Note: This page contains sample records for the topic audio machine text-to-speech from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Basque intonation modelling for text to speech conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents the modeling of standard Basque intonation to be used in text to speech conversion systems. The parameterization process of the Basque f0 curves made according to Fujisaki's intonation model is explained: experiments made in the placing of the phrase commands of the model are described and the results of these experiments are analyzed. The statistical analysis

Eva Navas; Inmaculada Hernáez; Juan María Sánchez

2002-01-01

2

Choosing and Using Text-to-Speech Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a computer-based technology for generating speech called text-to-speech (TTS). This software is ready for widespread use by libraries, other organizations, and individual users. It offers the affordable ability to turn just about any electronic text that is not image-based into an artificially spoken communication. The…

Peters, Tom; Bell, Lori

2007-01-01

3

Multilingual Text Analysis for Text-to-Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of text analysis for text-to-speech (TTS) syn- thesis based on weighted finite-state transducers, which serves as the text-analysis module of the multilingual Bell Labs TTS system. The transducers are constructed using a lexical toolkit that allows declarative descriptions of lexicons, morphological rules, numeral- expansion rules, and phonological rules, inter alia. To date, the model has been

Richard Sproat

1996-01-01

4

The Study and Implementation of Text-to-Speech System for Agricultural Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Broadcast and Television coverage has increased to more than 98% in china. Information services by radio have wide coverage, low cost, easy-to-grass-roots farmers to accept etc. characteristics. In order to play the better role of broadcast information service, as well as aim at the problem of lack of information resource in rural, we R & D the text-to-speech system. The system includes two parts, software and hardware device, both of them can translate text into audio file. The software subsystem was implemented basic on third-part middleware, and the hardware subsystem was realized with microelectronics technology. Results indicate that the hardware is better than software. The system has been applied in huailai city hebei province, which has conversed more than 8000 audio files as programming materials for the local radio station.

Zheng, Huoguo; Hu, Haiyan; Liu, Shihong; Meng, Hong

5

Symbol based Concatenation Approach for Text to Speech System for Hindi using Vowel Classification Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian languages such as Hindi is phonetic in nature. The text-to-speech (TTS) system for Hindi, exploits the phonetic nature of Hindi. The algorithm developed by us involves analysis of a sentence in terms of words and then symbols involving combination of pure consonants and vowel technique. Wave files are being merged as per the requirement to generate the modified consonants

Pamela Chaudhury; Madhuri Rao; K. Vinod Kumar

2009-01-01

6

A method for estimating prosodic symbol from text for Japanese text-to-speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a method for estimating the separation degree at the bunsetsu boundary (SD) for Japanese text-to-speech synthesis. Our method gives us the prosodic symbol without using complicated linguistic analysis. First we classify bunsetsus according to the final morpheme. Each classified bunsetsu has a temporary separation degree in advance. We call this “the estimated separation degree” (ESD). ESD is

Ken-ichi Magata; Tomoki Hamagami; Mitsuo Komura

1996-01-01

7

A NOVEL DISCONTINUITY METRIC FOR UNIT SELECTION TEXT-TO-SPEECH SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of quality that can be achieved by modern concatena- tive text-to-speech synthesis heavily depends on the optimization criteria used in the unit selection process. While effective cost functions arise naturally in the assessment of prosodic character- istics, the criteria typically selected to quantify discontinuities at the speech signal level do not tightly reflect users' perception of the resulting

Jerome R. Bellegarda

8

A concatenative Turkish text-to-speech system and evaluation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a concatenative text-to-speech system for Turkish is built. The system uses simple techniques and the concatenation units are obtained from the atomic units. This approach is very well suited for Turkish language structure and it is flexible enough to allow the synthesis of all types texts. The Turkish TTS system is tested considering the naturalness and intelligibility

Zeynep Orhan; Zeliha Görmez

2009-01-01

9

CircumReality text-to-speech, a talking speech recognizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CircumReality text-to-speech engine's mean opinion (MOS) and similarity-to-original scores have improved significantly over the last three Blizzard Challenges (1) (2). MOS has increased from 1.3 in 2007 to 2.8 in 2009. This paper describes the algorithmic improvements made to the CircumReality engine between the 2008 and 2009 Blizzard Challenges. The most significant improvements stemmed from a shift in the

Mike Rozak

10

Real-time architectures for a network-based text-to-speech service implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication as we know it is about to change, the simple peer-to-peer voice type of calls being replaced by a mix of different media belonging to the same session. Network-based speech processing technologies are increasingly used, adding flexibility, speed and naturalness to various telecom services. For instance, text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is already incorporated into commercial telephony applications, but in

Mihai Surmei; Dragos Burileanu; Cristian Negrescu; Catalin Ungurean; Aurelian Dervis

2009-01-01

11

A Three-Stage Text Normalization Strategy for Mandarin Text-to-Speech Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text normalization is an important component in mandarin Text-to-Speech system. This paper develops a taxonomy of Non-Standard Words (NSW's) based on a Large-scale Chinese corpus and proposes a three-stage text normalization strategy: Finite State Automata (FSA) for initial classification, Maximum Entropy (ME) Classifier & Rules for further classification and General Rules for standard word conversion. The three-stage approach achieves Precision

Tao Zhou; Yuan Dong; Dezhi Huang; Wu Liu; Haila Wang

2008-01-01

12

Faking it: Synthetic text-to-speech synthesis for u nder-resourced languages - Experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech synthesis or text-to-speech (TTS) systems are currently available for a number of the world's major languages, but for thousands of the world's 'minor' languages no such technology is available. While awaiting the development of such technology, we would like to try the stop-gap solution of using an existing TTS system for a major language (the base language) to 'fake'

Harold Somers

13

Continuity metric for unit selection based text-to-speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method based on unit continuity metric (UCM) is proposed for optimal unit selection in text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis. UCM employs two features, namely, pitch continuity metric and spectral continuity metric. The methods have been implemented and tested on our test bed called MILE-TTS and it is available as web demo. After verification by a self selection test, the algorithms

Vikram Ramesh Lakkavalli; P. Arulmozhi; A. G. Ramakrishnan

2010-01-01

14

A unit selection text-to-speech synthesis system optimized for use with screen readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, unit-selection text-to-speech technology is the common approach for near-natural speech synthesis systems. Such systems provide an important aid for blind or partially-sighted people, when combined with screen reading software. However, although the overall quality of the synthetic speech achieved by such systems can be quite high, this fact alone does not guarantee a high level of user satisfaction. Many

Aimilios Chalamandaris; Sotiris Karabetsos; Pirros Tsiakoulis; Spyros Raptis

2010-01-01

15

Advancements in text-to-speech technology and implications for AAC applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligibility was the initial focus in text-to-speech (TTS) research, since it is clearly a necessary condition for the application of the technology. Sufficiently high intelligibility (approximating human speech) has been achieved in the last decade by the better formant-based and concatenative TTS systems. This led to commercially available TTS systems for highly motivated users, particularly the blind and vocally impaired. Some unnatural qualities of TTS were exploited by these users, such as very fast speaking rates and altered pitch ranges for flagging relevant information. Recently, the focus in TTS research has turned to improving naturalness, so that synthetic speech sounds more human and less robotic. Unit selection approaches to concatenative synthesis have dramatically improved TTS quality, although at the cost of larger and more complex systems. This advancement in naturalness has made TTS technology more acceptable to the general public. The vocally impaired appreciate a more natural voice with which to represent themselves when communicating with others. Unit selection TTS does not achieve such high speaking rates as the earlier TTS systems, however, which is a disadvantage to some AAC device users. An important new research emphasis is to improve and increase the range of emotional expressiveness of TTS.

Syrdal, Ann K.

2003-10-01

16

Text-to-speech from concatenation of articulatory units derived from natural speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that articulatory synthesis possesses the greatest potential for generating high quality synthetic speech. However, for text-to-speech (TTS), waveform concatenation techniques have proven more practical due in part to the challenge of generating appropriate trajectories of articulatory parameters. A waveform generation method for TTS that combines the practical success of concatenative methods with the quality potential of articulatory synthesis is under development. The system concatenates articulatory units derived from natural speech using an articulatory voice mimic. The mimic estimates articulatory parameters by minimizing a cost function that includes a spectral distance between natural and synthetic speech and a geometric distance that penalizes rapid or discontinuous changes in articulator positions. A database of articulatory trajectories representing phonetic units is constructed from the estimated parameters. For TTS, phonetic units generated by text analysis are used to select the corresponding articulatory units from the database. Duration modification, concatenation, and smoothing across units are performed in the articulatory domain resulting in a single articulatory trajectory for the complete utterance. Speech is synthesized from the trajectory using a two mass model for voicing, achieving a high degree of acoustic continuity across unit boundaries while also allowing for source-tract interaction.

Sinder, Daniel J.; Sondhi, M. Mohan

2003-04-01

17

Segmental intelligibility of four currently used text-to-speech synthesis methods.  

PubMed

The study investigated the segmental intelligibility of four currently available text-to-speech (TTS) products under 0-dB and 5-dB signal-to-noise ratios. The products were IBM ViaVoice version 5.1, which uses formant coding, Festival version 1.4.2, a diphone-based LPC TTS product, AT&T Next-Gen, a half-phone-based TTS product that uses harmonic-plus-noise method for synthesis, and FlexVoice2, a hybrid TTS product that combines concatenative and formant coding techniques. Overall, concatenative techniques were more intelligible than formant or hybrid techniques, with formant coding slightly better at modeling vowels and concatenative techniques marginally better at synthesizing consonants. No TTS product was better at resisting noise interference than others, although all were more intelligible at 5 dB than at 0-dB SNR. The better TTS products in this study were, on the average, 22% less intelligible and had about 3 times more phoneme errors than human voice under comparable listening conditions. The hybrid TTS technology of FlexVoice had the lowest intelligibility and highest error rates. There were discernible patterns of errors for stops, fricatives, and nasals. Unrestricted TTS output--e-mail messages, news reports, and so on--under high noise conditions prevalent in automobiles, airports, etc. will likely challenge the listeners. PMID:12703720

Venkatagiri, Horabail S

2003-04-01

18

Content-Based Audio Classification and Retrieval by Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support vector machines (SVMs) have been recently proposed as a new learning algorithm for pattern recognition. In this paper, the SVMs with a binary tree recognition strategy are used to tackle the audio classification problem. We illustrate the potential of SVMs on a common audio database, which consists of 409 sounds of 16 classes. We compare the SVMs based classification

Guodong Guo; Stan Z. Li

2000-01-01

19

Hand-held text-to-speech device for the non-vocal disabled.  

PubMed

A hand-held, battery-powered synthetic speech aid for the non-vocally disabled has been constructed. The device accepts as its input, largely unrestricted text keyed by the user. This is converted by text-to-speech software, based on 349 letter-to-sound rules and some simple rules of continuity, intonation and stress, to appropriate control signals which drive a single-chip (series formant) speech synthesizer. A number of implementation constraints are imposed by portability; the system has, as far as possible, been designed using CMOS components. To extend the time for which the system will operate between battery charges, power saving facilities are incorporated. Hand-held use implies the need for a one-handed keyboard: a unique integral keyboard is used, designed to minimize the visual search time to locate a letter key. Considerable attention has been paid to rule-search strategies, the handling of 'exceptions' which violate the letter-to-sound principle and the resolution of conflicts when more than one rule might apply. The quality and intelligibility of speech from a rule-based system is typically poor, and every effort has been made to improve it. Limits on possible improvement are, however, set by the use of a proprietary single chip synthesizer and by the minimal nature of a portable system. To facilitate the task of composing messages, a two-line liquid crystal display is provided together with a range of editing functions. The display can also be shown to the message receiver should he/she be deaf, or used for silent communication as an analogue to 'whispering'.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2960853

Damper, R I; Burnett, J W; Gray, P W; Straus, L P; Symes, R A

1987-10-01

20

Audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a If you’re one of those who treat audio in Flash as an afterthought, think again. In many respects, audio is a major medium\\u000a for communicating your message. In this chapter, we dig into audio in Flash: where it comes from, what formats are supported,\\u000a and how to use it in Flash. Regardless whether you’re new to Flash or an old

Tom Green; David Stiller

21

Design and Evaluation of a Text-to-Speech System for Azerbaijani Turkish Language and Database Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design of a text-to-speech system for Azerbaijani Turkish language and also explains the database preparation for the system. Various speech synthesis methods are explained and some important linguistic features of Azerbaijani Turkish language are investigated. According to this features among the variety of synthesis methods, corpus based concatenative speech synthesis is selected for this language. A

Mir Saeed Damadi; Bahram Zahir Azami

2009-01-01

22

Towards High-Quality Next-Generation Text-to-Speech Synthesis: A Multidomain Approach by Automatic Domain Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a contribution to the recent advancements in the development of high-quality next generation text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis systems. Two of the hottest research topics in this area are oriented towards the improvement of speech expressiveness and flexibility of synthesis. In this context, this paper presents a new TTS strategy called multidomain TTS (MD-TTS) for synthesizing among different domains.

Francesc Alías; Xavier Sevillano; Joan Claudi Socoró; Xavier Gonzalvo

2008-01-01

23

DCT-Based Amplitude and Frequency Modulated Harmonic-Plus-Noise Modelling for Text-to-Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a harmonic-plus-noise modelling (HNM) strategy in the context of corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis, in which whole speech phonemes are modelled in their integrity, contrary to the traditional frame-based approach. The pitch and amplitude trajectories of each phoneme are modelled with a low-order DCT expansion. The parameter analysis algorithm is to a large extent aided and guided by the

K. Hermus; H. Van Hamme; W. Verhelst; S. Irhimeh; J. De Moortel

2007-01-01

24

Event detection in field sports video using audio-visual features and a support vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel audio-visual feature-based framework for event detection in broadcast video of multiple different field sports. Features indicating significant events are selected and robust detectors built. These features are rooted in characteristics common to all genres of field sports. The evidence gathered by the feature detectors is combined by means of a support vector machine,

David A. Sadlier; Noel E. O'connor

2005-01-01

25

Effects of Text-to-Speech Software on the Reading Rate and Comprehension Skills of High School Students with Specific Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a text-to-speech software program known as "Read Please" on the reading rate and reading comprehension accuracy of two high school students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in reading. A single-subject A-B-A-B "withdrawal" research design (Alberto & Troutman, 2009) was used to…

Moorman, Amanda; Boon, Richard T.; Keller-Bell, Yolanda; Stagliano, Christina; Jeffs, Tara

2010-01-01

26

The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech Technologies on the Narrative Writing Skills of Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to investigate the effects of word prediction and text-to-speech alone and in combination on four narrative composition-writing skills (writing fluency, syntax, spelling accuracy, and overall organization) of six fifth-grade Hispanic boys with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Participants…

Silio, Monica C.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

2010-01-01

27

Listening to Revise: What a Study about Text-to-Speech Software Taught Us about Students' Expectations for Technology Use in the Writing Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a story of a failed study. In 2007, the authors set out to demonstrate that Kurzweil 3000, an adaptive text-to-speech software program, would help any student revise with its read-aloud function and numerous writing tools. During the course of the study, the authors confronted their misconceptions about students' technology use and…

Conard-Salvo, Tammy; Spartz, John M.

2012-01-01

28

On-line experimental methods to evaluate text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis: effects of voice gender and signal quality on intelligibility, naturalness and preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments are reported that use new experimental methods for the evaluation of text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis from the user's perspective. Experiment 1, using sentence stimuli, and Experiment 2, using discrete “call centre” word stimuli, investigated the effect of voice gender and signal quality on the intelligibility of three concatenative TTS synthesis systems. Accuracy and search time were recorded as on-line,

Catherine Stevens; Nicole Lees; Julie Vonwiller; Denis Burnham

2005-01-01

29

From text to speech summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present approaches used in text summarization, showing how they can be adapted for speech summarization and where they fall short. Informal style and apparent lack of structure in speech mean that the typical approaches used for text summarization must be extended for use with speech. We illustrate how features derived from speech can help determine summary

Kathleen McKeown; Julia Hirschberg; Michel Galley; Sameer Maskey

2005-01-01

30

Pontine Nucleus audio stimuli detection & modeling for brain machine interface rehabilitation of conditional learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish a brain-machine interface (BMI) system that rehabilitates damaged cerebellum function of discrete motor learning, the detection of conditional and unconditional stimuli (CS and US) onset times based on electro-physiology recordings analysis is necessary. These signals are relayed through brainstem areas called Pontine Nucleus (PN) and the Inferior Olive (IO) respectively. In this paper we focus on

Hanan Shteingart; Aryeh Taub; Hagit Messer

2009-01-01

31

Audio 2008: Audio Fixation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Take a look around the bus or subway and see just how many people are bumping along to an iPod or an MP3 player. What they are listening to is their secret, but the many signature earbuds in sight should give one a real sense of just how pervasive digital audio has become. This article describes how that popularity is mirrored in library audio

Kaye, Alan L.

2008-01-01

32

Audio 2008: Audio Fixation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Take a look around the bus or subway and see just how many people are bumping along to an iPod or an MP3 player. What they are listening to is their secret, but the many signature earbuds in sight should give one a real sense of just how pervasive digital audio has become. This article describes how that popularity is mirrored in library audio

Kaye, Alan L.

2008-01-01

33

Fuzzy Logic-Based Audio Pattern Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Audio and audio-pattern recognition is becoming one of the most important technologies to automatically control embedded systems. Fuzzy logic may be the most important enabling methodology due to its ability to rapidly and economically model such application. An audio and audio-pattern recognition engine based on fuzzy logic has been developed for use in very low-cost and deeply embedded systems to automate human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interaction. This engine consists of simple digital signal-processing algorithms for feature extraction and normalization, and a set of pattern-recognition rules manually tuned or automatically tuned by a self-learning process.

Malcangi, M.

2008-11-01

34

CNN Audio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cable News Network and AudioNet (discussed in the March 15, 1996 Scout Report) have collaborated to provide live audio news feeds of five of CNN's program offerings. Via NetShow or RealPlayer streaming audio, users can listen to CNN, CNN Headline News, CNN International, CNN/SI (discussed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), and CNN en Espanol (Spanish Language news for Latin America). Selected on demand reports from CNN radio are forthcoming.

1998-01-01

35

Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology.To get an idea of what audio mining is and how it can be used, people can read this article from the Cutter Consortium (1). It lists six broad areas that can benefit from using the technology and briefly discusses each one. A more detailed introduction is offered on the Leavitt Communications Web site (2). This article delves into how audio mining works by giving a basic technical understanding of the process. A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper (3). A publication from the Compaq Cambridge Research Laboratory (4) discusses ways of collecting and analyzing information from an audio file. It also mentions SpeechBot, a Web-based tool for multimedia retrieval. Several papers can be downloaded from the home page of a research project studying the National Gallery of the Spoken Word (5). The repository is comprised of massive historical audio content, and the team at the University of Colorado is investigating phrase recognition to index the data. Have you ever had a tune stuck in your head, but not known the name of the artist or song title? The Musical Audio-Mining project (6) is working on ways to search for information about a song simply by humming part of it. Audio mining can also be used in the War on Terrorism, as is described in this article of Federal Computer Week (7). Massive amounts of recorded phone conversations are intercepted by the government each day, and audio mining would be an efficient way to sort through irrelevant material and catch suspicious activity. The World Wide Web Consortium released this draft of the Voice Extensible Markup Language (8), which could have applications for the audio mining community.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

36

Using Audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter covers the following topics:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a How to load sound files\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a How to control audio behavior\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a How to read and display audio ID3 information\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a How to display the sound spectrum\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a How to control sound volume and panning\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The value of sound is subtle and undervalued. Often, it makes the difference between a good site and

Sean McSharry

37

Audio Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

Esquef, Paulo A. A.

38

Detecting double compression of audio signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

2010-02-01

39

Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows' Platforms  

PubMed Central

Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today.

Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

2011-01-01

40

Digital audio editing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrasting editing methods particularly in broadcasting are reviewed and the requirements of digital audio editing are explored. A hierarchy of editing strategies with varying degrees of sophistication is proposed. The simplest is to cut the tape and use error concealment and electronic crossfading to smooth the splice. In a more advanced option, the concept of separate cut-point and edit-point is introduced, using an auxiliary data track to control a jump over the splice. The top level is a disc-based strategy which gives the user a flexible, nondestructive editing technique with advanced rehearsal facilities not possible with conventional methods. An experimental disc-based editor is developed. The design philosophy and implementation of this editor and a simulation of its performance are described. The man-machine interface, data formatting, systems level design and the software engineering of the project are reported.

McNally, G. W.; Gaskell, P. S.; Stirling, A. J.

1985-08-01

41

Audio Indexing for Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

1978-01-01

42

Using One-Class SVMs and Wavelets for Audio Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method aimed at recognizing environmental sounds for surveillance and security applications. We propose to apply one-class support vector machines (1-SVMs) together with a sophisticated dissimilarity measure in order to address audio classification, and more specifically, sound recognition. We illustrate the performance of this method on an audio database, which consists of 1015 sounds belonging to nine

Asma Rabaoui; Manuel Davy; Stéphane Rossignol; Zied Ellouze

2008-01-01

43

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

44

Streaming Audio Recorder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Streaming Audio Recorder application allows users to record any type of streaming audio via their computers' speakers or microphone. It's a simple way to record audio from sites such as Grooveshark, YouTube, BBC, and others. The program is compatible with computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

2012-11-02

45

AudioNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For Internauts with RealAudio 1.0 capability (a 14.4 modem) try AudioNet, the "Broadcast Network of the Internet." AudioNet offers live broadcasts of over ten different talk radio stations, including WOR--New York, WTEM--Washington D.C., and XTRA--San Diego. It also offers several music radio stations, a selection of audio books, and numerous live (and recent) sporting events such as NIT and NCAA Men's and Women's basketball games and college baseball games. http://www.audionet.com/ Free RealAudio 1.0 and 2.0 players can be downloaded from the above sites. RealAudio 2.0 players will play RealAudio 1.0 sites, but 1.0 players will not play 2.0 sites. For more information on this and other plug-ins, visit the Scout Toolkit: webtools/plugins.html

46

Robust AVS Audio Watermarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part III of AVS(China Audio and Video Coding Standard) is the first standard for Hi-Fi audio proposed in China and is becoming more popular in some IT industries. For MP3 audio, some efforts have been made to solve the problems such as copyright pirating and malicious modifications by the way of watermarking. But till now little efforts have been made to solve the same problems for AVS audio. In this paper, we present a novel robust watermarking algorithm which can protect the AVS audio from the above problems. The watermark is embedded into the AVS compressed bit stream. At the extracting end, the watermark bits can be extracted from the compressed bit stream directly without any computation. This algorithm achieves robustness to decoding/recoding attacks, and low complexity of both embedding and extracting while preserves the quality of the audio signals.

Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiwu

47

Audio and Electroacoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter surveys devices and systems associated with audio and electroacoustics: the acquisition, transmission, storage, and reproduction of audio. The chapter provides an historical overview of the field since before the days of Edison and Bell to the present day, and analyzes performance of audio transducers, components and systems from basic psychoacoustic principles, to arrive at an assessment of the perceptual performance of such elements and an indication of possible directions for future progress.

Davis, Mark

48

Unsupervised Audio Scene Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

little attention is being paid to general audio and long-term modeling of audio in general. Even an ASR system which could give a complete transcription of the words heard in an environment would lack vital information. E. g., who was talking, when they were talking, what was the tone of the conversation, did someone slam the door, did someone use

Chris Stauffer; Eric Grimson; L. Grimson

49

Audio Engineers: Sound Weavers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to audio engineers, discovering the type of environment in which they work and exactly what they do on a day-to-day basis. Students come to realize that audio engineers help produce their favorite music and movies.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

50

The Audio Interactive Tutor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes The Audio Interactive Tutor (TAIT), an interactive audio/oral computer-assisted study device. TAIT's output consists of explanations and examples along with commands and questions requiring responses from the user. It uses speech recognition to determine the responses made by the user and constructs an evolving model of what the user…

Waters, Richard C.

1995-01-01

51

Audio-to-image wavelet transform based audio steganography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an audio steganographic scheme based on wavelet audio-to-image transform. The scheme converts the audio steganographic issue into well-explored image steganographic one. In the scheme, the host audio signal is transformed into image, the covert data are embedded in the image by an image steganographic scheme and finally, the image is transformed back into audio signal.

Rully Adrian Santosa; Paul Bao

2005-01-01

52

Forensic audio watermark detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

2012-02-01

53

Real World Audio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crystal River Engineering was originally featured in Spinoff 1992 with the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. The Convolvotron was developed for Ames' research on virtual acous...

1998-01-01

54

Development of Surrounded Audio-Visual Display System for Humanoid Robot Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an audio-visual display system that is embedded in a cockpit where a human operator controls a tele-operated humanoid robot as if he was on the robot. The developed audio-visual display system consists of a surrounded visual display subsystem, a HMD with a head-tracking function, a surrounded audio display subsystem and a man-machine interface subsystem. Design principles, architectures

Takashi Nishiyama; Hiroshi Hoshino; Kenshi Suzuki; Ryoji Nakajima; Kazuya Sawada; Susumu Tachi

1999-01-01

55

The Audio Adventurer: Design of a Portable Audio Adventure Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the design of a portable device for playing audio adventure games. This device enables the player\\u000a to explore an audio world, interact with it, and solve challenges while a narrative evolves. To avoid the difficulties that\\u000a can arise when freely navigating open spaces in audio-only worlds, we structured our audio world as a network of

Philip Mendels; Joep W. Frens

2008-01-01

56

Exploring Features for Audio Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to emphasize the need for identifying and extracting suitable features for storage and efficient retrieval of data in the context of audio indexing. There are a wide variety of audio indexing tasks such as, identifying the speaker, language, music of different classes (Pop, Classical, Jazz, etc.), music from different instruments and classification of audio

Gaurav Aggarwal; Anvita Bajpai; A. Nayeemulla Khan; B. Yegnanarayana

57

Facilitating Audio and Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Video and audio are the key elements in rich, compelling experiences across platforms: Web, desktop, and mobile. They are\\u000a used everywhere—in news, blogs, music videos, web TV, social media, live Internet radio, amateur productions, and movie promotions.

