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Sample records for audio-magnetotelluric station location

  1. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  2. Audio-magnetotelluric data collected in the area of Beatty, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    In the summer of 1997, electrical geophysical data was collected north of Beatty, Nevada. Audio-magnetotellurics (AMT) was the geophysical method used to collect 16 stations along two profiles. The purpose of this data collection was to determine the depth to the alluvial basement, based upon the needs of the geologists requesting the data.

  3. Geothermal exploration using audio-magnetotelluric in Pariangan Tanah Datar, West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Andriyan; Widodo, Kholid, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    The existence of Mt. Marapi in Pariangan Tanah Datar has a big potential of geothermal energy resource. The study area is located in southeastern Mt. Marapi. The geological elements correspond to lava granitic, sandstone quartz, quartzite and conglomerate. The aim of this research is to investigate the geothermal system in this area. Measurements of audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) long line are 10 km with two profiles. The audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data carried out during July 2014. The models result were done by using 1-D inversion technique. The 1-D inversion was done with Occam and Marquadt algoritm. We assumed that for the first layer indicates as the conductive zone (±10 Ωm), the second layer as the reservoir geothermal system (±100 Ωm) that contains with sandstone quartz, and the third layer can be interpreted as volcanic rock (±1000 - 10000 Ωm) which is the basement of geothermal system.

  4. Characterization of Clastic Dikes Using Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persichetti, J. A.; Alumbaugh, D.

    2001-12-01

    A site consisting of 3D geology on the Hanford Reservation in Hanford, Washington, has been surveyed using Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics (CSAMT) to determine the method's ability to detect clastic dikes. The dikes are fine-grained, soft-sediment intrusions, formed by the buoyant rise of buried, unconsolidated, water rich mud into overlying unconsolidated sediment. The dikes are of major importance because they may act as natural barriers inhibiting the spread of contaminants, or as conduits, allowing the contaminants to be quickly wicked away from the contaminant storage tanks that may be located in close vicinity of the dikes. The field setup consisted of a 33 meter by 63 meter receiver grid with 3 meter spacing in all directions with the transmitter positioned 71.5 meters from the center of the receiver grid. A total of 12 frequencies were collected from 1.1kHz to 66.2kHz. The CSAMT data is being analyzed using a 2D CSAMT RRI code (Lu, Unsworth and Booker, 1999) and a 2D MT RRI code (Smith and Booker, 1991). Of interest is examining how well the 2D codes are able to map 3D geology, the level of resolution that is obtained, and how important it is to include the 3D source in the solution. The ultimate goal is to determine the applicability of using CSAMT for mapping these types of features at the Hanford Reservation site.

  5. Identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil from a 3D audio-magnetotelluric survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lugao, P. P.; Eric, C. D. O.; Loureiro, F. O.; Arantes, P. R.; Pastana, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a succesfull identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil through the use of the electromagnetic technique audio-magnetotelluric (AMT). Macnae (1979) writes that "In one large survey in South Africa, electromagnetic (EM) techniques have proven to be remarkably effective in detecting the presence of weathered clays or epiclastic kimberlite contained within the pipes." Full tensor AMT data were acquired at 65 points (stations) in a 3D configuration with frequencies ranging from 10kHz to 1Hz. The survey was located in the NW portion of the Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in na area of thick jungle coverage. During the AMT survey, few outcrops were seen because of the dense forest cover. Usually, the occurrences found were of sand deposits, indicating the occurence of Fazenda Casa Branca and Utiariti Formations and gravel from Salto das Nuvens Formation, widely used in paving trails n this region. In the area of the survey, three main targets were confirmed/identified: Kimberlite Area 1 - a classic kimberlite in the region, with the crater facies with different clasts and distinct size. We noted the occurrence of a red-brown soil and an unusual vegetation in this area. The resistivity model provided confirmed the presence of Kimberlite Area 1 and was used to identify other two areas. Area of Interest 1 - area with atypical vegetation along a trail. There is an excavation that displays soil of white color with several blocks present, there are small quartz crystal agglomerates in these blocks. The resistivity model cleary shows a conductive body here, indicative of the presence of a kimberlite. Area of Interest 2 - the presence of a kimberlite was confirmed, not exactly where the targeted Area 2 was, but the southwest of it. Close to this area, there was a very fine rock and a few blocks of pure silica, probably indicating a kimberlitic intrusion. In summary, the 3D resistivity model in depth obtained from inversion of the AMT data confirmed and identified

  6. Numerical Simulation of Response Characteristics of Audio-magnetotelluric for Gas Hydrate in the Qilian Mountain Permafrost, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Yu, Changqing; Pi, Jinyun

    2015-10-01

    Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) method is a kind of frequencydomain sounding technique, which can be applied to gas hydrate prospecting and assessments in the permafrost region due to its high frequency band. Based on the geological conditions of gas hydrate reservoir in the Qilian Mountain permafrost, by establishing high-resistance abnormal model for gas hydrate and carrying out numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM) and nonlinear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method, this paper analyzed the application range of AMT method and the best acquisition parameters setting scheme. When porosity of gas hydrate reservoir is less than 5%, gas hydrate saturation is greater than 70%, occurrence scale is less than 50 m, or bury depth is greater than 500 m, AMT technique cannot identify and delineate the favorable gas hydrate reservoir. Survey line should be more than twice the length of probable occurrence scale, while tripling the length will make the best result. The number of stations should be no less than 6, and 11 stations are optimal. At the high frequency section (10~1000 Hz), there should be no less than 3 frequency points, 4 being the best number.

  7. Joint Audio-Magnetotelluric and Passive Seismic Imaging of the Cerdanya Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabàs, A.; Macau, A.; Benjumea, B.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.; Figueras, S.; Marcuello, A.

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Cerdanya Basin (north-east of Iberian Peninsula) is partly known from geological cross sections, geological maps and vintage geophysical data. However, these data do not have the necessary resolution to characterize some parts of Cerdanya Basin such as the thickness of soft soil, geometry of bedrock or geometry of geological units and associated faults. For all these reasons, the main objective of this work is to improve this deficiency carrying out a detailed study in this Neogene basin applying jointly the combination of passive seismic methods (H/V spectral ratio and seismic array) and electromagnetic methods (audio-magnetotelluric and magnetotelluric method). The passive seismic techniques provide valuable information of geometry of basement along the profile. The maximum depth is located near Alp village with a bedrock depth of 500 m. The bedrock is located in surface at both sites of profile. The Neogene sediments present a shear-wave velocity between 400 and 1000 m/s, and the bedrock basement presents a shear-wave velocity values between 1700 and 2200 m/s. These results are used as a priori information to create a 2D resistivity initial model which constraints the inversion process of electromagnetic data. We have obtained a 2D resistivity model which is characterized by (1) a heterogeneous conductivity zone (<40 Ohm m) that corresponds to shallow part of the model up to 500 m depth in the centre of the profile. These values have been associated with Quaternary and Neogene sediments formed by silts, clays, conglomerates, sandstones and gravels, and (2) a deeper resistive zone (1000-3000 Ohm m) interpreted as Palaeozoic basement (sandstones, limestones and slates at NW and conglomerates and microconglomerates at SE). The resistive zone is truncated by a discontinuity at the south-east of the profile which is interpreted as the Alp-La Tet Fault. This discontinuity is represented by a more conductive zone (600 Ohm m approx.) and is explained as

  8. Joint Audio-Magnetotelluric and Passive Seismic Imaging of the Cerdanya Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabàs, A.; Macau, A.; Benjumea, B.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.; Figueras, S.; Marcuello, A.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of Cerdanya Basin (north-east of Iberian Peninsula) is partly known from geological cross sections, geological maps and vintage geophysical data. However, these data do not have the necessary resolution to characterize some parts of Cerdanya Basin such as the thickness of soft soil, geometry of bedrock or geometry of geological units and associated faults. For all these reasons, the main objective of this work is to improve this deficiency carrying out a detailed study in this Neogene basin applying jointly the combination of passive seismic methods ( H/V spectral ratio and seismic array) and electromagnetic methods (audio-magnetotelluric and magnetotelluric method). The passive seismic techniques provide valuable information of geometry of basement along the profile. The maximum depth is located near Alp village with a bedrock depth of 500 m. The bedrock is located in surface at both sites of profile. The Neogene sediments present a shear-wave velocity between 400 and 1000 m/s, and the bedrock basement presents a shear-wave velocity values between 1700 and 2200 m/s. These results are used as a priori information to create a 2D resistivity initial model which constraints the inversion process of electromagnetic data. We have obtained a 2D resistivity model which is characterized by (1) a heterogeneous conductivity zone (<40 Ohm m) that corresponds to shallow part of the model up to 500 m depth in the centre of the profile. These values have been associated with Quaternary and Neogene sediments formed by silts, clays, conglomerates, sandstones and gravels, and (2) a deeper resistive zone (1000-3000 Ohm m) interpreted as Palaeozoic basement (sandstones, limestones and slates at NW and conglomerates and microconglomerates at SE). The resistive zone is truncated by a discontinuity at the south-east of the profile which is interpreted as the Alp-La Tet Fault. This discontinuity is represented by a more conductive zone (600 Ohm m approx.) and is explained

  9. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  10. A feasible research of rock porosity and water saturation impact on audio-magnetotelluric propagation in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Z.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Although various factors have impact on the resistivity of subsurface rock formation, in depth range of general electrical prospecting, the conductive actions of rocks are basically realized relying on the aqueous solutions filled in the pores. Therefore, quantitatively studying the impact of the water level on rock resistivity is important to analyze and classify strata, investigate the underground structures. In this research, we proposed a feasible research on building electric property rock formation models with different porosity and water saturation based on theories of two-phase media. The propagation of audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) waves is simulated by using finite-difference (FD) scheme, and theoretic resistivity distribution is calculated on account of the response of AMT. According to a sequence of synthetic examples, through comparing and analyzing the simulated results with various porosity and water saturation respectively, we discuss the impact on layers resistivity while porosity and water saturation of rock stratum are changing. The results shows the extent that the mentioned factors can have impact on the propagation of AMT waves. Key words: audio-magnetotelluric modeling, two-phase media, porosity, water saturation, finite-difference

  11. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  12. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  13. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  14. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  15. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  16. An evaluation of the applicability of the telluric-electric and audio-magnetotelluric methods to mineral assessment on the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.; Zablocki, Charles J.

    1984-01-01

    Feasibility studies of two electromagnetic methods were made in selected areas of the Jabal Hibshi (1:250,000) quadrangle, 26F, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in March of 1983. The methods tested were the natural source-field telluricelectric and audio-magnetotelluric methods developed and extensively used in recent years by the U.S. Geological Survey in some of its domestic programs related to geothermal and mineral resource assessment. Results from limited studies in the Meshaheed district, the Jabal as Silsilah ring complex, and across a portion of the Raha fault zone clearly demonstrate the appropriateness of these sub-regional scale, reconnaissance-type studies to mineral resource assessment. The favorable results obtained are largely attributed to distinctive and large contrasts in the electrical resistivity of the major rock types encountered. It appears that the predominant controlling factor governing the rock resistivities is the amount of contained clay minerals. Accordingly, unaltered (specifically, non-argillic) igneous and metamorphic rocks have very high resistivities; metasedimentary rocks of the Murdama group that contain several percent clay minerals have intermediate values of resistivity; and highly altered rocks, containing abundant clay minerals, have very low values of resistivity. Water-filled fracture porosity may be a secondary, but important, factor in some settings. However, influences from variations in interstitial or intercrystalline, water-filled porosity are probably small because these types of porosity are generally low. It is reasonable to expect similar results in other areas within the Arabian Shield.

