clinic visits need investigation. PMID:27417820

  20. Mobile phone use while cycling: incidence and effects on behaviour and safety.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Dick; Schepers, Paul; Ormel, Wieke; Brookhuis, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The effects of mobile phone use on cycling behaviour were studied. In study 1, the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling was assessed. In Groningen 2.2% of cyclists were observed talking on their phone and 0.6% were text messaging or entering a phone number. In study 2, accident-involved cyclists responded to a questionnaire. Only 0.5% stated that they were using their phone at the time of the accident. In study 3, participants used a phone while cycling. The content of the conversation was manipulated and participants also had to enter a text message. Data were compared with just cycling and cycling while listening to music. Telephoning coincided with reduced speed, reduced peripheral vision performance and increased risk and mental effort ratings. Text messaging had the largest negative impact on cycling performance. Higher mental workload and lower speed may account for the relatively low number of people calling involved in accidents. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Although perhaps mainly restricted to flat countries with a large proportion of cyclists, mobile phone use while cycling has increased and may be a threat to traffic safety, similar to phone use while driving a car. In this study, the extent of the problem was assessed by observing the proportion of cyclists using mobile phones, sending questionnaires to accident-involved cyclists and an experimental study was conducted on the effects of mobile phone use while cycling. PMID:20069479

  1. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  2. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    PubMed

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María Del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C-60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1-0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  3. Atypical arthritis revisited: Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Binoy; Bhutia, Euden; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with vague musculoskeletal pain and involvement of multiple small and large joints along with axial skeleton for the last 3 years, poorly responsive to aspirin. However, on account of presence of carditis and fulfilment of Jones criteria, a diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) with atypical arthritis was made. We report this case to break the myth and sensitize pediatricians and rheumatologists to keep the possibility of atypical articular presentations, as in our case, in patients with ARF and prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27212853

  4. Association between atypical parathyroid adenoma and neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Favere, Aline Mesquita Ferreira de; Tsukumo, Daniela Miti; Matos, Patrícia Sabino de; Santos, Sérgio Luiz Marques dos; Lalli, Cristina Alba

    2015-10-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease characterized by excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is due to a parathyroid adenoma in 85% of cases. An atypical parathyroid adenoma, with some histopathological features of parathyroid carcinoma, may be found in some of the cases, although it may not fulfill all the criteria for this diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant systemic disease that may be associated with hyperparathyroidism. We report here the rare combination of a patient with NF1 and clinical manifestations of hyperparathyroidism due to an atypical parathyroid adenoma. PMID:26421674

  5. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  6. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  7. Clozapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Asenjo Lobos, Claudia; Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Hunger, Heike; Schmid, Franziska; Schwarz, Sandra; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic demonstrated to be superior in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia which causes fewer movement disorders. Clozapine, however, entails a significant risk of serious blood disorders such as agranulocytosis which could be potentially fatal. Currently there are a number of newer antipsychotics which have been developed with the purpose to find both a better tolerability profile and a superior effectiveness. Objectives To compare the clinical effects of clozapine with other atypical antipsychotics (such as amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone and zotepine) in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Groups Register (June 2007) and reference lists of all included randomised controlled trials. We also manually searched appropriate journals and conference proceedings relating to clozapine combination strategies and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All relevant randomised, at least single-blind trials, comparing clozapine with other atypical antipsychotics, any dose and oral formulations, for people with schizophrenia or related disorders. Data collection and analysis We selected trials and extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes 27 blinded randomised controlled trials, which involved 3099 participants. Twelve randomised control trials compared clozapine with olanzapine, five with quetiapine, nine with risperidone, one with ziprasidone and two with zotepine. Attrition from these studies was high (overall 30.1%), leaving the interpretation

  8. Cholesterol screening of children at high risk: behavioural and psychological effects

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, E; Lamping, D L; Joseph, L; Pless, I B; Franco, E D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavioural and psychosocial effects of screening asymptomatic children at high risk for hyperlipidemia. DESIGN: Observational study involving prospective longitudinal and cross-sectional portions. SETTING: Two tertiary care pediatric lipid clinics in Montreal. SUBJECTS: Longitudinal portion: all children aged 4 to 17 years who presented for screening at the lipid clinics between April 1990 and June 1991. Of the 56 eligible children 52 (93%) (and their mothers) agreed to participate, 34 with hyperlipidemia (case subjects) and 18 without hyperlipidemia (control subjects). Thirty-five children (67%) completed 3 assessments over 12 months. Cross-sectional portion: all children aged 4 to 17 years in whom hyperlipidemia had been diagnosed 2 to 5 years earlier at one of the lipid clinics. Of the 58 eligible children 48 (83%) (and their mothers) participated. OUTCOME MEASURES: For children, mean scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (Behavior Problems subscale) (CBCL), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC); for mothers, mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: In the longitudinal portion of the study, there was no significant difference between the case and control subjects in the mean CDI or STAIC scores at 1 or 12 months. At 1 month after diagnosis the case subjects in the longitudinal portion had a significantly higher mean CBCL score than the children in the cross-sectional component (p = 0.01). With the control group as the reference group, the adjusted odds ratios for a high CBCL score (greater than 62) for the case subjects were 15.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4 to 99.8) at 1 month and 15.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 223.4) at 12 months. The corresponding values for the children in the cross-sectional component were 1.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 6.2) and 5.0 (95% CI 0.5 to 50.9). CONCLUSIONS: The observed behavioural problems in

  9. The effect of obestatin on anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Szakács, Júlia; Csabafi, Krisztina; Lipták, Nándor; Szabó, Gyula