Elad Elrom

58

AUDIO-CASI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews a multimedia application in the area of survey measurement research: adding audio capabilities to a computer-assisted interviewing system. Hardware and software issues are discussed, and potential hardware devices that operate from DOS platforms are reviewed. Three types of hardware devices are considered: PCMCIA devices, parallel port attachments, and laptops with built-in sound.

Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.; O'Reilly, James M.; Allen, Danny R.; Hamill, David N.; Paddock, Richard E.

2011-01-01

59

Digital audio editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrasting editing methods particularly in broadcasting are reviewed and the requirements of digital audio editing are explored. A hierarchy of editing strategies with varying degrees of sophistication is proposed. The simplest is to cut the tape and use error concealment and electronic crossfading to smooth the splice. In a more advanced option, the concept of separate cut-point and edit-point is

G. W. McNally; P. S. Gaskell; A. J. Stirling

1985-01-01

60

Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine learning algorithm AdaBoost is used to select the most relevant features for a particular sound detection application. In this classifier architecture, we combine simple "base" analog classifiers to form a strong one. We also designed the circuits to implement the AdaBoost-based analog classifier.

Chiu, Leung Kin

61

Active learning of custom sound taxonomies in unstructured audio data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a system for content-based retrieval of audio clips from a large unstructured database. The system allows users to devise their own sound taxonomies for organizing sounds. An active learning algorithm for Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used for reducing the effort of annotating sounds in the database.

Gerard Roma; Jordi Janer; Perfecto Herrera

2012-01-01

62

SVM-based audio classification for instructional video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic content analysis and annotation for efficient search and browsing of topics in instructional videos are current challenges in the management of e-learning content repositories. This paper presents our current work on classifying the soundtrack of instructional videos into seven distinct audio classes using the support vector machine (SVM) technology. The classification results are then used to partition a video

Ying Li; Chitra Dorai

2004-01-01

63

Effect: Audio Visualizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I have always been amazed how the human mind is capable of connecting sounds we hear with something that we see. When my cat\\u000a meows, I hear the sound and see the motion of the cat, and somehow these two different sensory experiences are combined into\\u000a a single event. Computers have been used for years to visualize audio data, and

Lucas L. Jordan

64

Audio problems in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication channel capacity is almost invariably at a premium between space vehicles and the earth. In the Apollo moon exploration program, plans call for the use of a special audio processing technique to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Extremely deep space probes such as the Mars Mariner IV now use very low bit rate transmissions because of signal-to-noise considerations: future manned

W. Kock

1965-01-01

65

Audio?visual aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

REPORT ON DONALD. Audio?Visual Education Service, University of Minnesota, 1949. 20 minutes. Sound. Black and white. Sale: $80.HOW WELL CAN YOU READ LIPS? American Film Company, 1946. 30 minutes. Sound. Partly in color. Sale: $125.; Rental: $4.00.ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. Produced by Parthian Productions, 1951; Distributed by Young America Films. 33 minutes. Sound. Black and white. Sale: $117.50.CURTAIN TIME. Produced by

Jeanette Allman; Michael Dubetz; John C. Weiser

1955-01-01

66

Hiding Data in Audio Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the LSB technique for secure data transfer. Secret information can be hidden inside all sorts of cover information: text, images, audio, video and more. Embedding secret messages in digital sound is usually a more difficult process. Varieties of techniques for embedding information in digital audio have been established. These are parity coding, phase coding, spread spectrum, echo hiding, LSB. Least significant bits (LSB) insertion is one of the simplest approaches to embedding information in audio file.

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Dutta, Poulami; Balitanas, Maricel O.; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Das, Purnendu

67

Audio GPS: spatial audio in a minimal attention interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a prototype audio user interface for a Global Positioning System (GPS) that is designed to allow mobile computer users to carry out a location task while their eyes, hands and attention are often otherwise engaged. Audio user interfaces for GPS have typically been designed to meet the needs of visually handicapped users, and generally (though

SIMON HOLLAND; DAVID R. MORSE; HENRIK GEDENRYD

68

Video segmentation by audio analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach based on acoustic cues for automatic segmenting television stream into individual programs is proposed. This presented method is composed of the following steps: Several sets of repetitions in the audio track is detected by using silence detection and robust audio hashing; The found repetitions are treated as advertisements if the range of their length

Shilin Zhang; Hui Wang

2010-01-01

69

The Lowdown on Audio Downloads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|First offered to public libraries in 2004, downloadable audiobooks have grown by leaps and bounds. According to the Audio Publishers Association, their sales today account for 21% of the spoken-word audio market. It hasn't been easy, however. WMA. DRM. MP3. AAC. File extensions small on letters but very big on consequences for librarians,…

Farrell, Beth

2010-01-01

70

Aeronautical Audio Broadcasting Via Satellite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique emp...

F. F. Tzeng

1993-01-01

71

Phonetic Searching Of Digital Audio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper. The 10-page pdf document has images and graphs to illustrate the process and results. Topics covered include audio searching techniques, implementation of new search methods, as well as current and future applications of the technology.

Clements, Mark; Cardillo, Peter S.; Miller, Michael

2007-12-10

72

Metrological digital audio reconstruction  

DOEpatents

Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

Fadeyev; Vitaliy (Berkeley, CA), Haber; Carl (Berkeley, CA)

2004-02-19

73

Metrological digital audio reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

Fadeyev; Vitaliy (Berkeley, CA), Haber; Carl (Berkeley, CA)

2004-02-19

74

UNICEF Video/Audio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNICEF is known throughout the world for their focus on the health, education, equality and protection of children. They produce a number of helpful research reports and policy briefs, and as visitors to this site will find out, a good deal of audio and visual material in the form of podcasts, video news reports, and radio programs. Visitors to the UNICEF Radio area will find a wide range of radio reports on topics such as Nigeria's efforts to contain outbreaks of avian influenza and the effects of floods in Mozambique on children. Visitors interested in podcasts will be impressed with the offerings here, as they include over one hundred total archived programs, and visitors can also sign up to receive each new addition to this collection.

75

Computerized audio processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Computerized Audio Processor (CAP) is a computer synthesized electronic filter that removes interference from received or recorded speech signals. The CAP automatically detects and attenuates impulse sounds and tones (e.g., ignition noise, switching transients, whistles, chirps, hum, buzzes, FSK telegraphy, etc). It also attenuates wideband random noise. All operations of the CAP are fully automatic. Input signals are processed in real time, with a maximum lag of 340 msec. The CAP implements three proven signal processing techniques. One of these (IMP) virtually eliminates most loud impulse noises. A second technique (DSS) automatically detects tones and attenuates them by up to 46 dB. The third technique (INTEL) provides up to 18 dB attenuation of wideband random noise.

Weiss, M. R.; Aschkenasy, E.

1983-05-01

76

Wavelet-Based Audio Embedding & Audio/Video Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the decline in military spending, the United States relies heavily on state side support. Communications has never been more important. High-quality audio and video capabilities are a must. Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, i...

M. J. Mendenhall

2001-01-01

77

Modeling Audio Fingerprints: Structure, Distortion, Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted, and ingested into a database, together with all relevant metadata. In the identification

P. J. O. Doets

2010-01-01

78

A Tutorial on MPEG\\/Audio Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This tutorial covers the theory behind MPEG\\/audio compression This algorithm was developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG), as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for the high fidelity compression of digital audio The MPEG\\/audio compression standard is one part of a multiple part standard that addresses the compression of video - 2), the compression of audio

Davis Pan

1995-01-01

79

Narrative structure detection through audio pace  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the concept of film pace, expressed through the audio, to analyse the broad level nar- rative structure of film. The narrative structure is divided into visual narration, action sections, and audio narration, plot development sections. We hypothesise that changes in the narrative structure signal a change in audio content, which is reflected by a change in audio pace.

Simon Moncrieff; Svetha Venkatesh

2006-01-01

80

Hybrid DWT-SVD audio watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio watermarking is a relatively new technology that aims to embed copyright information in audio signals as a proof of their ownership. The driving force behind this technology has been the ever-increasing illegal manipulation of genuine audio products released by the music industry. In this paper, we propose an effective, robust, and inaudible audio watermarking algorithm. The effectiveness of algorithm

Ali Al-Haj; Christina Twal; Ahmad A. Mohammad

2010-01-01

81

Audio visual interaction in multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-visual interaction is a very important issue in personal communication applications. The research and development of multimedia communication systems should account for this interaction. In this paper, we address a number of areas related to audio-visual interaction, such as automatic lipreading, speech-driven talking heads, and lip synchronization. In particular, we will discuss a new trend in video coding research: joint

Tsuhan Chen; Ram Rao

1995-01-01

82

Classification of audio signals using SVM and RBFNN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of digital information, audio data has become an important part in many modern computer applications. Audio classification has been becoming a focus in the research of audio processing and pattern recognition. Automatic audio classification is very useful to audio indexing, content-based audio retrieval and on-line audio distribution, but it is a challenge to extract the most common

P. Dhanalakshmi; S. Palanivel; Vennila Ramalingam

2009-01-01

83

Audio characterization for video indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major problem facing video databases is that of content characterization of video clips once the cut boundaries have been determined. The current efforts in this direction are focussed exclusively on the use of pictorial information, thereby neglecting an important supplementary source of content information, i.e. the embedded audio or sound track. The current research in audio processing can be readily applied to create many different video indices for use in Video On Demand (VOD), educational video indexing, sports video characterization, etc. MPEG is an emerging video and audio compression standard with rapidly increasing popularity in multimedia industry. Compressed bit stream processing has gained good recognition among the researchers. We have also demonstrated feature extraction in MPEG compressed video which implements a majority of scene change detection schemes on compressed video. In this paper, we examine the potential of audio information for content characterization by demonstrating the extraction of widely used features in audio processing directly from compressed data stream and their application to video clip classification.

Patel, Nilesh V.; Sethi, Ishwar K.

1996-03-01

84

The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals.  

PubMed

The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals. PMID:22087919

Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen

2011-11-01

85

Front-end architecture for a multi-lingual text-to-speech system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A text processing system for processing multi-lingual text for a speech synthesizer includes a first language dependent module for performing at least one of text and prosody analysis on a portion of input text comprising a first language. A second language dependent module performs at least one of text and prosody analysis on a second portion of input text comprising a second language. A third module is adapted to receive outputs from the first and second dependent module and performs prosodic and phonetic context abstraction over the outputs based on multi-lingual text.

Chu; Min (Beijing, CN); Peng; Hu (Beijing, CN); Zhao; Yong (Beijing, CN)

2009-02-24

86

Kenneth S. Goldstein Audio Recordings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection consists of over 850 audio reels recorded primarily by Dr. Kenneth S. Goldstein. He was a folklorist, record producer, and teacher who happened to also find time to serve as chairman of the department of folklore and folklife at the University of Pennsylvania. These audio tapes include interviews with musicians and storytellers, recitations of folktales from Newfoundland and Labrador, Pennsylvania, and Scotland. First-time visitors might do well to look over the English Language Folktale reels and then move on to perform their own detailed search across the entire archive. Visitors can also elect to receive updates on the collection via their RSS feed.

87

Power of Digital Audio in Interactive Instruction: An Unexploited Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Widespread use of audio in computer-based training (CBT) occurred with the advent of the interactive videodisc technology. This paper discusses the alternative of digital audio, which, unlike videodisc audio, enables one to rapidly revise the audio used i...

J. Pratt M. Trainor

1989-01-01

88

Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

Vincent, Emmanuel

2012-05-01

89

50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.72 Audio equipment. The operation or use of audio devices including radios, recording and...

2011-10-01

90

50 CFR 27.72 - Audio equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.72 Audio equipment. The operation or use of audio devices including radios, recording and...

2010-10-01

91

Adaptive Audio Synchronization Scheme Based on Feedback Loop with Local Clock in Wireless Audio Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Audio Sensor Networks (WASNs) can provide event detection, object tracking and emergency response through cooperative audio sensor nodes. Effective collaboration of audio sensors requires precise synchronization among audio streams. Some researches have been done on the timestamp mechanism based on time synchronization ignoring propagation delay and many other researches have focused on the synchronization of simple gunshot or scream.

Guotao Zhao; Huadong Ma; Hong Luo; Yan Sun

2010-01-01

92

Robot Command Interface Using an Audio-Visual Speech Recognition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years audio-visual speech recognition has emerged as an active field of research thanks to advances in pattern recognition, signal processing and machine vision. Its ultimate goal is to allow human-computer communication using voice, taking into account the visual information contained in the audio-visual speech signal. This document presents a command's automatic recognition system using audio-visual information. The system is expected to control the laparoscopic robot da Vinci. The audio signal is treated using the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients parametrization method. Besides, features based on the points that define the mouth's outer contour according to the MPEG-4 standard are used in order to extract the visual speech information.

Ceballos, Alexánder; Gómez, Juan; Prieto, Flavio; Redarce, Tanneguy

93

Audio Segmentation System for Sport Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a two-pass audio segmentation method for sports games. The 1st pass conducts the segmentation by a metric-based algorithm, and the 2nd pass conducts a model-based classification to extract speech segments. This audio segmentation module we developed can extract announcer's speech efficiently from the complex sport audio stream.

Junfang Zhang; Baochen Jiang; Li Lu; Qingwei Zhao

2010-01-01

94

Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: Low Cost  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison was conducted of "Voxwire MeetingRoom" and "iVocalize" v4.1.0.3, both Web-conferencing products using voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) to provide unlimited, inexpensive, international audio communication, and high-quality Web-conferencing fostering collaborative learning. The study used the evaluation criteria used in earlier…

Treblay, Remy; Fyvie, Barb; Koritko, Brenda

2005-01-01

95

INTERCHANGE FORMATS FOR SPATIAL AUDIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space has been a central parameter in electroacoustic music composition and performance since its origins. Nevertheless, the design of a standardized interchange format for spatial audio performances is a complex task that poses a diverse set of constraints and problems. This position paper attempts to describe the current state of the art in terms of what can be called \\

Stephen Travis Pope

96

Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

Struthers, Allan

2009-01-01

97

Optimizing Kinect: Audio and Acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineering is almost always trade-offs between controversial requirements. Important role in finding the best design solutions under such requirements play the methods of mathematical optimization. Properly defined optimization criterion and constraints convert these mathematical methods to solvers of real engineering problems. The talk will cover the approaches for optimizing the acoustical design and the algorithms in the audio pipeline

Ivan J. Tashev

2012-01-01

98

AN AUGMENTED REALITY AUDIO HEADSET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented reality audio (ARA) means mixing the natural sound environment with artificially created sound scenes. This requires that the perception of natural environment has to be preserved as well as possible, unless some modification to it is desired. A basic ARA headset consists of binaural microphones, an ampli- fier\\/mixer, and earphones feeding sound to the ear canals. All these components

Miikka Tikander; Matti Karjalainen; Ville Riikonen

2008-01-01

99

Detecting Advertising in Radio using Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present an algorithm,that can distinguish between,advertising and music with- out understanding it, by extracting key attributes from a radio audio stream. Our method,combines,advanced,filtering of an audio stream with machine,learning al- gorithms,to recognise the filtered variables. The result is lightweight,enough,to run on an embedded processor, and could thus be used to create a device that gives the listener the

Robin Muller-Cajar

100

System for the delivery of audio recordings  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Audio information is distributed from a service center to a large group of subscribers on a regular basis, depending on the desires of the individual subscribers. The audio information can be educational, recreational, or informational in nature. The service center stores user profile information, stores compressed audio recordings for future delivery, transmits compressed audio information to each base unit, and interfaces with subscribers. The base unit provides readiness status to the service center. The service center sends compressed digital audio information to the base station, after which the base station receives the compressed audio unattended, and automatically decodes and records the audio information on a cassette or other recording device. Communication between the service center and each base unit may use a data network that operates on top of the Public Switched Telephone Network using xDSL modems or a cable network using cable modems. The system maximizes efficient use of system resources and reduces total system costs.

Kochian; Michael Charles (Syracuse, NY)

2001-08-21

101

Aeronautical audio broadcasting via satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system design for aeronautical audio broadcasting, with C-band uplink and L-band downlink, via Inmarsat space segments is presented. Near-transparent-quality compression of 5-kHz bandwidth audio at 20.5 kbit/s is achieved based on a hybrid technique employing linear predictive modeling and transform-domain residual quantization. Concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional codes with quadrature phase shift keying are selected for bandwidth and power efficiency. RF bandwidth at 25 kHz per channel, and a decoded bit error rate at 10(exp -6) with E(sub b)/N(sub o) at 3.75 dB are obtained. An interleaver, scrambler, modem synchronization, and frame format were designed, and frequency-division multiple access was selected over code-division multiple access. A link budget computation based on a worst-case scenario indicates sufficient system power margins. Transponder occupancy analysis for 72 audio channels demonstrates ample remaining capacity to accommodate emerging aeronautical services.

Tzeng, Forrest F.

102

A Smart Audio User Interface to Access Large Digital Audio Archives on Handheld Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing availability of handheld players and other multimedia mobile devices with larger storage capacity has led to a rapid increases in the amount of audio information on a single device. This calls for new ways to efficiently access audio and multimedia information stored on such deeply embedded devices. Handsfree audio interfaces and semantic information retrieval are two primary requirements for the next generation of handheld multimedia devices. Voice and audio input can be used to build an audio-user interface, as well as to query large audio archives stored on these devices. Soft computing methods, such as fuzzy logic, were used to model a smart logic audio interface that reduces system complexity and increases reliability when accessing audio stored information.

Malcangi, Mario

2008-11-01

103

Classification of audio signals using AANN and GMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, digital audio applications are part of our everyday lives. Audio classification can provide powerful tools for content management. If an audio clip automatically can be classified it can be stored in an organised database, which can improve the management of audio dramatically. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms to automatically classify audio clips into one of six classes:

P. Dhanalakshmi; S. Palanivel; Vennila Ramalingam

2011-01-01

104

A voice activated car audio system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel speech detection technology called the enhanced level-adaptive segmentation (ELASE) method has been developed, which can distinguish a driver's commands from audio sounds. Using the ELASE method, a voice-activated car audio system was developed. With the ELASE method, the recognition accuracy improved from 81.5% to 96.3% with the car audio system playing in a moving car, when the peak

S. Tsurufuji; H. Ohnishi; M. Iida; R. Suzuki; Y. Sumi

1991-01-01

105

Digital audio authentication by robust feature embedding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an approach for verifying the integrity of digital audio recording by means of content-based integrity watermarking. Here an audio fingerprint is extracted from the Fourier domain and embedded as a digital watermark in the same domain. The design of the feature extraction allows a fine temporal resolution of the verification of the integrity. Experimental results show a good distinction between authentic and tampered audio content.

Zmudzinski, Sascha; Munir, Badar; Steinebach, Martin

2012-02-01

106

Perceptual audio rendering of complex virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a real-time 3D audio rendering pipeline for complex virtual scenes containing hundreds of moving sound sources. The approach, based on auditory culling and spatial level-of-detail, can handle more than ten times the number of sources commonly available on consumer 3D audio hardware, with minimal decrease in audio quality. The method performs well for both indoor and outdoor environments.

Nicolas Tsingos; Emmanuel Gallo; George Drettakis

2004-01-01

107

Informed audio watermarking in the wavelet domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Audio watermarking aims at ensuring the property rights for digital audio (music, speech). In this respest, some extra information, referred to as mark or watermark, is embedded into original (unmarked) clip. By detecting this information, the true owner should be identified and the copy maker should be tracked down. This paper starts by identifying the audio peculiarities under the watermarking framework. Then, the first method hybridising spread spectrum and side information principles for audio watermarking is advanced. This method meets the nowadays challenging reqirements of transparency, robustness, and data payload. The experiments were performed in collaboration with the French SFR (Vodafone Group) mobile service provider.

Mitrea, M.; Duta, S.; Pr"teux, F.

2006-11-01

108

Hi Fi Audio Tape to Sun Workstation Transfer System for Digital Audio Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes a subsystem developed to provide for the transfer of digital audio signals from a SUN SPARCstation 10 workstation to a digital audio tape (DAT) and vice versa. The new system expands the audio recording/reproduction options available...

A. G. Gartenlaub

1994-01-01

109

Audio-visual gender recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

2007-11-01

110

47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. 73.403...SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements....

2009-10-01

111

47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. 73.403...SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting service requirements....

2010-10-01

112

Modelling of Audio-visio-Tactile (AVT) Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some dermatologic and cosmetic procedures, local anesthesia is not sufficient for relieving pain and also patients are often are averse to injections. We propose vibration anesthesia, the use of vibration delivered with commercially available inexpensive massagers to reduce discomfort. We find the analgesic effect of vibration helpful in minimizing pain in patients undergoing injections of botulinum toxin type, a

Piyush Agrawal; Raj Kumar Yadav; Mohammed Asim

2012-01-01

113

audio  

Cancer.gov

k];J MkpD (\\f @p?`&BZ&"04'A @.tXgJ[E5%/kGn?-=w]8yLbWtK:x?p pd:E,R3zQr"qe]weAJ~G;}1H%<( w@86 b)J=Se)X9A'4]pFq K0R=dd}<=3\\)_*+8 PG~MCy#1?H0K4.!V]zG&`K+ErXJ8Swzo$p9#(\\.dxm9;YPyAJY8$}I7!D8|K O

114

Audio compression using the MLT and SPIHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of the Set Par- titioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) algorithm to the compression of audio signals. Simultaneous masking is used to reduce the number of coefficients required for the representation of the audio signal. The proposed scheme is based on the combina- tion of the Modulated Lapped Transform (MLT) and SPIHT. Comparisons are also made

Mohammed Raad; Alfred Mertins; Ian Burnett

2002-01-01

115

Audio-visual interaction in multimodal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia signal processing is more than simply “putting together” text, audio, images, and video. It is the integration and interaction among these different media that creates new systems and new research challenges and opportunities. In multimodal communication where speech is involved, audio-visual interaction is particularly significant

R. Chellappa; Tsuhan Chen; A. Katsaggelos

1997-01-01

116

Audio-visual interaction in multimedia communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

To many people, the word “multimedia” simply means the combination of various forms of information: text, speech, music, images, graphics and video. What is often overlooked is the interaction among these forms. In this paper, we present our results in exploiting the audio-visual interaction that is very significant in multimedia communication. The applications include lip synchronization, joint audio-video coding, and

Tsuhan Chent; R. R. Rao

1997-01-01

117

Audio Bombing: Magnetic Cassette Tape Graffiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio Bombing is an alternative form of graffiti that uses magnetic audiotape as its medium. Drawing from hip hop and graffiti culture Audio Bombing starts with a basic cassette tape. Using a tape recorder you can record any information you want on to a cassette (music, poems, philosophy, subversive literature, etc.). After recording you remove the tape and cut out

Mike Fleming; Kang Chang; Kyle Millns

2007-01-01

118

Audio-Video Integration for Background Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new concept of surveillance, namely, audio-visual data integration for background modelling. Actually, visual data acquired by a fixed camera can be easily supported by audio infor- mation allowing a more complete analysis of the monitored scene. The key idea is to build a multimodal model of the scene background, able to promptly detect single auditory or

Marco Cristani; Manuele Bicego; Vittorio Murino

2004-01-01

119

Digital Audio Sampling for Film and Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Digital audio sampling is explained, and some of its implications in digital sound applications are discussed. Digital sound equipment is rapidly replacing analog recording devices as the state-of-the-art in audio technology. The philosophy of digital recording involves doing away with the continuously variable analog waveforms and turning the…

Stanton, Michael J.

120

Digital Advances in Contemporary Audio Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that a revolution in sonic high fidelity occurred during the 1980s as digital-based audio production methods began to replace traditional analog modes, this paper offers both an overview of digital audio theory and descriptions of some of the related digital production technologies that have begun to emerge from the mating of the computer…

Shields, Steven O.

121

Digital Audio Sampling for Film and Video.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital audio sampling is explained, and some of its implications in digital sound applications are discussed. Digital sound equipment is rapidly replacing analog recording devices as the state-of-the-art in audio technology. The philosophy of digital recording involves doing away with the continuously variable analog waveforms and turning the…

Stanton, Michael J.

122

Digital Audio: A Sound Design Element.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of incorporating audio into videodiscs for multimedia educational applications highlights a project developed for the Navy that used digital audio in an interactive video delivery system (IVDS) for training sonar operators. Storage constraints with videodiscs are explained, design requirements for the IVDS are described, and production…

Barron, Ann; Varnadoe, Susan

1992-01-01

123

Audio Watermarking Based On Inverse Difference Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for audio watermarking in the phase-frequency domain is presented, based on the inverse difference decomposition (IDD) with complex Hadamard transform (CHT). The main advantages of the method, compared with others based on the discrete Fourier and wavelet transforms, are the absence of quantization noise, the lower computational complexity and the ability for the owner of the audio

Roumen Kountchev; Mariofanna G. Milanova; Charles Ford; Stuart Harvey Rubin; Roumiana Kountcheva

2004-01-01

124

Using Podcasts as Audio Learning Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Podcasting is an audio content syndication through RSS feeds in the audioblogs. As a new appli- cation of audioblogging, podcasting uses the enclosures in RSS feeds for syndication and distri- bution of audio content to mobile music players on the Web. Despite the advantages of podcast- ing, there is a need for research that focus on the use of podcasts

Zeynel Cebeci; Mehmet Tekdal

2006-01-01

125

Improving the Morse Intercept Operator's Audio Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis improves the audio display for multiple Morse communications. Factors considered to improve the audio display are frequency of source, volume level of source, and methods of unmasking. The best frequency and volume level of a Morse source is 5...