  17. Geoelectric structure of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona from audio-magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.; Baer, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction data using distant field sources, mostly of natural origin, in the frequency range of 4.5-27,000 Hz are analyzed to depict the geoelectric structure in an area of volcanic-rock cover located in southeastern Arizona between the Morenci and Safford porphyry copper deposits. The data for each station consist of scalar electromagnetic measurements at descrete frequencies for two-orthogonal magnetic and electric field pairs. Observations spaced about 5-km apart indicate resistivities in the range of 100-700 ohm-m for the unweathered Tertiary volcanic rocks to a depth of 200 to 500 m. Beneath this zone the data indicate resistivities in the range of 10-100 ohm-m that suggest the existence of an older volcanic rock unit. The less resistive unit appears to be displaced upward beneath Turtle Mountain, an area bounded to the northeast and southwest by mapped Basin and Range faults, and bounded to the southeast by an unmapped fault of older origin that trends northeast. Lateral changes in the resistivity of the two main geoelectric layers result in lowered resistivity in an area of known hot-springs near the confluence of the Gila and San Francisco Rivers, as well as along a north-south trending zone located on the east flank of Turtle Mountain, about 5-km (3-mi) west-northwest of the hot springs. This second anomaly is at a probable depth of 400-500 m and is interpreted to indicate a buried fault or fracture zone.

  18. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Kilbrook spring is a thermal spring in east-central Ireland. The temperatures in the spring are the highest recorded for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25 °C). The temperature is elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5-10.5 °C), and represents a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon an audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) survey, and hydrochemical analysis including time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of the subsurface at Kilbrook spring was obtained by the inversion of AMT impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions. The model is interpreted alongside high resolution temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and a previous hydrochemical analysis. The hydrochemical analysis and time-lapse measurements suggest that the thermal waters have a relatively stable temperature and major ion hydrochemistry, and flow within the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin at all times. The 3-D resistivity model of the subsurface reveals a prominent NNW aligned structure within a highly resistive limestone lithology that is interpreted as a dissolutionally enhanced strike-slip fault, of Cenozoic age. The karstification of this structure, which extends to depths of at least 500 m directly beneath the spring, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 560 and 1000 m) within the limestone succession of the Dublin Basin. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the winter thermal maximum and simultaneous increased discharge at Kilbrook spring is the result of rapid infiltration, heating and

  19. 47 CFR 80.39 - Authorized station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized station location. 80.39 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.39 Authorized station location. This section describes the circumstances under which a coast station location is classified as permanent...

  20. 30 CFR 77.309-1 - Control stations; location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control stations; location. 77.309-1 Section 77... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309-1 Control stations; location. Thermal dryer system control stations constructed after June 30, 1971, shall be installed at a location which will give to the operator of...

  1. 30 CFR 77.309-1 - Control stations; location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control stations; location. 77.309-1 Section 77... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309-1 Control stations; location. Thermal dryer system control stations constructed after June 30, 1971, shall be installed at a location which will give to the operator of...

  2. 30 CFR 77.309-1 - Control stations; location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control stations; location. 77.309-1 Section 77... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309-1 Control stations; location. Thermal dryer system control stations constructed after June 30, 1971, shall be installed at a location which will give to the operator of...

  3. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system and station location. 73.6025... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station location. (a) Applications for modified Class A TV facilities proposing the use of directional...

  4. View of camera station located northeast of Building 70022, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of camera station located northeast of Building 70022, facing northwest - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Randsburg Wash Facility Target Test Towers, Tower Road, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  5. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast station will be licensed to the principal community or other political subdivision which it primarily serves. This principal community (city, town or other political subdivision) will be considered...

  6. 47 CFR 97.13 - Restrictions on station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.13 Restrictions on station location. (a) Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental importance or that is significant in American history... upon the amateur station by a District Director pursuant to § 97.121 of this part....

  7. 47 CFR 97.13 - Restrictions on station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.13 Restrictions on station location. (a) Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental importance or that is significant in American history... upon the amateur station by a District Director pursuant to § 97.121 of this part....

  8. 47 CFR 97.13 - Restrictions on station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.13 Restrictions on station location. (a) Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental importance or that is significant in American history... upon the amateur station by a District Director pursuant to § 97.121 of this part....

  9. 47 CFR 97.13 - Restrictions on station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.13 Restrictions on station location. (a) Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental importance or that is significant in American history... upon the amateur station by a District Director pursuant to § 97.121 of this part....

  10. LOCATING MONITORING STATIONS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water undergoes changes in quality between the time it leaves the treatment plant and the time it reaches the customer's tap, making it important to select monitoring stations that will adequately monitor these changers. But because there is no uniform schedule or framework for ...

  11. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  12. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  13. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  14. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  15. 47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.815 Stations at...

  16. Global Validation of Single-Station Schumann Resonance Lightning Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis; Wong, C.; Williams, E. R.; Boldi, R.; Christian, H. J.; Goodman, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    Global measurements of large, optically bright lightning events from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite are used to validate estimates of lightning location from single-station Schumann resonance (SR) data. Bearing estimates are obtained through conventional magnetic direction-finding techniques, while source range is estimated from the range-dependent impedance spectrum of individual SR transients. An analysis of 40 such transients suggests that single-station techniques can locate lightning globally with an accuracy of 1-2mm. This is confirmed by further validation at close ranges from flashes detected by the National Lightning Detection-Network (NLDN). Observations with both OTD and SR systems may be useful for globally locating lightning with necessary, if not sufficient, characteristics to trigger mesospheric sprites.

  17. Geothermal investigations in Idaho, Part 2, An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho - with a section on a reconnaissance audio-magnetotelluric survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, Donald B.; Tippens, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression (possibly a graben) in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. They are transected by a prominent system of northwest-trending faults. For discussion purposes, the aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-metres underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/l) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/l. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/l. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5 to 83.0 degrees C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0 to 83.0 degrees C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35 degrees C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150 degrees C. However, a mixed-water geochemical thermometer indicates that temperatures at depth may exceed 180 degrees C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers. The thermal waters

  18. Locating PHEV exchange stations in V2G

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Bent, Russell; Berscheid, Alan; Izraelevitz, David

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PREV) is an environment friendly modem transportation method and has been rapidly penetrate the transportation system. Renewable energy is another contributor to clean power but the associated intermittence increases the uncertainty in power generation. As a foreseen benefit of a vchicle-to-grid (V2G) system, PREV supporting infrastructures like battery exchange stations can provide battery service to PREV customers as well as being plugged into a power grid as energy sources and stabilizer. The locations of exchange stations are important for these two objectives under constraints from both ,transportation system and power grid. To model this location problem and to understand and analyze the benefit of a V2G system, we develop a two-stage stochastic program to optimally locate the stations prior to the realizations of battery demands, loads, and generation capacity of renewable power sources. Based on this model, we use two data sets to construct the V2G systems and test the benefit and the performance of these systems.

  19. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  20. RF interference at ground stations located in populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, N.; Bitman, J.; Copeland, D.; Srinivasan, D.; Garcia, A.

    Ground stations located in populated areas must contend with RF interference (RFI). While RF interference may disrupt occasional satellite contacts, disruption statistics in many cases are manageable. Thus the RF environment must be statistically characterized in order to predict availability and detect changes in the environment. An RF monitoring and recording system is essential to both characterize the RF environment and send alarms when interference appears. This paper presents a study of RF interference at the Satellite Communications Facility (SCF) located at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and describes the impact of RF interference on the NASA Van Allen Probes mission. The area surrounding the SCF, located in Laurel, Maryland, was rural farmland when the SCF was commissioned in 1963. Since then the area has experienced tremendous commercial and residential development. Concurrent with this development RF activity has increased. In particular, increased RF interference is evident within the Van Allen Probes' S-band downlink allocation. The interference is due to other licensed parties, out-of-band commercial emissions, as well as natural phenomena. Some RFI sources have been identified, whereas others remain unknown. In this paper we describe the RF environment, and present a statistical characterization that shows that RFI has only a small impact on ground station availability. We also discuss operational considerations, including hand-shaking protocols and coordination with spectrum management.

  1. Optimising base station location for UMTS cellular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalata, G.; Pozniak-Koszalka, I.; Koszalka, L.; Kasprzak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid development of universal mobile telecommunication systems put demands on tools for assisting planning of cellular network infrastructure. The tools need to focus on critical issues in modern cellular networks and techniques used for previous generation system no longer serve useful. In this paper, an algorithm based on Branch & Bound approach is proposed for solving base station location problem, covering interference levels, traffic demands and power control mechanism. The efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated with respect to existing approaches for solving this problem - using the designed and implemented experimentation system.

  2. Adjusting flow station job to remote Nigerian location yields savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, R.; Williams, E.C. )

    1994-05-02

    In September 1991, Chevron Nigeria Ltd. and Nigerian National Petroleum Crop. contracted Offshore Pipelines to design, procure, construct, install, and commission the Opuekeba 30,000 b/d crude-oil flow station on an offshore platform near Olero Creek, Nigeria, approximately 22 miles from the nearest deepwater access. Chevron's original project plan included bringing the flow station to the site in small packages and then assembling it in a lengthy field hook-up process. Offshore Pipelines developed a plan early in the project to maximize construction and hook-up in the fabrication yard, then transport the nearly complete structures to site by way of a newly dredged canal. What proved to be most difficult was the site location in Nigeria. Job planning and communication were important in the successful completion of the project. Keeping the components of the large and complex facility simple proved to be effective and efficient and played a key role in completing the project on time and within budget. The paper discusses overcoming obstacles, lift and depth constraints, dredging, fabrication, installation, and large-time problems.

  3. NASA directory of observation station locations, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The directory documents geodetic information for NASA tracking stations and observation stations in the NASA Geodetic Satellites Program, including stations participating in the National Geodetic Satellite Program. Station positions of these facilities are given on local or preferred major datums, and on the Modified Mercury Datum 1968. A geodetic data sheet is provided for each station, giving the position of the station and describing briefly how it was established. Geodetic positions and geocentric coordinates of these stations are tabulated on local or major geodetic datums, and on selected world geodetic systems when available information permits.

  4. NASA directory of observation station locations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Geodetic information is presented for NASA tracking stations and observation stations in the NASA geodetic satellites program. A geodetic data sheet is provided for each station, giving the position of the station and describing briefly how it was established. Geodetic positions and geocentric coordinates of these stations are tabulated on local or major geodetic datums, and on selected world geodetic systems when available information permits.

  5. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... considered to be the station location. Broadband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  6. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... considered to be the station location. Broadband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  7. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... to be the station location. Narrowband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  8. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... to be the station location. Narrowband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  9. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... to be the station location. Narrowband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  10. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... to be the station location. Narrowband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  11. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... considered to be the station location. Broadband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  12. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... considered to be the station location. Broadband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  13. 47 CFR 24.815 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.815 Section 24.815 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... considered to be the station location. Broadband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  14. 47 CFR 24.415 - Technical content of applications; maintenance of list of station locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of list of station locations. 24.415 Section 24.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... list of station locations. (a) All applications required by this part shall contain all technical... to be the station location. Narrowband PCS licensees must maintain a current list of all...

  15. Location of vehicles using AM station broadcasting signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Imaginary hyperbolic grid patterns formed by three local AM broadcasting stations were utilized in study. Each hyperbola is defined by constant phase difference between arbitrary signals integrally related to those coming from two stations. When three stations are used, grid is formed covering area with intersecting hyperbolas.