    2015-10-15

    Obestatin is a 23 amino acid-peptide, derived from the same preproghrelin-gene as ghrelin. Obestatin was originally reported as a ghrelin antagonist with anorexigenic activity, but later it was proven to be involved in multiple processes including sleep, memory retention, anxiety, morphine-induced analgesia and withdrawal. In the present study, in male CFLP mice, by using computerised open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests we have investigated the behavioural effects of the acute intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of obestatin alone, and following ghrelin receptor blockage with [d-Lys3]-Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 ([d-Lys3]- GHRP6) or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor 1 antagonism with antalarmin. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured for each treatment group by using chemofluorescent assay. Our results in the EPM test showed that obestatin reduced the percent of time spent in the open arms. The basal locomotor activity (ambulation distance and time, rearing and jumping) was not influenced significantly neither in the obestatin-treated groups, nor in those receiving pre-treatment with antalarmin or [d-Lys3]-GHRP6. The percentage of central ambulation distance however was decreased by obestatin, while the percentage of time spent in the central zone showed a decreasing tendency. The administration of antalarmin or [d-Lys3]-GHRP6 have both reversed the effect of obestatin on central ambulation. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated by obestatin, which effect was antagonised by the injection of antalarmin. These are the first results to indicate that obestatin exerts anxiogenic-like effect in mice, which might be mediated through ghrelin receptor and CRH activation. PMID:26192908

  10. Radiation-induced malignant and atypical peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.

  11. Current treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bernard S.; Ruebner, Rebecca L.; Spinale, Joann M.; Copelovitch, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tremendous advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS), an extremely rare disease. Insights into the molecular biology of aHUS resulted in rapid advances in treatment with eculizumab (Soliris®, Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc.). Historically, aHUS was associated with very high rates of mortality and morbidity. Prior therapies included plasma therapy and/or liver transplantation. Although often life saving, these were imperfect and had many complications. We review the conditions included under the rubric of aHUS: S. pneumoniae HUS (SpHUS), inborn errors of metabolism, and disorders of complement regulation, emphasizing their differences and similarities. We focus on the clinical features, diagnosis, and pathogenesis, and treatment of aHUS that results from mutations in genes encoding alternative complement regulators, SpHUS and HUS associated with inborn errors of metabolism. Mutations in complement genes, or antibodies to their protein products, result in unregulated activity of the alternate complement pathway, endothelial injury, and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the production of the terminal complement components C5a and the membrane attack complex (C5b-9) by binding to complement protein C5a. This blocks the proinflammatory and cytolytic effects of terminal complement activation. Eculizumab use has been reported in many case reports, and retrospective and prospective clinical trials in aHUS. There have been few serious side effects and no reports of tachphylaxis or drug resistance. The results are very encouraging and eculizumab is now recognized as the treatment of choice for aHUS. PMID:25343125

  12. Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia, Neurotransmitters and the New Atypical Antipsychotic Aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Topolov, Mariyan K; Getova, Damianka P

    2016-03-01

    Cognition is a group of mental processes that includes the capacity to perceive, think, learn and to study, and the capacity of the brain to analyze information and program adaptive behaviour. Although there has been an appreciable evolution in the therapy of psychoses in the last twenty-five years, cognitive disturbances still persist in spite of antipsychotic treatment. The cognitive decay disrupts the ability of clinically diagnosed patients with psychoses, mainly schizophrenia, to learn and to memorize skills that are useful for their family and social relationships. Moreover, cognitive deficiency is often considered to be crucial for further rehabilitation. In atypical antipsychotics there are big differences in the effects on cognitive functions. Some clinical studies demonstrate the benefits of a third generation of antipsychotics on cognitive functions in patients treated for mental illnesses. In the present study we have reviewed many articles investigating the influence of aripiprazole on cognition in human and animal subjects. Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic drug that possesses a unique pharmacodynamic profile, which in conjunction with recently published scientific data on the drugs' influence on antidepressant, anxiolytic and cognitive functions, suggests a highly positive future potential for restorative cognitive treatment and ongoing healthy function. The data included in the review will contribute to determining the potential benefits of aripiprazole on memory and training processes. PMID:27383873

  13. Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Gammarus pulex Exposed to Cadmium and Arsenate at Three Temperatures: Individual and Combined Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and15°C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na+] and [Cl−] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na+] and [Cl−] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl−]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as ‘additive’ for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10°C considered as “antagonistic”). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl−] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Chlorpromazine, Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate on the Behaviour and Functioning of Hyperactive Children

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gabrielle; Minde, Klaus; Douglas, Virginia; Werry, John; Sykes, Donald

    1971-01-01

    Chlorpromazine, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate were significantly superior to placebo in producing overall improvement in the behaviour of hyperactive children. Chlorpromazine was effective for the majority of the children, but reduced only hyperactivity, having no demonstrable effect on distractibility, aggressivity or excitability. Both stimulants produced more goal-oriented behaviour and reduced distractibility. Methylphenidate was the most effective of the drugs in prpducing exceptional improvement. All three active drugs had to be discontinued in a few of the children because of side effects. Not all hyperactive children were benefited by the drugs. No background variables (with the exception of mother-child relationship) were found in the present studies to predict favourable response to the drugs. Methylphenidate became our drug of choice for this group of hyperactive children. PMID:5540117

  15. Effects of Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports on Problem Behaviour and Academic Achievement in a Canadian Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelm, Joanna L.; McIntosh, Kent; Cooley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Although there is much research on School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in the United States, there is little such research in Canada. The purpose of the current study was to provide a case study example of the relation between implementing PBIS and student academic and behavioural outcomes, as well as student…

  16. The effects of EGb761 on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuehan; Zhang, Yongdong

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence for the involvement of inflammation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression. Ginkgo extract EGb761 possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-arteriosclerosis, and neuroprotective activities. But the effect of EGb761 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behaviours has not been investigated. The present study mainly aimed to examine the antidepressant-like activities of Ginkgo extract EGb761 in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration. C57BL/6J male mice were pretreated with EGb761 or vehicle for 10 days. Then, a single dose of lipopolysaccharide was intraperitoneally administrated to mice to induce depressive-like behaviour. Forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and sucrose preference test were performed to evaluate the depressive-like behaviours of the mice. Locomotor activity was examined by open field test. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-10 in hippocampus tissue homogenate were measured using ELISA kits. We found that LPS administration induced significant depressive-like behaviours, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17A, but lower levels of BDNF and IL-10 in hippocampus tissue homogenate of the mice from the vehicle group compared to the control mice. Pretreatment with middle dose (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose (150 mg/kg/day) of EGb761 significantly attenuated depressive-like behaviours without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity, and inhibited the changes of hippocampal cytokines and BDNF induced by LPS administration. We conclude that EGb761 has antidepressant-like activities in mice with LPS-induced depressive-like behaviours. PMID:26155178