J. M. Washburn

1995-01-01

126

Unsupervised content discovery in composite audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatically extracting semantic content from audio streams can be helpful in many multimedia applications. Motivated by the known limitations of traditional supervised approaches to content extraction, which are hard to generalize and require suitable training data, we propose in this paper an unsupervised approach to discover and categorize semantic content in a composite audio stream. In our approach, we first

Rui Cai; Lie Lu; Alan Hanjalic

2005-01-01

127

Apparatus and Method for Remotely and Automatically Controlling the Volume of Audio Signals Produced by a Remotely Controlled Audio Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus and method for remotely and automatically adjusting the volume of a remotely controlled audio device. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sensor circuit for continuously detecting audio signals generated by the audio device, a differ...

R. V. Belenger G. R. Lopriore

2001-01-01

128

The HDTV digital audio matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multichannel sound systems are being studied as part of the Eureka 95 and Radio-communication Bureau TG10-1 investigations into high definition television. One emerging sound system has five channels; three at the front and two at the back. This raises some compatibility issues. The listener might have only, say, two loudspeakers or the material to be broadcast may have fewer than five channels. The problem is how best to produce a set of signals to be broadcast, which is suitable for all listeners, from those that are available. To investigate this area, a device has been designed and built which has six input channels and six output channels. Each output signal is a linear combination of the input signals. The inputs and outputs are in AES/EBU digital audio format using BBC-designed AESIC chips. The matrix operation, to produce the six outputs from the six inputs, is performed by a Motorola DSP56001. The user interface and 'housekeeping' is managed by a T222 transputer. The operator of the matrix uses a VDU to enter sets of coefficients and a rotary switch to select which set to use. A set of analog controls is also available and is used to control operations other than the simple compatibility matrixing. The matrix has been very useful for simple tasks: mixing a stereo signal into mono, creating a stereo signal from a mono signal, applying a fixed gain or attenuation to a signal, exchanging the A and B channels of an AES/EBU bitstream, and so on. These are readily achieved using simple sets of coefficients. Additions to the user interface software have led to several more sophisticated applications which still consist of a matrix operation. Different multichannel panning laws have been evaluated. The analog controls adjust the panning; the audio signals are processed digitally using a matrix operation. A digital SoundField microphone decoder has also been implemented. audio matrix is such that it can be applied to a wide variety of signal processing tasks. -The combination of a dedicated DSP chip programmed in assembly language for speed of operation and a general purpose processor for user interface tasks programmed in a high level language has been found to be extremely useful.

Mason, A. J.

129

Cluster: Metals. Course: Machine Shop. Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The set of 13 units is designed for use with an instructor in actual machine shop practice and is also keyed to audio visual and textual materials. Each unit contains a series of task packages which: specify prerequisites within the series (minimum is Unit 1); provide a narrative rationale for learning; list both general and specific objectives in…

Sanford - Lee County Schools, NC.

130

Cluster: Metals. Course: Machine Shop. Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The set of 13 units is designed for use with an instructor in actual machine shop practice and is also keyed to audio visual and textual materials. Each unit contains a series of task packages which: specify prerequisites within the series (minimum is Unit 1); provide a narrative rationale for learning; list both general and specific objectives…

Sanford - Lee County Schools, NC.

131

Pattern classification models for classifying and indexing audio signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of digital information, audio data has become an important part in many modern computer applications. Audio classification and indexing has been becoming a focus in the research of audio processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose effective algorithms to automatically classify audio clips into one of six classes: music, news, sports, advertisement, cartoon and movie.

P. Dhanalakshmi; S. Palanivel; Vennila Ramalingam

2011-01-01

132

CLAM: A Framework for Audio and Music Application Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CLAM (C++ Library for Audio and Music) development framework offers a complete R&D platform for the audio and music domain. Winner of the 2006 ACM Open Source Multimedia Software Competition, CLAM originated in an effort to organize a repository of audio-processing algorithms. Today it includes an abstract model for audio systems, a repository of processing algorithms and data types,

Xavier Amatriain

2007-01-01

133

Heuristic approach for generic audio data segmentation and annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time audio segmentation and indexing scheme is presented in this paper. Audio recordings are segmented and classified into basic audio types such as silence, speech, music, song, environmental sound, speech with the music background, environmental sound with the music background, etc. Simple audio features such as the energy function, the average zero-crossing rate, the fundamental frequency, and the spectral

Tong Zhang; C.-C. Jay Kuo

1999-01-01

134

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to learn about simple machines and to have fun doing so! First, use this website to learn backround information on the basics of simple machines. Try the quiz! Simple Machines Learning Site Next, play a game that tests your ability to identify simple machines.... Edheads: Simple Machines Finally, view this video to see how students your age used applied simple machines to do a cool task... Building Simple Machines: A Glass of Milk, Please ...

Awol

2006-11-15

135

A Study of Audio Tape: Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To evaluate reel audio tape, tests were performed to identify: signal-to-noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, dynamic response, frequency response, biased and virgin tape noise, dropout susceptibility and oxide coating uniformity. (SCC)|

Reen, Noel K.

1975-01-01

136

The sounds of handheld audio players.  

PubMed

Hearing experts and public health organizations have longstanding hearing safety concerns about personal handheld audio devices, which are growing in both number and popularity. This paper reviews the maximum sound levels of handheld compact disc players, MP3 players, and an iPod. It further reviews device factors that influence the sound levels produced by these audio devices and ways to reduce the risk to hearing during their use. PMID:17691599

Rudy, Susan F

2007-01-01

137

Audio Gallery: Scientists and Social Responsibility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online audio gallery is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Scientists and Social Responsibility, part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, is available in broadband and modem formats and with a printable PDF transcript. The audio discusses some of the social-responsibility issues that scientists are grappling with today.

138

Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

2012-05-01

139

Audio Content Discovery: An Unsupervised Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatically extracting semantic content from audio streams can be helpful in many multimedia applications. Motivated by\\u000a the known limitations of traditional supervised approaches to content extraction, which are hard to generalize and require\\u000a suitable training data, we propose in this chapter a completely unsupervised approach to content discovery in composite audio\\u000a signals. The approach adopts the ideas from text analysis

Lie Lu; Alan Hanjalic

140

Commentator's Speech Extraction in Audio Stream of Sports Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method to deal with the problem of extracting commentator's speech in audio stream of live sports games. First, a two-pass metric-based audio segmentation module is developed to segment the audio stream into short ones with homogeneous acoustic features. Then a model-based classification module is adopted to extract the speech segments. For robust audio classification, various audio

Li Lu; Fengpei Ge; Qingwei Zhao; Yonghong Yan

2009-01-01

141

Introspective Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introspective machine, capable of passing judgment on its own deductive performances, is modelled and analyzed. First, the class of ideal machines which is provided with unlimited resources is studied. Since ideal introspective machines are usually unf...

G. A. W. Vreeswijk

1989-01-01

142

Automatic Audio Indexing and Audio Playback Speed Control as Tools for Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gong system has been developed for web based communication. It supports synchronous and asynchronous audio communication and can be embedded in other learning management systems. This paper discusses two novel features which are targeted at language learners using the system. The first is the ability to automatically index an audio recording. After the indexing has taken place the user

David Rossiter; Gibson Lam; Brian Mak

2006-01-01

143

Audio representations for data compression and compressed domain processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the world of digital audio processing, one usually has the choice of performing modifications on the raw audio signal or performing data compression on the audio signal. But, performing modifications on a data compressed audio signal has proved difficult in the past. This thesis provides new representations of audio signals that allow for both very low bit rate audio data compression and high quality compressed domain processing and modifications. In this system, two compressed domain processing algorithms are available: time-scale and pitch-scale modifications. Time-scale modifications alter the playback speed of audio without changing the pitch. Similarly, pitch-scale modifications alter the pitch of the audio without changing the playback speed. The algorithms presented in this thesis segment the input audio signal into separate sinusoidal, transients, and noise signals. During attack-transient regions of the audio signal, the audio is modeled by transform coding techniques. During the remaining non-transient regions, the audio is modeled by a mixture of multiresolution sinusoidal modeling and noise modeling. Careful phase matching techniques at the time boundaries between the sines and transients allow for seamless transitions between the two representations. By separating the audio into three individual representations, each can be efficiently and perceptually quantized. In addition, by segmenting the audio into transient and non-transient regions, high quality time-scale modifications that stretch only the non-transient portions are possible.

Levine, Scott Nathan

1999-10-01

144

Machine Shop Grinding Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter…

Dunn, James

145

Machine Shop Grinding Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

Dunn, James

146

AudioGene: Predicting Hearing Loss Genotypes from Phenotypes to Guide Genetic Screening  

PubMed Central

Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss (ADNSHL) is a common and often progressive sensory deficit. ADNSHL displays a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, and varying rates of progression. Accurate, comprehensive and cost-effective genetic testing facilitates genetic counseling and provides valuable prognostic information to affected individuals. In this paper, we describe the algorithm underlying AudioGene, a software system employing machine-learning techniques that utilizes phenotypic information derived from audiograms to predict the genetic cause of hearing loss in persons segregating ADNSHL. Our data show that AudioGene has an accuracy of 68% in predicting the causative gene within its top three predictions, as compared to 44% for a Majority classifier. We also show that AudioGene remains effective for audiograms with high levels of clinical measurement noise. We identify audiometric outliers for each genetic locus and hypothesize that outliers may reflect modifying genetic effects. As personalized genomic medicine becomes more common, AudioGene will be increasingly useful as a phenotypic filter to assess pathogenicity of variants identified by massively parallel sequencing.

Taylor, Kyle R.; DeLuca, Adam P.; Shearer, A. Eliot; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Black-Ziegelbein, E. Ann; Anand, V. Nikhil; Sloan, Christina M.; Eppsteiner, Robert W.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Huygen, Patrick L. M.; Smith, Richard J. H.; Braun, Terry A.; Casavant, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

147

AudioGene: predicting hearing loss genotypes from phenotypes to guide genetic screening.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is a common and often progressive sensory deficit. ADNSHL displays a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and varying rates of progression. Accurate, comprehensive, and cost-effective genetic testing facilitates genetic counseling and provides valuable prognostic information to affected individuals. In this article, we describe the algorithm underlying AudioGene, a software system employing machine-learning techniques that utilizes phenotypic information derived from audiograms to predict the genetic cause of hearing loss in persons segregating ADNSHL. Our data show that AudioGene has an accuracy of 68% in predicting the causative gene within its top three predictions, as compared with 44% for a majority classifier. We also show that AudioGene remains effective for audiograms with high levels of clinical measurement noise. We identify audiometric outliers for each genetic locus and hypothesize that outliers may reflect modifying genetic effects. As personalized genomic medicine becomes more common, AudioGene will be increasingly useful as a phenotypic filter to assess pathogenicity of variants identified by massively parallel sequencing. PMID:23280582

Taylor, Kyle R; Deluca, Adam P; Shearer, A Eliot; Hildebrand, Michael S; Black-Ziegelbein, E Ann; Anand, V Nikhil; Sloan, Christina M; Eppsteiner, Robert W; Scheetz, Todd E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Smith, Richard J H; Braun, Terry A; Casavant, Thomas L

2013-02-19

148

British Broadcasting Company: Audio Interviews with Writers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) has a prodigious archive of audio interviews from their many decades of radio broadcasting, with this particular site paying homage to the many fine writers who they have spoken to over the years. Visitors can listen to the likes of Kingsley Amis talking about why he started writing, Robert Graves discussing his masterpiece "I, Claudius," and Virginia Woolf's remarks titled "a eulogy to words." There are audio clips from over thirty writers in total, including Elie Wiesel, Alice Walker, William Styron, Susan Sontag, Salman Rushdie, and the late George Bernard Shaw addressing a group of young people where at one point he remarks on his own education, "I could not read schoolbooks, because they are written by people who don't know how to write." For further information, each selection of audio clips contains a link to a brief profile of each author and additional Web resources, where available.

149

Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning is a very active sub-field of artificial intelligence concerned with the development of computational models\\u000a of learning. Machine learning is inspired by the work in several disciplines: cognitive sciences, computer science, statistics,\\u000a computational complexity, information theory, control theory, philosophy, and biology. Simply speaking, machine learning is\\u000a learning by machine. From a computational point of view, machine learning refers

Xin Yao; Yong Liu

150

Signal Processing and Characterization of the Audio Evoked Cortical Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audio evoked cortical response to stimuli consisting of audio 'clicks' of varied frequency was analyzed. Analysis of the encephalogram was accomplished through the use of a computer based signal processor which used signal averaging as the primary pro...

R. E. McWey

1974-01-01

151

Development of multilingual medical reception support system with text-to-speech function to combine utterance data with voice synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for multilingual communication in Japan has increased. In the medical field, there exists a serious problem when it comes to communications between hospital staff and foreign patients. Currently, medical translators accompany patients to medical care facilities, and the number of requests for medical translators is increasing. However, medical translators cannot provide support at all times, especially in cases

Mai Miyabe; Takashi Yoshino

2010-01-01

152

Pitch-based feature extraction for audio classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new algorithm to discriminate between speech and non-speech audio segments. It is intended for security applications as well as talker location identification in audio conferencing systems, equipped with microphone arrays. The proposed method is based on splitting the audio segment into small frames and detecting the presence of pitch on each one of them. The ratio

Ahmad R. Abu-El-Quran; Rafik A. Goubran

2003-01-01

153

47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520...Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider...use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that meets the requirements...

2009-10-01

154

47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section 10.520...Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider...use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that meets the requirements...

2010-10-01

155

IMPROVING AUDIO WATERMARKING SCHEME USING PSYCHOACOUSTIC WATERMARK FILTERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel algorithm for embedding a spread- spectrum-based watermark into uncompressed, raw audio sequences is presented. The scheme efficiently takes advantage of masking phenomena in HAS in order to embed watermark data below the masking threshold of audio signal. Detection of the watermark is done by blind detection, without using the original audio. None of the transformations to and from

Nedeljko Cvejic; Tapio Seppanen

156

Embedded audio coding (EAC) with implicit auditory masking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An embedded audio coder (EAC) is proposed with compression performance rivals the best available non-scalable audio coder. The key technology that empowers the EAC with high performance is the implicit auditory masking. Unlike the common practice, where an auditory masking threshold is derived from the input audio signal, transmitted to the decoder and used to quantize (modify) the transform coefficients;

Jin Li

2002-01-01

157

Improve audio representation by using feature structure patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although statistical characteristics of audio features are widely used for audio representation in most current audio analysis systems and have been proved to be effective, they only utilize the average feature variations over time, and thus lead to ambiguities in some cases. Structure patterns, which describe the representative structure characteristics of both temporal and spectral features, are proposed to improve

Rui Cai; Lie Lu; Hong-Jiang Zhang; Lian-Hong Cai

2004-01-01

158

The audio notebook: paper and pen interaction with structured speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem that a listener experiences when attempting to capture information presented during a lecture, meeting, or interview. Listeners must divide their attention between the talker and their notetaking activity. We propose a new device-the Audio Notebook-for taking notes and interacting with a speech recording. The Audio Notebook is a combination of a digital audio recorder and

Lisa Stifelman; Barry Arons; Chris Schmandt

2001-01-01

159

Analysis of Audio Packet Loss in the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of distributing audio data over networks such as the Internet that do not provide support for real-time applications. Experiments with such networks indicate that audio quality is mediocre in large part because of excessive audio packet losses. In this paper, we show using measurements over the Internet as well as analytic modeling that the number of

Jean-chrysostome Bolot; Hugues Crépin; Andrés Vega-garcía

1995-01-01

160

Faceted search and browsing of audio content on spoken web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoken Web is a web of VoiceSites that can be accessed by a phone. The content in a VoiceSite is audio. Therefore Spoken Web provides an alternate to the World Wide Web (WWW) in developing regions where low Internet penetration and low literacy are barriers to accessing the conventional WWW. Searching of audio content in Spoken Web through an audio

Mamadou Diao; Sougata Mukherjea; Nitendra Rajput; Kundan Srivastava

2010-01-01

161

An Effective and Efficient Indexing Scheme for Audio Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An audio fingerprint is a content-based compact signa- ture that summarizes an audio recording. A song can be recog- nized by matching an extracted fingerprint to a database of known fingerprints. Audio fingerprinting must solve the two key problems of fingerprint extraction and database search. In this paper, we are given a fingerprint database of songs and focus our attention

Guang-Ho Cha

2011-01-01

162

Highly realistic audio spatialization for multiparty conferencing using headphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that during multi-party conferencing spatialized audio which maps remote participants' voices to distinct virtual locations improves the listening experience. In this paper, we consider the case when the audio is rendered through headphones due to e.g. privacy reasons. Although existing headphone spatial audio techniques abound, most lack the desired realism dictated by listeners' expectation of naturalness in

Wei-Ge Chen; Zhengyou Zhang

2009-01-01

163

More Than Meets the Eye. The Effectivenesss of Broadcast Audio and Two-Way Audio Instruction for Distant Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on the effectiveness of radio instruction and teleconferencing is presented in three chapters: (1) One-way Audio Instruction--Radio, (2) Two-Way Audio Instruction--Teleconferencing, and (3) Comprehensive Bibliography on Teleconferencing (annot...

L. A. Parker M. K. Monson

1980-01-01

164

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, EdHeads, a nonprofit, offers five interactive, animated modules to educate second- through sixth-graders about simple machines. By identifying the many machines located throughout a house, students can learn about fulcrums, wheel and axles, levers, pulleys, inclined planes, and much more. The website is equipped with simple animations to help children understand how the machines work. After students have a handle on simple machines, they can begin to see how they work together to create compound machines. The website also provides a brief glossary summarizing nine types of simple machines. This site is also reviewed in the February 18, 2005_NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

165

Improving Audio Quality in Distance Learning Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses common causes of problems encountered with audio systems in distance learning networks and offers practical suggestions for correcting the problems. Problems and discussions are divided into nine categories: (1) acoustics, including reverberant classrooms leading to distorted or garbled voices, as well as one-dimensional…

Richardson, Craig H.

166

Audio Elements Based Auditory Scene Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory scene segmentation is an important step in the process of high-level semantic inference from audio data streams, and in particular, a prerequisite for auditory scene categorization. In this paper, we analyze the limits of previous works on auditory scene segmentation, and then propose a novel method that, conceptually, is inspired by the ideas used in text and video scene

Lie Lu; Rui Cai; Alan Hanjalic

2006-01-01

167

Automatic Audio Signing Literature Survey Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey was undertaken to identify all the various audio signing concepts which may have been investigated, under development, or already in use, A total of 13 systems are identified. Three of these are similar but not related to the automatic...

H. Nelson H. Bluethenthal

1981-01-01

168

Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Audio Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The manual is meant to accompany and supplement the basic manual and to serve as support to the audio component of "Spanish for Agricultural Purposes," a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, consists of exercises to supplement readings presented in the course's basic manual and to…

Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

169

Electrical Performance Tests for Audio Distortion Analyzers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical performance test procedures for audio distortion analyzers were developed by the National Bureau of Standards for the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command. The report provides detailed, step-by-step test procedures that are based on spe...

O. B. Laug G. N. Stenbakken T. F. Leedy

1985-01-01

170

PCM Audio IC's for 8 mm Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed four kinds of ICs for use in the PCM audio system of 8mm VIDEO. Only one 2K-byte RAM is used to construct the entire system. Moreover, they can be used in record\\/playback and NTSC\\/CCIR modes.

Hiroshi Miyaguchi; Kazuo Hasegawa; Shigetaka Sawa; Shigeo Saji

1984-01-01

171

Music Icons: Procedural Glyphs for Audio Files  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, a personal music collection may comprise thousands of MP3 files. Visualization can help the user to gain an overview and to find similar songs inside so large a set. We describe a method to create icons from audio files in such a way that songs which the user considers sim- ilar receive similar icons. This allows visual data mining

Philipp Kolhoff Jacqueline

172

Music Icons: Procedural Glyphs for Audio Files  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Nowadays, a personal music collection may comprise thousands of MP3 files. Visualization can help the user to gain an overview and to find similar songs inside so large a set. We describe a method,to create icons from audio files in such a way that songs which the user considers sim- ilar receive similar icons. This allows visual data mining

Philipp Kolhoff; Jacqueline Preuß; Jörn Loviscach

2006-01-01

173

Automatic Musical Genre Classification of Audio Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musical genres are categorical descriptions that are used to describe music. They are c ommonly used to structure the increasing amounts of music available in digital form on the Web and are important for music information retrieval. Genre ca tegorization for audio has traditionally been performed manually. A particular musical genre is characterized by statistical properties related to the instrumentation,

George Tzanetakis

2001-01-01

174

Audio keywords generation for sports video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports video has attracted a global viewership. Research effort in this area has been focused on semantic event detection in sports video to facilitate accessing and browsing. Most of the event detection methods in sports video are based on visual features. However, being a significant component of sports video, audio may also play an important role in semantic event detection.

Min Xu; Changsheng Xu; Lingyu Duan; Jesse S. Jin; Suhuai Luo

2008-01-01

175

Audio?Visuality Squeezed into the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at how the Finnish education system is approaching the emergence of audio?visual material as a teaching aid, and the problems faced by the producers of this material in coping with the different types of equipment and the differences in values between the target groups of teachers and pupils. It indicates how teachers must develop and how educationalists

Jaakko Ukkonen

1987-01-01

176

Transparency benchmarking on audio watermarks and steganography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of transparency plays an important role in the context of watermarking and steganography algorithms. This paper introduces a general definition of the term transparency in the context of steganography, digital watermarking and attack based evaluation of digital watermarking algorithms. For this purpose the term transparency is first considered individually for each of the three application fields (steganography, digital watermarking and watermarking algorithm evaluation). From the three results a general definition for the overall context is derived in a second step. The relevance and applicability of the definition given is evaluated in practise using existing audio watermarking and steganography algorithms (which work in time, frequency and wavelet domain) as well as an attack based evaluation suite for audio watermarking benchmarking - StirMark for Audio (SMBA). For this purpose selected attacks from the SMBA suite are modified by adding transparency enhancing measures using a psychoacoustic model. The transparency and robustness of the evaluated audio watermarking algorithms by using the original and modifid attacks are compared. The results of this paper show hat transparency benchmarking will lead to new information regarding the algorithms under observation and their usage. This information can result in concrete recommendations for modification, like the ones resulting from the tests performed here.

Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Lang, Andreas

2006-02-01

177

Audio-Lectal Practice and Fluency Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Audio-Lectal Practice, a technique which offers systematic and controlled practice in connected discourse while emphasizing oral discourse features of rhythm, tempo, pausing, and suprasegmental patterns. Students listen to, read along with, and imitate recorded texts concurrently. Such practice facilitates oral fluency in the target…

Hieke, Adolf E.

1981-01-01

178

Audio-Visual Spontaneous Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic multimodal recognition of spontaneous emotional expressions is a largely unexplored and challenging problem. In this paper, we explore audio-visual emotion recognition in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Based on the assumption that facial expression and vocal expression are at the same coarse affective states, positive and negative emotion sequences are labeled according to Facial Action

Zhihong Zeng; Yuxiao Hu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yun Fu; Thomas S. Huang

2007-01-01

179

Acceptance Inspection for Audio Cassette Recorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of inspections for cassette recorders that can be performed to assure that the devices are acceptable is described. The inspections can be completed in 20 minutes and can be performed by instructional personnel. The series of inspection procedures includes tests of the intelligibility of audio, physical condition, tape speed, impulse…

Smith, Edgar A.

180

Audio Signal Classification: History and Current Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Audio signal classification (ASC) consists of extracting relevant features from a sound, and of using these features to identify into which of a set of classes the sound is most likely to fit. The feature extraction and grouping algorithms used can be quite diverse depending on the classification domain of the application. This paper presents background necessary to understand

David Gerhard

2003-01-01

181

Conceptual legacy of audio-visual communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE CONCEPT that direct or vicarious experience is basic to real meaning and understanding reached maturation remarkably early in the minds of the world's great teachers. Although audio-visual communication was not endowed with a formal appellation, an impressive number of early educators accepted its inherent principles. This paper will trace the development of the conceptual heritage of visual-sensory teaching in

Paul Saettler

1955-01-01

182

Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

2010-01-01

183

AudioBIFS: Describing Audio Scences with MPEG4 Multimedia Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the AudioBIFS system,part of the Binary Format for Scene Description (BIFS) tool inthe MPEG-4 International Standard. AudioBIFS is the tool thatintegrates the synthetic and natural sound coding functions inMPEG-4. It allows the flexible construction of soundtracks andsound scenes using compressed sound, sound synthesis, streamingaudio, interactive and terminal-dependent presentation, threedimensional(3-D) spatialization, environmental auralization, anddynamic...

Eric D. Scheirer; Jyri Huopaniemi

1999-01-01

184

SIMPLE MACHINES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning about several types of simple machines. Have fun!! Review the first website (which is right here!! Simple machines) . It has information about simple machines. DON\\"T click until you read all directions!!! Prepare to discuss each type in class. You will need to take some basic notes about each machine, using a bubble-map format. Don\\'t forget ...