  16. NASA directory of observation station locations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Geodetic information for NASA tracking stations and for observation stations cooperating in NASA geodetic satellite programs is presented. A Geodetic Data Sheet is provided for each station, giving the position of the station and describing briefly how it was established. Geodetic positions and geocentric coordinates of these stations are tabulated on local or major geodetic datums and on selected world geodetic systems. The principal tracking facilities used by NASA, including the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network, the Deep Space Network, and several large radio telescopes are discussed. Positions of these facilities are tabulated on their local or national datums, the Mercury Spheroid 1960, the Modified Mercury Datum 1968, and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network System. Observation stations in the NASA Geodetic Satellites Program are included along with stations participating in the National Geodetic Satellite Program. Positions of these facilities are given on local or preferred major datums, and on the Modified Mercury Datum 1968.

  17. Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Location plan for Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, October 8, 1943 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  18. 47 CFR 73.1125 - Station main studio location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph (a): The principal community contour of AM stations that simulcast on a frequency in the 535-1605 kHz band and on a frequency in the 1605-1705 kHz band shall be the 5 mV/m contour of the lower band... portion of the dual frequency operation, the principal community contour shall become the 5 mV/m of...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1125 - Station main studio location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph (a): The principal community contour of AM stations that simulcast on a frequency in the 535-1605 kHz band and on a frequency in the 1605-1705 kHz band shall be the 5 mV/m contour of the lower band... portion of the dual frequency operation, the principal community contour shall become the 5 mV/m of...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1125 - Station main studio location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (a): The principal community contour of AM stations that simulcast on a frequency in the 535-1605 kHz band and on a frequency in the 1605-1705 kHz band shall be the 5 mV/m contour of the lower band... portion of the dual frequency operation, the principal community contour shall become the 5 mV/m of...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1125 - Station main studio location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (a): The principal community contour of AM stations that simulcast on a frequency in the 535-1605 kHz band and on a frequency in the 1605-1705 kHz band shall be the 5 mV/m contour of the lower band... portion of the dual frequency operation, the principal community contour shall become the 5 mV/m of...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1125 - Station main studio location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (a): The principal community contour of AM stations that simulcast on a frequency in the 535-1605 kHz band and on a frequency in the 1605-1705 kHz band shall be the 5 mV/m contour of the lower band... portion of the dual frequency operation, the principal community contour shall become the 5 mV/m of...

  3. Microearthquakes at Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Improved Detection and Location with Two Additional Caldera Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. M.; House, L. S.; Ten Cate, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 43 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network was focused on monitoring seismic hazards and comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station—PER, installed in 1998—was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using multiple arrival times. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus

  4. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  5. 47 CFR 90.305 - Location of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) § 90.305 Location of... UHF TV channels separated by 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 TV channels from the television channel in which...

  6. 47 CFR 90.305 - Location of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) § 90.305 Location of... UHF TV channels separated by 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 TV channels from the television channel in which...

  7. 47 CFR 90.305 - Location of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) § 90.305 Location of... UHF TV channels separated by 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 TV channels from the television channel in which...

  8. 47 CFR 90.305 - Location of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) § 90.305 Location of... UHF TV channels separated by 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 TV channels from the television channel in which...

  9. 47 CFR 90.305 - Location of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) § 90.305 Location of... UHF TV channels separated by 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 TV channels from the television channel in which...

  10. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  11. Station Correction Uncertainty in Multiple Event Location Algorithms and the Effect on Error Ellipses

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Jason P.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Ortiz, Anne; Hutchenson, Kevin; Oweisny, Linda; Kraft, Gordon; Anderson, Dale N.; Tinker, Mark

    2003-10-30

    Accurate location of seismic events is crucial for nuclear explosion monitoring. There are several sources of error in seismic location that must be taken into account to obtain high confidence results. Most location techniques account for uncertainties in the phase arrival times (measurement error) and the bias of the velocity model (model error), but they do not account for the uncertainty of the velocity model bias. By determining and incorporating this uncertainty in the location algorithm we seek to improve the accuracy of the calculated locations and uncertainty ellipses. In order to correct for deficiencies in the velocity model, it is necessary to apply station specific corrections to the predicted arrival times. Both master event and multiple event location techniques assume that the station corrections are known perfectly, when in reality there is an uncertainty associated with these corrections. For multiple event location algorithms that calculate station corrections as part of the inversion, it is possible to determine the variance of the corrections. The variance can then be used to weight the arrivals associated with each station, thereby giving more influence to stations with consistent corrections. We have modified an existing multiple event location program (based on PMEL, Pavlis and Booker, 1983). We are exploring weighting arrivals with the inverse of the station correction standard deviation as well using the conditional probability of the calculated station corrections. This is in addition to the weighting already given to the measurement and modeling error terms. We re-locate a group of mining explosions that occurred at Black Thunder, Wyoming, and compare the results to those generated without accounting for station correction uncertainty.

  12. Location of Road Emergency Stations in Fars Province, Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Goli, Ali; Ansarizade, Najmeh; Barati, Omid; Kavosi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To locate the road emergency stations in Fars province based on using spatial multi-criteria decision making (Delphi method). Methods: In this study, the criteria affecting the location of road emergency stations have been identified through Delphi method and their importance was determined using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). With regard to the importance of the criteria and by using Geographical Information System (GIS), the appropriateness of the existing stations with the criteria and the way of their distribution has been explored, and the appropriate arenas for creating new emergency stations were determined. In order to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the stations, Moran’s Index was used. Results: The accidents (0.318), placement position (0.235), time (0.198), roads (0.160), and population (0.079) were introduced as the main criteria in location road emergency stations. The findings showed that the distribution of the existing stations was clustering (Moran’s I=0.3). Three priorities were introduced for establishing new stations. Some arenas including Abade, north of Eghlid and Khoram bid, and small parts of Shiraz, Farashband, Bavanat, and Kazeroon were suggested as the first priority. Conclusion: GIS is a useful and applicable tool in investigating spatial distribution and geographical accessibility to the setting that provide health care, including emergency stations. PMID:27162894

  13. Position Corrections due to Uncalibrated GNSS Antenna Radomes at IGS Co-located Geodetic Observing Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, I.; Rebischung, P.; Ray, J.; Schmid, R.; Fisher, S.; Griffiths, J.

    2013-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) through the Infrastructure Committee, the Analysis Center Coordinator, the Antenna Working Group, the Reference Frame Working Group and the Central Bureau have organized a campaign from 2011 to 2013 to analyze the unknown bias in the estimated position for co-located stations due to an uncalibrated radome over the GNSS antenna. Co-located stations have more than one geodetic technique present (GNSS, VLBI, SLR, etc.) and they are a critical element for the realisation of the ITRF. Due to the use of uncalibrated radomes over the GNSS antennas at these important sites the "local ties' between techniques do not have the expected accuracy, and therefore a campaign to analyze the different radome effects was planned and executed at many of the affected IGS stations. The proposed approach is an expedient way to mitigate empirically an unwanted situation with these uncalibrated radomes in the IGS station network so as to try to improve the historic position time series of these stations for the next ITRF realisation. The process has involved removing the uncalibrated radome for a significant number of weeks and then putting the radome back on in the exact same position. The investigation proceeds with dedicated PPP analyses from different sources plus a detailed analysis of the weekly IGS station position combinations. This poster presents the campaign approach, the participating stations and the results. Co-located IGS GNSS sites with uncalibrated radomes

  14. Estimate of procession and polar motion errors from planetary encounter station location solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Station (DSS) location solutions based on two JPL planetary ephemerides, DE 84 and DE 96, at eight planetary encounters were used to obtain weighted least squares estimates of precession and polar motion errors. The solution for precession error in right ascension yields a value of 0.3 X 10 to the minus 5 power plus or minus 0.8 X 10 to the minus 6 power deg/year. This maps to a right ascension error of 1.3 X 10 to the minus 5 power plus or minus 0.4 X 10 to the minus 5 power deg at the first Voyager 1979 Jupiter encounter if the current JPL DSS location set is used. Solutions for precession and polar motion using station locations based on DE 84 agree well with the solution using station locations referenced to DE 96. The precession solution removes the apparent drift in station longitude and spin axis distance estimates, while the encounter polar motion solutions consistently decrease the scatter in station spin axis distance estimates.

  15. Large scale state estimation algorithms for DSN tracking station location determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of precise tracking station locations for deep space navigation is based on combining state estimates derived from a multitude of planetary encounter missions with planet direction information provided by the planetary ephemeris. Procedures for reducing the dimensionality of the station location estimation problem and for analytically correcting estimates for ephemeris updates have been developed. Using Householder transforms the large scale state estimation problem is decomposed into a sequence of dynamically uncoupled problems of lower dimension. The effect of an ephemeris update is shown to be adequately approximated by Brouwer-Clemence Set III perturbations for the earth-moon barycenter and the target planet for each mission.

  16. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  17. Locating narrow bipolar events with single-station measurement of low-frequency magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Gaopeng; Qie, Xiushu; Jiang, Rubin; Fan, Yanfeng; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhuling; Liu, Mingyuan; Wang, Zhichao; Liu, Dongxia; Feng, Guili

    2016-06-01

    We developed a method to locate the narrow bipolar events (NBEs) based on the single-station measurement of low-frequency (LF, 40-500 kHz) magnetic fields. The direction finding of a two-axis magnetic sensor provides the azimuth of NBEs relative to the measurement site; the ionospheric reflection pairs in the lightning sferics are used to determine the range and height. We applied this method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) locations of 1475 NBEs with magnetic signals recorded during the SHandong Artificially Triggered Lightning Experiment (SHATLE) in summer of 2013. The NBE detections are evaluated on a storm basis by comparing with radar observations of reflectivity and lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) for two mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) of different sizes. As revealed by previous studies, NBEs are predominately produced in the convective regions with relatively strong radar echo (with composite reflectivity ≥30 dBZ), although not all the convections with high reflectivity and active lightning production are in favor of NBE production. The NBEs located by the single-station magnetic method also exhibit the distinct segregation in altitude for positive and negative NBEs, namely positive NBEs are mainly produced between 7 km and 15 km, while negative NBEs are predominantly produced above 14 km. In summary, the results of comparison generally show that the single-station magnetic method can locate NBEs with good reliability, although the accuracy of 3D location remains to be evaluated with the traditional multi-station method based on the time-of-arrival technique. This method can be applied to track the motion of storm convection within 800 km, especially when they move out to ocean beyond the detection range (typically <400 km) of meteorological radars, making it possible to study NBEs in oceanic thunderstorms for which the location with multiple ground-based stations is usually not feasible.

  18. Progress in SLR-GPS co-location at San Juan (Argentina) station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Hernan; Rojas, Alvis; Adarvez, Sonia; Quinteros, Johana; Cobos, Pablo; Aracena, Andrés; Pacheco, Ana M.; Podestá, Ricardo; Actis, Eloy V.; Li, Jinzeng; Yin, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rui; Huang, Dongping; Márquez, Raúl

    2012-08-01

    From February, 2006, performing a Cooperation Agreement with National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) of Universidad Nacional de San Juan (UNSJ) is operating a SLR System (ILRS 7406 Station). From the beginning of 2012 a GPS Aztech - Micro Z CGRS is operative at the same place, which made the SLR - GPS co - location possible. The prior objective is to reach co - location between both techniques, so the Station became of 1st order in ITRF net. For that we study and adopt an appropriate strategy to select and place Survey Control Points that ensures higher precision in determination of 3D vectors between the selected reference point s. Afterwards we perform translocation tasks of receptor and antenna checking that the GPS verifies builder standards. Then we design and compensate survey control network, by means of software of our own draught. We expect to obtain definitive local ties with precision better than 3 mm, as suggested by IERS for co - located stations. There are very few stations with co - located spatial techniques in the Southern Hemisphere, so it is of great importance to have one in Argentina for improve our participation in IERS on the new realizations of ITRF from now on.