  17. Effects of ageing on elution behaviour of nitrogenous compounds in disposed wastes from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of elution and cation exchange capacity (CEC) tests were applied to aged and fresh municipal and industrial solid wastes to examine the effects of ageing on the long-term elution behaviour of nitrogen on leachate in municipal and industrial solid waste landfill sites. Nitrogen in the leachate gradually eluted as organic nitrogen, but not upon transformation of organic nitrogen to elutable inorganic nitrogen compounds in the solid waste. Ammonium in the solid waste, retained similar to its interaction with clay minerals in soil, elutes when exposed to leachate by being replaced with highly concentrated cations or loses its positive charge in high pH in the leachate, which percolates down from the upper layer of the disposed waste. The quantity of ammonium adsorbed into the aged wastes through CEC measurement process by replacement with ammonium acetate was higher than that onto the fresh wastes. That difference in quantities can serve as an index of the ability of the solid waste to withhold ammonium in the leachate that percolates down the landfill layer. Those results demonstrate that ammonification of organic nitrogen in the waste is not the crucial step of the elution of nitrogenous compounds into leachate. PMID:25145199

  18. Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Sauvaire, Y; Ponsin, G; Manteghetti, M; Fave, A; Ribes, G

    1993-06-01

    Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are assumed to have restorative and nutritive properties. The present work was designed to investigate the effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour. Experiments were performed to determine food consumption and motivation to eat as well as metabolic-endocrine changes in chronically treated animals. Male Wistar rats were given the seed extract orally (10 and 100 mg/day per 300 g body weight), mixed together with food, and control animals were monitored in parallel. The results show that chronic oral administration of the fenugreek extract significantly increases food intake and the motivation to eat. The treatment, however, does not prevent the anorexia nor the decreased motivation to eat induced by d-fenfluramine (2 mg/kg, IP). An increase in plasma insulin and a decrease in total cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) total cholesterol were also observed. In conclusion, chronic administration of a fenugreek seed extract enhances food consumption and motivation to eat in rats and also induces hyperinsulinemia as well as hypocholesterolemia. PMID:8327543

  19. On the effect of calcification volume and configuration on the mechanical behaviour of carotid plaque tissue.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H E; Cunnane, E M; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, M T

    2016-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a complex molecular process that exhibits a number of relatively characteristic morphology patterns in atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment of arterial stenosis by endovascular intervention, involving forceful circumferential expansion of the plaque, can be unpredictable in calcified lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical stretching mechanisms and define the mechanical limits for circumferentially expanding carotid plaque lesions under the influence of distinct calcification patterns. Mechanical and structural characterisation was performed on 17 human carotid plaques acquired from patients undergoing endarterectomy procedures. The mechanical properties were determined using uniaxial extension tests that stretch the lesions to complete failure along their circumferential axis. Calcification morphology of mechanically ruptured plaque lesions was characterised using high resolution micro computed tomography imaging. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the mechanically induced failure sites and to identify the interface boundary conditions between calcified and non-calcified tissue. The mechanical tests produced four distinct trends in mechanical behaviour which corresponded to the calcification patterns that structurally defined each mechanical group. Each calcification pattern produced unique mechanical restraining effects on the plaque tissue stretching properties evidenced by the variation in degree of stretch to failure. Resistance to failure appears to rely on interactions between calcification and non-calcified tissue. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed structural gradations at interface boundary conditions to facilitate the transfer of stress. This study emphasises the mechanical influence of distinct calcification configurations on plaque expansion properties and highlights the importance of pre-operative lesion characterisation to optimise treatment outcomes. PMID:26655460

  20. Effect of microstructure on the mechanical and damping behaviour of dragonfly wing veins.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Shafiei, A; Darvizeh, A; Dirks, J-H; Appel, E; Gorb, S N

    2016-02-01

    Insect wing veins are biological composites of chitin and protein arranged in a complex lamellar configuration. Although these hierarchical structures are found in many 'venous wings' of insects, very little is known about their physical and mechanical characteristics. For the first time, we carried out a systematic comparative study to gain a better understanding of the influence of microstructure on the mechanical characteristics and damping behaviour of the veins. Morphological data have been used to develop a series of three-dimensional numerical models with different material properties and geometries. Finite-element analysis has been employed to simulate the mechanical response of the models under different loading conditions. The modelling strategy used in this study enabled us to determine the effects selectively induced by resilin, friction between layers, shape of the cross section, material composition and layered structure on the stiffness and damping characteristics of wing veins. Numerical simulations suggest that although the presence of the resilin-dominated endocuticle layer results in a much higher flexibility of wing veins, the dumbbell-shaped cross section increases their bending rigidity. Our study further shows that the rubber-like cuticle, friction between layers and material gradient-based design contribute to the higher damping capacity of veins. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the design of novel bioinspired composite structures. PMID:26998340

  1. Effects of space allowance on the behaviour of long-term housed shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Normando, Simona; Contiero, Barbara; Marchesini, Giorgio; Ricci, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of space allowance (4.5 m(2)/head vs. 9 m(2)/head) on the behaviour of shelter dogs (Canis familiaris) at different times of the day (from 10:30 to 13:30 vs. from 14:30 to 17:30), and the dogs' preference between two types of beds (fabric bed vs. plastic basket). Twelve neutered dogs (seven males and five females aged 3-8 years) housed in pairs were observed using a scan sampling recording method every 20 s for a total of 14,592 scans/treatment. An increase in space allowance increased general level of activity (risk ratio (RR)=1.34), standing (RR=1.37), positive social interactions (RR=2.14), visual exploration of the environment (RR=1.21), and vocalisations (RR=2.35). Dogs spent more time in the sitting (RR=1.39) or standing (RR=1.88) posture, in positive interactions (RR=1.85), and active visual exploration (RR=1.99) during the morning than in the afternoon. The dogs were more often observed in the fabric bed than in the plastic basket (53% vs. 15% of total scans, p<0.001). Results suggest that a 9.0 m(2)/head space allowance could be more beneficial to dogs than one of 4.5 m(2). PMID:24468217

  2. Effect of Grain Refinement on the Mechanical Behaviour of an Al6061 Alloy at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Valle, E.; Sabirov, I.; Murashkin, M. Yu.; Valiev, R. Z.; Bobruk, E. V.; Perez-Prado, M. T.