Machose, Mrs.

2007-03-10

185

State Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are surrounded by real-world state machines: ballpoint pen retractor mechanisms, vending machines, washing-machine controllers, digital watches. They are a trivial but underused technology that can simplify how we implement programs that must track how they got to their current state before handling a new event. However, many programmers feel that state machines are only useful when they're developing communication

Dave Thomas; Andy Hunt

2002-01-01

186

Kid Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 3 (continued on page 2) of the pdf, part of the Simple Machines Discovery Box. In this fun activity, learners "create" a complex machine by simulating the parts in action. Learners move their bodies and make sounds as if they are individual parts of a moving machine. Then learners discover what happens when part of a machine is broken and problem solve ways to fix it.

Omsi

2004-01-01

187

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity about simple machines. Learners will try their hand at putting these amazing devices to work. They will use several simple machines to help "build" a tree house. This is an excellent activity to demonstrate how science - in particular, simple machines - are at work in our every day lives.

Cosi

2000-01-01

188

Electrostatic Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Antonio Carlos M. De Queiroz, an associate professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, illustrates a number of different electrostatic machines. The site includes details and images of machines built by the professor as well as many other historical machines of this type. Some information is also available in Portugese.

De Queiroz, Antonio C.

2011-07-13

189

Interaction with Machine Improvisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

190

Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

Yoshino, Takehiko

191

AVAS: An Audio-Visual Attendance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric identification technology is being applied to physical and information access control in some workplace with the\\u000a improvements in the accuracy of biometric devices and declining price. This paper describes a multimodal biometric identification\\u000a system for time and attendance application called AVAS (Audio-Visual Attendance System). This system takes users’ voice and\\u000a face characteristics as their badge. The motivation behind using

Dongdong Li; Yingchun Yang; Zhenyu Shan; Gang Pan; Zhaohui Wu

2006-01-01

192

CARTOON-RECOGNITION USING VIDEO & AUDIO DESCRIPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach for classifying mpeg-2 video sequences as 'cartoon' or 'non-cartoon' by analyzing specific video and audio features of consecutive frames in real-time. This is part of the well-known video-genre- classification problem, where popular TV-broadcast genres like cartoon, commercial, music, news and sports are studied. Such applications have also been discussed in the context of MPEG-7 (12).

Ronald Glasberg; Amjad Samour; Khalid Elazouzi; Thomas Sikora

193

RTP Payload for Redundant Audio Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes a payload format for use with the real-time transportprotocol (RTP), version 2, for encoding redundant audio data. Theprimary motivation for the scheme described herein is the development ofaudio conferencing tools for use with lossy packet networks such as theInternet Mbone, although this scheme is not limited to such applications.Perkins et al INTERNET-DRAFT 25 July 19971 IntroductionIf multimedia

Andres Vega-garcia; Colin Perkins; Isidor Kouvelas; Jean-chrysostome Bolot; Orion Hodson; Sacha Fosse-parisis; Vicky Hardman

1997-01-01

194

Building an Audio Visualizer in Flex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to Flash Player 9, Flash developers had to rely on third-party applications to create equalizer-type displays or audio\\u000a visualizers. Now, thanks to improvements to the ActionScript language, you can create these experience enhancers natively.\\u000a Combine that with the relative ease of use of the Flex framework, and you can come up with some pretty amazing visualizations\\u000a with minimal effort.

Hasan Otuome

195

Audio-visual speech experience with age influences perceived audio-visual asynchrony in speech.  

PubMed

Previous research indicates that perception of audio-visual (AV) synchrony changes in adulthood. Possible explanations for these age differences include a decline in hearing acuity, a decline in cognitive processing speed, and increased experience with AV binding. The current study aims to isolate the effect of AV experience by comparing synchrony judgments from 20 young adults (20 to 30 yrs) and 20 normal-hearing middle-aged adults (50 to 60 yrs), an age range for which a decline of cognitive processing speed is expected to be minimal. When presented with AV stop consonant syllables with asynchronies ranging from 440?ms audio-lead to 440?ms visual-lead, middle-aged adults showed significantly less tolerance for audio-lead than young adults. Middle-aged adults also showed a greater shift in their point of subjective simultaneity than young adults. Natural audio-lead asynchronies are arguably more predictable than natural visual-lead asynchronies, and this predictability may render audio-lead thresholds more prone to experience-related fine-tuning. PMID:24116435

Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

2013-10-01

196

Capacity-optimized mp2 audio watermarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today a number of audio watermarking algorithms have been proposed, some of them at a quality making them suitable for commercial applications. The focus of most of these algorithms is copyright protection. Therefore, transparency and robustness are the most discussed and optimised parameters. But other applications for audio watermarking can also be identified stressing other parameters like complexity or payload. In our paper, we introduce a new mp2 audio watermarking algorithm optimised for high payload. Our algorithm uses the scale factors of an mp2 file for watermark embedding. They are grouped and masked based on a pseudo-random pattern generated from a secret key. In each group, we embed one bit. Depending on the bit to embed, we change the scale factors by adding 1 where necessary until it includes either more even or uneven scale factors. An uneven group has a 1 embedded, an even group a 0. The same rule is later applied to detect the watermark. The group size can be increased or decreased for transparency/payload trade-off. We embed 160 bits or more in an mp2 file per second without reducing perceived quality. As an application example, we introduce a prototypic Karaoke system displaying song lyrics embedded as a watermark.

Steinebach, Martin; Dittmann, Jana

2003-06-01

197

Kicking Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a machine that kicks a Ping-Pong ball into a cup lying on its side 12 inches away. Learners use a pendulum, a rubber band, or a combination of the two to do this and test the accuracy of their machines by shooting a Ping-Pong ball into a cup. Educators can use this activity to demonstrate simple machines and kinetic/potential energy. This activity can be followed up with "Extreme Kicking Machine" which adds an even greater challenge into the mix.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

198

Analysis and simulation of an audio adaptive equalizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this thesis was to explore the feasibility of replacing a manual audio equalizer with an adaptive filter that adaptively equalizes the spectral distortion of an audio system. The impulse response of an audio system which includes the response of the speaker crossover network, the power amplifiers, speakers, and the acoustic transfer function between the system's input signal spectrum. The Adaptive Inverse Pre-filter, the Filtered-x algorithm, and the Adaptive Inverse Modeling Control System are investigated which remove the distortion by pre-filtering the audio system's input signal with the audio system's inverse. The audio system examined is the Armstrong Aerospace Medical research Laboratory's Performance and Communication Research and Technology reverberation chamber located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.

Strasburger, John R.

1988-12-01

199

Augmenting real-world objects: a paper-based audio notebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Audio Notebook allows a user to capture and access an audio recording of a lecture or meeting in conjunction with notes written on paper. The audio recording is synchronized with the user's handwritten notes and page turns. As a user flips through physical pages of notes, the audio scans to the start of each page. Audio is also accessed

Lisa J. Stifelman

1996-01-01

200

DIGITAL AUDIO EFFECTS APPLIED DIRECTLY ON A DSD BITSTREAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital audio effects are typically implemented on 16 or 24 bit signals sam- pled at 44.1 kHz. Yet high quality audio is often encoded in a one-bit, highly oversampled format , such as DSD. Processing of a bitstream, and the application of audio effects on a bitstream, requires special care and modification of existing methods. However, it has strong advantages

Josh Reiss; Mark Sandler

2004-01-01

201

Facilitating Audio-Based Collaborative Storytelling for Informal Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased demand for audio books and the rise of podcasting indicate a comeback of listening. On this basis, audio-based\\u000a collaborative storytelling functionalises the act of telling stories in groups. In this paper we identify the requirements\\u000a for informal knowledge management by means of audio-based collaborative storytelling. After reviewing the state of the art,\\u000a we present our solution which addresses

Stephan Lukosch; Michael Klebl; Tanja Buttler

2008-01-01

202

Audio feature interactions in Voice-over-IP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In telecommunications, audio signaling is the use of the audio channel for signaling and user-interface purposes. When features use audio signaling, and are assembled in a pipes-and-filters configuration, there is a potential for undesirable feature interactions. This paper analyzes the potential feature interactions. It proposes a method for eliminating some of them, as well as directions for future work on

Pamela Zave

2007-01-01

203

Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

2008-01-01

204

Machine intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain conditions, we appear willing to see and interact with computing machines as though they exhibited intelligence, at least an intelligence of sorts. Using exam- ples from AI and robotics research, as well as a selection of relevant art installations and anthropological fieldwork, this paper reflects on some of our interactions with the kinds of machines we seem ready

Alex S. Taylor

2009-01-01

205

Woodworking Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Woodworking machines are made to do a wide variety of jobs. For any one job there are usually a number of makes, sizes, and styles of machines from which to choose. They are not standardized. Only a brief classification and outline of specifications for f...

1964-01-01

206

Excavating machines  

SciTech Connect

The excavating machine has a cutter carrying boom carried by a boom support member which can be swung about an axis extending in the direction of the roadway. The machine includes a cutter unit and a stay unit each of which is releasably anchorable in the roadway and each of which can be advanced relative to the other unit.

Plummer, D.

1980-10-21

207

Machine Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)|

Kirrane, Diane E.

1990-01-01

208

Calculating machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website created by Erez Kaplan "deals mainly with the mechanical calculating machines from a collector's point of view." Included here is an historical review of calculating machines, along with Kaplan's attempt to classify the machines, a collection of old advertisements for the machines, and a brief history of calculating. The latest feature is a Java applet that lets you operate an 1885 Felt adding machine to give you a sense of the way it was used. The photos and descriptions provide insight on other gadgets such as the Pocket Cash Registers used by "the sophisticated man or woman of 1900 who had everything." The Reference section provides some resources for further reading, including numerous other personal calculator collectors sites and museums.

209

Marble track audio manipulator (MTAM): a tangible user interface for audio composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We created a tangible user interface that allows children to create musical compositions through constructive play. Our Marble Track Audio Manipulator (MTAM) is an augmented marble tower construction kit where marbles represent sound clips and tracks represent different sound effects. To create musical compositions, children collaboratively build a marble tower and then play their compositions by dropping marbles into the

Alex Bean; Sabina Siddiqi; Anila Chowdhury; Billy Whited; Orit Shaer; Robert J. K. Jacob

2008-01-01

210

Quantization and psychoacoustic model in audio coding in advanced audio coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents complete optimized architecture of Advanced Audio Coder quantization with Huffman coding. After that psychoacoustic model theory is presented and few algorithms described: standard Two Loop Search, its modifications, Genetic, Just Noticeable Level Difference, Trellis-Based and its modification: Cascaded Trellis-Based Algorithm.

Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

2011-06-01

211

ABC News: Video and Audio Newsclips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ABC News has added a section of video and audio newsclips to its news service at the GO Network, InfoSeek Corporation's Internet portal. Users can see and listen to national headline news, such as a clip from Warren Beatty's speech at an awards dinner Wednesday night (sounding rather presidential). They can also search for additional video files using Videosearch, by Virage. Beatty as a search term turned up a clip about the Clinton family's summer vacation on Martha's Vineyard that included a mention of Beatty's presidential aspirations and opinions on the Democratic Party, but no additional pictures of Beatty.

212

Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution function could be approximated to a normal distribution function. A statistical analysis was also performed to investigate if a patient's physical, tumor or general characteristics played a role in identifying whether he/she responded positively to the coaching type---signified by a reduction in the variability of respiratory motion. The analysis demonstrated that, although there were some characteristics like disease type and dose per fraction that were significant with respect to time-independent analysis, there were no significant time trends observed for the inter-session or intra-session analysis. Based on patient feedback with the existing audio-visual biofeedback system used for the study and research performed on other feedback systems, an improved audio-visual biofeedback system was designed. It is hoped the widespread clinical implementation of audio-visual biofeedback for radiotherapy will improve the accuracy of lung cancer radiotherapy.

George, Rohini

213

37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Account for digital audio recording devices or media. 201.28 Section 201.28 Patents...Account for digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section...recording device or digital audio recording medium. (b) Definitions. For...

2013-07-01

214

37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices... COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices...charge, by contacting the Library of Congress, Copyright...first distribution of digital audio recording...

2009-07-01

215

37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices... COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices...charge, by contacting the Library of Congress, Copyright...first distribution of digital audio recording...

2010-07-01

216

77 FR 37732 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and Equipment AGENCY: Federal...Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and Equipment...meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Audio Systems and Equipment. DATES: The...

2012-06-22

217

76 FR 79755 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226 Audio Systems and Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226 Audio Systems and Equipment AGENCY: Federal...Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment...meeting of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment, for the first...

2011-12-22

218

78 FR 57673 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment AGENCY: Federal...Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment...meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. DATES: The...

2013-09-19

219

Scribbling Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore electronics and motion by making a Scribbling Machine, a motorized contraption that moves in unusual ways and leaves a mark to trace its path. Itâs made from simple materials and is based on the idea of motion created by an offset motor. Try using harvested motors and switches from discarded toys and electronics to make your Scribbling Machine - this not only keeps costs down, but is a playful and inventive way to explore how everyday objects work. To take the activity further, you can also incorporate PicoCrickets to make your Scribbling Machine more intelligent and to explore computers.

Exploratorium

2013-01-30

220

Scene change detection by audio and video clues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic video scene change detection is a challenging task. Using audio or visual information alone often cannot provide a satisfactory solution. However, how to combine audio and visual information efficiently still remains a difficult issue since there are various cases in their relationship due to the versatility of videos. We present an effective scene change detection method that adopts the

Shu-Ching Chen; Mei-Ling Shyu; Wenhui Liao; Chengcui Zhang

2002-01-01

221

A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written feedback. The pros and cons of such a technique are explored via

Sue Rodway-Dyer; Jasper Knight; Elizabeth Dunne

2011-01-01

222

SOUND QUALITY OF AN AUGMENTED REALITY AUDIO HEADSET  

Microsoft Academic Search

In augmented reality audio applications the user is exposed to a pseudo-acoustic reproduction of the real acoustic environment. This means that the surrounding sounds are heard through a specific augmented reality audio (ARA) headset (1). Ideally the pseudo- acoustic environment should be an exact copy of the real acoustic environment. The acceptability and usefulness of such a headset depends strongly

Miikka Tikander

2005-01-01

223

Spatial audio and sensory evaluation techniques - context, history and aims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial sound reproduction gives rise to new challenges for those trying to evaluate sensory features contributing to perceived quality. Recent technical developments have enabled the delivery of sophisticated multichannel audio signals to consumers, over links that range very widely in quality, requiring decisions to be made about the trade- offs between different aspects of audio quality. Spatial factors can account

Francis Rumsey

2006-01-01

224

Detection of audio interpolation based on singular value decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpolation attack, as a kind of tampering manipulation, is a common issue in digital audio forgeries. A new blind forensic approach for detecting interpolation forgery is proposed in this paper. As interpolation can lead to the statistical changes in the linear dependencies among digital audio sample points, singular value decomposition which can well express linear dependencies is used in the

Qian Shi; Xiaohong Ma

2011-01-01

225

RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memo describes a profile for the use of the real-time transport protocol (RTP), version 2, and the associated control protocol, RTCP, within audio and video multiparticipant conferences with minimal control. It provides interpretations of generic fields within the RTP specification suitable for audio and video conferences. In particular, this document defines a set of default mappings from payload type

H. Schulzrinne

1996-01-01

226

Security monitoring using microphone arrays and audio classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the authors propose a security monitoring system that can detect and classify the location and nature of different sounds within a room. This system is reliable and robust even in the presence of reverberation and in low signal-to-noise (SNR) environments. We describe a novel algorithm for audio classification, which, first, classifies an audio segment as speech or

Ahmad Rami Abu-El-Quran; Rafik A. Goubran; Adrian D. C. Chan

2006-01-01

227

Audio authenticity: detecting ENF discontinuity with high precision phase analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a forensic tool used to assess audio authenticity. The proposed method is based on detecting phase discontinuity of the power grid signal; this signal, referred to as electric network frequency (ENF), is sometimes embedded in audio signals when the recording is carried out with the equipment connected to an electrical outlet or when certain microphones are in

Daniel Patricio Nicolalde Rodríguez; José Antonio Apolinário; Luiz Wagner Pereira Biscainho

2010-01-01

228

Audio-Tutorial Practices in California Community Colleges. Preliminary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study surveys the audio-tutorial practices and evaluations at 91 California and 25 other junior colleges in the United States. Seventy of the California colleges indicate they are now or will be using the audio-tutorial method in the near future. A large majority of them indicate that they prepare their materials locally. Many of the…

Diablo Valley Coll. Pleasant Hill, CA.

229

Building audio and visual home appliances on Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our ongoing work to build future networked audio and visual home appliances. We have developed a prototype system on a Linux-based PC The system has adopted HAVi (Home Audio\\/Video Interoperability) as distributed middleware for home appliances. We have implemented HAVi in Java. Adopting both Linux and Java increases the portability of the software modules and

K. Soejima; M. Matsuda; T. Iino; T. Hayashi; T. Nakajima

2002-01-01

230

Audio and Video Processing to Enhance Homeland Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio and video processing promise significant enhancements to current human intensive tasks such as transportation and border surveillance. Operational solutions are now emerging that promise effective, objective, and affordable systems that provide automation of missions ranging from broad area surveillance to close in deception detection. This paper summarizes challenges and exemplifies operational solutions in both audio and video processing. Included

Mark Maybury

2009-01-01

231

Redundancy Control in Real-Time Internet Audio Conferencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of redundant audio encoding has been advocated for lossy networks like the Internet(1, 2) as a way of reducing the impact of loss in audio- conferences. We present a model of loss and determine howtheamountofredundancy shouldbe variedwiththe loss rate. In addition, we make loss measurements and make a preliminary investigation of the position of re- dundantencodings relative to

Isidor Kouvelas; Orion Hodson; Vicky Hardman; Jon Crowcroft

1997-01-01

232

CIC interpolation filter design in the audio decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to get high-quality audio output in the audio decoder, analog low-pass filter to reduce the design difficulty, then the interpolation filter as its digital signal processing part of an integral important part of CIC filters are commonly used in the interpolation process highly efficient filters, with a simple structure, easy to implement advantages. This article is in the

Zhou Jinglei; Li Chengliang; Qi Bo; Wei Yanhui

2010-01-01

233

Audio enhanced 3D interfaces for visually impaired users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional computer applications such as CAD packages are often difficult to use because of inadequate depth feedback to the user. It has, however, been shown that audio feedback can help improve a user's sense of depth perception. This paper describes an experiment which evaluates the use of three different audio environments in a 3D task undertakeh by visually impaired

Stephen W. Mereu; Rick Kazman

1996-01-01

234

Designing audio and tactile crossmodal icons for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an experiment into the design of crossmodal icons which can provide an alternative form of output for mobile devices using audio and tactile modalities to communicate infor- mation. A complete set of crossmodal icons was created by en- coding three dimensions of information in three crossmodal audi- tory\\/tactile parameters. Earcons were used for the audio and Tac-

Eve E. Hoggan; Stephen A. Brewster

2007-01-01

235

Error Concealment of MPEG-2 AAC Audio Using Modulo Watermarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose an error concealment scheme for MPEG-2 compressed (AAC) audio using a novel modulo watermarking technique. It can be used on top of other error control schemes. After the modulo watermark is embedded, an MPEG-2 AAC audio only shows negligible f...

S. Cheng H. Yu Z. Xiong

2002-01-01

236

Classification of general audio data for content-based retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the problem of classification of continuous general audio data (GAD) for content-based retrieval, and describe a scheme that is able to classify audio segments into seven categories consisting of silence, single speaker speech, music, environmental noise, multiple speakers' speech, simultaneous speech and music, and speech and noise. We studied a total of 143 classification features

Dongge Li; Ishwar K. Sethi; Nevenka Dimitrova; Thomas Mcgee

2001-01-01

237

Audio Design: Creating Multi-sensory Images for the Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the concept of "theater of the mind" and discusses design factors in creating audio works that effectively stimulate mental pictures, including: narrative format in audio scripting; qualities of voice; use of concrete language; music; noise versus silence; and the creation of the illusion of space using monaural, stereophonic, and…

Ferrington, Gary

1994-01-01

238

Effective Use of Audio Media in Multimedia Presentations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper emphasizes research-based reasons for adding audio to multimedia presentations. The first section summarizes suggestions from a review of research on the effectiveness of audio media when accompanied by other forms of media; types of research studies (e.g., evaluation, intra-medium, and aptitude treatment interaction studies) are also…

Kerr, Brenda

239

Feature Extraction for the Prediction of Multichannel Spatial Audio Fidelity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to present an algorithm for the pre- diction of frontal spatial fidelity and surround spatial fidelity of multichannel audio, which are two attributes of the subjective pa- rameter called basic audio quality. A number of features chosen to represent spectral and spatial changes were extracted from a set of recordings and used in a regression model as

Sunish George; Slawomir Zielinski; Francis Rumsey

2006-01-01

240

Audio Watermarking Quality Evaluation: Robustness to DA\\/AD Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio watermarking has become an important technology for recording and advertisement industry. Today's embedding and detection strategies often rely on digital or at least high quality channels, like CD or mp3. However for numerous applications, watermarks surviving noisy analogue environments are better suited or even necessary. Application of such schemes allows to identify audio signals with monitoring devices without being

Martin Steinebach; Andreas Lang; Jana Dittmann; Christian Neubauer

2002-01-01

241

A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

242

Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

McCrocklin, Shannon

2012-01-01

243

Control Mechanisms for Packet Audio in the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet provides a single class best effort service. From an application's point of view, this service amounts in practice to providing channels with time-varying characteristics such as delay and loss distributions. One way to support real time applications such as interactive audio given this service is to use control mechanisms that adapt the audio coding and decoding processes based

Jean-chrysostome Bolot; Andrés Vega-garcía

1996-01-01

244

Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

2007-01-01

245

Making the Most of Audio. Technology in Language Learning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared for practicing language teachers, this book's aim is to help them make the most of audio, a readily accessible resource. The book shows, with the help of numerous practical examples, how a range of language skills can be developed. Most examples are in French. Chapters cover the following information: (1) making the most of audio (e.g.,…

Barley, Anthony

246

Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The…

Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

2007-01-01

247

A Case Study on Audio Feedback with Geography Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several small-scale studies have suggested that audio feedback can help students to reflect on their learning and to develop deep learning approaches that are associated with higher attainment in assessments. For this case study, Geography undergraduates were given audio feedback on a written essay assignment, alongside traditional written…

Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Knight, Jasper; Dunne, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

248

Math Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Math Machines organization is to "improve the quality of mathematical education, enhance the transfer of mathematical thinking into other classes, and increase students' ability to apply rigorous mathematics outside the classroom." Their website supports a National Science Foundation ATE grant-supported project designed to improve teaching in the areas of Mathematics, Science, and Technology at the high school and college levels. This improved learning results from using math, science, and technology principles to build and control various machines such as pointers and robots or "math machines", which are simple devices that provide an immediate, physical, dynamic expression to abstract mathematical equations. The website provides information links on Educational Theory, Classroom Activities, Project Workshops, Calculators & Programs, and Machine Construction Instructions for Building: Closed Circuits, Servo Motors, Controllers, Robot Boards and more. There is also contact information, an FAQ section, as well as upcoming events.

2010-05-18

249

Pipetting Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pipetting machine is for use in a laboratory of physiology for the handling of serums. The apparatus includes a syringe and a valve portion constituting a variable stroke positive displacement pump and components for selecting a predetermined stroke t...

C. R. Mencken

1965-01-01

250

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of three interactive, multimedia activities introduce and demonstrate the properties of six simple machines. Specifically, the lessons show how levers, pulleys, inclined planes, screws, wheels and axles, and wedges can reduce the amount of work done by humans. After learning about the characteristics of each classification, users can try to find the simple machines that make up a lawn mower. By inspecting the mower from different angles, several simple machines are revealed and must be identified. The final activity lets users test their knowledge of the mechanics of simple machines. Following a builder through each stage of constructing a tree house, users can apply equations to determine the mechanical advantage supplied by using the tools.

251

Layered indexing of home video based on audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a home video indexing using an audio information to detect an event both a rules-based method and a GMM-based method. Although exclusive audio segmentation and classification was usually used, various sounds overlap in practice, in which case an audio in which various sound overlapped is expressed by a labeling layered index. With the rules-based method, low-level audio features are used to determine indexes, which are classified such as speech, silence, music, and EVN(Environment Noise). The GMM-based method which uses the same features as the rule based method also classifies an audio into the four classes. Smoothing is applied in order to determine the index. We show experiments in a few home video data.

Ogawa, Tomomi; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

2003-12-01

252

Logistics Machining Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Machining operations; tool geometry; cutting fluids; electrical, chemical, special mechanical and optical machining processes; supplemental machining data and information; economics in machining; instructions in machining; surface finish; numeri...

1966-01-01

253

Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

2010-01-01

254

Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating.

George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, Theodore D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Vedam, Sastry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weiss, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: pjkeall@vcu.edu

2006-07-01

255

Robust Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Under Noisy Audio-Video Conditions.  