  19. 47 CFR 101.817 - Notification of station operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of station operation at temporary locations. 101.817 Section 101.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service §...

  20. 47 CFR 101.817 - Notification of station operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of station operation at temporary locations. 101.817 Section 101.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service §...

  1. 47 CFR 101.817 - Notification of station operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of station operation at temporary locations. 101.817 Section 101.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service §...

  2. 47 CFR 101.817 - Notification of station operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of station operation at temporary locations. 101.817 Section 101.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service §...

  3. 47 CFR 101.817 - Notification of station operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of station operation at temporary locations. 101.817 Section 101.817 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service §...

  4. LS-44: An improved deep space network station location set for Viking navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koble, H. M.; Pease, G. E.; Yip, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Improved estimates for the spin axis and longitude components of the Deep Space Network station locations were obtained from post-flight processing of radio metric data received from various Mariner planetary missions. The use of an upgraded set of ionospheric calibrations and the incorporation of near-Venus and near-Mercury radio metric data from the Mariner 10 spacecraft are the principal contributing effects to the improvement. These new estimates, designated Location Set (LS) 44, have supported Viking navigation activities in the vicinity of Mars. As such, the station locations were determined relative to the planetary positions inherent in JPL Development Ephemeris (DE) 84, which was used throughout the Viking mission. The article also presents and discusses a version of LS 44 based upon the latest planetary ephemeris, DE 96.

  5. Particulate Matter Exposure in a Police Station Located near a Highway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Chin-Kai; Wang, Chia C.; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Mei-Ru; Lin, Ming-Yeng

    2015-01-01

    People living or working near roadways have experienced an increase in cardiovascular or respiratory diseases due to vehicle emissions. Very few studies have focused on the PM exposure of highway police officers, particularly for the number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP). This study evaluated exposure concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the Sinying police station near a highway located in Tainan, Taiwan, under different traffic volumes, traffic types, and shift times. We focused on periods when the wind blew from the highway toward the police station and when the wind speed was greater than or equal to 0.5 m/s. PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station and an upwind reference station were measured. Results indicate that PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station can be on average 1.13, 2.17, and 5.81 times more than the upwind reference station concentrations, respectively. The highest exposure level for PM2.5 and UFP was observed during the 12:00 PM–4:00 PM shift while the highest PAHs concentration was found in the 4:00 AM–8:00 AM shift. Thus, special attention needs to be given to protect police officers from exposure to high PM concentration. PMID:26580641

  6. Particulate Matter Exposure in a Police Station Located near a Highway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Chin-Kai; Wang, Chia C; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Mei-Ru; Lin, Ming-Yeng

    2015-11-01

    People living or working near roadways have experienced an increase in cardiovascular or respiratory diseases due to vehicle emissions. Very few studies have focused on the PM exposure of highway police officers, particularly for the number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP). This study evaluated exposure concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the Sinying police station near a highway located in Tainan, Taiwan, under different traffic volumes, traffic types, and shift times. We focused on periods when the wind blew from the highway toward the police station and when the wind speed was greater than or equal to 0.5 m/s. PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station and an upwind reference station were measured. Results indicate that PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station can be on average 1.13, 2.17, and 5.81 times more than the upwind reference station concentrations, respectively. The highest exposure level for PM2.5 and UFP was observed during the 12:00 PM-4:00 PM shift while the highest PAHs concentration was found in the 4:00 AM-8:00 AM shift. Thus, special attention needs to be given to protect police officers from exposure to high PM concentration. PMID:26580641

  7. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie and the DSN tracking station locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1990-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides is uncertain by 30 mas (150 nrad). At this level of uncertainty this orientation offset, or 'frame tie', can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. Preliminary results are presented which indicate that accuracies of 5 mas or better may be achieved with this method. An important by-product of this method of frame tie determination is a set of Deep Space Network (DSN) station locations with 10 cm per component accuracy. This station set is in a geocentric coordinate system with known orientation relative to the radio and planetary frames.

  8. A General Event Location Algorithm with Applications to Eclispe and Station Line-of-Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joel J. K.; Hughes, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    A general-purpose algorithm for the detection and location of orbital events is developed. The proposed algorithm reduces the problem to a global root-finding problem by mapping events of interest (such as eclipses, station access events, etc.) to continuous, differentiable event functions. A stepping algorithm and a bracketing algorithm are used to detect and locate the roots. Examples of event functions and the stepping/bracketing algorithms are discussed, along with results indicating performance and accuracy in comparison to commercial tools across a variety of trajectories.

  9. Applying Rprop neural network for the prediction of the mobile station location.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Wireless location is the function used to determine the mobile station (MS) location in a wireless cellular communications system. When it is very hard for the surrounding base stations (BSs) to detect a MS or the measurements contain large errors in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, then one need to integrate all available heterogeneous measurements to increase the location accuracy. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm that combines both time of arrival (TOA) and angle of arrival (AOA) measurements to estimate the MS in NLOS environments. The proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of two circles and two lines, based on the most resilient back-propagation (Rprop) neural network learning technique, to give location estimation of the MS. The traditional Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP) have convergence problems, and even if the measurements are fairly accurate, the performance of these algorithms depends highly on the relative position of the MS and BSs. Different NLOS models were used to evaluate the proposed methods. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms can not only preserve the convergence solution, but obtain precise location estimations, even in severe NLOS conditions, particularly when the geometric relationship of the BSs relative to the MS is poor. PMID:22163844

  10. Signal Processing for Indian and Pakistan Nuclear Tests Recorded at IMS Stations Located in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Pinsky, V.; Hofstetter, R.

    - In compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) the International Monitoring System (IMS) was designed for detection and location of the clandestine Nuclear Tests (NT). Two auxiliary IMS seismic stations MRNI and EIL, deployed recently, were subjected to detectability, travel-time calibration and discrimination analysis. The study is based on the three recent 1998 underground nuclear explosions: one of India and two of Pakistan, which provided a ground-truth test of the existing IMS. These events, attaining magnitudes of 5.2, 4.8 and 4.6 correspondingly, were registered by many IMS and other seismic stations.The MRNI and EIL broadband (BB) stations are located in Israel at teleseismic distances (from the explosions) of 3600, 2800 and 2700km, respectively, where the signals from the tests are already weak. The Indian and the second Pakistan NT were not detected by the short-period Israel Seismic Network (ISN), using standard STA/LTA triggering. Therefore, for the chosen IMS stations we compare the STA/LTA response to the results of the more sensitive Murdock-Hutt (MH) and the Adaptive Statistically Optimal Detector (OD) that showed triggering for these three events. The second Pakistan NT signal arrived at the ISN and the IMS stations in the coda of a strong Afghanistan earthquake and was further disturbed by a preceding signal from a local earthquake. However, the NT signal was successfully extracted at EIL and MRNI stations using MH and OD procedures. For comparison we provide the signal analysis of the cooperating BB station JER, with considerably worse noise conditions than EIL and MRNI, and show that OD can detect events when the other algorithms fail. Using the most quiet EIL station, the most sensitive OD and different bandpass filters we tried in addition to detect the small Kazakh chemical 100-ton calibration explosion of 1998, with magnitude 3.7 at a distance approaching 4000km. The detector response curve showed uprising in the

  11. Audio-magnetotelluric methods in reconnaissance geothermal exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, D.B.; Long, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    and 18 600 Hz where artificial VLF sources are available. As a reconnaissance technique we use AMT surveys in conjunction with regional gravity, magnetic, and telluric surveys. The exploration depth is a function of the resistivities of the lithologic section, but typically ranges from the surface to 0.2 km in low-resistivity areas and to greater than 2 km in high-resistivity regions. Results of the initial reconnaissance AMT surveys provide a rational basis for deciding on the extent of costlier follow-up surveys. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey geothermal program, surveys were conducted in Long Valley and Surprise Valley, California; the Vale, Ore-Weiser, Idaho region; and Bruneau-Grand View, Raft River, and Island Park regions of Idaho. AMT surveys in five additional known geothermal resource areas (KGRA's) have been scheduled for completion by May 1975. In the Raft River and Bruneau-Grand View regions and Long Valley, follow-up electrical surveys substantiated the effectiveness of the AMT technique for reconnaissance surveying.

  12. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb-mass/yr. to about 1 lb-mass/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  13. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.; Abel, Joshua C.; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system.An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (directionality).The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbmyr. to about 1 lbmday. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ramwake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  14. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin; Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug; Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie; Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  15. Travel-time source-specific station correction improves location accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, Alessandra; Materni, Valerio; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Accurate earthquake locations are crucial for investigating seismogenic processes, as well as for applications like verifying compliance to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Earthquake location accuracy is related to the degree of knowledge about the 3-D structure of seismic wave velocity in the Earth. It is well known that modeling errors of calculated travel times may have the effect of shifting the computed epicenters far from the real locations by a distance even larger than the size of the statistical error ellipses, regardless of the accuracy in picking seismic phase arrivals. The consequences of large mislocations of seismic events in the context of the CTBT verification is particularly critical in order to trigger a possible On Site Inspection (OSI). In fact, the Treaty establishes that an OSI area cannot be larger than 1000 km2, and its larger linear dimension cannot be larger than 50 km. Moreover, depth accuracy is crucial for the application of the depth event screening criterion. In the present study, we develop a method of source-specific travel times corrections based on a set of well located events recorded by dense national seismic networks in seismically active regions. The applications concern seismic sequences recorded in Japan, Iran and Italy. We show that mislocations of the order of 10-20 km affecting the epicenters, as well as larger mislocations in hypocentral depths, calculated from a global seismic network and using the standard IASPEI91 travel times can be effectively removed by applying source-specific station corrections.

  16. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbm//yr. to about 1 lbm/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  17. 14 CFR 221.101 - Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office. 221.101 Section 221.101 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... locations other than principal or general office. (a) Each carrier shall make available for...

  18. 14 CFR 221.101 - Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office. 221.101 Section 221.101 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... locations other than principal or general office. (a) Each carrier shall make available for...

  19. 14 CFR 221.101 - Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office. 221.101 Section 221.101 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... locations other than principal or general office. (a) Each carrier shall make available for...

  20. Optimal filter parameters for low SNR seismograms as a function of station and event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard R.; Dowla, Farid U.; Schultz, Craig A.

    1999-06-01

    Global seismic monitoring requires deployment of seismic sensors worldwide, in many areas that have not been studied or have few useable recordings. Using events with lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) would increase the amount of data from these regions. Lower SNR events can add significant numbers to data sets, but recordings of these events must be carefully filtered. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. To reduce this laborious process, we have developed an automated method to provide optimal filters for low SNR regional or teleseismic events. As seismic signals are often localized in frequency and time with distinct time-frequency characteristics, our method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of subsignals, each representing a band with f/Δ f constant (constant Q). The SNR is calculated on the pre-event noise and signal window. The band pass signals with high SNR are used to indicate the cutoff filter limits for the optimized filter. Results indicate a significant improvement in SNR, particularly for low SNR events. The method provides an optimum filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions. The filtered signals are used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements in travel-time picking, azimuth estimation, regional characterization, and event detection. For example, when an event is detected and a preliminary location is determined, the computer could automatically select optimal filter bands for data from non-reporting stations. Results are shown for a set of low SNR events as well as 379 regional and teleseismic events recorded at stations ABKT, KIV, and ANTO in the Middle East.