    2011-05-04

    A solution treated coarse grained (CG) Al6061 was subjected to high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature resulting in the formation of a homogeneous ultra-fine grained (UFG) microstructure with an average grain size of 170 nm. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). The as-HPT UFG Al6061 alloy shows an increased strength at both RT and LNT. The decrease of testing temperature results in increased flow stress and in enhanced elongation to failure in both CG and UFG samples. The ratio {sigma}{sub y}{sup LNT}/{sigma}{sub y}{sup RT} was found to be larger for the CG Al6061 than for the UFG Al6061. Both surface relief and fracture surface observations were performed. The effect of the grain size and of the testing temperature on the mechanical behaviour of the Al6061 alloy is analyzed in detail. It is suggested that the solute atoms play an important role in the plastic deformation of the UFG Al6061 alloy.

  3. Effect of microstructure on the mechanical and damping behaviour of dragonfly wing veins

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, H.; Shafiei, A.; Darvizeh, A.; Dirks, J.-H.; Appel, E.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Insect wing veins are biological composites of chitin and protein arranged in a complex lamellar configuration. Although these hierarchical structures are found in many ‘venous wings' of insects, very little is known about their physical and mechanical characteristics. For the first time, we carried out a systematic comparative study to gain a better understanding of the influence of microstructure on the mechanical characteristics and damping behaviour of the veins. Morphological data have been used to develop a series of three-dimensional numerical models with different material properties and geometries. Finite-element analysis has been employed to simulate the mechanical response of the models under different loading conditions. The modelling strategy used in this study enabled us to determine the effects selectively induced by resilin, friction between layers, shape of the cross section, material composition and layered structure on the stiffness and damping characteristics of wing veins. Numerical simulations suggest that although the presence of the resilin-dominated endocuticle layer results in a much higher flexibility of wing veins, the dumbbell-shaped cross section increases their bending rigidity. Our study further shows that the rubber-like cuticle, friction between layers and material gradient-based design contribute to the higher damping capacity of veins. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the design of novel bioinspired composite structures. PMID:26998340

  4. Plasticizer Effect on Rheological Behaviour of Screen Printing Pastes Based on Barium Titanate Nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulina, I.; Umerova, S.; Ragulya, A.

    2015-04-01

    The dependence of rheological behaviour of pastes based on BaTiO3 nanopowder vs. plasticizer content has been investigated. All pastes prepared for research can be divided into groups by structure types and viscosity. Such a grouping has been explained by different interaction between nanoparticles and binder in the pastes. Particles with molecules of binder form clusters - the representative units in the volume of paste where particles are uniformly distributed. Plasticizer adding effects on binder molecule conformation and change clusters size. Bond strength between clusters can be specified with rheopexy in the area of low shear stress and low strain rates. Rheopexy degree increasing authenticates interaction intensification between clusters. Rheopexy structure destruction leads to separate clusters formation and initiation of the pseudoplastic flow stage. The end of pseudoplastic flow corresponds to structure with clusters assembled into separated layers. Further shear stress increasing leads to inter-clusters bonds appear which can be deformed elastically and the temporary local linkage is possible. Such a phenomenon fully discloses the features of thixotropic structure destruction in plasticized pastes.

  5. Effects of small particle numbers on long-term behaviour in discrete biochemical systems

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Bashar; Dittrich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The functioning of many biological processes depends on the appearance of only a small number of a single molecular species. Additionally, the observation of molecular crowding leads to the insight that even a high number of copies of species do not guarantee their interaction. How single particles contribute to stabilizing biological systems is not well understood yet. Hence, we aim at determining the influence of single molecules on the long-term behaviour of biological systems, i.e. whether they can reach a steady state. Results: We provide theoretical considerations and a tool to analyse Systems Biology Markup Language models for the possibility to stabilize because of the described effects. The theory is an extension of chemical organization theory, which we called discrete chemical organization theory. Furthermore we scanned the BioModels Database for the occurrence of discrete chemical organizations. To exemplify our method, we describe an application to the Template model of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint mechanism. Availability and implementation: http://www.biosys.uni-jena.de/Services.html. Contact: bashar.ibrahim@uni-jena.de or dittrich@minet.uni-jena.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161236

  6. Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livore, Juan P.; Connell, Sean D.

    2012-02-01

    The origin of food is recognised to be an important trait for sedentary consumers that have little control over the source of their food. Elevated herbivory in sea urchins is often linked to poor gonad condition as provoked by reduced food availability, but there is little recognition of the possibility that the origin of food may contribute to their poor condition and elevated feeding. This study assesses the possibility that variation in food availability and origin may together affect urchin condition and feeding rates such that they account for more intensive grazing (by Heliocidaris erythrogramma) on sheltered than exposed coasts (South Australia). We experimentally tested the hypothesis that reduced food availability from sheltered coasts would result in poor gonad condition and greater feeding rate; whilst enhanced food availability from exposed coasts would result in better condition and reduced feeding rates. We found that reduced food had negative effects on condition and positive effects on feeding rates independently of coastal source. Greater food availability did not equate to better condition, rather it was the delivery of more food from exposed than sheltered coasts that translated into the better gonad condition and lower feeding rates. These results suggest that plant origin and availability could help explain the greater impacts of these urchins on sheltered coasts. Whilst other factors such as water energy and sea urchin density may contribute to variation in herbivory our results suggest that origin of food may also play a role in sea urchin condition and behaviour. Understanding how such traits link to large scale features of the environment may improve models that account for variation in strength of consumer effects across landscapes.