PubMed

This paper presents the maximum weighted stream posterior (MWSP) model as a robust and efficient stream integration method for audio-visual speech recognition in environments, where the audio or video streams may be subjected to unknown and time-varying corruption. A significant advantage of MWSP is that it does not require any specific measurements of the signal in either stream to calculate appropriate stream weights during recognition, and as such it is modality-independent. This also means that MWSP complements and can be used alongside many of the other approaches that have been proposed in the literature for this problem. For evaluation we used the large XM2VTS database for speaker-independent audio-visual speech recognition. The extensive tests include both clean and corrupted utterances with corruption added in either/both the video and audio streams using a variety of types (e.g., MPEG-4 video compression) and levels of noise. The experiments show that this approach gives excellent performance in comparison to another well-known dynamic stream weighting approach and also compared to any fixed-weighted integration approach in both clean conditions or when noise is added to either stream. Furthermore, our experiments show that the MWSP approach dynamically selects suitable integration weights on a frame-by-frame basis according to the level of noise in the streams and also according to the naturally fluctuating relative reliability of the modalities even in clean conditions. The MWSP approach is shown to maintain robust recognition performance in all tested conditions, while requiring no prior knowledge about the type or level of noise. PMID:23757540

Stewart, Darryl; Seymour, Rowan; Pass, Adrian; Ming, Ji

2013-04-08

256

AUDIO GRAFFITI: A LOCATION BASED AUDIO-TAGGING AND REMIXING ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in mobile computing, wireless com- munications, 3-D audio simulation, global positioning sys- tems (GPS), and distributed data management have opened the door to novel multi-user mobile application spaces. These advances have allowed for a focus on location-based au- diovisual content, ranging from navigation displays to dis- tributed gaming, not to mention the serious potential for the arts, including

Zack Settel; Mike Wozniewski; Nicolas Bouillot; Jeremy R. Cooperstock

257

The Fields Institute: Lecture Audio and Slides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences aims to "enhance mathematical activity in Canada by bringing together mathematicians from Canada and abroad, and by promoting contact and collaboration between professional mathematicians and the increasing numbers of users of mathematics." They support research in pure and applied mathematics, statistics and computer science, as well as collaborative projects between mathematicians and those applying mathematics in areas such as engineering, the physical and biological sciences, medicine, economics and finance, telecommunications and information systems. They offer this website with audio files and slides from events and lectures at the Fields Institute. The lectures, given by scientists from around the world, address such topics as Quantitative Finance, String Theory, Homological Algebra, Combinatorics, and much more. The files are organized by academic year and series title. In cases where the files are not available to download, they provide information on how to obtain the files.

258

Philadelphia Museum of Art: Audio Tours  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Going to the Philadelphia Museum of Art and wandering around can be a great experience. But what if there were also some audio podcasts to enhance this experience? This site provides visitors access to short podcasts that can be used while in the museum, or just while sitting in front of one's computer screen. The podcasts are organized into thematic categories that include "Arms and Armor", "Modern and Contemporary Art", and "Constantine Tapestries". Many of the podcasts include digitized images of the object in question, along with information about its provenance and country of origin. It's easy to see how an assemblage of these podcasts could be organized for use by an art history class or someone who's just developing an interest about a certain aspect of art.

259

A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

1992-03-01

260

An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.  

PubMed

This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices. PMID:21854384

Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

2011-08-19

261

MPEG-4 low-delay general audio coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, speech coding for communication purposes and perceptual audio coding have been separate worlds. On one hand, speech coders provide acceptable speech quality at very low data rates and low delays which are suitable for two-way communication applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP) or teleconferencing. Due to the underlying coding paradigm, however, such coders do not perform well for non-speech signals (e.g.~music and environmental noise). Furthermore, the sound quality and naturalness is severely limited by the fact that most coders are working in narrow-band mode, i.e. with a bandwidth below 4 kHz. On the other hand, perceptual audio codecs provide excellent subjective audio quality for a broad range of signals including speech at bit rates down to 16 kbit/s. The delay of such a coder/decoder chain, however, usually exceeds 200 ms at very low data rates and in this way is not acceptable for interactive two-way communication. This paper describes a coding scheme which is designed to combine the advantages of perceptual audio coding with the low delay necessary for two-way communication. The codec was standardized within MPEG-4 Version 2 Audio under the work item ``Low Delay Audio Coding'' and is derived from the ISO/MPEG-2/4 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) algorithm. The algorithm provides modes operating at algorithmic delay as low as 20 ms and is equipped to handle all full-bandwidth high-quality audio signals, both in monophonic, stereophonic and even multi-channel format. Despite of the low algorithmic delay, the codec delivers better audio quality than MPEG-1 Layer-3 (MP3) at the same bit rate. The paper also addresses issues pertaining to the integration of the coder into H.32x and SDP applications.

Sporer, Thomas; Grill, Bernhard; Herre, Juergen

2001-07-01

262

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

263

A Framework for Building and Deploying the Multiparty Audio Service for Collaborative Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed partial mixing (DPM) is an approach to creating a distributed audio service that supports optimization of bandwidth utilization across multiple related audio streams (e.g., from concurrently active audio sources) while maintaining fairness to TCP traffic in best-effort networks. Rate adaptation of streamed audio is difficult because of its rate sensitivity, the relatively limited range of encoding bandwidths available, and

Milena V. Radenkovic

2004-01-01

264

Gaussian Mixture Modeling Using Short Time Fourier Transform Features for Audio Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In audio fingerprinting, an audio clip must be recognized by matching an extracted fingerprint to a database of previously computed fingerprints. The fingerprints should reduce the dimensionality of the input significantly, provide discrimination among different audio clips, and at the same time, invariant to the distorted versions of the same audio clip. In this paper, we design fingerprints addressing the

Arunan Ramalingam; Sridhar Krishnan

2005-01-01

265

Gaussian Mixture Modeling of Short-Time Fourier Transform Features for Audio Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In audio fingerprinting, an audio clip must be recognized by matching an extracted fingerprint to a database of previously computed fingerprints. The fingerprints should reduce the dimensionality of the input significantly, provide discrimination among different audio clips, and, at the same time, be invariant to distorted versions of the same audio clip. In this paper, we design fingerprints addressing the

Arunan Ramalingam; Sridhar Krishnan

2006-01-01

266

High-quality low-complexity wavelet-based compression algorithm for audio signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelets have recently emerged as a powerful tool for signal compression, particularly in the areas of image, video, and audio compression. In this paper, we present a low-complexity wavelet-based audio compression algorithm that is capable of handling fairly arbitrary audio sources. The algorithm transforms the incoming audio data into the wavelet domain, and compresses data by exploring redundancy in the

M. Abo-Zahhad; A. Al-Smadi; S. M. Ahmed

2004-01-01

267

Effects of reproduction equipment on interaction with a spatial audio interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial audio displays have been criticized because the use of headphones may isolate users from their real world audio environment. In this paper we study the effects of three types of audio reproduction equipment (standard headphones, bone-conductance headphones and monaural presentation using a single earphone) on time and accuracy during interaction with a deictic spatial audio display. Participants selected a

Georgios N. Marentakis; Stephen A. Brewster

2005-01-01

268

Spatially Augmented Audio Delivery: Applications of Spatial Sound Awareness in Sensor-Equipped Indoor Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current mainstream audio playback paradigms do not take any account of a user's physical location or orienta- tion in the delivery of audio through headphones or speak- ers. Thus audio is usually presented as a static perception whereby it is naturally a dynamic 3D phenomenon audio en- vironment. It fails to take advantage of our innate psycho- acoustical perception that

Graham Healy; Alan F. Smeaton

2009-01-01

269

Leonardo's Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson will highlight some of Leonardo da Vinci's futuristic inventions, introducing the elements of machines. Through the use of student interactives, this lesson provides an interesting context in which students can begin to develop their ideas about the uniqueness of humans in the natural world.

Science Netlinks;

2003-03-05

270

Function Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows learners to explore simple linear functions. Students determine the algebraic form of a linear equation by entering inputs into the machine and by looking for patterns in the outputs. The function rules available are: integers from -10 to 10 are either added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the input x to yield the output y.

2011-01-01

271

Mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mining machine is disclosed in which a cutting drum undercuts a vein of coal and side relief cutters make vertical kerfs in the vein upwardly from the undercut. A chisel plate is forced into the coal vein and breaks loose the material above the undercut and between the side relief cuts. The coal falls into conveyors and is loaded

Mendola

1981-01-01

272

Decoding Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore variables and their uses. Learners pretend to be FBI agents and make a TOP SECRET tool that enables them to decode and find the values of hidden messages and words. Learners make their simple "decoding machines" out of paper and tape.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

273

Laugh Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laugh Machine project aims at endowing virtual agents with the capability to laugh naturally, at the right moment and with the correct intensity, when interacting with human participants. In this report we present the technical development and evaluation of such an agent in one specific scenario: watching TV along with a participant. The agent must be able to react

Jrme Urbain; Radoslaw Niewiadomski; Jennifer Hofmann; Emeline Bantegnie; Tobias Baur; Nadia Berthouze; Hseyin Cakmak; Richard Thomas Cruz; Stphane Dupont; Matthieu Geist; Harry Griffin; Florian Lingenfelser; Maurizio Mancini; Miguel Miranda; Gary McKeown; Sathish Pammi; Olivier Pietquin; Bilal Piot; Tracey Platt; Willibald Ruch; Abhishek Sharma; Gualtiero Volpe; Johannes Wagner

2012-01-01

274

Wacky Machines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

Fendrich, Jean

2002-01-01

275

Addition Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An addition machine is a computing device with a finite number of registers, limited to the following six types of operations: input to register x; copy register y to register x; add register y to register x; subtract register y from register x; compare r...

R. W. Floyd D. E. Knuth

1989-01-01

276

Off-talk - a problem for human-machine-interaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the definition and description of the phenomenon Off-Talk in human- machine-interaction. This phenomenon is considered to cause problems due to non-relevant information that is conveyed within these utterances. Besides the definition of Off-Talk our work aims to provide an analysis of transcribed audio data that is part of the SmartKom 1 data collection. In the

Daniela Oppermann; Florian Schiel; Silke Steininger; Nicole Beringer

2001-01-01

277

47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...streams. The DAB audio programming stream that is provided pursuant to this paragraph must be at least comparable in sound quality to the analog programming service currently provided to listeners. (b) Emergency information. The...

2012-10-01

278

Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as rev...

E. M. Krebs

2002-01-01

279

Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

280

Audio Features Selection for Automatic Height Estimation from Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aiming at the automatic estimation of the height of a person from speech, we investigate the applicability of various subsets\\u000a of speech features, which were formed on the basis of ranking the relevance and the individual quality of numerous audio features.\\u000a Specifically, based on the relevance ranking of the large set of openSMILE audio descriptors, we performed selection of subsets

Todor Ganchev; Iosif Mporas; Nikos Fakotakis

2010-01-01

281

Audio watermarking method robust against time- and frequency-fluctuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an audio watermarking algorithm that can embed a multiple-bit message which is robust against wow-and-flutter, cropping, noise-addition, pitch-shift, and audio compressions such as MP3. The algorithm calculates and manipulates the magnitudes of segmented areas in the time-frequency plane of the content using short-term DFTs. The detection algorithm correlates the magnitudes with a pseudo-random array that

Ryuki Tachibana; Shuichi Shimizu; Taiga Nakamura; Seiji Kobayashi

2001-01-01

282

Systematic Acquisiton of Audio Classes for Elevator Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a systematic framework for arriving at audio classes for detection of crimes in ele- vators. We use our time series analysis framework proposed in5 to low-level features extracted from the audio of an elevator surveillance content to perform an inlier\\/outlier based temporal seg- mentation. Since suspicious events in elevators are outliers in a background of usual events, such

Regunathan Radhakrishnan; Ajay Divakaran; Paris Smaragdis

2005-01-01

283

Emerging magnetic technologies for consumer audio\\/video (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of consumer audio\\/video, digital technology is the natural path for advancement. In audio systems, it has just been introduced in the form of digital compact cassette tape recorder and mini disk system in which magneto-optical recording is used. Therefore, the digital video instruments, such as small cassette digital video tape recorders (VTR) for high-definition television and static

Hideo Fujiwara

1993-01-01

284

Audio-Visual Automatic Speech Recognition for Connected Digits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-visual automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a hotspot in field of human-computer interaction (HCI). This paper implemented an audio-visual ASR for Chinese connected digits and addressed on the method of speech segmentation. A novel speech segmentation approach combining Otsupsilas method with traditional short-time energy and zero-crossing rate (ZCR) based method was proposed. The experimental results showed its efficiency compared with

Xiaoping Wang; Yufeng Hao; Degang Fu; Chunwei Yuan

2008-01-01

285

Deployment issues for multi-user audio support in CVEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an audio service for CVEs, designed to support many people speaking simultaneously and to operate across the Internet. Our service exploits a technique called Distributed Partial Mixing (DPM) to dynamically adapt to varying numbers of speakers and network congestion. Our DPM implementation dynamically manages the trade-off between congestion and audio quality when compared to the approaches of peer-to-peer

Milena Radenkovic; Chris Greenhalgh; Steve Benford

2002-01-01

286

Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard class-D switching-mode audio power amplifier with separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple and compact solution with high efficiency, higher level of integration, lower component count, less board space and eventually lower cost. Both peak and average

Petar Ljusev; M. A. E. Andersen

2005-01-01

287

Robust Hiding of Fingerprint-Biometric Data into Audio Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel fingerprint-biometric template protection scheme, in which templates are concealed into audio\\u000a signals. Fingerprint templates are encrypted by chaotic encryption and then hid into the chaotically selected random sampling\\u000a points of the host audio signal by a new non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT)-based data hiding method. The template\\u000a extraction process is completely blind and does not

Muhammad Khurram Khan; Ling Xie; Jiashu Zhang

2007-01-01

288

A single-chip audio signal processor for HDTV receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-chip LSI has been developed to decode audio signals which are multiplexed into MUSE (multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding) signals for transmitting HDTV (high-definition television) signals. Because the LSI requires just a few peripheral parts (such as two RAMs and one voltage-controlled oscillator circuit), use of the LSI can reduce the size of the MUSE audio signal decoding digital unit.

Kazuo Naganawa; Yoshihiro Hori; Shuji Yanase; Nobuo Itoh; Yoshikazu Asano

1991-01-01

289

Hear-Through and Mic-Through Augmented Reality: Using Bone Conduction to Display Spatialized Audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach for mixing real and computer-generated audio for augmented reality (AR) applications. Analogous to optical-see-through and video-see-through techniques in the visual domain, we present Hear-Through and Mic-Through audio AR. Hear-Through AR uses a bone-conduction headset to deliver computer-generated audio, while leaving the ear canals free to receive audio from the surrounding environment. Mic-Through AR allows audio

Robert W. Lindeman; Haruo Noma; Paulo Gonçalves De Barros

2007-01-01

290

Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

Thomas, John C.

291

Minimally radiating sources for personal audio.  

PubMed

In order to reduce annoyance from the audio output of personal devices, it is necessary to maintain the sound level at the user position while minimizing the levels elsewhere. If the dark zone, within which the sound is to be minimized, extends over the whole far field of the source, the problem reduces to that of minimizing the radiated sound power while maintaining the pressure level at the user position. It is shown analytically that the optimum two-source array then has a hypercardioid directivity and gives about 7 dB reduction in radiated sound power, compared with a monopole producing the same on-axis pressure. The performance of other linear arrays is studied using monopole simulations for the motivating example of a mobile phone. The trade-off is investigated between the performance in reducing radiated noise, and the electrical power required to drive the array for different numbers of elements. It is shown for both simulations and experiments conducted on a small array of loudspeakers under anechoic conditions, that both two and three element arrays provide a reasonable compromise between these competing requirements. The implementation of the two-source array in a coupled enclosure is also shown to reduce the electrical power requirements. PMID:20968345

Elliott, Stephen J; Cheer, Jordan; Murfet, Harry; Holland, Keith R

2010-10-01

292

Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goals for this introduction activity to Simple Machines are.: - Generate scientific questions about the world based on observation - Design and conduct scientific investigations - Use tools and equipment appropriate to scientific investigations - Use sources of information in support of scientific investigation - Write and follow procedures in the form of step-by-step instructions, formulas, flow diagram, and sketches - Show how common themes of science, mathematics, and technology apply in real-world contexts - Recognize the contributions made in science by cultures and individuals of diverse backgrounds - Design strategies for moving objects by application of forces, including the use of simple machines MERC Online Reviewer Comments: Good computer activities for under-represented students who want to pursue manufacturing education. Distance Learning is a plus.

Wakild, Terri

2009-11-30

293

Charging machine  

DOEpatents

A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

Medlin, John B. (Newark, DE)

1976-05-25

294

Voting machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A compact, versatile voting machine is disclosed having adaptability for use with various vote registering devices such as tally counters and punch card apparatus. The voting machine includes a selector mechanism having a series of parallel columns housing voter operated key slides. A vertical interlock mechanism includes ball housing blocks which are alternately disposed between the key slides and house displaceable interlock balls in a tool line. The cam blocks are adjustable to limit the effective length of the tool line to establish groupings of candidates from which a single selection can be made. A magazine at the top of each column is adjustable to permit multiple selections from a grouping. Actuation of a key cams the interlock balls into the tool line, and when a predetermined number of voter selections have been made no additional keys can be actuated as they are blocked by the tool line. A row of adjacent horizontal keys can also be interlocked to established selection groups as typically found on a general election ballot. A bar is moveable to horizontally interlock adjacent columns by introducing locking pins into a position to be cammed by actuation of a key. A drive mechanism associated with each column permits the voter to vote straight party and clears the machine to ready it for another voter. The drive mechanism includes cam controlled clutches that operate four-bar linkage elements to depress or return the key slides. A judge controlled mechanism locks the machine between voters. For various voting requirements, judge operated cam arrangements are cooperable with the horizontal locking pins and the four-bar linkage to selectively lock out partial or entire columns or rows of key slides. The key slides are provided with a voter viewable button that registers a visible, luminescent X when a key is voted.

O'Neal; Cothburn M. (Dallas, TX); Mayo; Alfred M. (Richardson, TX); Childs, deceased; George William (LATE OF DTX, TX)

1976-01-27

295

Induction machine  

SciTech Connect

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizes, a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, W.H.

1980-10-14

296

Induction machine  

DOEpatents

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

1980-01-01

297

Machine vision  

SciTech Connect

To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

Horn, D.

1989-06-01

298

Machine Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, the homepage of Machine Design.com, contains resources on a variety of information for engineers and technicians related to devices, components, design applications, products, and systems in the manufacturing technology sector. The site also features a CAD library, eBooks, audiovisual aids, webinars, whitepapers and a reference center. Some of the resources require a free login. The page offers an RSS feed to keep users up to date on new resources. A free login may be required to access some of these items.

2009-11-09

299

Learning about Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to learn about simple machines and to have fun doing so! First, use this website to learn backround information on the basics of simple machines. Try the quiz! Simple Machines Learning Site Next, play a game that tests your ability to identify simple machines.... Edheads: Simple Machines Finally, view this video to see how students your age used applied simple machines to do a cool task... Building Simple Machines: A Glass of Milk, Please ...

Keller, Mrs.

2010-01-17

300

Audio-visual event detection based on mining of semantic audio-visual labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removing commercials from television programs is a much sought-after feature for a personal video recorder. In this paper, we employ an unsupervised clustering scheme (CM_Detect) to detect commercials in television programs. Each program is first divided into W8-minute chunks, and we extract audio and visual features from each of these chunks. Next, we apply k-means clustering to assign each chunk with a commercial/program label. In contrast to other methods, we do not make any assumptions regarding the program content. Thus, our method is highly content-adaptive and computationally inexpensive. Through empirical studies on various content, including American news, Japanese news, and sports programs, we demonstrate that our method is able to filter out most of the commercials without falsely removing the regular program.

Goh, King-Shy; Miyahara, Koji; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Xiong, Ziyou; Divakaran, Ajay

2003-12-01

301

Tactical audio and acoustic rendering in biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Complexity of biomedical data requires novel sophisticated analysis and presentation methods. Sonification is used as a new information display in augmented reality systems to overcome problems of existing human-computer interface (e.g., opaque or heavy head-mounted displays, slow computer graphics, etc.). A novel taxonomy of sonification methods and techniques is introduced. We present our experience with tactical audio and acoustic rendering in biomedical applications. Tactical audio as an audio feedback is used as support for precise manual positioning of a surgical instrument in the operating room. Acoustic rendering is applied as an additional information channel and/or warning signal in biomedical signal analysis and data presentation. PMID:10719492

Jovanov, E; Wegner, K; Radivojevi?, V; Starcevi?, D; Quinn, M S; Karron, D B

1999-06-01

302

Music identification system using MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors.  

PubMed

This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

You, Shingchern D; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

2013-03-07

303

Audio-visual active speaker tracking in cluttered indoors environments.  

PubMed

We propose a system for detecting the active speaker in cluttered and reverberant environments where more than one person speaks and moves. Rather than using only audio information, the system utilizes audiovisual information from multiple acoustic and video sensors that feed separate audio and video tracking modules. The audio module operates using a particle filter (PF) and an information-theoretic framework to provide accurate acoustic source location under reverberant conditions. The video subsystem combines in 3-D a number of 2-D trackers based on a variation of Stauffer's adaptive background algorithm with spatiotemporal adaptation of the learning parameters and a Kalman tracker in a feedback configuration. Extensive experiments show that gains are to be expected when fusion of the separate modalities is performed to detect the active speaker. PMID:18558543

Talantzis, Fotios; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Constantinides, Anthony G

2008-06-01

304

Audio-visual active speaker tracking in cluttered indoors environments.  

PubMed

We propose a system for detecting the active speaker in cluttered and reverberant environments where more than one person speaks and moves. Rather than using only audio information, the system utilizes audiovisual information from multiple acoustic and video sensors that feed separate audio and video tracking modules. The audio module operates using a particle filter (PF) and an information-theoretic framework to provide accurate acoustic source location under reverberant conditions. The video subsystem combines in 3-D a number of 2-D trackers based on a variation of Stauffer's adaptive background algorithm with spatiotemporal adaptation of the learning parameters and a Kalman tracker in a feedback configuration. Extensive experiments show that gains are to be expected when fusion of the separate modalities is performed to detect the active speaker. PMID:19150757

Talantzis, Fotios; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Constantinides, Anthony G

2009-02-01

305

Multi-channel spatialization systems for audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogrammable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed, and fed to a pair of headphones.

Begault, Durand R.

1993-10-01

306

Multi-channel spatialization system for audio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic head related transfer functions (HRTF's) for imposing reprogramable spatial cues to a plurality of audio input signals included, for example, in multiple narrow-band audio communications signals received simultaneously are generated and stored in interchangeable programmable read only memories (PROM's) which store both head related transfer function impulse response data and source positional information for a plurality of desired virtual source locations. The analog inputs of the audio signals are filtered and converted to digital signals from which synthetic head related transfer functions are generated in the form of linear phase finite impulse response filters. The outputs of the impulse response filters are subsequently reconverted to analog signals, filtered, mixed and fed to a pair of headphones.

Begault, Durand R.

1995-08-01

307

Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control.

You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

2013-01-01

308

Multifunctional machine tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of metal cutting machine tools have been increasing to meet the demands of high productivity and high accuracy in machining complicated and difficult parts on one machine. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of multi-functional machine tools used for metal cutting, and their kinematic configurations, control and programming technologies. Design principles and assessment of multi-functional machine tools are

T. Moriwaki

2008-01-01

309

Mining machine  

SciTech Connect

A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

Becker, H.R.

1984-12-04

310

Online Audio and Video Recordings: UC Berkeley Lectures and Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Resources Center at the University of California, Berkeley makes available a selection of video and audio files, offering highlights from its collection and the Berkeley Language Center (BLC) Language Lab Speech Archives. The audio section contains a number of lengthy full-text speeches and readings delivered on the Berkeley campus by notable figures such as Malcolm X, Noam Chomsky, Umberto Eco, Robert Frost, Margaret Mead, Michel Foucault, and the leaders of the Free Speech Movement. The video section currently features clips from the upbeat and musically-vibrant films of Bay Area filmmaker Les Blank.

311

37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...musical sounds, such as digital audio tape recorders (DAT), digital compact cassettes...upon notification in writing to the Register...example, cases where digital audio recording media...request shall be made in writing and must...

2010-07-01

312

37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...musical sounds, such as digital audio tape recorders (DAT), digital compact cassettes...upon notification in writing to the Register...example, cases where digital audio recording media...request shall be made in writing and must...

2009-07-01

313

Advanced Audio Interface for Phonetic Speech Recognition in a High Noise Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standard Object Systems, Inc. (SOS) has used its existing technology in phonetic speech recognition, audio signal processing, and multilingual language translation to design and demonstrate an advanced audio interface for speech recognition in a high nois...

2000-01-01

314

Frame Splitting Scheme for Error-Robust Audio Streaming over Packet-Switching Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel frame splitting scheme for an error-robust audio streaming over packet-switching networks. In our approach to perceptual audio coding, an audio frame is split into several subframes based on the network configuration such that each packet can be decoded independently at the receiver. Through a subjective comparison category rating (CCR) test, it is discovered that our approach enhances the quality of the decoded audio signal under the lossy packet-switching networks environment.

Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Jung Su; Yun, Hwan Sik; Chang, Joon-Hyuk; Kimt, Nam Soo

315

Analysis of D\\/A and A\\/D Conversions in Quantization-based Audio Watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its advantages, quantization-based embedding has been introduced into audio watermarking to improve ro- bustness performance. Existing audio watermarking al- gorithms often focus on a given attack. However, in some transmission environments, digital audio files may suffer from the different attacks. For example, effects of D\\/A and A\\/D conversions (denoted as DA\\/AD in this paper) on audio watermarking may

Shijun Xiang; Jiwu Huang

2006-01-01

316

Simple Machines - Mechanical Advantage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video uses working simple machines to demonstrate how to calculate mechanical advantage. Suitable for any school program involving simple machines. Demonstrates pulley systems including a chain block.