  1. Revision of earthquake hypocenter locations in GEOFON bulletin data using global source-specific station terms technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooshiri, N.; Saul, J.; Heimann, S.; Tilmann, F. J.; Dahm, T.

    2015-12-01

    The use of a 1D velocity model for seismic event location is often associated with significant travel-time residuals. Particularly for regional stations in subduction zones, where the velocity structure strongly deviates from the assumed 1D model, residuals of up to ±10 seconds are observed even for clear arrivals, which leads to strongly biased locations. In fact, due to mostly regional travel-time anomalies, arrival times at regional stations do not match the location obtained with teleseismic picks, and vice versa. If the earthquake is weak and only recorded regionally, or if fast locations based on regional stations are needed, the location may be far off the corresponding teleseismic location. In this case, implementation of travel-time corrections may leads to a reduction of the travel-time residuals at regional stations and, in consequence, significantly improve the relative location accuracy. Here, we have extended the source-specific station terms (SSST) technique to regional and teleseismic distances and adopted the algorithm for probabilistic, non-linear, global-search earthquake location. The method has been applied to specific test regions using P and pP phases from the GEOFON bulletin data for all available station networks. By using this method, a set of timing corrections has been calculated for each station varying as a function of source position. In this way, an attempt is made to correct for the systematic errors, introduced by limitations and inaccuracies in the assumed velocity structure, without solving for a new earth model itself. In this presentation, we draw on examples of the application of this global SSST technique to relocate earthquakes from the Tonga-Fiji subduction zone and from the Chilean margin. Our results have been showing a considerable decrease of the root-mean-square (RMS) residual in earthquake location final catalogs, a major reduction of the median absolute deviation (MAD) of the travel

  2. The effect of clock, media, and station location errors on Doppler measurement accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking by the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the primary radio metric data type used by navigation to determine the orbit of a spacecraft. The accuracy normally attributed to orbits determined exclusively with Doppler data is about 0.5 microradians in geocentric angle. Recently, the Doppler measurement system has evolved to a high degree of precision primarily because of tracking at X-band frequencies (7.2 to 8.5 GHz). However, the orbit determination system has not been able to fully utilize this improved measurement accuracy because of calibration errors associated with transmission media, the location of tracking stations on the Earth's surface, the orientation of the Earth as an observing platform, and timekeeping. With the introduction of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, it may be possible to remove a significant error associated with the troposphere. In this article, the effect of various calibration errors associated with transmission media, Earth platform parameters, and clocks are examined. With the introduction of GPS calibrations, it is predicted that a Doppler tracking accuracy of 0.05 microradians is achievable.

  3. The RING and Seismic Network: Data Acquisition of Co-located Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, L.; Avallone, A.; Cattaneo, M.; Cecere, G.; Cogliano, R.; D'Agostino, N.; D'Ambrosio, C.; D'Anastasio, E.; Selvaggi, G.

    2007-12-01

    The plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia represents an interesting geodynamical region characterized by a complex pattern of deformation. First-order scientific problems regarding the existence of rigid blocks within the plate boundary, the present-day activity of the Calabrian subduction zone and the modes of release of seismic deformation are still awaiting for a better understanding. To address these issues, the INGV (Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanlogia) deployed a permanent, integrated and real-time monitoring GPS network (RING) all over Italy. RING is now constituted by about 120 stations. The CGPS sites, acquiring at 1Hz and 30s sampling rate, are integrated either with broad band or very broad band seismometers and accelerometers for an improved definition of the seismically active regions. Most of the sites are connected to the acquisition centre (located in Rome and duplicated in Grottaminarda) through a satellite system (VSAT), while the remaining sites transmit data by Internet and classical phone connections. The satellite data transmission and the integration with seismic instruments makes this network one of the most innovative CGPS networks in Europe. The heterogeneity of the installed instrumentation, the transmission types and the increasing number of stations needed a central monitoring and acquisition system. A central acquisition system has been developed in Grottaminarda in southern Italy. Regarding the seismic monitoring we chose to use the open source system Earthworm, developed by USGS, with which we store waveforms and implement automatic localization of the seismic events occurring in the area. As most of the GPS sites are acquired by means of Nanometrics satellite technology, we developed a specific software (GpsView), written in Java, to monitor the state of health of those CGPS. This software receives GPS data from NaqsServer (Nanometrics acquisition system) and outputs information about the sites (i.e. approx position

  4. The impact of station location on water quality characterization in the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A

    2013-09-01

    Water quality was monitored in the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge based on the Consent Decree (CDN), the Enhanced Refuge (ERN), the four-part Test impacted (FPTIN), and the four-part test unimpacted (FPTUN) networks. Alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, turbidity, pH, specific conductivity, calcium, chloride, silicon, sulfate, and total phosphorus (TP) were measured from 2005 through 2009. When the ERN was used, the 10 μg TP L(-1) Consent Decree limit would have been exceeded and would have ranged from a low of 2 months in 2009 to a high of 9 months in 2005. Based on the CDN, the limit exceeded only for 1 month in each year from 2006 through 2008. Based on the FPTIN, the 10 μg TP L(-1) limit would have been exceeded and would have ranged from a low of 1 month in 2007 to a high of 7 months in 2005 and 2008. Based on the CDN, the limit only exceeded for 1 month in each year from 2006 through 2008. Since TP is rapidly removed from canal water intruded into the Refuge marsh, one cannot expect a water quality sampling station located 2 km from the source to reliably detect violations. This may be the primary reason why there have been very few months when TP concentration has exceeded the limit since 1992 or part four of the four-part test annual 15 μg L(-1) limit since 2006. PMID:23443636

  5. 47 CFR 101.209 - Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 101.209 Section 101.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED...

  6. 47 CFR 101.209 - Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 101.209 Section 101.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED...

  7. 47 CFR 101.209 - Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 101.209 Section 101.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED...

  8. 47 CFR 101.209 - Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locations for communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 101.209 Section 101.209... communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. Stations authorized to operate at temporary fixed... Mexico, without prior specific notification to, and authorization from, the Commission. Notification...

  9. 14 CFR 221.101 - Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection at stations, offices, or locations other than principal or general office. 221.101 Section 221.101 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... another person, all tariffs applicable to passenger traffic from or to the point where such...

  10. 47 CFR 101.209 - Operation of stations at temporary fixed locations for communication between the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locations for communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 101.209 Section 101.209... communication between the United States and Canada or Mexico. Stations authorized to operate at temporary fixed... Mexico, without prior specific notification to, and authorization from, the Commission. Notification...

  11. 47 CFR 95.406 - (CB Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my CB station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (CB Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my CB station? 95.406 Section 95.406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Citizens Band (CB)...

  12. 47 CFR 95.406 - (CB Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my CB station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (CB Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my CB station? 95.406 Section 95.406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Citizens Band (CB)...

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.409 - Is there any required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a... and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a TCS? No, there is no required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for you to qualify for a...

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.409 - Is there any required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a... and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a TCS? No, there is no required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for you to qualify for a...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.409 - Is there any required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a... and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a TCS? No, there is no required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for you to qualify for a...

  16. 41 CFR 302-3.409 - Is there any required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a... and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a TCS? No, there is no required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for you to qualify for a...

  17. 41 CFR 302-3.409 - Is there any required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a... and a TCS location that must be met for me to qualify for a TCS? No, there is no required minimum distance between an official station and a TCS location that must be met for you to qualify for a...

  18. Detection and location of earthquakes in the central Aleutian subduction zone using island and ocean bottom seismograph stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.; Billington, S.; Engdahl, E.R.; Malahoff, A.

    1982-08-10

    A network of eight University of Texas ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) operated for 6 weeks in 1978 about 50 km offshore of Adak Island, Alaska, and nearly islands. In 1979 a similar network of nine instruments was deployed for 7 weeks farther offshore within and up to 100 km seaward of the Aleutian trench. For shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope, for shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone, and for intermediate-depth events we have analyzed the OBS and island-based network data and evaluated the island network's capabilities for earthquake detection and location and for focal mechanism determination. Our three major conclusions are presented. The first concerns shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope. In 1979 about 30 earthquakes occurred within the Aleutian trench and up to 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The island network located none of these events and detected P phases for only three of them. Ray tracing shows that the islands lie in a geometric shadow zone for events on the outer trench slope. The best located events are shallower than 20 km and exhibit first motions consistent with normal faulting. Several authors have suggested that these events are caused by bending of the oceanic lithosphere at the outer rise prior to subduction. If so, then the event locations reported here show that the bending stresses exceed the strength of lithosphere only in a narrow zone extending about 10 km landward and 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The second conclusion concerns shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone. Epicenters determined by island stations alone are virtually identical to epicenters determined using data from both island and OBS stations. The third conclusion concerns earthquakes deeper than 70 km. Epicenters determined using island network stations alone lie 10 to 80 km south of those determined using OBS and island stations, with the differences between epicenters depending both on event depth and on the velocity model used.

  19. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), “Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity” [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  20. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses. PMID:26933671

  1. A fast topographic characterization of seismic station locations in Iran through integrated use of digital elevation models and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimzadeh, Sadra; Miyajima, Masakatsu; Kamel, Batoul; Pessina, Vera

    2015-10-01

    We present topographic slope positions of seismic stations within four independent networks (IGUT, IIEES, GSI, and BHRC) in Iran through integrated use of digital elevation models and GIS. Since topographic amplification factor (TAF) due to ground surface irregularity could be one of the reasons of earthquake wave amplification and unexpected damage of structures located on the top of ridges in many previous studies, the ridge stations in the study area are recognized using topographic position index (TPI) as a spatial-based scale-dependent approach that helps in classification of topographic positions. We also present the correlation between local topographic positions and V {/s 30} along with Voronoi tiles of two networks (IGUT and IIEES). The obtained results can be profitably used in seismology to establish homogeneous subnetworks based on Voronoi tiles with precise feedback and in the formulation of new ground motion prediction equations with respect to topographic position and topographic amplification factor.

  2. A Memetic Algorithm for the Location-Based Continuously Operating Reference Stations Placement Problem in Network Real-Time Kinematic.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maolin

    2015-10-01

    Network real-time kinematic (NRTK) is a technology that can provide centimeter-level accuracy positioning services in real-time, and it is enabled by a network of continuously operating reference stations (CORS). The location-oriented CORS placement problem is an important problem in the design of a NRTK as it will directly affect not only the installation and operational cost of the NRTK, but also the quality of positioning services provided by the NRTK. This paper presents a memetic algorithm (MA) for the location-oriented CORS placement problem, which hybridizes the powerful explorative search capacity of a genetic algorithm and the efficient and effective exploitative search capacity of a local optimization. Experimental results have shown that the MA has better performance than existing approaches. In this paper, we also conduct an empirical study about the scalability of the MA, effectiveness of the hybridization technique and selection of crossover operator in the MA. PMID:25415999

  3. A single-station method for the detection, classification and location of fin whale calls using ocean-bottom seismic stations.