  7. Observations of the effect of lower hybrid waves on ELM behaviour in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Xu, G. S.; Liang, Y.; Wang, H. Q.; Zhou, C.; Liu, A. D.; Wang, L.; Qian, J. P.; Gan, K. F.; Yang, J. H.; Duan, Y. M.; Li, Y. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yan, N.; Chen, L.; Shao, L. M.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Zhao, N.; Liu, S. C.; Kong, D. F.; Gong, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Dedicated experiments focusing on the influence of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) on edge-localized modes (ELMs) were first performed during the 2012 experimental campaign of EAST, via modulating the input power of LHWs in the high-confinement-mode (H-mode) plasma mainly sustained by ion cyclotron resonant heating. Natural ELMs are effectively mitigated (ELM frequency increases, while its intensity decreases dramatically) as the LHW is applied, observed over a fairly wide range of plasma current or edge safety factor. By scanning the modulation frequency (fm) of LHW injected power in a target plasma dominated by the so-called small ELMs, we conclude that large ELMs with markedly larger amplitudes and lower frequencies are reproduced at low modulation frequencies (fm < 100 Hz). Analysis of the evolution of edge extreme ultraviolet radiation signals further indicates that plasma fluctuations at the pedestal region indistinctively respond to rapid modulation (fm ⩾ 100 Hz) of LHW injected power. This is proposed as the mechanism responsible for the observed fm dependence of the mitigation effect induced by LHWs on large ELMs. In addition, a critical threshold of LHW input power PLHW is estimated as PLHWthr≃800 kW , beyond which the impact of applied LHWs on ELM behaviours can be achieved. Finally, Langmuir probe measurements suggest that, rather than the concentration of free energy into a narrowband quasi-coherent precursor commonly observed growing until the ELM crash, the continuous development of broadband turbulence during the ELM-absent phase with the application of LHWs might contribute to the avoidance of ELM crashes. These results present new insights into existing experiments, and also provide some foundations and references for the next-step research about exploring in more depth and improving this new attractive method to effectively control the ELM-induced very large transient heat and particle flux.

  8. Effects of gonadectomy and serotonin depletion on inter-individual differences in anxiety-like behaviour in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jakob; Studer, Erik; Johansson, Elin; Eriksson, Elias

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies in Wistar rats suggest inter-individual differences in anxiety-like behaviour as assessed using the elevated plus maze (EPM), both between sexes and among males, to be abolished by serotonin depletion. To shed further light on the influence of sex steroids and serotonin - and on the interplay between the two - on proneness for EPM-assessed anxiety in males, outbred Wistar rats were divided into those with high and low anxiety, respectively, and exposed to gonadectomy or sham operation followed by administration of a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, para-chlorophenylalanine, or saline. Whereas gonadectomy enhanced anxiety-like behaviour in low anxiety rats so that these no longer differed in this regard from the high anxiety group, serotonin depletion reversed this effect, and also reduced anxiety in the low anxiety group regardless of gonadal state. A previously observed association between high anxiety-like behaviour and high expression of the serotonin-synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) in the raphe was confirmed in sham-operated animals but absent in gonadectomised rats, an ANCOVA revealing a significant interactive effect of baseline anxiety and gonadal state on Tph2 expression. It is suggested that androgens may contribute to upholding inter-individual differences in anxiety-like behaviour in male rats by interacting with serotonergic neurotransmission. PMID:27083304

  9. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care. PMID:20973985

  10. Sertindole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Hunger, Heike; Schwarz, Sandra; Schmid, Franziska; Lewis, Ruth; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether and, if so, how much the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. Objectives To evaluate the effects of sertindole compared with other second generation antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) and ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2009). Selection criteria We included all randomised trials comparing oral sertindole with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone or zotepine for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes two short-term low-quality randomised trials (total n=508) both comparing sertindole with risperidone. One third of participants left the studies early (2 RCTs, n=504, RR 1.23 CI 0.94 to 1.60). There was no difference in efficacy (2 RCTs, n=493, WMD PANSS total change from baseline 1.98 CI −8.24 to 12.20). Compared with relatively high doses of risperidone (between 4 and 12 mg/day), sertindole produced significantly less akathisia and parkinsonism (1 RCT, n=321, RR 0.24 CI 0.09 to 0.69, NNT 14, CI 8 to 100). Sertindole produced more cardiac effects (2 RCTs, n=508, RR QTc prolongation 4.86 CI 1.94 to 12.18), weight change (2 RCTs, n=328, WMD 0.99 CI 0.12 to 1.86) and male sexual dysfunction (2 RCTs, n=437, RR 2.90 CI 1.32 to 6.35, NNH 13 CI 8 to 33

  11. The effects of separate or combined infusions of corticotrophin-releasing factor and vasopressin either intraventricularly or into the amygdala on aggressive and investigative behaviour in the rat.

    PubMed

    Elkabir, D R; Wyatt, M E; Vellucci, S V; Herbert, J

    1990-04-24

    These experiments show that combined infusions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) into either the lateral ventricle or the amygdalae have synergistic effects on aggressive, investigative and other behaviours occurring during social interaction between male rats. They suggest, therefore, that the two peptides interact at intracerebral sites to control behaviour much as they do on the anterior pituitary to regulate ACTH release. CRF or AVP, alone or in combination, were infused into either the lateral ventricle (dose range: 10-250 pmol) or bilaterally into the amygdalae (dose range: 1-150 pmol) of male rats in two experiments. The rat was then paired with another, strange, male for 10 min. There was a U-shaped effect on aggressive behaviour after intra-amygdala infusions of CRF, lower doses increasing agonistic behaviour, higher ones decreasing it. This was not seen after icv infusions. AVP had no effect by either route; however, given together with CRF it potentiated the latter's effect on aggressive behaviour. Investigative behaviour was decreased by icv CRF but the effects of amygdala infusions were small. AVP had no consistent effect by either route. Combined infusions of both peptides given either icv or into the amygdala decreased investigative behaviour. Self-grooming increased, though in an irregular fashion, after incremental doses of either CRF or AVP given by either route. Both peptides given together showed additive effects on self-grooming. Climbing behaviour was lowered by CRF more prominently than by AVP and, again, the two peptides together profoundly reduced this behaviour. These experiments show that the behavioural effects of CRF and AVP on social interaction have different profiles, and that the effects of each peptide differ when it is given into the ventricles or directly into the amygdala. There is also clear evidence for synergistic effects of the two peptides on behavior after infusion by either route

  12. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  13. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    PubMed Central

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  14. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    PubMed

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  15. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  16. Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

  17. Atypical Gifted Learners and Their Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.; Abel, Trudy, Ed.

    This collection of 12 handouts focuses on different categories of atypical gifted learners and their characteristics. The handouts are generally two pages long and present a summary of the literature on the topic, some practical teaching suggestions, and references. The handouts include: (1) "Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Gifted Students" (Pam…

  18. Atypical Neural Self-Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sadek, Susan A.; Pasco, Greg; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The "self" is a complex multidimensional construct deeply embedded and in many ways defined by our relations with the social world. Individuals with autism are impaired in both self-referential and other-referential social cognitive processing. Atypical neural representation of the self may be a key to understanding the nature of such impairments.…

  19. Atypical Ligon Lintless-2 Phenotype in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutant Li2 is reported to be a dominant single gene mutation in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. It has normal vegetative phenotypic morphology and the phenotype of the seed cotton is reported to be fuzzy seed with short fibers. The objective of this research was to report on atypical phenotypes ob...