2007-01-01

317

Parallel machines scheduling with machine shutdowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the nonpreemptive parallel machines scheduling problem where some of the machines are planned to be shutdown. We apply LPT algorithm to the problem and analyze its performance. Our analysis shows that the makespan of the LPT schedule is bounded by twice the optimum makespan if no more than half of the machines are allowed to be shutdown simultaneously.

H.-C. Hwang; S. Y. Chang

1998-01-01

318

17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and video material. 232.304...Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in...

2010-04-01

319

17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and video material. 232.304...Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in...

2009-04-01

320

Content based audio classification and retrieval using joint time-frequency analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an audio classification and retrieval technique that exploits the non-stationary behavior of music signals and extracts features that characterize their spectral change over time. Audio classification provides a solution to incorrect and inefficient manual labelling of audio files on computers by allowing users to extract music files based on content similarity rather than labels. In our technique, classification

S. Esmaili; S. Krishnan; K. Raahemifar

2004-01-01

321

A SIMILARITY MEASURE FOR AUDIO QUERY BY EXAMPLE BASED ON PERCEPTUAL CODING AND COMPRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Query by example for multimedia signals aims at automatic re- trieval of samples from the media database similar to a user- provided example. This paper proposes a similarity measure for query by example of audio signals. The method first represents audio signals using perceptual audio coding and second estimates the similarity of two signals from the advantage gained by com-

Marko Helén; Tuomas Virtanen

2007-01-01

322

37 CFR 201.27 - Initial notice of distribution of digital audio recording devices or media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. 201.27 Section 201.27 Patents...distribution of digital audio recording devices or media. (a) General. This section...recording device or digital audio recording medium in the United States. (b)...

2013-07-01

323

17 CFR 232.304 - Graphic, image, audio and video material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Graphic, image, audio and video material. 232.304...Submissions § 232.304 Graphic, image, audio and video material. (a) If a filer includes graphic, image, audio or video material in...

2013-04-01

324

Highlights extraction from sports video based on an audio-visual marker detection framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to use a visual object (e.g., the baseball catcher) detection algorithm to find local, semantic objects in video frames in addition to an audio classification algorithm to find semantic audio objects in the audio track for sports highlights extraction. The highlight candidates are then further grouped into finer-resolution highlight segments, using color or motion information. During the grouping

Ziyou Xiong; Regunathan Radhakrishnan; Ajay Divakaran; Thomas S. Huang

2005-01-01

325

Exploring spatial audio conferencing functionality in multiuser virtual environments (poster session)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chatspace was developed that allows conversation with 3D sound using networked streaming in a shared virtual environment. The system provides an interface to advanced audio features, such as a “whisper function” for conveying a confided audio stream. This study explores the use of spatial audio to enhance a user's experience in multiuser virtual environments.

Yasuhiro Yamazaki; Jens Herder

2000-01-01

326

Modifying Excessive Lunchroom NoiseOmission Training with Audio Feedback and Group Contingent Reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial omission training by means of audio feedback and a group reinforcement contingency were employed to reduce excessive noise in an inpatient unit for emotionally disturbed children. Occurrence and duration of noise violations above 76 decibels were assessed using electronic audio equipment. An ABAB withdrawal design was employed to evaluate intervention effects. During treatment phases, subjects received audio feedback when

Larry Michelson; Thomas M. Dilorenzo; James P. Calpin; Donald A. Williamson

1981-01-01

327

COMPUTING STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTIONS OF MUSIC THROUGH THE IDENTIFICATION OF REPRESENTATIVE EXCERPTS FROM AUDIO FILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid growth of audio databases, many music retrieval applications have employed metadata descriptions to facilitate better handling of huge databases. Music structure creates the uniqueness identity for each music piece. Therefore, structural description is capable of providing a powerful way of interacting with audio content, and serves as a linkage between low-level description and higher-level descriptions of audio

BEE-SUAN ONG; PERFECTO HERRERA

328

Low-delay predictive audio coding for the HIVITS HDTV codec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of work relating to predictive audio coding, as part of the European project on High Quality Video Telephone and HD(TV) Systems (HIVITS), is reported. The predictive coding algorithm is developed, along with six-channel audio coding and decoding hardware. Demonstrations of the audio codec operating in conjunction with the video codec, are given.

McParland, A. K.; Gilchrist, N. H. C.

1995-01-01

329

CLAM: a framework for efficient and rapid development of cross-platform audio applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

CLAM is a C++ framework that offers a complete develop- ment and research platform for the audio and music domain. Apart from offering an abstract model for audio systems, it also includes a repository of processing algorithms and data types as well as a number of tools such as audio or MIDI input\\/output. All these features can be exploited to

Xavier Amatriain; Pau Arumi; David Garcia

2006-01-01

330

TECHNICAL NOTE: Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared

Paul Wood; David Sinton

2010-01-01

331

Audio events detection based highlights extraction from baseball, golf and soccer games in a unified framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a unified framework to extract highlights from three sports - baseball, golf and soccer - by detecting some of the common audio events that are directly indicative of highlights. We used MPEG-7 audio features and entropic prior hidden Markov models (HMM) for feature extraction and classification, respectively, to recognize these common audio events. Together with pre- and

Ziyou Xiong; Regunathan Radhakrishnan; Ajay Divakaran; Thomas S. Huang

2003-01-01

332

The Case for FEC-based Error Control for Packet Audio in the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of distributing real-time packet audio overnetworks such as the Internet which do not provide support for real-timeapplications. Experiments with such networks indicate that audio qualityis mediocre in large part because of excessive audio packet losses. In thispaper, we show using measurements over the Internet as well as analyticmodeling that most loss periods involve a small number

Andrs Vega-garca; Jean-chrysostome Bolot

1997-01-01

333

Audio Use in E-Learning: What, Why, When, and How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decisions related to the implementation of audio in e-learning are perplexing for many instructional designers, and deciphering theory and principles related to audio use can be difficult for practitioners. Yet, as bandwidth on the Internet increases, digital audio is becoming more common in online courses. This article provides a review of…

Calandra, Brendan; Barron, Ann E.; Thompson-Sellers, Ingrid

2008-01-01

334

Individual audio channels with single display groupware: effects on communication and task strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a system that allows four users to each receive sound from a private audio channel while using a shared tabletop display. In order to explore how private audio channels affect a collaborative work environment, we conducted a user study with this system. The results reveal differences in work strategies when groups are presented with individual versus public audio,

Meredith Ringel Morris; Dan Morris; Terry Winograd

2004-01-01

335

Introduction to Methods for Music Classification Based on Audio Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of music information retrieval (MIR) is to analyze and categorize music pieces. Over the last years many approaches have been designed to automatically extract music data from the digitized audio signal. This article presents a survey of the state-of-the-art algorithms on the basis of a broad literature study and a tool analysis. It should help to navigate through

Igor Vatolkin; Wolfgang Theimer

336

Interactive Simulation of Complex Audio-Visual Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a method for eciently rendering the audio generated by graphical scenes with a large number of sound- ing objects. This is achieved by using modal synthesis for rigid bodies and rendering only audible modes. We present a novel real-time algorithm which estimates modal excitations, based on the masking characteristics of the human auditory system, and eliminates modes which

Kees van den Doel; Dave Knott; Dinesh K. Pai

337

Audio-visual emotion recognition in adult attachment interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic multimodal recognition of spontaneous affective expressions is a largely unexplored and challenging problem. In this paper, we explore audio-visual emotion recognition in a realistic human conversation setting - Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Based on the assumption that facial expression and vocal expression be at the same coarse affective states, positive and negative emotion sequences are labeled according to Facial

Zhihong Zeng; Yuxiao Hu; Yun Fu; Thomas S. Huang; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen

2006-01-01

338

Computer Simulation of HRTFs for Personalization of 3D Audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

To give listeners a vivid sense of 3D spatial audio, virtual auditory display technology relies crucially on head related transfer functions (HRTFs). However, as each person has unique morphological characteristics of their head and ears, for a realistic auditory experience it is important to use personalized HRTFs. Our approach to HRTF personalization is first to measure a listener's head and

Parham Mokhtari; Hironori Takemoto; Ryouichi Nishimura; Hiroaki Kato

2008-01-01

339

Audio steganalysis with content-independent distortion measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first propose a novel content-independent distortion measurement method and use this methodology for digital audio steganalysis. Content-independent distortion measures are utilized as features for the classifier (steganalyzer) design. Experimental results show that the removal of content dependency from features enhances their discriminatory power.

I. Avcibas

2006-01-01

340

What Makes Preschoolers Listen to Narrative Audio Tapes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most communication studies on children and media have focused solely on television. Other popular media products such as narrative audio tapes have been neglected. The present article addresses factors that influence preschoolers' selective exposure to these tapes. In line with past research, the emotional attractiveness of a story's protagonist and some formal design elements of the product are regarded as

Peter Vorderer; Saskia Böcking; Christoph Klimmt; Ute Ritterfeld

2006-01-01

341

The Penetration of Rock by Electromagnetic Waves and Audio Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to throw some light upon the much discussed topic of radio penetration and the path of radio waves. Conclusive experimental evidence at the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, free from all metallic conductors, confirms the hypothesis that radio waves penetrated through the groand and did not follow air openings or conductors. There is further evidence that audio-frequency magnetic

A. S. Eve; D. A. Keys; F. W. Lee

1929-01-01

342

AUTOMATED QUANTISATION AND TRANSCRIPTION OF ORNAMENTS FROM AUDIO RECORDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method for rhythm quantisation and measurement of expressive timing. This paper focuses on the automatic quantisation and rhythmic transcription of syncopated rhythms and baroque ornaments, e.g. ap- pogiaturas, mordants and trills from time-tagged audio rec- ordings without knowing the score in advance. We demon- strate the transcription of the Aria of J. S. Bach's Goldberg Variations,

Georg Boenn

343

Direct observation of magnetic patterns in audio tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magneto-optical imaging has become a powerful technique for the measurement of local magnetic fields. The technique consists in measuring the rotation in the light polarization plane when light travels through a transparent sensitive garnet (Ytrium Iron Garnet, YIG). The rotation angle is a function of the magnetic field at the YIG location. We have studied commercial audio tapes in which

Hernán Ferrari; Victoria Bekeris; Tom Henning Johansen

2004-01-01

344

Nomadic radio: scaleable and contextual notification for wearable audio messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile workers need seamless access to communication andinformation services on portable devices. However current solutionsoverwhelm users with intrusive and ambiguous notifications. In thispaper, we describe scaleable auditory techniques and a contextualnotification model for providing timely information, whileminimizing interruptions. Users actions influence local adaptationin the model. These techniques are demonstrated in Nomadic Radio,an audio-only wearable computing platform.

Chris Schmandt

1999-01-01

345

Multi-pose lipreading and audio-visual speech recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we study the adaptation of visual and audio-visual speech recognition systems to non-ideal visual conditions. We focus on overcoming the effects of a changing pose of the speaker, a problem encountered in natural situations where the speaker moves freely and does not keep a frontal pose with relation to the camera. To handle these situations, we introduce a pose normalization block in a standard system and generate virtual frontal views from non-frontal images. The proposed method is inspired by pose-invariant face recognition and relies on linear regression to find an approximate mapping between images from different poses. We integrate the proposed pose normalization block at different stages of the speech recognition system and quantify the loss of performance related to pose changes and pose normalization techniques. In audio-visual experiments we also analyze the integration of the audio and visual streams. We show that an audio-visual system should account for non-frontal poses and normalization techniques in terms of the weight assigned to the visual stream in the classifier.

Estellers, Virginia; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2012-12-01

346

Design of audio directional system based on FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of audio directional system which is based on FPGA. In this design, FPGA is used to implement digital signal generation, Hilbert transform, single sideband modulation, and accomplish the conversion from digital signal to PWM signal. The simulation results demonstrate that in the process of nonlinear self-demodulation of the SSB algorithm, without preprocessing, can restore to

Jicai Liang; Song Gao; Yi Li

2011-01-01

347

Passive geosynchronous SAR system reusing backscattered digital audio broadcasting signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is considered, located on a geosynchronous receiver, and illuminated by the backscattered energy of satellite broadcast digital audio or television signals. The principal application of such a passive system could be differential interferometry, since even low spatial resolution coupled to zero baseline would be useful; however, other imaging applications could be envisaged and even some

C. Prati; F. Rocca; D. Giancola; A. Monti Guarnieri

1998-01-01

348

Security-Monitoring using Microphone Arrays and Audio Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a security-monitoring instrument that can detect and classify the location and nature of different sounds in a room. The instrument is reliable and robust even in the presence of reverberation and in low signal to noise ratio conditions. This paper proposes a new algorithm for classifying first an audio segment as speech or nonspeech then classifies the

A. R. Abu-El-Quran; R. A. Goubran

2005-01-01

349

Augmented reality-based audio\\/visual surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are immediate needs for audio\\/visual surveillance systems in a large number of areas including law enforcement, military, commercial, and personal security. A series of cameras connected to a local ldquomonitoring centerrdquo via a wireless mesh network can provide instantaneous ad-hoc monitoring of several environments. However, there are several issues that must be resolved particularly when considering a large number

Mouhcine Guennoun; Saad Khattak; Bill Kapralos; Khalil El-Khatib

2008-01-01

350

HMM Based Falling Person Detection Using Both Audio and Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic detection of a falling person in video is an important problem with applications in security and safety areas including supportive home environments and CCTV surveillance systems. Human motion in video is modeled using Hidden Markov Models (HMM) in this paper. In addition, the audio track of the video is also used to distinguish a person simply sitting on a

B. Ugur Töreyin; Yigithan Dedeoglu; A. Enis Çetin

2005-01-01

351

Automatic summarization of audio-visual soccer feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fully automatic system for soccer game summarization. The system takes audio-visual content as an input, and builds on the integration of two independent but complementary contributions (i) to identify crucial periods of the soccer game in a fully automatic way, and (ii) to summarize the soccer game as a function of individual narrative preferences of the

Fan Chen; Christophe De Vleeschouwer; Helenca Duxans Barrobes; J. Gregorio Escalada; David Conejero

2010-01-01

352

Setting Up an Audio Database for Music Information Retrieval Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this white paper we summarize some general requirements and issues to be clarified in order to set up a usable database for audio-based MIR benchmarking. A broad-minded approach is required in order to go beyond pure retrieval issues and include other problems that underlie in the core or in the surroundings of Music Information Retrieval. We conclude with a

Perfecto Herrera-Boyer

2002-01-01

353

Structured Prediction Models for Chord Transcription of Music Audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chord sequences are a compact and useful description of music, representing each beat or measure in terms of a likely distribution over individual notes without specifying the notes exactly. Transcribing music audio into chord sequences is essential for harmonic analysis, and would be an important component in content-based retrieval and indexing, but accuracy rates remain fairly low. In this paper,

Adrian Weller; Daniel P. W. Ellis; Tony Jebara

2009-01-01

354

Multimodal Music Mood Classification Using Audio and Lyrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a study on music mood classi- fication using audio and lyrics information. The mood of a song is expressed by means of musical features but a rele- vant part also seems to be conveyed by the lyrics. We eval- uate each factor independently and explore the possibility to combine both, using Natural Language Processing and

Cyril Laurier; Jens Grivolla; Perfecto Herrera

2008-01-01

355

A survey of packet loss recovery techniques for streaming audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey a number of packet loss recovery techniques for streaming audio applications operating using IP multicast. We begin with a discussion of the loss and delay characteristics of an IP multicast channel, and from this show the need for packet loss recovery. Recovery techniques may be divided into two classes: sender- and receiver-based. We compare and contrast several sender-based

Colin Perkins; Orion Hodson; Vicky Hardman

1998-01-01

356

Media Convergence: Grand Theft Audio: Negotiating Copyright as Composers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, writing often requires composers to draw upon multiple modes of meaning making. Today's computers and robust networks allow writers to choreograph audio, video, other visual elements, text, and more. This is new. Admittedly, some professionals have been mixing media for years to create advertisements, movies, and CDs, for instance, but access to these technologies is now available in ways

Dànielle Nicole DeVoss; Suzanne Webb

2008-01-01

357

Packet Audio Playout Delay Adjustment: Performance Bounds and Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In packet audio applications, packets are buffered at a receiving site and their playout delayed in order to com- pensate for variable network delays. In this paper, we con- sider the problem of adaptively adjusting the playout delay in order to keep this delay as small as possible, while at the same time avoiding excessive \\

Sue B. Moon; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

1998-01-01

358

New results using the audio watermarking based on wavelet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audio watermarking based on wavelet transform algorithm depends on embedding and extracting bits in the watermark. The original algorithm depends on the idea of determining the signal spectrum computed by detailed and approximated wavelet coefficients and by inserting the watermark in the spectrum (Vieru et al., 2003). The wavelet coefficients for the first level are determined at the beginning.

Rodica Vieru; Radwan Tahboub; C. Constantinescu; V. Lazarescu

2005-01-01

359

A portable audio-biofeedback system to improve postural control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a portable audio-biofeedback (ABF) system that encodes the signals provided by a linear accelerometric sensor into a stereo sound. This sound is relayed to the subjects via headphones and can enhance the ability of subjects to perceive trunk accelerations. We tested this system on nine healthy subjects while they stood in three conditions listening to the ABF

M. Dozza; L. Chiari; F. B. Horak

2004-01-01

360

Audio-Visual Redundancy and TV News Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental study examines the effects of audio and visual redundancy on recall and story understanding in television news. College students viewed a series of voice-over news stories that varied in the amount of redundancy between the two channels and then responded to both auditory and visual recall measures. The results show higher auditory recall and story understanding in the

DAN G. DREW; THOMAS GRIMES

1987-01-01

361

Verification of an Audio Protocol with Bus Collision Using UPPAAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we apply the tool Uppaal1 to an automatic analysis of a version of the Philips Audio Control Protocol with two senders and bus collision handling. This case study is significantly larger than the real-time\\/hybrid systems previously analysed by automatic tools. During the case study the tool Uppaal was extended with a new feature, committed locations, allowing efficient

Johan Bengtsson; W. O. David Griffioen; Kåre J. Kristoffersen; Kim Guldstrand Larsen; Fredrik Larsson; Paul Pettersson; Wang Yi

1996-01-01

362

GpsTunes: controlling navigation via audio feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine the functionality of a mobile Global Positioning System (GPS) with that of an MP3 player, implemented on a PocketPC, to produce a handheld system capable of guiding a user to their desired target location via continuously adapted music feedback. We illustrate how the approach to presentation of the audio display can benefit from insights from control theory, such

Steven Strachan; Parisa Eslambolchilar; Roderick Murray-Smith; Stephen Hughes; Sile O'Modhrain

2005-01-01

363

The Role of Audio Media in the Lives of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mass communication researchers have largely ignored the role of audio media and popular music in the lives of children, yet the available evidence shows that children do listen. Extant studies yield a consistent developmental portrait of childrens' listening frequency, but there is a notable lack of programatic research over the past decade, one…

Christenson, Peter G.; Lindlof, Thomas R.

364

A novel method for two way audio video communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a light and efficient method for implementing audio video communication in a handheld device. The proposed system makes use of real time streaming protocol (RTSP) for call setup. It does not make use of any of the standard signaling protocols like session initiation protocol (SIP), session description protocol (SDP), H.323 based protocols, etc. which are generally used

Sachin P. Kamat; Tushar R. Behera

2009-01-01

365

Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

2012-04-01

366

Improvements of Audio-Based Music Similarity and Genre Classificaton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio-based music similarity measures can be applied to automatically generate playlists or recommendations. In this paper spectral similarity is combined with comple- mentary information from fluctuation patterns including two new descriptors derived thereof. The performance is evaluated in a series of experiments on four music col- lections. The evaluations are based on genre classifica- tion, assuming that very similar tracks

Elias Pampalk; Arthur Flexer; Gerhard Widmer

2005-01-01

367

SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.  

PubMed

Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise. PMID:18632363

Lee, Ki-Seung

2008-08-01

368

Audio coding using a psychoacoustic pre- and post-filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept for perceptual audio coding is presented which is based on the combination of a pre- and post-filter, controlled by a psychoacoustic model, with a transform coding scheme. This paradigm allows modeling of the temporal and spectral shape of the masked threshold with a resolution independent of the used transform. By using frequency warping techniques the maximum possible

Bernd Edler; Gerald Schuller

2000-01-01

369

A new psychoacoustical masking model for audio coding applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of psychoacoustical masking models for audio coding applications has been wide spread over the past decades. In such applications, it is typically assumed that the original input signal serves as a masker for the distortions that are introduced by the lossy coding method that is used. Such masking models are based on the peripheral bandpass filtering properties of

Steven van de Par; Armin Kohlrausch; Ghassan Charestan; Richard Heusdens

2002-01-01

370

Indeterminate Adaptive Digital Audio for Games on Mobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Audio and Games on Mobiles A mobile game is a video game played on a mobile phone. The game market for mobiles is clearly regarded as a market with a future (11), as the multiple investments carried out by the large world editors on this segment testify. The mobiles are true platforms of large and general public games: mobile

Agnès Guerraz; Jacques Lemordant

371

Content Based Description of Audio in the Context of AXMEDIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous growth of digital music databases has led to a comparable growth in the need for methods that help users organize and access such information. One area in particular that has seen much recent research activity is the use of automated techniques to describe audio content and to allow its identification, browsing and retrieval. This paper presents algorithms for

Nicolas Scaringella; Martin Schmucker; Michael Arnold

2006-01-01

372

Learning from Animated Concept Maps with Concurrent Audio Narration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An animated concept map is a presentation of a network diagram in which nodes and links are sequentially added or modified. An experiment compared learning from animated concept maps and text by randomly assigning 133 undergraduates to study 1 of 4 narrated animations presenting semantically equivalent information accompanied by identical audio

Nesbit, John C.; Adesope, Olusola O.

2011-01-01

373

Performance Analysis of Audio Streaming in Secure Wireless Access Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the Internet and multimedia technologies have spurred many research efforts in Internet-based multimedia access system.. In this paper, we presented such a model and framework for delivering real-time traffics to a wireless access network over public Internet Protocol (IP) backbone network. We have presented a performance analysis of audio streaming when IP tunneling network using Generic Route Encapsulation

Binod Vaidya; Jongwoo Kim; Jae-Young Pyun; Jong-An Park; Seung Jo Han

2005-01-01

374

Guided by Voices: An Audio Augmented Reality System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of a low cost, lightweight audio-only augmented reality infrastructure. The system uses a simple wearable computer and a RF based location system to play digital sounds corresponding to the user' s location and current state. Using this infrastructure we implemented a game in the fantasy genre where players move around in the real world and

Kent Lyons; Maribeth Gandy; Thad Starner

2000-01-01

375

A Robust Feature Extraction Algorithm for Audio Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new feature extraction algorithm which can generate robust and reliable feature in a fingerprint system. This algorithm is referred to as weighted ASF (WASF). The feature in our algorithm is extracted based on a MPEG-7 descriptor-Audio Spectrum Flatness (ASF) and Human Auditory System (HAS). It also applies several effective filters to improve the feature

Jianping Chen; Tiejun Huang

2008-01-01

376

A novel tool for capturing conceptualized audio annotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For each supervised classification task some sort of ground truth data is needed in order to train the data models or classifiers and to evaluate the obtained result. Although there are a number of such data sets publically available for mainstream audio and music classification tasks, most often one will end up annotating new content by oneself when a novel

Peter Woitek; Paul Bräuer; Holger Grossmann

2010-01-01

377

Subword-based spoken term detection in audio course lectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates spoken term detection (STD) from audio recordings of course lectures obtained from an existing media repository. STD is performed from word lattices generated offline using an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system configured from a meetings domain. An efficient STD approach is presented where lattice paths which are likely to contain search terms are identified and an efficient

Richard C. Rose; Atta Norouzian; Aarthi Reddy; André Coy; Vishwa Gupta; Martin Karafiát

2010-01-01

378

Modulated pulse audio power amplifiers for integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon monolithic circuits are best suited for applications with low power dissipation. Conventional approaches to audio power amplifiers have a rather limited efficiency, and are therefore not necessarily the best choice for integrated circuits. Pulse-width modulation, however, promises an efficiency of up to 100 percent and has several other advantages. Three approaches to amplitude to pulse-width conversion are discussed and

H. Camenzind

1966-01-01

379

BLIND SEPARATION OF CONVOLUTIVE AUDIO MIXTURES USING NONSTATIONARITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the blind separation of convolutive mix- tures based on the joint diagonalization of time varying spectral matrices of the observation records. The goal is to separate audio mixtures in which the mixing filter has quite long impulse responses and the signals are highly non sta- tionary. We rely on the continuity of the frequency response of the filter

Dinh-Tuan Pham; Christine Servi; Hakim Boumaraf

380

Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by…

Lewkowicz, David J.

2010-01-01

381

Audio for Kinect: pushing it to the limit (invited talk)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The talk discusses aspects of the acoustical design and audio processing pipeline of Kinect, the most selling electronic device in the human history as recorded in the Guinness Book of Records. The device is the first industrial product with surround sound echo cancellation, one of the first to offer hands free speech recognition from distance up to four meters, and

Ivan J. Tashev

2012-01-01

382

Information Hiding into Interaural Phase Differences for Stereo Audio Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein a new information hiding method for stereo audio signals, which focuses on the auditory character of binaural hearing where the interaural phase differences affect the perceived direction of sound images, is proposed. Information hiding is executed by modifying the interaural phase differences for components, which have sound images that are perceived as spatially broad. Thus, distortions caused by phase

Ryouichi Nishimura

2009-01-01

383

An Evaluation of the Audio Workbook System. R & D Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Cassette Review Program (CRP), developed by The American College of Life Underwriters, is organized into 10 sections corresponding to the 10 courses of the American College C.L.U. diploma program. It includes both audio tapes and notebooks. The formative evaluation of the CRP carried out in 1971 resulted in a restructuring of both the tapes…

Andrulis, Richard S.