    PubMed

    Matias, Luis; Harris, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Passive seismic monitoring in the oceans uses long-term deployments of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs). An OBS usually records the three components of ground motion and pressure, typically at 100 Hz. This makes the OBS an ideal tool to investigate fin and blue whales that vocalize at frequencies below 45 Hz. Previous applications of OBS data to locate whale calls have relied on single channel analyses that disregard the information that is conveyed by the horizontal seismic channels. Recently, Harris, Matias, Thomas, Harwood, and Geissler [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3522-3535 (2013)] presented a method that used all four channels recorded by one OBS to derive the range and azimuth of fin whale calls. In this work, the detection, classification, and ranging of calls using this four-channel method were further investigated, focusing on methods to increase the accuracy of range estimates to direct path arrivals. Corrections to account for the influences of the sound speed in the water layer and the velocity structure in the top strata of the seabed were considered. The single station method discussed here is best implemented when OBSs have been deployed in deep water on top of seabed strata with low P-wave velocity. These conditions maximize the ability to detect and estimate ranges to fin whale calls. PMID:26233048

  4. The physical principles of the combined ELF/VLF method for single-station global location of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V.; Price, C.; Williams, E.

    Single -station electromagnetic methods for global lightning location are based on specific features of ELF wave propagation. First, ELF waves propagate with an extremely low attenuation not exceeding 1.5 dB/Mm up to 100 Hz. For this reason, the propagation has a resonant character (the Schumann resonance phenomena) imparting a unique pattern to the spectrum of a lightning waveform depending on the parent lightning's location relative to the given observer. The wave impedance technique realized by Kemp and Jones (1971) and widely adopted afterwards eliminates any need for the frequency dependence of the spectral density of the source's current moment for the location purpose. At the same time, an adequate single-mode propagation model can be applied for recovering this dependence and providing additional information about the source. As the only shortcoming of ELF location procedure, considerable error in estimates of the arrival directions of lightning waveforms was revealed by means of the satellite (OTD) identification of parent lightning events. These azimuthal deviations result in global location accuracies of 1-2 Mm (Boccippio et al, 1998) hardly acceptable in many geophysical problems. Price et al. (2002) found similar azimuthal errors in the ELF technique by means of the ground-truth (NLDN) identification of sprite-producing thunderstorms in Colorado when observing atmospherics in the Negev Desert, Israel. The location accuracy had been essentially improved - to better than 0.2 Mm on this 11 Mm path - by combining ELF distance estimates with VLF direction finding. Theoretical considerations show that this improvement is to be explained by a distinction between the ELF and VLF refraction effects at the day-night boundary of the Earth- ionosphere waveguide. While the difference between the day-time and night-time values of the phase velocity in the ELF range reaches 15%, it does not exceed 1% in the VLF range, with a corresponding diminishment of azimuthal

  5. Single-station and single-event marsquake location and inversion for structure using synthetic Martian waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; van Driel, M.; Böse, M.; Giardini, D.; Ceylan, S.; Yan, J.; Clinton, J.; Euchner, F.; Lognonné, P.; Murdoch, N.; Mimoun, D.; Panning, M.; Knapmeyer, M.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-09-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming InSight mission, which is expected to deploy a single seismic station on the Martian surface in November 2018, we describe a methodology that enables locating marsquakes and obtaining information on the interior structure of Mars. The method works sequentially and is illustrated using single representative 3-component seismograms from two separate events: a relatively large teleseismic event (Mw5.1) and a small-to-moderate-sized regional event (Mw3.8). Location and origin time of the event is determined probabilistically from observations of Rayleigh waves and body-wave arrivals. From the recording of surface waves, averaged fundamental-mode group velocity dispersion data can be extracted and, in combination with body-wave arrival picks, inverted for crust and mantle structure. In the absence of Martian seismic data, we performed full waveform computations using a spectral element method (AxiSEM) to compute seismograms down to a period of 1 s. The model (radial profiles of density, P- and S-wave-speed, and attenuation) used for this purpose is constructed on the basis of an average Martian mantle composition and model areotherm using thermodynamic principles, mineral physics data, and viscoelastic modeling. Noise was added to the synthetic seismic data using an up-to-date noise model that considers a whole series of possible noise sources generated in instrument and lander, including wind-, thermal-, and pressure-induced effects and electromagnetic noise. The examples studied here, which are based on the assumption of spherical symmetry, show that we are able to determine epicentral distance and origin time to accuracies of ∼ 0.5-1° and ± 3-6 s, respectively. For the events and the particular noise level chosen, information on Rayleigh-wave group velocity dispersion in the period range ∼ 14-48 s (Mw5.1) and ∼ 14-34 s (Mw3.8) could be determined. Stochastic inversion of dispersion data in combination with body-wave travel time

  6. 0-1 integer linear programming model for location selection of fire station: A case study in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Susila

    2016-04-01

    In this research, the minimization of the fire station model is constructed. The maximum time data required by the firefighter is used to construct the minimization model of the fire station in Padang. The model is used to determine the minimum number of the available fire station in Padang town. By using Matlab 2013a, the solution of the model can be found based on the Branch and Bound method. It denotes that the fire station must be built in Lubuk Begalung and Kuranji sub-districts.

  7. The discrimination filters to increase the reliability of EEW association on the location using geometric distribution of triggered stations with upgrading a travel time model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H. C.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    In operation of Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS), the alerting criteria are one of the most important parameters in optimizing acceptable warning system. During early stage of testing EEW systems from 2011 to 2013, we adapted ElarmS by UC Berkeley BSL to Korean seismic network and applied very simple criteria for event alerting with the combination of the numbers of station and magnitude. As a result of the testing we found out that the real-time test result of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system in Korea showed that all events located within seismic network with bigger than magnitude 3.0 were well detected. However, two events located at sea between land and island gave false results with magnitude over 4.0 related to the teleseismic waves and one event located in land gave false results with magnitude over 3.0 related to the teleseismic waves. These teleseismic-relevant false events were caused by logical co-relation during association procedure and the corresponding geometric distribution of associated stations is crescent-shaped. Seismic stations are not deployed uniformly, so the expected bias ratio varies with evaluated epicentral location. This ratio is calculated in advance and stored into database, called as TrigDB, for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm. We developed a method, so called 'TrigDB back filling', updating location with supplementary association of stations comparing triggered times between sandwiched stations which was not associated previously based on predefined criteria such as travel-time. Because EEW program assume that all events are local, teleseismic-relevant events can give more triggered stations by using back filling of the unassociated stations than the normal association. And we also developed a travel time curve (K-SEIS-1DTT2015) to reduce split event for EEWS. After applying the K-SEIS-1DTT2015 model, these teleseismic-relevant false events are reduced. As a result of these methods we could get more

  8. Focused time-lapse inversion of radio and audio magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas Carbajal, Marina; Linde, Niklas; Kalscheuer, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Geoelectrical techniques are widely used to monitor groundwater processes, while surprisingly few studies have considered audio (AMT) and radio (RMT) magnetotellurics for such purposes. In this numerical investigation, we analyze to what extent inversion results based on AMT and RMT monitoring data can be improved by (1) time-lapse difference inversion; (2) incorporation of statistical information about the expected model update (i.e., the model regularization is based on a geostatistical model); (3) using alternative model norms to quantify temporal changes (i.e., approximations of l1 and Cauchy norms using iteratively reweighted least-squares), (4) constraining model updates to predefined ranges (i.e., using Lagrange Multipliers to only allow either increases or decreases of electrical resistivity with respect to background conditions). To do so, we consider a simple illustrative model and a more realistic test case related to seawater intrusion. The results are encouraging and show significant improvements when using time-lapse difference inversion with non l2 model norms. Artifacts that may arise when imposing compactness of regions with temporal changes can be suppressed through inequality constraints to yield models without oscillations outside the true region of temporal changes. Based on these results, we recommend approximate l1-norm solutions as they can resolve both sharp and smooth interfaces within the same model.

  9. Imaging hydrothermal systems at Furnas caldera (Azores, Portugal): Insights from Audio-Magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Colin; Kiyan, Duygu; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Maria FB; Ferreira, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which forms the steep topography of more than 200 m in the measuring area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the Caldera and its vicinity. In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available. In 2015, a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data were collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in order to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is extraordinary and first results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Tensor decomposition analysis using the Groom-Bailey approach produce a generalised geo-electric strike direction, 72deg East of North, for the AMT data compared to the surface geological strike derived from the major mapped fault crossing the profiles of 105deg. An analysis of the real induction arrows at certain frequencies (at depths greater than 350 m) infer that an extended conductor at depth does not exactly correspond to the degassing structures at the surface and extends outside the area of investigation. The geometry of the most conductive regions with electrical conductivities less then1 Ώm found at various depths differ from what was expected from earlier geologic and tectonic studies and possibly may not be directly related to the mapped fault systems at the surface. On the eastern profile, which seemed to be more appropriate for 2-D modelling with 72deg strike angle, a deep structure starting north of the major mapped fault crossing this profile can be found. It extends far to the south, with a top of approximately 150 m below the surface at the northern limit. A deeper conductive structure (top at about 300 m) is emerging at the southern end of the profile, though not fully resolved by the existing data. This work will focus on the processing, analysis and preliminary modelling results of the AMT data. A joint interpretation of the AMT results together with the ERT data covering the shallow regime with much higher resolution will be presented.

  10. Assessing the validity of station location assumptions made in the calculation of the geomagnetic disturbance index, Dst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the assumptions made in the calculation of the Dst index with regard to longitude sampling, hemisphere bias, and latitude correction are explored. The insights gained from this study will allow operational users to better understand the local implications of the Dst index and will lead to future index formulations that are more physically motivated. We recompute the index using 12 longitudinally spaced low-latitude stations, including the traditional 4 (in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan, and Hermanus), and compare it to the standard United States Geological Survey definitive Dst. We look at the hemisphere balance by comparing stations at equal geomagnetic latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We further separate the 12-station time series into two hemispheric indices and find that there are measurable differences in the traditional Dst formulation due to the undersampling of the Southern Hemisphere in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. To analyze the effect of latitude correction, we plot latitudinal variation in a disturbance observed during the year 2005 using two separate longitudinal observatory chains. We separate these by activity level and find that while the traditional cosine form fits the latitudinal distributions well for low levels of activity, at higher levels of disturbance the cosine form does not fit the observed variation. This suggests that the traditional latitude scaling is insufficient during active times. The effect of the Northern Hemisphere bias and the inadequate latitude scaling is such that the standard correction underestimates the true disturbance by 10–30 nT for storms of main phase magnitude deviation greater than 150 nT in the traditional Dst index.

  11. Human performance capabilities in a simulated space station-like environment. 1: Fixed beam luminance and location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Bartz, A. E.; Zahn, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of a fixed, intense, one-foot diameter beam of simulated sunlight imaged within the field of view, upon responses to a battery of visual, body balance and stability, eye-hand coordination, and mental tests were studied. Each subject's electrocardiogram and electro-oculograms (vertical and horizontal) were recorded throughout each two-hour testing period within the space-station-like environment. It is possible to say that both subjects adapted to the brightly illuminated white panels in approximately 30 seconds after their first exposure each day and thereafter did not experience ocular fatigue, eye strain, or other kinds of disturbances as a result of these viewing conditions.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Structure and Event Location Using Body and Surface Wave Measurements at a Single Station: Preparation for Mars Data from the InSight Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Beucler, E.; Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Boese, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Drilleau, M.; James, S. R.; Kawamura, T.; Khan, A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Mocquet, A.; van Driel, M.