  20. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; Dickson, Chata A.; Balsamo, Lyn M.; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Farren, Kevin M.; Wheeler, Emily E.; McIlvane, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded…

  1. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

  2. Atypical Visuomotor Performance in Children with PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome…

  3. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lesley A; Foxcroft, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal) studies. Methods studies were identified in October 2006 by searches of electronic databases, with no date restriction, supplemented with hand searches of reference lists of retrieved articles. Cohort studies that evaluated exposure to advertising or marketing or alcohol portrayals and drinking at baseline and assessed drinking behaviour at follow-up in young people were selected and reviewed. Results seven cohort studies that followed up more than 13,000 young people aged 10 to 26 years old were reviewed. The studies evaluated a range of different alcohol advertisement and marketing exposures including print and broadcast media. Two studies measured the hours of TV and music video viewing. All measured drinking behaviour using a variety of outcome measures. Two studies evaluated drinkers and non-drinkers separately. Baseline non-drinkers were significantly more likely to have become a drinker at follow-up with greater exposure to alcohol advertisements. There was little difference in drinking frequency at follow-up in baseline drinkers. In studies that included drinkers and non-drinkers, increased exposure at baseline led to significant increased risk of drinking at follow-up. The strength of the relationship varied between studies but effect sizes were generally modest. All studies controlled for age and gender, however potential confounding factors adjusted for in analyses varied from study to study. Important risk factors such as peer drinking and parental attitudes and behaviour were not adequately accounted for in some studies. Conclusion data from prospective cohort studies suggest there is an association between exposure to alcohol advertising

  4. Effects of acute chemotherapy-induced mucositis on spontaneous behaviour and the grimace scale in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, A L; Leach, M C; Preston, F L; Lymn, K A; Howarth, G S

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a frequent side-effect of chemotherapy treatment. Many oncological research programs aim to identify novel treatments for this distressing condition, and these programs frequently use rat models. Little is known about the presence and progression of pain in these models and how this can best be treated by analgesic therapy. We used a number of behaviour-based methods of pain assessment to determine which tools were best suited for pain identification. Baseline measures for behavioural assessment, rat grimace score and sociability were determined through analysis of continuously recorded video data and an applied social interaction test (n = 16). Mucositis was then induced by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) and further behavioural analyses undertaken. An assessment of enrichment interaction was also made by determining the mass of a plastic chew toy gnawed both pre- and post-chemotherapy injection. Behavioural scoring was performed 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, with facial expression being scored at the 12, 24 and 48 h time-points. Sociability testing was performed once during the post-injection period. No significant differences were found in grimace scores between baseline and later daily measures. Behaviours similar to those previously reported post-laparotomy were observed. Writhing, twitching and back-arching behaviours were most evident in rats affected by mucositis and were increased in frequency (respectivePvalues: 0.002, 0.004 and 0.008) 48 h after chemotherapy injection compared with baseline, implying that pain onset occurred around this time-point. Social investigatory behaviour was also increased (P = 0.002) following disease onset. Each day, rats post-5FU injection gnawed a greater percentage of their nylabone enrichment by weight than the saline-injected control rats (P = 0.046). These data suggest that, of the tools tested, behavioural assessment scoring may find greatest

  5. The adrenergic α2 antagonist atipamezole alters the behavioural effects of pramipexole and increases pramipexole concentration in blood plasma.

    PubMed

    McCormick, P N; Fletcher, P J; Wilson, V S; Remington, G J

    2016-04-15

    Pramipexole is a dopaminergic agonist used in Parkinson's disease treatment. It is thought to exert its therapeutic and side effects through actions on dopamine D3 receptors. In a recent study, we found that at doses occupying D3 but not D2 receptors pramipexole reduced locomotion and operant responding for primary and conditioned reinforcement. These effects, however, were not blocked by a D3 receptor antagonist and were present in D3 knockout mice, suggesting non-D3 receptor mechanisms. Among the next highest affinity binding sites of pramipexole are adrenergic α2 receptors. Here we explored α2 receptor involvement in the behavioural effects of pramipexole. We found that the α2 antagonist atipamezole, which was itself behaviourally silent, counteracted pramipexole's reduction of locomotion, but not operant responding for water or a conditioned reinforcer. The resulting behavioural profile was similar to that of a higher dose of pramipexole, leading to the hypothesize that atipamezole mediates its behavioural effects by increasing pramipexole effective dose. In support of this hypothesis, we found that atipamezole increased pramipexole concentration in blood plasma. This is not likely due to an effect on drug metabolism since pramipexole is not known to undergo metabolic transformation. Future work should examine two alternative hypotheses; that pramipexole plasma concentration is elevated as the result of 1) competition with atipamezole for renal excretion, or 2) atipamezole blockade of peripheral α2 binding sites, thereby preventing pramipexole distribution to α2-rich tissues. The suggestion of adrenergic effects of pramipexole is important in light of recent interest in adrenergic pathophysiology in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26976325