384

Enhancing loudspeaker-based 3D audio with room modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, spatial (3D) sound using headphones has been widely used in a number of applications. A rich spatial sensation is obtained by using head related transfer functions (HRTF) and playing the appropriate sound through headphones. In theory, loudspeaker audio systems would be capable of rendering 3D sound fields almost as rich as headphones, as long as the room

Myung-Suk Song; Cha Zhang; Dinei Florencio; Hong-Goo Kang

2010-01-01

385

Adaptive Audio Noise Cancellation with Spartan 3E  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the application of adaptive filters implemented on the Spartan 3E FPGA architecture for active cancellation of audio frequency noise using a cancellation speaker and two microphone measurements: reference and error. Two normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) filters are used: one for the prediction and cancellation of the noise source and one used in a novel manner to compensate

Joe Blomer; Dave Rolkosky

386

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUDIO?VISUAL PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that auditory and audio?visual materials will play an increasing part in programmed instruction in the future. In some areas, especially in the teaching of reading and languages, and in the direct teaching of people who cannot read, audiovisual programs are practically a necessity. Work already carried out in these areas is surveyed. But if psychological evidence to

Michael J. Apter

1967-01-01

387

DC Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of the commutator is to produce a fixed spatial distribution of current directions in the armature conductors (shown as blue & green circles) independent of shaft rotation. The field created by these currents (armature reaction) is vertically directed along the quadrature axis. The field established by the excitation of the stator poles is directed along the horizontal direct axis. This package presents computer models of electric machines based on the space vector formulation leading to the assessment of the dynamic performance of open- and closed-loopac and dc drive systems. The Simulink/Matlab implementation is adopted because of its inherent integration of vectorized system representations in block diagram form, of numerical analysis methods, of graphical portrayal of time evolutions of signals combined with the simple realization of the functionality of controllers and power electronic excitations. The development of Simulink models of drive assemblies is a relatively simple task consisting of combining input-output block representation of the various components making up the system; these blocks can readily be reused (utilizing standard copy-and-paste techniques) to modify the system components or the configuration of the system. This approach provides a powerful design tool because of the ease of observing the effects of parameters modifications and of differing system configurations and control strategies.

Riaz, Mahmoud

2012-08-29

388

[Ventriloquism and audio-visual integration of voice and face].  

PubMed

Presenting synchronous auditory and visual stimuli in separate locations creates the illusion that the sound originates from the direction of the visual stimulus. Participants' auditory localization bias, called the ventriloquism effect, has revealed factors affecting the perceptual integration of audio-visual stimuli. However, many studies on audio-visual processes have focused on performance in simplified experimental situations, with a single stimulus in each sensory modality. These results cannot necessarily explain our perceptual behavior in natural scenes, where various signals exist within a single sensory modality. In the present study we report the contributions of a cognitive factor, that is, the audio-visual congruency of speech, although this factor has often been underestimated in previous ventriloquism research. Thus, we investigated the contribution of speech congruency on the ventriloquism effect using a spoken utterance and two videos of a talking face. The salience of facial movements was also manipulated. As a result, when bilateral visual stimuli are presented in synchrony with a single voice, cross-modal speech congruency was found to have a significant impact on the ventriloquism effect. This result also indicated that more salient visual utterances attracted participants' auditory localization. The congruent pairing of audio-visual utterances elicited greater localization bias than did incongruent pairing, whereas previous studies have reported little dependency on the reality of stimuli in ventriloquism. Moreover, audio-visual illusory congruency, owing to the McGurk effect, caused substantial visual interference to auditory localization. This suggests that a greater flexibility in responding to multi-sensory environments exists than has been previously considered. PMID:22764349

Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Kanaya, Shoko

2012-07-01

389

A Comprehensive NLP System for Modern Standard Arabic and Modern Hebrew Morphological analysis, lemmatization, vocalization, disambiguation and text-to-speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive NLP sys- tem by Melingo that has been recently developed for Arabic, based on MorfixTM - an operational formerly developed highly successful comprehen- sive Hebrew NLP system. The system discussed includes modules for morphological analysis, context sensitive lemmati- zation, vocalization, text-to-phoneme conversion, and syntactic-analysis-based prosody (intonation) model. It is employed in applications such as full

Dror Kamir; Naama Soreq; Yoni Neeman

390

Iowa Virtual Literacy Protocol: A Pre-Experimental Design Using Kurzweil 3000 Text-to-Speech Software with Incarcerated Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem: The increasingly competitive global economy demands literate, educated workers. Both men and women experience the effects of education on employment rates and income. Racial and ethnic minorities, English language learners, and especially those with prison records are most deeply affected by the economic consequences of dropping out…

McCulley, Yvette K.

2012-01-01

391

IP-AUDIO NETWORKS IN THE REAL WORLD: How MPR, Univision And The University Of Indianapolis Are Using IP-Audio To Solve Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most broadcasters agree that the audio systems of the future will be IP-based. However, many do not know that systems using Internet Protocol ad- dressing with Switched Ethernet to transport audio are already widely deployed in broadcasting facili- ties. In fact, IP-Audio has been solving real-world problems for several years. This paper will explore the challenges faced by broadcasters, and

Clark Novak

392

Flotation machine  

SciTech Connect

A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

1993-08-10

393

Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

394

Audio-Visual Communications in the Federal Government. Report of the Interagency Audio-Visual Study Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fifteen agencies of the U.S. Government were surveyed to determine whether there was excessive in-house production of motion pictures, television, and other audio-visual presentations. An assessment was also made of the extent of duplication in Federal Au...

1974-01-01

395

Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

396

Machine Shop Lathes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

Dunn, James

397

Accelerating machines: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of accelerating machines. We begin by exploring the history of the accelerating machine model and the potential power that it provides. We look at a number of computations that could be performed with an accelerating machine, and review various possible implementation methods that have been proposed. Finally, we expose the limitations of accelerating machines and

Robert Fraser; Selim G. Akl

2008-01-01

398

Computationally Efficient Clustering of Audio-Visual Meeting Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents novel computationally efficient algorithms to extract semantically meaningful acoustic and visual events related to each of the participants in a group discussion using the example of business meeting recordings. The recording setup involves relatively few audio-visual sensors, comprising a limited number of cameras and microphones. We first demonstrate computationally efficient algorithms that can identify who spoke and when, a problem in speech processing known as speaker diarization. We also extract visual activity features efficiently from MPEG4 video by taking advantage of the processing that was already done for video compression. Then, we present a method of associating the audio-visual data together so that the content of each participant can be managed individually. The methods presented in this article can be used as a principal component that enables many higher-level semantic analysis tasks needed in search, retrieval, and navigation.

Hung, Hayley; Friedland, Gerald; Yeo, Chuohao

399

Dynamic range control of audio signals by digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is often necessary to reduce the dynamic range of musical programs, particularly those comprising orchestral and choral music, for them to be received satisfactorily by listeners to conventional FM and AM broadcasts. With the arrival of DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) a much wider dynamic range will become available for radio broadcasting, although some listeners may prefer to have a signal with a reduced dynamic range. This report describes a digital processor developed by the BBC to control the dynamic range of musical programs in a manner similar to that of a trained Studio Manager. It may be used prior to transmission in conventional broadcasting, replacing limiters or other compression equipment. In DAB, it offers the possibility of providing a dynamic range control signal to be sent to the receiver via an ancillary data channel, simultaneously with the uncompressed audio, giving the listener the option of the full dynamic range or a reduced dynamic range.

Gilchrist, N. H. C.

400

Using content models to build audio-video summaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of digitized video in archives is becoming so huge, that easier access and content browsing tools are desperately needed. Also, video is no longer one big piece of data, but a collection of useful smaller building blocks, which can be accessed and used independently from the original context of presentation. In this paper, we demonstrate a content model for audio video sequences, with the purpose of enabling the automatic generation of video summaries. The model is based on descriptors, which indicate various properties and relations of audio and video segments. In practice, these descriptors could either be generated automatically by methods of analysis, or produced manually (or computer-assisted) by the content provider. We analyze the requirements and characteristics of the different data segments, with respect to the problem of summarization, and we define our model as a set of constraints, which allow to produce good quality summaries.

Saarela, Janne; Merialdo, Bernard

1998-12-01

401

An audio-magnetotelluric investigation in Terceira Island (Azores)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten audio-magnetotelluric soundings have been carried out along a profile crossing the Serra do Cume caldera in the eastern part of the Terceira Island (Azores). The main objectives of this investigation were to detect geoelectrical features related with tectonic structures and to characterize regional hydrological and hydrothermal aspects mainly those related to geothermal fluid dynamics.Three-dimensional numerical investigation showed that the

Fernando A. Monteiro Santos; António Trota; António Soares; Rafael Luzio; Nuno Lourenço; Liliana Matos; Eugénio Almeida; João L. Gaspar; Jorge M. Miranda

2006-01-01

402

The measurement of audio-codec sound quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most difficult issues about audio-codec design and evaluation is the analysis of the reproduced sound quality. Standard measurements (such as the signal-to-noise ratio) aren't adequate to make an accurate comparison between different codecs due to the masking phenomena of the human ear. The aim of this paper is to propose a simple objective test for the measurement

Giovanni Bucci; Federico Franciosi; Pietro Valocchi

1996-01-01

403

Fusing audio-visual fingerprint to detect TV commercial advertisement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-four percent of consumers believe television advertising still has the greatest impact on them. Therefore, there is a great application to provide accurate and real-time TV advertising identification for government and advertisement providers. As the integration of multi-modal method takes full account of video and audio information, this paper aims to handle composite fingerprinting in a unified framework for advertising

Jian-quan Ouyang; Hua Nie; Min Zhang; Zezhou li; Yongzhou Li

404

Automatic Sports Video Analysis using Audio Clues and Context Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports analysis has recently become popular in research and professional applications. This paper presents a scheme for automatic sports video analysis based on audio clues and specific game context knowledge. We propose a simple, two-step racket-hit detection for achieving accurate event classification for tennis video. To implement the mapping between the sample-level feature space and the semantic-level space, we employ

Weilun Lao; Jungong Han

2006-01-01

405

Remote audio\\/video acquisition for human signature detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the challenges of noncooperative, large-distance human signature detection, we present a novel multimodal remote audio\\/video acquisition system. The system mainly consists of a laser Doppler virbometer (LDV) and a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera. The LDV is a unique remote hearing sensor that uses the principle of laser interferometry. However, it needs an appropriate surface to modulate the speech of

Yufu Qu; Tao Wang; Zhigang Zhu

2009-01-01

406

8-mm wave multichannel video and audio transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental transmission system at 8mm-wave was built up to perform a multi-channel transmission of audio and video signals in frequency reuse, due to space separation and polarization isolation. The features of such an 8mm-wave communication systems is described in details with respect to system construction and performance. Based on carrier-to- noise ratio and the signal level available, the attenuation

W. D. Chen; Edward K. Yung; Y. O. Yam; H. Y. Ding

1996-01-01

407

Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output

Gianpaolo Evangelista; Sergio Cavaliere

2001-01-01

408

The Imperative for High-Performance Audio Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is common knowledge that desktop computing power is now increasing mainly by the change to multi-core chips. This is a challenge for the software community in general, but is a particular problem for audio process- ing. Our needs are increasingly towards real-time and low latency. We propose a number of possible paths that need investigation, including multi-core and special

Richard Dobson; Russell Bradford

409

Crossmodal Interaction: Using Audio or Tactile Displays in Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile device users can be in a variety of different situations where visual, audio, or tactile feedback is not appropriate.\\u000a This research aims to investigate the design of auditory\\/tactile crossmodal icons which can provide an alternative form of\\u000a output using the most appropriate modality to communicate information. The results of this research will aid designers of\\u000a mobile displays in creating

Eve E. Hoggan

2007-01-01

410

An audio DSP Toolkit for rapid application development in Flash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Adobe Flash platform has become the de facto standard for developing and deploying media rich Web applications and games. The relative ease-of-development and cross-platform architecture of Flash enables designers to rapidly prototype graphically rich interactive applications, but comprehensive support for audio and signal processing has been lacking. ActionScript, the primary development language used for Flash, is poorly suited for

Travis M. Doll; Raymond Migneco; Jeff J. Scott; Youngmoo E. Kim

2009-01-01

411

Correlation of Gestural Musical Audio Cues and Perceived Expressive Qualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An empirical study on the perceived semantic quality of musical content and its relationship with perceived structural audio\\u000a features is presented. In a first study, subjects had to judge a variety of musical excerpts using adjectives describing different\\u000a emotive\\/affective\\/expressive qualities of music. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions, related to valence, activity and\\u000a interest. In a second study, semantic judgements were

Marc Leman; Valery Vermeulen; Liesbeth De Voogdt; Johannes Taelman; Dirk Moelants; Micheline Lesaffre

2003-01-01

412

Embedding Audio and Video Content in Your Web Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As we have stated before, Mobile Safari doesn’t support Flash content. iOS, however, is an extraordinary multimedia platform\\u000a that inherits the quality of the iPod for audio and video content. That the YouTube application is shipped by default on the\\u000a OS is symptomatic of the importance given to multimedia both by Apple and by third-party web sites. The number of

Chris Apers; Daniel Paterson

413

Minimal-impact audio-based personal archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collecting and storing continuous personal archives has become cheap and easy, but we are still farfromcreating a useful, ubiquitous memory aid. We view the inconvenience to the user of being 'instrumented'as one of the key barriers to the broader development and adoption of these technologies. Audio-only recordings,however, can have minimal impact, requiring only that a device the size and weight

Daniel P. W. Ellis; Keansub Lee

2004-01-01

414

Infant Perception of Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by habituating infants to a detectably asynchronous syllable (666 ms; Experiment

David J. Lewkowicz

2010-01-01

415

An Area-Efficient Interpolator Applied in Audio ? ? DAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area-efficient 128times interpolation filter (IF) used in audio digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is presented in this paper. The digital interpolation filter consists of cascaded half band filter (HBF) which is followed by a 32timesdigital sample-and-hold (S\\/H) circuit. Optimization is also performed so that the filter requires no multipliers, with the registers in the filter decreasing by a half. No multiplier

Binming Luo; Yuanfu Zhao; Zongmin Wang

2007-01-01

416

Application specific integrated filters for HIFI digital audio signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-automatic design and integration of a digital audio preamplifier filter set is discussed. The set consists of an offset filter, 10 graphic equalizer sections and a scratch filter with an overall signal-to-noise ratio of 100 dB. A silicon compiler CATHEDRAL-I supports the design cycle from specifications to layout; the combination of synthesis with optimization tools at all design levels

J. Van Ginderdeuren; H. De Man; B. De Loore; G. Van Den Audenaerde

1986-01-01

417

News story segmentation based on audio-visual features fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for news video story segmentation, which fuses multi-feature including audio and visual. At first, this paper detects the anchorperson shot for news video and determines the beginning of news story, and then detects topic caption between anchorperson shots. In the next step, silence clips in news video are detected using short-time energy and short-time average

Yu Song; Wenhong Wang; Fengjuan Guo

2009-01-01

418

Young children's recall and reconstruction of audio and audiovisual narratives.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that the visual component of audiovisual media dominates young children's cognitive processing. This experiment examines the effects of input modality while controlling the complexity of the visual and auditory content and while varying the comprehension task (recall vs. reconstruction). 4- and 7-year-olds were presented brief stories through either audio or audiovisual media. The audio version consisted of narrated character actions and character utterances. The narrated actions were matched to the utterances on the basis of length and propositional complexity. The audiovisual version depicted the actions visually by means of stop animation instead of by auditory narrative statements. The character utterances were the same in both versions. Audiovisual input produced superior performance on explicit information in the 4-year-olds and produced more inferences at both ages. Because performance on utterances was superior in the audiovisual condition as compared to the audio condition, there was no evidence that visual input inhibits processing of auditory information. Actions were more likely to be produced by the younger children than utterances, regardless of input medium, indicating that prior findings of visual dominance may have been due to the salience of narrative action. Reconstruction, as compared to recall, produced superior depiction of actions at both ages as well as more constrained relevant inferences and narrative conventions. PMID:3757597

Gibbons, J; Anderson, D R; Smith, R; Field, D E; Fischer, C

1986-08-01

419

Extreme Kicking Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity follow up to "Kicking Machine", learners add a hands-free feature to their Kicking Machine. Learners modify their kicking machine to have it either release the pendulum or rubber band while standing three feet away or have it automatically feed balls into the kicking machine, one after another. They must figure out how to integrate the new feature into the existing structure and use the design process to make sure the modified kicking machine works properly. Educators can use this activity to demonstrate simple machines and kinetic/potential energy.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

420

Minimization of Machining Allowance in Electrochemical Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical machining (ECM) provides one of the best alternatives for producing complex shapes in advanced materials used in aircraft and aerospace industries. However, the reduction of sludge and memory errors continue to be major challenges for industries in addressing waste generation and accuracy improvement. This study focuses on minimizing the material to be removed by predicting minimum machining allowance and

K. P. Rajurkar; D. Zhu; B. Wei

1998-01-01

421

Providing QoS through machine-learning-driven adaptive multimedia applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the optimization of the quality of service (QoS) offered by real-time multimedia adaptive applications through machine learning algorithms. These applications are able to adapt in real time their internal settings (i.e., video sizes, audio and video codecs, among others) to the unpredictably changing capacity of the network. Traditional adaptive applications just select a set of settings to consume

Pedro M. Ruiz; Juan A. Botía; Antonio F. Gómez-skarmeta

2004-01-01

422

Semantical Machine Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semantical Machine Understanding is the foundation for automatic sense and decision making of multinational, multicultural, and coalition applications. We show an innovative semantical machine understanding system that can be installed on each node of a n...

C. Kotak C. C. Zhou Y. Zhao

2008-01-01

423

Nontraditional Machining of Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with electrichemical machining (ECM), chemical milling, and electric-discharge machining (EDM). The general characteristics of these processes and their applications to the processing of beryllium parts are presented and covered in detail...

J. A. Gurklis

1972-01-01

424

Bibliography on Machine Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Design criteria; Theoretical solutions for the response of machine foundations to vibration; Determination of dynamic soil parameters; Design of machine foundations; Control of vibration; Abstracts and references. (Portions of this document are ...

P. J. Moore

1978-01-01

425

Electrolytic Machining Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of electrolytic or electrochemical machining - a metal removal method is described and the advantages over other machining methods are reported. Special emphasis was given to: investigating effects of process variables, including electrol...

J. Bayer M. A. Cummings A. U. Jollis

1964-01-01

426

Guidelines for the integration of audio cues into computer user interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the history of computers, vision has been the main channel through which information is conveyed to the computer user. As the complexities of man-machine interactions increase, more and more information must be transferred from the computer to the user and then successfully interpreted by the user. A logical next step in the evolution of the computer-user interface is the incorporation of sound and thereby using the sense of ''hearing'' in the computer experience. This allows our visual and auditory capabilities to work naturally together in unison leading to more effective and efficient interpretation of all information received by the user from the computer. This thesis presents an initial set of guidelines to assist interface developers in designing an effective sight and sound user interface. This study is a synthesis of various aspects of sound, human communication, computer-user interfaces, and psychoacoustics. We introduce the notion of an earcon. Earcons are audio cues used in the computer-user interface to provide information and feedback to the user about some computer object, operation, or interaction. A possible construction technique for earcons, the use of earcons in the interface, how earcons are learned and remembered, and the affects of earcons on their users are investigated. This study takes the point of view that earcons are a language and human/computer communication issue and are therefore analyzed according to the three dimensions of linguistics; syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Sumikawa, D.A.

1985-06-01

427

The Advantage of Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about work as defined by physical science and see that work is made easier through the use of simple machines. Already encountering simple machines everyday, students will be learn about their widespread uses in improving everyday life. This lesson serves as the starting point for the Simple Machines Unit.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

428

Find the Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web activity about simple machines. Learners will explore a lawn mower and identify six different simple machines which work together to help make our lives easier. This is an excellent activity for exploring how simple machines, and science in general, apply to learners' everyday lives.

Cosi

2000-01-01

429

A COBOL Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research project undertaken by CII. This project is sponsored by the “Comité de Recherches en Informatique” contract No CRI 72-11. In this study, we have to define a COBOL Machine and a Compilation Machine and to implement them on a medium-scale microprogrammed computer. The expected results are : performance evaluation of these machines, code compaction, COBOL

R. J. Chevance

1974-01-01

430

Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

431

Continuous mining machine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

Kiefer, H.E.

1992-02-11

432

Classification TV programs based on audio information using hidden Markov model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technique for classifying TV broadcast video using a hidden Markov model (HMM). Here we consider the problem of discriminating five types of TV programs, namely commercials, basketball games, football games, news reports, and weather forecasts. Eight frame-based audio features are used to characterize the low-level audio properties, and fourteen clip-based audio features are extracted based on

Zhu Liu; Jincheng Huang; Yao Wang

1998-01-01

433

A New Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new robust and blind audio watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition and quantization\\u000a index modulation. The watermark insertion and extraction methods are based on quantization of the norm of singular values\\u000a of the blocks. Audio quality evaluation tests show high imperceptibility of the watermark in the audio signal. Simulation\\u000a results demonstrate that this

Indranil Sengupta; Abhijit Das

2011-01-01

434

A framework for efficient and rapid development of cross-platform audio applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present CLAM, a C++ software framework, that offers a complete development and research platform for the\\u000a audio and music domain. It offers an abstract model for audio systems and includes a repository of processing algorithms and\\u000a data types as well as all the necessary tools for audio and control input\\/output. The framework offers tools that enable

Xavier Amatriain; Pau Arumi; David Garcia

2008-01-01

435

Reading on-the-go: a comparison of audio and hand-held displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a 20-participant controlled experiment to evaluate and compare a head-down visual display and a syn- thesized speech audio display for comprehending text while mo- bile. Participants completed reading comprehension trials while walking a path and sitting. We examine overall performance and perceived workload for four conditions: audio-walking, audio- sitting, visual-walking, and visual-sitting. Results sug gest

Kristin Vadas; Nirmal J. Patel; Kent Lyons; Thad Starner; Julie A. Jacko

2006-01-01

436

Adaptive Playout Mechanisms for Packetized Audio Applications in Wide-Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in supporting packet-audio applications over wide area networks has been fueled by theavailability of low-cost, toll-quality workstation audioand the demonstration that limited amounts of interactive audio can be supported by today's Internet. Insuch applications, received audio packets are buffered,and their playout delayed at the destination host in orderto compensate for the variable network delays. Inthis paper we investigate

Ramachandran Ramjee; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley; Henning Schulzrinne

1994-01-01

437

Infrastructure for Machine Understanding of Video Observations in Skilled Care Facilities - Implications of Early Results from CareMedia Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

CareMedia captures and analyzes a continuous audio and video record of behavior and activity in a skilled nursing facility. Through computer vision and machine learning we automatically identify individuals, classify activities, recognize behaviors, and extract relevant events. Two extensive field trials have been undertaken which produced meaningful but sometimes limited clinical results. Based on an analysis of this experience, combined

Howard D. Wactlar; Michael Christel; Alexander Hauptmann; Datong Chen; Jie Yang

2004-01-01

438

Edheads: The Compound Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of interactive animations designed to help kids learn how forces and simple machines can work together to create the compound machine. Child-centered animated activities enhance understanding of how compound machines function and how they are differentiated from simple machines. The animations require the Flash plug-in (there is a link for this on the page). Additionally the site includes a glossary of important terms, lesson plans, a teacher's guide and information from people who professionally work with compound machines. This page is part of a larger collection of animated education resources for the elementary level.

2007-09-18

439

Incorporating Auditory Models in Speech/Audio Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to its equivalent time/frequency representation. This avoids the repeated application of auditory model stages to test different candidate time/frequency vectors in minimizing perceptual objective functions. In this dissertation, a constrained mapping scheme is developed by linearizing certain auditory model stages that ensures obtaining a time/frequency mapping corresponding to the estimated auditory representation. This paradigm was successfully incorporated in a perceptual speech enhancement algorithm and a sinusoidal component selection task.

Krishnamoorthi, Harish

440

Full-Index-Embedding Patchwork Algorithm for Audio Watermarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the digital watermarking patchwork algorithm originally given by Bender et al., this paper proposes two improvements applicable to audio watermarking. First, the watermark embedding strength is psychoacoustically adapted, using the Bark frequency scale. Second, whereas previous approaches leave the samples that do not correspond to the data untouched, in this paper, these are modified to reduce the probability of misdetection, a method called full index embedding. In simulations, the proposed combination of these two proposed methods has higher resistance to a variety of attacks than prior algorithms.

Kang, Hyunho; Yamaguchi, Koutarou; Kurkoski, Brian; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Kingo

441

[Voix d'Or, an audio tool to revive memories].  