    2015-12-01

    An important challenge for the upcoming InSight mission to Mars, which will deliver a broadband seismic station to Mars along with other geophysical instruments in 2016, is to accurately determine event locations with the use of a single station. Locations are critical for the primary objective of the mission, determining the internal structure of Mars, as well as a secondary objective of measuring the activity of distribution of seismic events. As part of the mission planning process, a variety of techniques have been explored for location of marsquakes and inversion of structure, and preliminary procedures and software are already under development as part of the InSight Mars Quake and Mars Structure Services. One proposed method, involving the use of recordings of multiple-orbit surface waves, has already been tested with synthetic data and Earth recordings. This method has the strength of not requiring an a priori velocity model of Mars for quake location, but will only be practical for larger events. For smaller events where only first orbit surface waves and body waves are observable, other methods are required. In this study, we implement a transdimensional Bayesian inversion approach to simultaneously invert for basic velocity structure and location parameters (epicentral distance and origin time) using only measurements of body wave arrival times and dispersion of first orbit surface waves. The method is tested with synthetic data with expected Mars noise and Earth data for single events and groups of events and evaluated for errors in both location and structural determination, as well as tradeoffs between resolvable parameters and the effect of 3D crustal variations.

  13. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  14. A Three Corner Hat-based analysis of station position time series for the assessment of inter-technique precision at ITRF co-located sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Hurst, K. J.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.; Altamimi, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the uncertainty in geodetic positioning is a crucial factor when combining independent space-geodetic solutions for the computation of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). ITRF is a combined product based on the stacking of VLBI, GPS, SLR and DORIS solutions and merging the single technique reference frames with terrestrial local tie measurements at co-located sites. In current ITRF realizations, the uncertainty evaluation of the four techniques relies on the analysis of the post-fit residuals, which are a by-product of the combination process. An alternative approach to the assessment of the inter-technique precision can be offered by a Three Corner Hat (TCH) analysis of the non-linear residual time series obtained at ITRF co-location sites as a by-product of the stacking procedure. Non-linear residuals of station position time series stemming from global networks of the four techniques can be modeled as a composition of periodic signals (commonly annual and semi-annual) and stochastic noise, typically characterized as a combination of flicker and white noise. Pair-wise differences of station position time series of at least three co-located instruments can be formed with the aim of removing the common geophysical signal and characterizing the inter-technique precision. The application of TCH relies on the hypothesis of absence of correlation between the error processes of the four techniques and assumes the stochastic noise to be Gaussian. If the hypothesis of statistical independence between the space-geodetic technique errors is amply verified, the assumption of pure white noise of the stochastic error processes appears to be more questionable. In fact, previous studies focused on geodetic positioning consistently showed that flicker noise generally prevails over white noise in the analysis of global network GPS time series, whereas in VLBI, SLR and DORIS time series Gaussian noise is predominant. In this investigation, TCH is applied

  15. [Research on impact of dust event frequency on atmosphere visibility variance: a case study of typical weather stations locating in the dust route to Beijing].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-jun; Zou, Xue-yong; Zhang, Chun-lai

    2006-06-01

    Relationship between dust event frequency and atmosphere visibility deviation is analyzed by using the data of daily visibility and various dust events in Beijing and other 13 typical weather stations locating in the dust events route to Beijing from 1971 to 2000. Results show that the visibility variance increases a standard deviation in the response to the dust event frequency decrease once. The influence of dust event to visibility comes from the high-frequency change of wind velocity. The change of wind velocity in one standard deviation can result in dust event frequency increasing by 30%. The high-frequency changes of near-surface wind influence the occurrence of dust event, and also the fluctuation of daily visibility deviation. The relationship between abnormal low visibility event and visibility deviation is in significant positive correlation. The increase of wind average distance leads to the enhance frequency of dust event and consequently the abnormal low visibility event. There are different relationships between abnormal low visibility event and floating dust, sandstorm and flying-dust respectively. PMID:16921932

  16. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  17. Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

    1984-06-27

    The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

  18. 47 CFR 22.1009 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... zones specified in § 22.1007. Offshore stations must not transmit from locations within 241 kilometers... stations must not transmit from altitudes exceeding 305 meters (1000 feet) above mean sea level. Airborne mobile stations in Zone A must not transmit from locations within 129 kilometers (80 miles) of...

  19. 47 CFR 22.1009 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... zones specified in § 22.1007. Offshore stations must not transmit from locations within 241 kilometers... stations must not transmit from altitudes exceeding 305 meters (1000 feet) above mean sea level. Airborne mobile stations in Zone A must not transmit from locations within 129 kilometers (80 miles) of...

  20. 47 CFR 22.1009 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... zones specified in § 22.1007. Offshore stations must not transmit from locations within 241 kilometers... stations must not transmit from altitudes exceeding 305 meters (1000 feet) above mean sea level. Airborne mobile stations in Zone A must not transmit from locations within 129 kilometers (80 miles) of...

  1. 47 CFR 22.1009 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... zones specified in § 22.1007. Offshore stations must not transmit from locations within 241 kilometers... stations must not transmit from altitudes exceeding 305 meters (1000 feet) above mean sea level. Airborne mobile stations in Zone A must not transmit from locations within 129 kilometers (80 miles) of...

  2. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting...

  3. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting...

  4. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting...

  5. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting...

  6. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting...

  7. [Analysis of the importance of cosmonaut's location and orientation onboard the International space station to levels of visceral irradiation during traverse of the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, S G; Benghin, V V

    2015-01-01

    Parametric analysis of absorbed radiation dose to the cosmonaut working in the Service module (SM) of the International space station (ISS) was made with allowance for anisotropy of the radiation field of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Calculation data show that in weakly shielded SM compartments the radiation dose to poorly shielded viscera may depend essentially on cosmonaut's location and orientation relative to the ISS shell. Difference of the lens absorbed dose can be as high as 5 times depending on orientation of the cosmonaut and the ISS. The effect is less pronounced on the deep seated hematopoietic system; however, it may increase up to 2.5 times during the extravehicular activities. When the cosmonaut is outside on the ISS SM side presented eastward, the absorbed dose can be affected noticeably by remoteness from the SM. At a distance less than 1.5 meters away from the SM east side in the course of ascending circuits, the calculated lens dose is approximately half as compared with the situation when the cosmonaut is not shielded by the ISS material. PMID:25958468

  8. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  9. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  10. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  11. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  12. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  13. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  14. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  15. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...

  16. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...

  17. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...

  18. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...

  19. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...

  20. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  1. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  2. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption advisories and fish tissue sampling stations are reported to EPA by the states. Sampling stations are the locations where a state has collected fish tissue data for use in advisory determinations. Fish consumption advisory locations are coded onto route.drain (...

  3. 33 CFR 401.62 - Seaway stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seaway stations. 401.62 Section 401.62 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.62 Seaway stations. The Seaway stations are located as...

  4. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  5. Space power demonstration stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    NASA major planning decisions from 1955 to date are summarized and new concepts connected with the advent of the Space Transportation Systems (STS) are set forth. The future Shuttle utilizations are considered, from 'manned booster' function for space transportation to such operations as deployment of modules and stations and assembly of large structures in space. The permanent occupancy of space will be a major goal of the space systems development in the 1980's with the following main phases: (1) achievement of easy access to earth orbit by means of the Shuttle and Spacelab; (2) achievement of permanent occupancy (Space Stations); (3) self-sufficiency of man in space. New techniques of space operation will become possible, using much larger, complicated satellites and simplified ground stations. Orbital assembly of large stations, using a permanent base in orbit, will enable practical utilization of space systems for everyday needs. Particular attention is given to the space solar power concept, involving the location in space of large satellite systems. Results of the studies on Manned Orbital Systems Concept (MOSC) and some future possibilities of Space Stations are analyzed.

  6. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  7. Eldercare Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... page content Skip Navigation Department of Health and Human Services Your Browser ... Welcome to the Eldercare Locator, a public service of the U.S. Administration on Aging connecting you to services for older ...

  8. Station-keeping guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

  9. 14 CFR 145.203 - Work performed at another location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.203 Work performed at another location. A certificated repair station may temporarily transport material, equipment, and... services on an article for which it is rated to a place other than the repair station's fixed location...

  10. 14 CFR 145.203 - Work performed at another location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.203 Work performed at another location. A certificated repair station may temporarily transport material, equipment, and... services on an article for which it is rated to a place other than the repair station's fixed location...

  11. 14 CFR 145.203 - Work performed at another location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.203 Work performed at another location. A certificated repair station may temporarily transport material, equipment, and... services on an article for which it is rated to a place other than the repair station's fixed location...

  12. 14 CFR 145.203 - Work performed at another location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.203 Work performed at another location. A certificated repair station may temporarily transport material, equipment, and... services on an article for which it is rated to a place other than the repair station's fixed location...

  13. 14 CFR 145.203 - Work performed at another location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.203 Work performed at another location. A certificated repair station may temporarily transport material, equipment, and... services on an article for which it is rated to a place other than the repair station's fixed location...

  14. 47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case of a non-U.S.-licensed space station, prior to commencing operation with U.S. earth stations. (1... earth station(s) communicating with the space station from any site in the United States. (3) The location, by city and country, of any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station that communicates...

  15. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grandfathered short-spaced stations. 73.213 Section 73.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations. (a) Stations at locations authorized prior to...

  16. 49 CFR 192.169 - Compressor stations: Pressure limiting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Pressure limiting devices... Pipeline Components § 192.169 Compressor stations: Pressure limiting devices. (a) Each compressor station... compressor station must extend to a location where the gas may be discharged without hazard....

  17. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...

  2. 47 CFR 87.103 - Posting station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting station license. 87.103 Section 87.103... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.103 Posting station license. (a) Stations at fixed locations. The license or a photocopy must be posted or retained in the station's...

  3. 47 CFR 87.103 - Posting station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Posting station license. 87.103 Section 87.103... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.103 Posting station license. (a) Stations at fixed locations. The license or a photocopy must be posted or retained in the station's...

  4. 47 CFR 87.103 - Posting station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posting station license. 87.103 Section 87.103... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.103 Posting station license. (a) Stations at fixed locations. The license or a photocopy must be posted or retained in the station's...

  5. 47 CFR 87.103 - Posting station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Posting station license. 87.103 Section 87.103... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.103 Posting station license. (a) Stations at fixed locations. The license or a photocopy must be posted or retained in the station's...

  6. 47 CFR 87.103 - Posting station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Posting station license. 87.103 Section 87.103... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.103 Posting station license. (a) Stations at fixed locations. The license or a photocopy must be posted or retained in the station's...

  7. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  8. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  9. 47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the same location for more than six months, the licensee of that station must apply for authorization to operate the station at the specific location at least 30 days before the end of the six month period....

  10. 47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the same location for more than six months, the licensee of that station must apply for authorization to operate the station at the specific location at least 30 days before the end of the six month period....

  11. 47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the same location for more than six months, the licensee of that station must apply for authorization to operate the station at the specific location at least 30 days before the end of the six month period....

  12. 47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the same location for more than six months, the licensee of that station must apply for authorization to operate the station at the specific location at least 30 days before the end of the six month period....

  13. 47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the same location for more than six months, the licensee of that station must apply for authorization to operate the station at the specific location at least 30 days before the end of the six month period....

  14. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or...

  15. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or...

  16. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or...

  17. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or...

  18. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or...