  6. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  7. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  8. Methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy at pharmacological doses produces neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Donlon, Michelle; Kelly, John P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years methamphetamine (MA) use has become more prevalent, and of particular concern is its growing popularity of MA among women of childbearing age. However, to date, studies examining MA effects on the developing offspring in laboratory animals are limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if in utero MA exposure in rats at pharmacological doses can have a negative impact on neonatal neurodevelopment and behaviour. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams (n=10 dams/group) received MA (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5mg/kg) once daily via oral gavage from gestational day 7 to 21. Maternal body weight, food and water consumption were recorded daily. A range of standard neurodevelopment parameters was examined in the offspring during the neonatal period. There were no neurodevelopmental deficits observed with offspring exposed to 0.625mg/kg MA, in fact, there were enhancements of neurodevelopment in some parameters at this low dose. However, exposure to the 1.25mg/kg MA dose resulted in significant impairments in surface righting reflex and forelimb grip in both sexes. Exposure to the 2.5mg/kg MA dose resulted in a significant reduction in ano-genital distance in males, and in both sexes resulted in delayed fur appearance and eye opening, impairments in surface righting reflex and negative geotaxis, and a reduction in body length. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that pharmacologically relevant doses of MA can have profound dose-related effects on neonatal outcome. If extrapolated to the clinical scenario this will give cause for concern regarding the risks associated with this drug of abuse at relatively low doses. PMID:24667147

  9. Seasonal effect on trace metal elements behaviour in a reservoir of northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Grellier, S; Janeau, J L; Thothong, W; Boonsaner, A; Bonnet, M P; Lagane, C; Seyler, P

    2013-07-01

    Trace metal elements (TME) can be real threats for living organisms. However, few studies dealt with TME in reservoirs in rural areas where farming practises could induce negative effects. Mae Thang reservoir (northern Thailand) has been studied for 3 years to understand the seasonal behaviour of dissolved TME: Fe, Mn, Cd, Al, Pb, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, U and As and associated physicochemical parameters. In situ measurements of these parameters were done during the dry and the wet seasons as well as water samples along the water column for further analyses and TME determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the dry season, the water column was characterized by a strong stratification and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. High rain and water input from the watershed during the wet season induced mixing of the water. All TME, except Ni, Co and Cr were less concentrated in the wet season indicating a dilution effect by water input. There was thus no important dissolved pollution coming from the watershed. The anoxic conditions in the dry season enhanced the reduction of Fe and Mn and the desorption processes. Depth, and thus oxic-anoxic conditions were the main drivers of TME in the dry season, while in the wet season, dissolution processes from parent rocks of watershed were favoured. The average concentrations of TME in the reservoir were in the limit of the international and Thai standards. Only localized values in the bottom of the reservoir for Fe and Mn were higher than the limits. PMID:23108711

  10. The effects of a competitor on the foraging behaviour of the shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Leela J; Cotton, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Diet Theory suggests that individuals make foraging decisions that maximise net energy intake. Many studies provide qualitative support for this, but factors such as digestive constraints, learning, predation-risk and competition can influence foraging behaviour and lead to departures from quantitative predictions. We examined the effects of intraspecific competition within a classic model of optimal diet--the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas, feeding on the mussel, Mytilus edulis. Unexpectedly, we found that breaking time (Tb), eating time (Te), and handling time (Th) all decreased significantly in the presence of a conspecific. Reduced handling time in the presence of a competitor resulted in an increased rate of energy intake, raising the question of why crabs do not always feed in such a way. We suggest that the costs of decreased shell breaking time may be increased risk of claw damage and that crabs may be trading-off the potential loss of food to a competitor with the potential to damage their claw whilst breaking the shell more rapidly. It is well documented that prey-size selection by crabs is influenced by both the risk of claw damage and competition. However, our results are the first to demonstrate similar effects on prey handling times. We suggest that crabs maximise their long-term rate of energy intake at a scale far greater than individual foraging events and that in order to minimise claw damage, they typically break shells at a rate below their maximum. In the presence of a competitor, crabs appear to become more risk-prone and handle their food more rapidly, minimising the risk of kleptoparasitism. PMID:24691360

  11. The effects of hypothalamic temperature variation and intracarotid cooling on behavioural thermoregulation in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, B A; Yates, J O

    1977-01-01

    1. Shorn-sheep, placed in cold environments, have been trained to turn on infra-red heaters. The effect, on this thermoregulatory behaviour, of warming and cooling the hypothalamus by means of a thermode has been examined. 2. At ambient temperatures of 5, 15, 25 and 35 degrees C; cooling the anterior hypothalamus by means of a thermode, for periods of 20 min, resulted in a marked increase in the rate of using the heaters. 3. At ambient temperatures of 5 and 15 degrees C, warming the anterior hypothalamus for periods of 20 min caused a considerable reduction in the rate of using the radiant heaters. 4. At an ambient temperature of 10 degrees C, a 2 hr period of hypothalamic cooling resulted in an increase in the rate at which the heaters were used for the first 70 min, but after this the effect was reduced and the reduction coincided with a rise of deep body temperature of about 0-75 degress C. 5. At an ambient temperature of 10 degress C, a 2 hr period of hypothalamic warming resulted in a reduction in the rate of operating the heaters during the first 85 min, but after this period the use of the heaters increased and this increase coincided with a fall of about 0-75 degrees C in deep body temperature. 6. At ambient temperatures of 15, 25 and 35 degrees C, the cephalic region was cooled by intracarotid injections of cold saline for periods of 15 min. This procedure lowered hypothalamic temperature by about 1 degree C and produced increases in the rate at which the heaters were used similar to those seen when the thermode was cooled. To elicit marked increases in the rate at which the heaters were used it was not necessary to lower hypothalamic temperature outside the normal range. PMID:856988

  12. Effects of rapid urbanization on child behaviour and health in a part of Khartoum, Sudan--II. Psycho-social influences on behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rahim, S I; Cederblad, M

    1986-01-01

    A study of child behaviour and health in a newly urbanized part of Khartoum, Sudan, was carried out in 1980 on 245 children aged 3-15 years. The same area, then rural, had been investigated in 1965. Compared to 1965, the 1980 study showed an increase of behaviour problems of boys aged 7-15. In both studies the levels of most behaviour problems were below the figures from comparable studies from developed countries. Contrary to this the physical health and nutrition had improved between 1965 and 1980. The older children of newcomers, especially blue-collar, wage-earners with low incomes showed the highest frequencies of behaviour deviances. Children who had dropped out of school had higher rates while those belonging to the best third of their grades had less behaviour problems. While polygamy did not influence the rates of behaviour problems maternal anxiety/depression and harsh corporal punishment did so. Children of school-age (7-15) showed a strong connection between poor somatic health and high rates of behaviour deviances. The impact of various cultural changes on the families and the psychological well-being of the children is discussed. PMID:3715511

  13. The effect of rotation on the abundances of the chemical elements of the A-type stars in the Praesepe cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Landstreet, J.; Wade, G.; Kochukhov, O.; Monier, R.; Weiss, W.; Gebran, M.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We study how chemical abundances of late B-, A-, and early F-type stars evolve with time, and we search for correlations between the abundance of chemical elements and other stellar parameters, such as effective temperature and υ sin i. Methods: We observed a large number of B-, A-, and F-type stars belonging to open clusters of different ages. In this paper we concentrate on the Praesepe cluster (log t = 8.85), for which we have obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of sixteen normal A- and F-type stars and one Am star, using the SOPHIE spectrograph of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. For all the observed stars, we derived fundamental parameters and chemical abundances. In addition, we discuss another eight Am stars belonging to the same cluster, for which the abundance analysis had been presented in a previous paper. Results: We find a strong correlation between the peculiarity of Am stars and υ sin i. The abundance of the elements underabundant in Am stars increases with υ sin i, while it decreases for the overabundant elements. Chemical abundances of various elements appear correlated with the iron abundance. Based on observations made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Figures [see full textsee full textsee full text] to [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Behavioural evidence of agonist-like effect of isoteoline at 5-HT1B serotonergic receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D; Zhelyazkov, Delcho K

    2003-01-01

    Isoteoline is a compound of aporphine structure derived from the alkaloid glaucine. Previous studies with isoteoline have shown antagonistic activity at 5-HT(2C) serotonergic receptors. We have investigated whether isoteoline interacts with 5-HT(1B) receptors. An isolation-induced social behavioural deficit test in mice was used as a model of stimulation of these receptors. The deficit in the behaviour of isolated mice in this experimental procedure was reported to be sensitive to 5-HT(1B)-receptor stimulation, since agonists at these receptors are capable of reversing it. In our study, we used N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) (2 mg kg(-1)) as a reference agonist at these receptor sites. TFMPP completely restored the normal behaviour of the isolated mice. Its effect was prevented by propranolol (4 mg kg(-1)), a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a high affinity for 5-HT(1B) receptors, which was inactive by itself. When isoteoline was given before TFMPP, it did not prevent the effect of the latter. Given alone at doses of 0.25, 1, 4 or 8 mg kg(-1), isoteoline showed an effect of its own to normalize the behaviour of isolated mice. The effect of isoteoline (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was antagonized by pretreatment with propranolol, indicating that it was mediated through stimulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors. Repeated treatment with isoteoline (1 mg kg(-1), 2 x 3 days, i.p.) produced tolerance to its effect and significantly attenuated the effect of TFMPP, when animals were tested 16 h after the last injection. In conclusion, the results provided functional evidence of agonist-like activity of isoteoline at the 5-HT(1B) receptors. PMID:12625876

  15. Clinical Trials: past, current and future for atypical parkinsonian syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard M.; Boxer, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no effective, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments for atypical parkinsonian disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) or multiple system atrophy (MSA). Previous treatment trials for these disorders were focused on symptomatic support and did not affect disease progression. Recent breakthroughs in neuropathology and pathophysiology have allowed a new eunderstanding of these disorders and investigation into potentially disease modifying therapies. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of these disorders will be reviewed here. Suggestions for future therapeutic targets, clinical trial design, with a focus on PSP will also be provided. PMID:24963682

  16. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  17. The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day −5, −2, and −1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day −1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day −1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  18. Tardive dyskinesia in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: case series and brief review of etiologic and treatment considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungjin; MacMaster, Eric; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring side-effect of antipsychotic medications that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Newer atypical antipsychotics are felt by many to have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report five cases of patients taking atypical antipsychotics who developed TD, review the risk of TD, its potential etiologic mechanisms, and treatment options available. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to continue to be diligent in obtaining informed consent and monitoring for the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics. PMID:24744806

  19. Effects of Npas4 deficiency on anxiety, depression-like, cognition and sociability behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Klarić, Thomas S; Koblar, Simon A; Baune, Bernhard T; Lewis, Martin D

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4), which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses on excitatory neurons, has been suggested as a candidate gene for neurological and psychiatric conditions such as bipolar depression, autism spectrum and cognitive disorders. A mouse model of Npas4 deficiency has been developed to investigate any role in these disorders. Behavioural characterisation of Npas4(-/-), Npas4(+/-) and Npas4(+/+) mice has been conducted using the open field, elevated zero maze (EZM), Y-maze, sociability test and forced swim test (FST) to investigate a range of behaviours. Npas4(-/-) mice spent more time in the open arm of the EZM than other genotypes, suggesting decreased anxiety-like behaviour. Npas4(+/-) mice, however, were more immobile in the FST than other genotypes, suggesting increased depression-like behaviour, and also showed impaired spatial recognition memory in the Y-maze. There were no differences between genotype in social behaviour. These results suggest that differential levels of Npas4 expression in the brain may regulate anxiety, depression and cognition related disorders. PMID:25549857

  20. Effect of microstructure on anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Lau, Andrew; Liu, Changqin; Yang, Guang; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2016-05-01

    This study is focused on anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel that can be strain-rate insensitive, hardening, softening, or strain-rate insensitive in various ranges of strain rate. BC hydrogel consists of randomly distributed nanofibres and a large content of free water; thanks to its ideal biocompatibility, it is suitable for biomedical applications. Motivated by its potential applications in complex loading conditions of body environment, its time-dependent behaviour was studied by means of in-aqua uniaxial tension tests at constant temperature of 37 °C at various strain rates ranging from 0.000 1s(-1) to 0.3s(-1). Experimental results reflect anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour that was not documented before. Micro-morphological observations allowed identification of deformation mechanisms at low and high strain rates in relation to microstructural changes. Unlike strain-rate softening behaviours in other materials, reorientation of nanofibres and kinematics of free-water flow dominate the softening behaviour of BC hydrogel at high strain rates. PMID:26952406