PubMed

Voix d'Or is an audio tool designed to awaken the affective memory of elderly people and particularly those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Every month it offers new radio programmes to initiate or facilitate leisure and entertainment activities, memory workshops or provide the basis of quiet moments. The tool has a double objective: to procure well-being, boost the individual's self-esteem and recognise his/her history and to facilitate exchange and communication between the residents and the staff of a care home. PMID:21137493

Braunschweig, Lina

442

Characteristics of the audio sound generated by ultrasound imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical ultrasound scanners use high-energy pulses to probe the human body. The radiation force resulting from the impact of such pulses on an object can vibrate the object, producing a localized high-intensity sound in the audible range. Here, a theoretical model for the audio sound generated by ultrasound scanners is presented. This model describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the sound. It has been shown that the sound has rich frequency components at the pulse repetition frequency and its harmonics. Experiments have been conducted in a water tank to measure the sound generated by a clinical ultrasound scanner in various operational modes. Results are in general agreement with the theory. It is shown that a typical ultrasound scanner with a typical spatial-peak pulse-average intensity value at 2 MHz may generate a localized sound-pressure level close to 100 dB relative to 20 ?Pa in the audible (<20 kHz) range under laboratory conditions. These findings suggest that fetuses may become exposed to a high-intensity audio sound during maternal ultrasound examinations. Therefore, contrary to common beliefs, ultrasound may not be considered a passive tool in fetal imaging..

Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.

2005-03-01

443

8-mm wave multichannel video and audio transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental transmission system at 8mm-wave was built up to perform a multi-channel transmission of audio and video signals in frequency reuse, due to space separation and polarization isolation. The features of such an 8mm-wave communication systems is described in details with respect to system construction and performance. Based on carrier-to- noise ratio and the signal level available, the attenuation margin and link availability are evaluated in terms of path length and specific rainfall distribution at Hong Kong. The quality of the demodulated video and audio signals is used for the analysis of co-channel interference and multipath effects. The experiment results show that the polarization isolation is more than 18.5dB, space isolation is more than 24.1dB, and a good quality in transmission of TV programs is observed in frequency reuse situation under a uncritical condition. Finally, a simplified scheme of the application of this system in wharf container dispatching and management is proposed.

Chen, W. D.; Yung, Edward K.; Yam, Y. O.; Ding, H. Y.

1996-12-01

444

Separate Mechanisms for Audio-Tactile Pitch and Loudness Interactions  

PubMed Central

A major goal in perceptual neuroscience is to understand how signals from different sensory modalities are combined to produce stable and coherent representations. We previously investigated interactions between audition and touch, motivated by the fact that both modalities are sensitive to environmental oscillations. In our earlier study, we characterized the effect of auditory distractors on tactile frequency and intensity perception. Here, we describe the converse experiments examining the effect of tactile distractors on auditory processing. Because the two studies employ the same psychophysical paradigm, we combined their results for a comprehensive view of how auditory and tactile signals interact and how these interactions depend on the perceptual task. Together, our results show that temporal frequency representations are perceptually linked regardless of the attended modality. In contrast, audio-tactile loudness interactions depend on the attended modality: Tactile distractors influence judgments of auditory intensity, but judgments of tactile intensity are impervious to auditory distraction. Lastly, we show that audio-tactile loudness interactions depend critically on stimulus timing, while pitch interactions do not. These results reveal that auditory and tactile inputs are combined differently depending on the perceptual task. That distinct rules govern the integration of auditory and tactile signals in pitch and loudness perception implies that the two are mediated by separate neural mechanisms. These findings underscore the complexity and specificity of multisensory interactions.

Yau, Jeffrey M.; Weber, Alison I.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

2010-01-01

445

Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

2001-08-01

446

A compact electroencephalogram recording device with integrated audio stimulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact (96×128×32 mm3, 374 g), battery-powered, eight-channel electroencephalogram recording device with an integrated audio stimulation system and a wireless interface is presented. The recording device is capable of producing high-quality data, while the operating time is also reasonable for evoked potential studies. The effective measurement resolution is about 4 nV at 200 Hz sample rate, typical noise level is below 0.7 ?Vrms at 0.16-70 Hz, and the estimated operating time is 1.5 h. An embedded audio decoder circuit reads and plays wave sound files stored on a memory card. The activities are controlled by an 8 bit main control unit which allows accurate timing of the stimuli. The interstimulus interval jitter measured is less than 1 ms. Wireless communication is made through bluetooth and the data recorded are transmitted to an external personal computer (PC) interface in real time. The PC interface is implemented with LABVIEW® and in addition to data acquisition it also allows online signal processing, data storage, and control of measurement activities such as contact impedance measurement, for example. The practical application of the device is demonstrated in mismatch negativity experiment with three test subjects.

Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Kurttio, Anttu A.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo E.

2010-06-01

447

Development of simulated directional audio for cockpit applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop techniques for conveying accurate spatial information via audio signals delivered to the listener through headphones or earphones. This project included three major activities: (1) an extensive review and synthesis of the research literature on auditory localization, (2) the design, fabrication, and evaluation of an apparatus for demonstrating simulated auditory localization (SAL), and (3) experimental research to determine characteristics of the audio signal, in the time and frequency domains, which enhance localization performance with simulated cues. Previous research is reviewed which describes the cues involved in the perception of sound-source direction, both horizontally and vertically, when the head is stationary. Also reviewed is research on auditory distance perception, the roles of head movement and vision in auditory localization, the perception of auditory motion and volume, and the effects of noise on auditory localization. A feedback control model is presented, which integrates evidence derived from four different theoretical positions concerning the effects of head movement and vision on auditory localization. Possible applications of SAL technology in aircraft cockpits are outlined, and the potential benefits of such applications are discussed.

Doll, Theodore J.; Gerth, Jeffrey M.; Engelman, William R.; Folds, Dennis J.

1986-01-01

448

Machine tool locator  

DOEpatents

Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

Hanlon, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gill, Timothy J. (Stanley, NM)

2001-01-01

449

Age Matters: Student Experiences with Audio Learning Guides in University-Based Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary objective of this research was to explore the experiences of undergraduate distance education students using sample audio versions (provided on compact disc) of the learning guides for their courses. The results of this study indicated that students responded positively to the opportunity to have word-for-word audio versions of their…

Mercer, Lorraine; Pianosi, Birgit

2012-01-01

450

ACM MM Workshop on Audio and Music Computing for Multimedia: (AMCMM '06)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia is usually defined as the combination of text, graphics, full-motion video, and sound into an integrated application. The final frontier, sound, which includes general-purpose audio, music, and speech, is an integral, but often neglected, component of the field. Traditionally, the audio and the image research communities have developed independently, and almost in perfect isolation one with another. Even though

Newton Lee

2006-01-01

451

Immediate Audio and Visual Confirmation; "Breakthrough" for the Low-Aptitude Language Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with low language aptitude have been found to have poor powers of auditory discrimination. To date, programed language instruction has relied on audio confirmation of oral response. A study was conducted to determine the value of adding visual confirmation to the audio model. A total of 170 experimental and 140 control students in second…

Mueller, Theodore H.

452

Fusion of audio and motion information on HMM-based highlight extraction for baseball games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to extract baseball game highlights based on audio-motion integrated cues. In order to better describe different audio and motion characteristics in baseball game highlights, we propose a novel representation method based on likelihood models. The proposed likelihood models measure the \\

Chih-chieh Cheng; Chiou-ting Hsu

2006-01-01

453

Evaluation of a Copy Prevention Method for Digital Audio Tape Systems,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Bureau of Standards in response to requests from the U.S. Congress tested a system designed to prevent unauthorized copying by digital audio tape (DAT) recorders of suitably encoded audio recordings. The system, designed by CBS Records, filte...

B. A. Bell G. N. Stenbakken D. R. Flynn D. J. Evans E. D. Burnett

1988-01-01

454

Audio-video decision support for patients: the documentary genré as a basis for decision aids.  

PubMed

Objective? Decision support tools are increasingly using audio-visual materials. However, disagreement exists about the use of audio-visual materials as they may be subjective and biased. Methods? This is a literature review of the major texts for documentary film studies to extrapolate issues of objectivity and bias from film to decision support tools. Results? The key features of documentary films are that they attempt to portray real events and that the attempted reality is always filtered through the lens of the filmmaker. The same key features can be said of decision support tools that use audio-visual materials. Three concerns arising from documentary film studies as they apply to the use of audio-visual materials in decision support tools include whose perspective matters (stakeholder bias), how to choose among audio-visual materials (selection bias) and how to ensure objectivity (editorial bias). Discussion? Decision science needs to start a debate about how audio-visual materials are to be used in decision support tools. Simply because audio-visual materials may be subjective and open to bias does not mean that we should not use them. Conclusion? Methods need to be found to ensure consensus around balance and editorial control, such that audio-visual materials can be used. PMID:22032516

Volandes, Angelo E; Barry, Michael J; Wood, Fiona; Elwyn, Glyn

2011-10-28

455

Experimental approaches to user friendly audio visual contents for the elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent digital media technologies have especially promoted remarkable growth in the home environment that makes new pleasure of audio and visual contents in our life. We can watch and enjoy the various kinds of audio and visual contents in our home. However, for the elderly people, there are some difficulties, based on aging effect of human sensory mechanism, in perceiving

Yohei Sugawara; Mie Sato; Toshiaki Sugihara; Masao Kasuga

2004-01-01

456

Temporal Interval Discrimination Thresholds Depend on Perceived Synchrony for Audio-Visual Stimulus Pairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a…

van Eijk, Rob L. J.; Kohlrausch, Armin; Juola, James F.; van de Par, Steven

2009-01-01

457

Robust and high-quality time-domain audio watermarking subject to psychoacoustic masking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose in this paper a new method for embedding digital watermarks into audio signals in the time domain. By testing frequency domain characteristics (i.e., the psychoacoustic model) and making appropriate adjustments, our algorithm is capable of preventing watermark disturbance from human perception. A watermark can be extracted without the knowledge of original audio signals. Experiments show that our watermarking

Wen-nung Lie; Li-chun Chang

2001-01-01

458

Reaching Out: The Role of Audio Cassette Communication in Rural Development. Occasional Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the state-of-the-art of audio cassette technology (ACT) and reports findings from field tests, case studies, and pilot projects in several countries which demonstrate the potential of audio cassettes as a medium for communicating with rural people. Specific guidance is also offered on how a project can use cassettes as a…

Adhikarya, Ronny; Colle, Royal D.

459

Adaptive harmonic time-frequency decomposition of audio using shift-invariant PLCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous methods have been developed for the time-frequency analysis and smart decomposition of audio signals. However, these techniques are not consistently suitable for real music signals where each note presents continuous variations of both pitch and spectral envelope. This paper presents a new model for analyzing the harmonic structures of an audio signal that can jointly handle those two types

Benoit Fuentes; Roland Badeau; Gael Richard

2011-01-01

460

Audio-Based versus Text-Based Asynchronous Online Discussion: Two Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this paper is to examine the use of audio- versus text-based asynchronous online discussions. We report two case studies conducted within the context of semester-long teacher education courses at an Asian Pacific university. Forty-one graduate students participated in Study I. After the online discussions (both audio-based as…

Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

2013-01-01

461

Audio vs. Chat: The Effects of Group Size on Media Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing usage of audio and chat communication in private and commercial cooperative settings requires new insight into choosing the appropriate media for collaborative tasks. The paper presents the results of two series of experiments comparing audio and chat communication with varying group sizes. The experimental data indicates that chat scales up better to an increase in group size than

Andreas Löber; Gerhard Schwabe; Sibylle Grimm

2007-01-01

462

Using structure patterns of temporal and spectral feature in audio similarity measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although statistical characteristics of audio features are widely used for similarity measure in most of current audio analysis systems and have been proved to be effective, they only utilized the averaged feature variations over time, and thus lead to inaccuracy in some cases. In this paper, structure pattern, which describes the representative structure characteristics of both temporal and spectral features,

Rui Cai; Lie Lu; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2003-01-01

463

Exploiting the Sparsity of the Sinusoidal Model Using Compressed Sensing for Audio Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio signals are represented via the sinusoidal model as a summation of a small number of sinusoids. This approach introduces sparsity to the audio signals in the frequency domain, which is exploited in this paper by applying Compressed Sensing (CS) to this sparse representation. CS allows sampling of signals at a much lower rate than the Nyquist rate if they

Anthony Griffin; Christos Tzagkarakis; Toni Hirvonen; Panagiotis Tsakalides

2009-01-01

464

Scream and gunshot detection and localization for audio-surveillance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an audio-based video surveillance system which automatically detects anomalous audio events in a public square, such as screams or gunshots, and lo- calizes the position of the acoustic source, in such a way that a video-camera is steered consequently. The system employs two parallel GMM classifiers for discriminating screams from noise and gunshots from noise, respectively. Each

Giuseppe Valenzise; Luigi Gerosa; Marco Tagliasacchi; Fabio Antonacci; Augusto Sarti

2007-01-01

465

Phantom Materialization: A Novel Method to Enhance Stereo Audio Reproduction on Headphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

EDICs : AUD-SMCA Abstract— Loudspeaker reproduction systems are sub- ject to a compromise between spatial realism and cost. By simulating loudspeaker reproduction on headphones, the resulting spatial realism is limited accordingly, despite the virtually unlimited spatial imaging capabilities of binaural audio rendering technology. More particularly, phantom imaging as often used for stereo audio mate- rial intended for loudspeaker reproduction is

Jeroen Breebaart; Erik Schuijers

2008-01-01

466

A Fast Audio Digital Watermark Method Based on Counter-Propagation Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, we present a novel audio digital watermark method based on counter-propagation Neural Networks. After dealing with the audio by discrete wavelet transform, we select the important coefficients which are ready to be trained in the neural networks. By making use of the capabilities of memorization and fault tolerance in CPN, watermark is memorized in the nerve cells

Guohua Wu; Xiaodong Zhou

2008-01-01

467

EnviroMic: Towards Cooperative Storage and Retrieval in Audio Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of EnviroMic, a novel distributed acoustic monitoring, storage, and trace retrieval system. Audio represents one of the least exploited modalities in sensor networks to date. The relatively high frequency and large size of audio traces motivate distributed algorithms for coordinating recording tasks, reducing redundancy of data stored by nearby sensors, filtering out

Liqian Luo; Qing Cao; Chengdu Huang; Tarek F. Abdelzaher; John A. Stankovic; Michael Ward

2007-01-01

468

47 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart N of... - Typical Audio Wave  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Typical Audio Wave 2 Figure 2 to Subpart N of Part 2...COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS...to Subpart N of Part 2âTypical Audio Wave...

2009-10-01

469

47 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart N of... - Typical Audio Wave  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Typical Audio Wave 2 Figure 2 to Subpart N of Part 2...COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS...to Subpart N of Part 2âTypical Audio Wave...

2010-10-01

470

Preparing Students To Enter the Digital Age: College Radio and Digital Audio Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As digital audio evolves, it is only natural that college radio stations reflect the same industry standards. Managers of college radio stations are facing the dilemma of making the decision of which digital audio system to acquire. A specific characteristic for those in the academic world is that whatever piece of equipment is chosen will be…

Sauls, Samuel J.

471

Emotion-based music retrieval on a well-reduced audio feature space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music expresses emotion. A number of audio extracted fea- tures have influence on the perceived emotional expression of music. These audio features generate a high-dimensional space, on which music similarity retrieval can be performed effectively, with respect to human perception of the music- emotion. However, the real-time systems that retrieve music over large music databases, can achieve order of magnitude

Maria M. Ruxanda; Bee Yong Chua; Alexandros Nanopoulos; Christian S. Jensen

2009-01-01

472

Students' Attitudes to and Usage of Academic Feedback Provided via Audio Files  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores students' attitudes to the provision of formative feedback on academic work using audio files together with the ways in which students implement such feedback within their learning. Fifteen students received audio file feedback on written work and were subsequently interviewed regarding their utilisation of that feedback…

Merry, Stephen; Orsmond, Paul

2008-01-01

473

The effect of audio-Video quality on learning effectiveness in distance learning over IP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with multimedia distance learning over IP networks and investigates the most suitable presentation style of contents according to communication quality by experiment. We compare three styles of contents: “text”, “text and audio” and “text, audio and video.” For the three presentation styles of contents, we examine how the learning effectiveness of the learners depends on the communication

Kazuyoshi Fukaya; Koichiro Noda; Shuji Tasaka; Toshiro Nunome

2010-01-01

474

A Survey of MPEG1 Audio, Video and Semantic Analysis Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital audio & video data have become an integral part of multimedia information systems. To reduce storage and bandwidth requirements, they are commonly stored in a compressed format, such as MPEG-1. Increasing amounts of MPEG encoded audio and video documents are available online and in proprietary collections. In order to effectively utilise them, we need tools and techniques to automatically

Uma Srinivasan; Silvia Pfeiffer; Surya Nepal; Michael Lee; Lifang Gu; Stephen Barrass

2005-01-01

475

Facilitating Discourse and Enhancing Teaching Presence: Using Mini Audio Presentations in Online Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if instructors' use of mini audio presentations (MAPs) in online discussions serves as an effective facilitation method, particularly when the content contains specific facilitation markers including reinforcement, recognition, and reward (three Rs). Instructors posted MAPs as audio file…

Dringus, Laurie P.; Snyder, Martha M.; Terrell, Steven R.

2010-01-01

476

Edheads: Simple Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash activity invites kids to learn about simple and compound machines by investigating common household objects found in the kitchen and tool shed. The animated activities help them understand how the machines work and how to differentiate the various types of simple machine. Additionally the site provides a glossary of important terms, lesson plans and a teacher's guide. This page is part of a larger collection of game-like animations developed to teach children about science.

2007-08-16

477

OPTICAM machine design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM\\/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine

Jyrki T. Liedes

1992-01-01

478

The Vienna Abstract Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vienna Abstract Machine (VAM) is a Prolog machine developed at the TU Wien. In contrast to the standard implementation technique (Warren Abstract Machine - WAM), an inference in VAM is performed by unifying the goal and head immediately, instead of bypassing arguments through a register interface. We present two implemen- tations for VAM: VAM2P and VAM1P. VAM2P is well

Andreas Krall; Ulrich Neumerkel

1990-01-01

479

Machining: An Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic machining processes are introduced on this site that is devoted to engineering fundamentals. Descriptions and illustrations of drilling, turning, grinding, and other common processes are provided for people with little to no prior machining knowledge. A waterjet is a non-traditional machining technology that uses high pressure streams of water with abrasive additives rather than solid cutting instruments to slice through metal and other materials.

2008-04-23

480

Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the

Peigong Wang; Qingfeng Meng; Jian Zhao; Junjie Li; Xiufeng Wang

2011-01-01

481

Design of precision desktop machine tools for meso-machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the classification of non-lithography based meso-manufacturing. Desktop machine tools and standard machine tools are the current manufacturing equipment for such machining scale, however desktop machines are the most economic and should achieve better accuracies. Various inherent problems and challenges in the development of highly precise desktop machine tools are discussed in this paper. A design strategy is

A. Khalid; S. Mekid

482

Debugging the virtual machine  

SciTech Connect

A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

1994-09-02

483

Environment Recognition for Digital Audio Forensics Using MPEG-7 and MEL Cepstral Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment recognition from digital audio for forensics application is a growing area of interest. However, compared to other branches of audio forensics, it is a less researched one. Especially less attention has been given to detect environment from files where foreground speech is present, which is a forensics scenario. In this paper, we perform several experiments focusing on the problems of environment recognition from audio particularly for forensics application. Experimental results show that the task is easier when audio files contain only environmental sound than when they contain both foreground speech and background environment. We propose a full set of MPEG-7 audio features combined with mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) to improve the accuracy. In the experiments, the proposed approach significantly increases the recognition accuracy of environment sound even in the presence of high amount of foreground human speech.

Muhammad, Ghulam; Alghathbar, Khalid

2011-07-01

484

Using Touch Screen Audio-CASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Cooley, Philip C.; Rogers, Susan M.; Turner, Charles F.; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

2011-01-01

485

AudioIndex: Library Access for the Visually Challenged Using an RFID-based Point and Listen Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the AudioIndex prototype that allows visually impaired users to browse and search for audio books within a public library without the need for library staff guidance. AudioIndex is a light-weight mobile system based on a combination of RFID, PDA, and wireless technologies allowing users to point at objects in the library environment, typically audio books and bookshelves, to

Daniel Fallman; Oskar Fjellström; Kent Lindbergh

486

[Introduction of a simple audio recording system to the operating room--experience at a small local hospital].  

PubMed

We developed a simple audio recording system using a small personal computer and free audio recording software that makes voice recordings for use in emergencies, particularly for emergency caesarean sections. The system makes a continuous audio recording while the patient receives medical treatment. The recording provides an accurate record of the anesthesia used during treatment. This audio recording system is useful as an auxiliary means of record keeping during medical emergencies. PMID:23157110

Taniguchi, Ayano; Nakamura, Eriko; Yaegashi, Kazuhiro

2012-10-01

487

Effect of Audio Coaching on Correlation of Abdominal Displacement With Lung Tumor Motion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the effect of audio coaching on the time-dependent behavior of the correlation between abdominal motion and lung tumor motion and the corresponding lung tumor position mismatches. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had a lung tumor with a motion range >8 mm were enrolled in the present study. Breathing-synchronized fluoroscopy was performed initially without audio coaching, followed by fluoroscopy with recorded audio coaching for multiple days. Two different measurements, anteroposterior abdominal displacement using the real-time positioning management system and superoinferior (SI) lung tumor motion by X-ray fluoroscopy, were performed simultaneously. Their sequential images were recorded using one display system. The lung tumor position was automatically detected with a template matching technique. The relationship between the abdominal and lung tumor motion was analyzed with and without audio coaching. Results: The mean SI tumor displacement was 10.4 mm without audio coaching and increased to 23.0 mm with audio coaching (p < .01). The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with free breathing. Applying audio coaching, the correlation coefficients improved significantly (range, 0.93-0.99; p < .01), and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became larger in 75% of all sessions. Conclusion: Audio coaching served to increase the degree of correlation and make it more reproducible. In addition, the phase shifts between tumor motion and abdominal displacement were improved; however, all patients breathed more deeply, and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became slightly larger with audio coaching than without audio coaching.

Nakamura, Mitsuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: m_nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Narabayashi, Masaru [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nakata, Manabu [Clinical Radiology Service Division, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Division of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

2009-10-01

488

Laser beam machining method, laser beam machining apparatus, and laser beam machining product  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

It is an object to provide a laser beam machining method which can easily cut a machining target. The laser beam machining method irradiates laser light while positioning a focus point at the inside of a machining target to thereby form a treated area based on multiphoton absorption along a planned cutting line of the machining target inside the machining target and also form a minute cavity at a predetermined position corresponding to the treated area in the machining target.

Fukumitsu; Kenshi (Hamamatsu, JP)

2009-10-20

489

Drum cutter mining machine  

SciTech Connect

A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

1980-02-19

490

Digital Audio/Video for Computer- and Web-Based Instruction for Training Rural Special Education Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Video presentations of teaching episodes in home, school, and community settings and audio recordings of parents' and professionals' views can be important adjuncts to personnel preparation in special education. This paper describes instructional applications of digital media and outlines steps in producing audio and video segments. Digital audio

Ludlow, Barbara L.; Foshay, John B.; Duff, Michael C.

491

Diamond machine tool face lapping machine  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

Yetter, H.H.

1985-05-06

492

Hybrid machining of Inconel 718  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for machining of Inconel 718 is presented in this paper. It combines traditional turning with cryogenically enhanced machining and plasma enhanced machining. Cryogenically enhanced machining is used to reduce the temperatures in the cutting tool, and thus reduces temperature-dependent tool wear to prolong tool life, whereas plasma enhanced machining is used to increase the temperatures in the

Z. Y Wang; K. P Rajurkar; J Fan; S Lei; Y. C Shin; G Petrescu

2003-01-01

493

Combining programs and state machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

State machines consume and process actions complementary to programs issuing actions. State machines maintain a state and reply with a boolean response to each action in their interface. As state machines offer a service to programs, their interface is also called a service interface. State machines can be combined with several natural operators, thus giving rise to a state machine

Jan A. Bergstra; Alban Ponse

2002-01-01

494

BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

495

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

496

High-Speed Machining of Materials with Low Machinability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials with low machinability are often characterized by the difficulty of machining them by almost any cutting method. However, nowadays there are some advanced cutting methods and cutting tool materials available to make their machining possible. Cla...

J. Paro I. Nieminen V. Kauppinen

1995-01-01

497

Machine vision metal inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new procedure is presented to introduce machine vision into a rolling mill environment for real-time on-line metal bar and rod inspection for flaw detection and characterization. Results are presented relating machine vision metal flaw signatures to flaw type and characteristics.

Morris, John W.; Notarangelo, Joseph

1994-03-01

498

Biological Molecular Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like small molecules taking part in usual chemical reactions, biological molecular machines perform their functions owing to thermal fluctuations and the only difference consists in more complex and specially organized internal dynamics. It is this dynamics that determines processes of free energy transduction in molecular machines. The case of the actomyosin motor is considered in some detail.

Kurzy?ski, Micha?

2007-11-01

499

Relational Temporal Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces and investigates relational temporal machine (RTM) as a general abstract model for generic temporal querying. The RTM devices subsume most temporal query languages that have emerged in the literature. A first contribution of the paper is to provide two simplified forms for our machines, namely extended one- tape RTMS and one-tape RTMS. Another contribution is to establish

Nicole Bidoit; Francois Hantry

2007-01-01

500

Why Machine Ethics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine ethics isn't merely science fiction; it's a topic that requires serious consideration, given the rapid emergence of increasingly complex autonomous software agents and robots. Machine ethics is an emerging field that seeks to implement moral decision-making faculties in computers and robots. We already have semiautonomous robots and software agents that violate ethical standards as a matter of course. In

Colin Allen; Wendell Wallach; Iva Smit

2006-01-01