  19. 32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLANT AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, JULY 1898 SHEET NO. 1. Aperture card 4966-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Photogrammetric stations for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1992-03-01

    Photogrammetric stations are used for vision based dynamic control of 3-D related phenomena. The vision sensors are fixed solid-state cameras which are permanently mounted and set up for a specific control task. The on-site calibration of the station allows the continuous processing of the 3-D space coordinates for all object points according to their actual 2-D image locations For automated control processes the object points are targeted using predefined templates extracted from the perspective images. The precision of an object point measured by the station is better than 1:10,000 of the object volume in all three coordinates. The vision application presented here is the locating of car bodies in the 3-D space of a robotic sealing cell.

  2. ATS-F ground station integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The ATS ground stations were described, including a system description, operational frequencies and bandwidth, and a discussion of individual subsystems. Each station configuration is described as well as its floor plan. The station performance, as tested by the GSI, is displayed in chart form providing a summary of the more important parameters tested. This chart provides a listing of test data, by site, for comparison purposes. Also included is a description of the ATS-6 experiments, the equipment, and interfaces required to perform these experiments. The ADP subsystem and its role in the experiments is also described. A description of each program task and a summary of the activities performed were then given. These efforts were accomplished at the Rosman II Ground Station, located near Rosman N.C., the Mojave Ground Station, located near Barstow Ca., and the GSI Contractors plant located near Baltimore, Md.

  3. Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. The MT data presented in this report will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. Subsequent interpretation will include a three dimensional (3 D) character analysis and a two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  4. El Paso automates main line compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kind, R.H. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports how an El Paso natural gas company has automated 27 compressor stations on its main line gas-transmission system, ahead of its 5-year schedule begun in 1984. The project involved the total automation (unmanned operation) of one reciprocating engine-driven compressor station and 21 turbine-driven compressor facilities; the semi-automation (computer-assisted operation) of six reciprocating engine-driven compressor stations; and the addition of a central control facility located in El Paso.

  5. LLNL Location and Detection Research

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Harris, D B; Anderson, M L; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M P; Ryall, F

    2003-07-16

    We present two LLNL research projects in the topical areas of location and detection. The first project assesses epicenter accuracy using a multiple-event location algorithm, and the second project employs waveform subspace Correlation to detect and identify events at Fennoscandian mines. Accurately located seismic events are the bases of location calibration. A well-characterized set of calibration events enables new Earth model development, empirical calibration, and validation of models. In a recent study, Bondar et al. (2003) develop network coverage criteria for assessing the accuracy of event locations that are determined using single-event, linearized inversion methods. These criteria are conservative and are meant for application to large bulletins where emphasis is on catalog completeness and any given event location may be improved through detailed analysis or application of advanced algorithms. Relative event location techniques are touted as advancements that may improve absolute location accuracy by (1) ensuring an internally consistent dataset, (2) constraining a subset of events to known locations, and (3) taking advantage of station and event correlation structure. Here we present the preliminary phase of this work in which we use Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions, with known locations, to test the effect of travel-time model accuracy on relative location accuracy. Like previous studies, we find that the reference velocity-model and relative-location accuracy are highly correlated. We also find that metrics based on travel-time residual of relocated events are not a reliable for assessing either velocity-model or relative-location accuracy. In the topical area of detection, we develop specialized correlation (subspace) detectors for the principal mines surrounding the ARCES station located in the European Arctic. Our objective is to provide efficient screens for explosions occurring in the mines of the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor, Zapolyarny

  6. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  7. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  8. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  9. Historical annotated bibliography: Space Station documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Jessie E. (Compiler); Mckinley, Sarah L. (Compiler); Gates, Thomas G. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necessary data from which to compile the written histories and to preserve records of historically significant aspects of Marshall's involvement in Space Shuttle and Space Station.

  10. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  11. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  12. Hurricane Sandy From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station flew high above Hurricane Sandy just before 12 p.m. CDT Thursday. The storm was located about 85 miles south-southeast of Great Exuma Island. The storm’s maximum s...

  13. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  14. Application of magnetotelluric in the modeling of underlying structure of Gour Oumelalen (Egere-Aleksod terrane, Central Hoggar, South of Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhalfa, Zakaria; Abderrezak, Bouzid; Khadidja, Ouzegane; Abderrahmane, Bendaoud; Mohamed, Hamoudi; Abdeslam, Abtout; Abdelhamid, Bendekken; Sofiane Said, Bougchiche; Walid, Boukhlouf; Abdelgharfour, Boukar; Aboubakr, Deramchi; Mohamed, Bendali; Abdenaceur, Lemgharbi; Mohammed, Djeddi

    2016-04-01

    The results of a magnetotelluric experiment crossing Ounane granodiorite to the east until the Amadror Wadi to the West, passing through Adrar Ounane in our study area are presented. The magnetotelluric field survey was carried out in the Gour Oumelalen (GO) area during March 2015. We deployed 34 magnetotelluric sites along two parallel EW profiles of a hundred km long. Time series were collected using a V5 system 2000® of Phoenix Geophysics. The first profile located to the north is composed of 18 braodband measurement sites obtained from merging magnetotelluri with audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data. The second one located 10 km south of the first, is composed of 15 MT sites. An inter-station distance of ~5 km provides good lateral resolution. The MT time series were recorded during about 20 hours which allows to reach a depth of 100 km or more and the AMT data 30 minutes. This allows to get broadband magnetotelluric soundings with good quality data in period range from 0.001 s to 3000 s. In this study we will use the south profile data for modeling the underlying structure of GO. The crustal part of the model shows a resistance bloc, divided by conductive parts which can be interpreted as faults, as regards the lithospheric part it less resistant the upper part, the transition crust / mantle corresponding to MOHO is estimated at more or less 35 km.

  15. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  16. 47 CFR 95.1505 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1505 Section 95.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... locations. Operation of DSRCS On-Board Units is authorized anywhere CB station operation is permitted...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1505 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1505 Section 95.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... locations. Operation of DSRCS On-Board Units is authorized anywhere CB station operation is permitted...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1505 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1505 Section 95.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... locations. Operation of DSRCS On-Board Units is authorized anywhere CB station operation is permitted...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1505 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1505 Section 95.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... locations. Operation of DSRCS On-Board Units is authorized anywhere CB station operation is permitted...

  20. 47 CFR 95.1505 - Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized locations. 95.1505 Section 95.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... locations. Operation of DSRCS On-Board Units is authorized anywhere CB station operation is permitted...

  1. Space Stations using the Skylon Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.

    After the International Space Station is decommissioned in 2020 or soon after, Skylon will be an operating launch system and it is the obvious means to launch any successor in orbit infrastructure. The study looked at establishing 14 stations of 7 different types located from Low Earth Orbit to the Moon's surface with common elements all launched by Skylon. The key reason for the study was to validate Skylon could launch such an infrastructure, but the study's secondary objectives were to contribute to consideration of what should replace the ISS, and explore a ``multiple small station'' architecture. It was found that the total acquisition costs for LEO stations could be below 1 billion (2010) while for stations beyond LEO total acquisition costs were found to be between 3 and £5 billion. No technical constraints on the Skylon launch system were found that would prevent it launching all 14 stations in under 5 years.

  2. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  3. Deregulation and Station Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    To test whether the revocation of the Federal Communications Commission's "Anti-Trafficking" rule (requiring television station owners to keep a station for three years before transferring its license to another party) impacted station owner behavior, a study compared the behavior of television station "traffickers" (owners seeking quick turnovers…

  4. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  5. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  6. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  7. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  8. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  9. 47 CFR 73.507 - Minimum distance separations between stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum distance separations between stations... separations between stations. (a) Minimum distance separations. No application for a new station, or change in... proposed facilities will be located so as to meet the adjacent channel distance separations specified...

  10. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  11. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  12. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  13. View southwest of model board from operator's station #2; round ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of model board from operator's station #2; round hole in board at right center of photograph was the location for a clock - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  15. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  16. 25. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, c.1939 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE HISTORIC SITE, SHOWS THE LOCATION OF THE TURBINES AND BOILERS WITHIN THE BUILDINGS OF STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  18. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...” antenna. A full description of the design of the antenna should also be submitted. (2) Relative field horizontal plane pattern (horizontal polarization only) of the proposed directional antenna. A value of 1.0 should be used for the maximum radiation. The plot of the pattern should be oriented so that 0...

  19. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...” antenna. A full description of the design of the antenna should also be submitted. (2) Relative field horizontal plane pattern (horizontal polarization only) of the proposed directional antenna. A value of 1.0 should be used for the maximum radiation. The plot of the pattern should be oriented so that 0...

  20. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...” antenna. A full description of the design of the antenna should also be submitted. (2) Relative field horizontal plane pattern (horizontal polarization only) of the proposed directional antenna. A value of 1.0 should be used for the maximum radiation. The plot of the pattern should be oriented so that 0...

  1. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...” antenna. A full description of the design of the antenna should also be submitted. (2) Relative field horizontal plane pattern (horizontal polarization only) of the proposed directional antenna. A value of 1.0 should be used for the maximum radiation. The plot of the pattern should be oriented so that 0...

  2. 47 CFR 97.13 - Restrictions on station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cause human exposure to RF electromagnetic field levels in excess of those allowed under § 1.1310 of... action to prevent human exposure to such RF electromagnetic fields. Further information on evaluating... FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.”...

  3. Sonar location system for freely floating buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, I. G.

    1983-05-01

    A rf interrogated sonar location system for freely floating buoys is described. The location of an array of up to three buoys may be determined on an almost continuous basis within a radius of 500 m from a shipboard monitoring station. Location accuracy of typically ±0.5 m at 200-m range, low cost, and ease of operation are the major features of the system.

  4. Fortaleza Station Report for 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Pereira de Lucena, A. Macilio; Sombra da Silva, Adeildo

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief report about the activities carried out at the Fortaleza geodetic VLBI station (ROEN: R´adio Observat´orio Espacial do Nordeste), located in Eus´ebio, CE, Brazil, during the period from January until December 2012. The observing activities were resumed in May after the major maintenance that comprised the azimuth bearing replacement. The total observational experiments consisted of 103 VLBI sessions and continuous GPS monitoring recordings.

  5. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceeds 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) for a Class B station, 0.7 mV/m (57 dBu) for a Class B1 station, and 1 mV/m (60 dBu) for any other class of station. (i) Co-channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10)...

  6. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exceeds 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) for a Class B station, 0.7 mV/m (57 dBu) for a Class B1 station, and 1 mV/m (60 dBu) for any other class of station. (i) Co-channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10)...

  7. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceeds 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) for a Class B station, 0.7 mV/m (57 dBu) for a Class B1 station, and 1 mV/m (60 dBu) for any other class of station. (i) Co-channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10)...

  8. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exceeds 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) for a Class B station, 0.7 mV/m (57 dBu) for a Class B1 station, and 1 mV/m (60 dBu) for any other class of station. (i) Co-channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10)...

  9. 34. VIEW FROM STATION 78 OF STRETCH SLING HYDRAULIC CYLINDER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW FROM STATION 78 OF STRETCH SLING HYDRAULIC CYLINDER, PULLEY, AND LANYARDS LOCATED ON EAST SIDE OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5. LANYARDS (STOWED BEHIND SOME TUBING ON STATION 78 IN THIS PHOTO) PASS THROUGH OPENINGS IN STATION 78 TO BE ATTACHED NEAR TOP OF ATLAS AIRFRAME. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 27. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric proposal to city/state, 10/15/1929 FOUNDATION AND LOCATION OF THE STATION SCREEN HOUSE AND A LOOK AT THE TYPICAL DREDGING OF THE RIVER BED WHICH TOOK PLACE ON A PERIODIC BASIS AT STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR